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What TYPE OF PERSON am I ?

CR a z Y Z o o !
"KNOW THYSELF" made easy

How do I make decisions ? What is my main motivation ? What is my main fear ? What are my leadership qualities ? What traits do I need to strengthen ? What tendencies do I want to control better ? What is my way to success ?
Find out how you tick and how other types of persons tick. Learn to maximize your inborn motivation and your strengths. Become the champion who states with confidence: "No matter how good I am now, I can always be better and greater!"

F r i t z R. G l a u s

CRazYZoo! Published through Lulu Press, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2006 by Fritz R. Glaus Interior Book Design and Layout by www.integrativeink.com ISBN: 978-1-84728-623-9 No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the written permission of the author or publisher.

Knowledge in itself is nothing It is understanding which is needed To understand one must know oneself Man has everything within him — Gurdjieff

TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................................ix PREFACE ....................................................................xi
YOU AND THE PLAYERS IN THE CRAZYZOO! STORY ... xv

Get involved as a reader-participant

CHAPTER 1: AISLIN, A BOY WITH AN UNUSUAL TALENT ...................................................................... 1
The three rings of color. People's puzzlement and lack of interest. Aislin makes acquaintances in the zoo. Aislin's dream of a zoo without cages or fences. Aislin the zookeeper. Aislin trains the animals. AISLIN'S TRAINING CHART ........................................................ 8

CHAPTER 2: LEO THE “DOER” LION.........................11
Difficulties of adaptation to the new freedoms. Worries about experts and about the public. Leo's fight to the death. Leo's impatience. The CRazYZoo! newspaper article. Leo learns from Eden how to be more diplomatic. Leo learns about self-esteem. The warthog reward. LEO'S CHART – THE IDEALIST ............................................. 32

CHAPTER 3: EDEN THE “WOOER” LION ...................33
Tendencies of unhappiness. Casimir helps Eden to identify the causes of unhappiness. Eden's overindulgence. Reduced team confidence. Eden learns to focus. Eden struggles with vanity. The game session and a lesson learned. Improving personal balance. EDEN'S CHART – THE INSPIRATOR.........................................49

CHAPTER 4: CASIMIR THE "DOER" ST-BERNARD .....51
Casimir's discreetness and sensitivity. The talent of focus and excessive detail. Casimir's coolheadedness. His fear of emotional conflict. Coaching by Udo. Casimir learns to balance solitude and involvement. CASIMIR'S CHART – THE PARTNER .....................................61

CHAPTER 5: UDO THE "WOOER" ST-BERNARD ........63
Abner, the disliked Chairman of the IGRC. Udo's reputation as a helper. The Alric case. Too many tasks given to Udo by the unappreciative Abner. Udo's exhaustion. Urban comes to the rescue. Living for others and the fear of attachment. The need for everyday comforts. Establishing balance by learning to say "no". Udo replaces Abner. UDO'S CHART – THE SUPPORTER............................................77

CHAPTER 6: URBAN THE "WOOER" FOX ..................79
Urban's strength: ideas. His self-doubts. Ernest tells Urban to "lighten up". The fear of lack of control. Urban learns when to stop defending his point of view. Ernest facilitates active listening for Urban. Urban sets stretch goals that are attainable. Urban's strong need for change is a problem for

his team. Urban wants a team of INNOVATORS only. The role play exercise. Urban's check list. URBAN'S CHART – THE INNOVATOR ..................................... 93

CHAPTER 7: ERNEST THE "DOER" FOX ................... 95
Ernest examines his own unbalance. Trying too hard to get to the truth. The committee that Ernest sent back for more research. Ernest saves face. Over a hundred personal goal options. Leo helps Ernest to know when analysis is required and when not. Ernest becomes a highly effective decision maker. ERNEST'S CHART – THE PLANNER ................................ 106

CHAPTER 8: REVIEW OF FUNDAMENTALS BY ERNEST AND LEO..................................................................109
Always look at yourself in relation to all six classic types. The three important functions or intelligences. The "Doer" and "Wooer" difference. The importance of learning from the type that follows one's own. CHART: "USE OF FUNCTIONS OR INTELLIGENCES" ........ 113 The behaviors that turned Leo into an exceptional leader. Knowledge about types incorporated in all training programs. "A good knowledge of types leads to an attitude of openness, tolerance, cooperation, readiness for change, and a desire to continuously find improvement".

