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Status: Draft

**Classification of offshore structures
**

A classification in degree of non-linearities and importance of dynamics.

Sverre Haver, StatoilHydro, January 2008

2

**A first classification of structures
**

Fixed Floating Articulated

Rather small motions in particular vertical.

Large motions vertically, very large motions horisontally depending on mooring system.

Very large motions horizontally, small motions in vertical plane

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The solution will also be exponential. F(t) will also be sinusoidal with some amplitude f0 and frequency ω. 2) Rapidly fluctuating individual waves. Wave severity changes in two time scales. Instantaneous process is caused by the instantaneous wind! Typical period range for fluctuating wind is: 1s – minutes • Current Current speed will vary slowly with time. 2) Relatively rapid fluctuating instantantaneous wind speed. x(t) = x0sin(ωt+θ) with: ⎡ ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ f 1 ⎥ x0 (ω ) = 0 ⎢ 2 2 2⎥ k ⎢⎛ ⎞ ⎢ ⎜1 − ⎛ ω ⎞ ⎟ + 4λ2 ⎛ ω ⎞ ⎥ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ω ⎟ ⎥ ⎜ω ⎟ ⎟ ⎢⎜ ⎝ 0⎠ ⎦ ⎝ 0⎠ ⎠ ⎣⎝ Observations: 1 2 and ⎡ ω ⎤ ⎢ 2λ ⎥ ω0 ⎥ ⎢ θ (ω ) = arctan ⎢ 2⎥ ⎢ 1− ⎛ ω ⎞ ⎥ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ω ⎟ ⎥ ⎢ ⎝ 0⎠ ⎦ ⎣ ω0 = with: k m . 1) Slowly varying (period in the order of hours) average characteristics (significant wave height and characteristic wave period).3 Load generating environmental processes • Waves. • Wind Wind severity is also varying in two time scales: 1) Slowly varying mean characteristics. natural frequency λ= c ccritical . Typical period range in storms regarding the rapid fluctuations: 5 – 25s. damping ratio ω 0: X0 = f0/k = xstatic ω ω0 : X0 infinity 90o out of phase ω >> ω0: X0 0 θ = 0 (in phase) θ= θ = 180 out of phase Dangerous situation 2 . Typical period for fluctuations: Very long (order hours) 4 How to calculate motions of structures? Idealized example: Single degree of motion x(t) c m k F(t) Assuming linear mechanical system and linear external load: m&& + cx − kx = F (t ) x & Assuming a sinusoidal wave process of frequency ω. Instaneous load caused by the rapid process. For practical applications current is most frequently considered as constant flow speed.

Resonance can be initiated by wind and 2. 3-5s for 200-250m depth About: 4-5s for depth of about 90 150m (depending on foundation solution). vertical modes Unfavourable period band regarding 1. Spar heave Heave semi-subm. 120s TLP horizontal modes Surge/sway semi-subm. 60 Roll/pitch semi-subm. 2 – 3. about 1 min • Articulated platforms Heave TLP Surge/sway of TLP (300 – 400m depth): Roll/Pitch of TLP: 2 – 3s 1 – 2 min. order difference frequency loads 25 4 Jack-up Jacket TLP. • Floating platforms: Heave semi-submersible: Surge/sway of catenary moored semi submerisble: Pitch/Roll of semi submersible: Heave of Cell spar platform (see next page): Surge/sway of taut moored spar: Roll – pitch of spar: 23 – 26s 60 – 90s 30 – 50s 25 – 35s 2 – 3 min. order wave loads 100 200 300 400 Resonance can only be initiated by superharmonic wave loads or impact loads.5s 6 Largest natural period versus depth for some platform concepts (illustrative figure).5 Which natural periods (=2π/ω0) do we phase for offshore structures? • Fixed platforms: Jackets and GBS’s: Jack-ups: About: 1s for depth < 100m. (or VIV). 3 .

If the right hand side of eq. 4 .7 Example of fixed platforms Gravity Based Structure Jacket Jack-up 8 Classification of response problems Equation of motion – general form – for a single degree of freedom problem: & & & m&&(t ) + c( x. x) x (t ) = F (t ) x We will introduce the following definitions regarding nature of the response problem: Linear mechanical system if: & c ( x. is a linear function of the surface process assumed to be Gaussian. x ) = k Non-linear mechanical system otherwise. x ) = c and & k ( x. of motion. we will refere to the response problem as a linear response problem. F(t). x ) x (t ) + k ( x.

This quantity (the absolute value of the transfer function is called response amplitude operator. Solution becomes: x (t ) = F (t ) k Summary: If dynamics can be neglected. t ) | + ρ c M d 2 u ( z. * The response properties are defined by the transfer function. f. i. is the complex response amplitude of when the system is exposed to a harmonic wave of unit amplitude. (Transfer function for frequency. sΞΞ(f).e. Mass – or inertial term. RAO(f). we primarily have to find the instantaneous maximum of the total load acting on the structure. t ) = 1 π & ρ c D d u ( z.) The response process is completely characterized by the response spectrum which is given by: s XX ( f ) = | hΞX ( f ) | 2 s ΞΞ ( f ) When we are utilizing this approach we say that we solve the problem in the frequency domain! The only parameter involved in the Gaussian distribution (for a process of zero mean) is the variance which is given as the area under the response spectrum. 10 Non-linear loading – example drag type loading I The non-linear drag load will often be governing in extreme wave conditions for jackets and jack-ups. f ( z.t) is particle speed. hΞX(f) * The response process will also be a Gaussian process. The absolute value of the transfer function is real response amplitude. (We will come back to this. proportional to acceleration If T0 is shorter than the energetic wave periods. This is most frequently done by utilizing the Design Wave Method using a Stoke 5th order wave profile. This approach can be utilized both for a short term analysis and a full long term analysis. we prefer to do the analysis in the frequency domain. A critical task is to predict proper height and period of the design wave.9 Linear response problem Facts: * Sea state is characterized by the wave spectrum. we can neglect the inertia term and the damping term of the equation of motion. u(z. t ) 2 4 Drag term. t ) | u ( z. Summary: For a linear response problem.) 5 . phase information is lost.

) If the drag term is important (maybe even governing).11 Non-linear loading – example drag type loading II If the structural period is approaching the eenergetic wave period band.e. no updating of damping and stiffness is necessary. The total drag load on a vertical pile in deep water exposed to a sinusoidal wave is given by: ξ 0 sin(ωt ) −∞ 1 L(t ) = ρ c D d ω 2 ξ 02 2 ∫κ 2 0 ( z ) dz | sin(ωt ) | sin(ωt ) . i. We have a linear response problem and can use the methods suggested for such a system. 12 Non-linear loading – example drag type loading III A warning regarding dynamics of drag-dominated structures Background: An effect of non-linearity in the load function is that even if the structure is exposed to a harmonic wave with frequency ω. the situation is: Response process is no longer Gaussian and maxima not Rayleigh distributed The transferfunction is no longer a proper system characteristic. cD = 1. where for our purpose we use: κ 02 ( z ) = e 2 kz κ 02 ( z ) = 1 z ≤0 z>0 Numerical values used are: ρ = 1025kg/m3.419rad/s and ξ = 16m The surface elevation and the corresponding load are shown in next slid: 6 . (This can often be done for fatigue assessments. the load function wil show some energy at multiples of the frequency. For cases where the drag term represent a modest part of the total load. We will come back to this! A time domain solution is typically very fast as far as the mechanical system is non linear. dynamics can not be neglected. ω = 0. d = 4m. we may linearize the load function. This can be a problem if these higher frequencies hit a lightly damped structural mode. The sea surface is still charactrerized by the wave spectrum What can we do in order to find the short term distribution of response? Solving the equation of motion in the time domain.

It is observed that both the 2ω and the 3ω term are of a considerable amplitude. Illustration of total drag load on pile 20 Wave elevation. large response can be experienced. Load function and its Fourier approximation 5000 4000 3000 Load (kN) 2000 1000 0 -1000 -2000 0 2 4 6 8 Time (s) 10 12 14 16 Load f unction Fourier approximation (n=6) The various Fourier components up to 6 are shown below. 1000 Load (kN) 0 -1000 -2000 -3000 0 2 4 6 8 Time (s) 10 12 14 16 Constant term omega-component 2omega-component 3omega-component 4omega-component 5omega-component 6omega-component 7 .13 Non-linear loading – example drag type loading IV A warning regarding dynamics of drag-dominated structures cont. Total drag load 15 10 5 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 0 2 4 6 8 Time (s) 10 12 14 16 Surface elevation (m) Total load on pile (MN) It is seen that the load history is not of a sinusoidal shape! A Fourier approximation is shown next slide: 14 Non-linear loading – example drag type loading V A warning regarding dynamics of drag-dominated structures cont. Note the constant term. The various Fourier components of total load 3000 2000 Summary: If 2w and7or 3w terms hit a lightly samped natural mode. For an process with varying wave crest heights this is one source for a slowly varying force that can hit natural periods of floaters.

15 Example of 3ω. 8 . An alternative approach for such systems is model testing. c and k may depend on the response and will therefore have to be updated by some iteration process between two time steps.exitation Response of Kvitebjørn jacket Kvitebjørn 16 Non-linear mechanical system Such a system will often be time comsuming if one is solving the equation of motion in the time domain.

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