CHAPTER 9: YOUR KNOWLEDGE OF TYPES ............ 117
Your improved interaction with people. ADDITIONAL STUDY ............................................................... 118

ESSENCE AND PERSONALITY.................................................119 COMBINED TYPES ....................................................................125 THE CENTER OF GRAVITY .....................................................127 CHART: THE CENTER OF GRAVITY ......................................129 THE SUNNY KIND ....................................................................132 MALE AND FEMALE, EMISSIVE AND RECEPTIVE ..............132 PRACTICAL TRAINING .............................................................134

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I want to thank Stephen Goldberg, President of OPTIMUS PERFORMANCE INC, and his team of facilitators, who not only read the manuscript and helped me shape the CRazYZoo! story, but who regularly purchase my Type of Leadership and Team Development program, which incorporates the TYPES OF PEOPLE methodology and which they facilitate with their clients. They have observed in participants a quick and sometimes dramatic improvement in team spirit resulting from the reduced defensiveness and aggressiveness and the greatly improved openness they gain from the TYPES OF PEOPLE methodology. Their results are living proof of the benefits available from using the methodology as illustrated in the CRazYZoo! story. My thanks go also to Bernard Berzi, President of BEJICEL INC, Consultants in Management and Production Enhancement, for whom I have been a facilitator of BEJICEL's programs of Supervision and of Teamwork for many years. In the last few years I have, with Bernard's approval, introduced TYPES OF PEOPLE exercises during my

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facilitation, in an effort to help participants to assimilate the BEJICEL course material more quickly and to apply it better in practice. Bernard provided me with invaluable feedback which confirmed the optimistic expectations I had concerning the positive effects of those exercises on BEJICEL clients. His feedback helped me to continually develop the TYPES OF PEOPLE approach and to find the courage to start writing this book. Special thanks go to all the members of my family who each added their personal input, which they gave as private citizens not involved in corporate training or consulting. I thank my son Stephane for his insight in connection with clarity of approach, and my son Franz for volunteering to apply the methodology, successfully I might add, to a special situation. After my sister Frida read CRazYZoo!, she helped me correct a rather embarrassing inaccuracy about the life of lions in the wild, and my brother Karl, the realist, pointed out the naked truth about publishing. A huge amount of credit goes to Madeleine, my wife for all my married life, who has always buttered me up at the right moment and who has the knack of telling me with precision when I should stop splitting hairs and get to the point. She has been of invaluable help in editing the parts of the manuscript that required putting things in a nutshell.

PREFACE
I have been developing the TYPES OF PEOPLE methodology that "CRazYZoo!" illustrates during years of work as a trainer attempting to be as effective as he can be. I have always felt that for my leadership and teamwork training to be more effective I needed to find a method that helps participants to grow in team spirit by learning to communicate more openly and less defensively. I had come to the conclusion that to achieve this I needed to somehow enable participants to gain the type of self-knowledge that leads to improved self-worth and self-assurance and to reduced defensiveness. Over the more than 25 years of facilitating management, leadership, and team training, I have tried out many different methods. Some of them turned out to be excellent tools of evaluating candidates in recruitment or promotion competitions, but none were suitable for on-the-go learning and exchange within a group undergoing leadership or teamwork training. I needed an approach that would allow participants to discover their own qualities and shortcomings step by step and share their accumulating learning with the

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other participants. In addition, this self-learning and learning about others needed to be complementary to and supportive of the subject matter of the training, namely leadership and teamwork, so that it could be intertwined progressively with the subject matter. The final product, as elucidated in "CRazYZoo!", is the one now used during leadership and teamwork training, both by me and by several of my colleague trainers, and it turns out every bit as effective as I hoped it would be. It addresses many of the needs that trainers are expected to satisfy. Perhaps the most important is the need to help participants grow their self-esteem. The TYPES OF PEOPLE methodology is easy and straightforward. From the word "go" participants are made to feel at ease. As they get involved in the first exercise, that of choosing one of three animals, the ice is broken. In exercise after exercise, participants learn a little more about themselves and about others, their self-esteem keeps growing, and by the end of the leadership or teamwork course they have gained an overall view of all six classic types. They realize that every type, not just their own, has strengths and shortcomings. The participant no longer focuses on himself alone but has a global or holistic view of all types. He sees his own type, with its qualities and shortcomings, as one of six types who all have their particular qualities and shortcomings. The results are nothing short of spectacular in terms of growth of open- mindedness, tolerance, self-esteem, and ability to work with others and to

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help each other. Communication improves, meetings become more effective, team problem solving becomes a reality, management-employee relations become more productive. As well, many a participant has reported that those improvements have carried over into their personal life, greatly improving communications and relations with family, friends and personal contacts. What's more, even clients not participating in group training but coached individually in the TYPES OF PEOPLE methodology are just as enthusiastic about the positive effect their new understanding of themselves and of other types of people is having in their lives. The TYPES OF PEOPLE methodology elaborated in "CRazYZoo!" reflects some of the same basic thoughts and approaches that are used in other typology systems, such as the Myers-Briggs typology, and like the latter it is influenced by the thinking of the Swiss psychologist Carl Jung. G.I. Gurdjieff, who was an extraordinary thinker, also talks about different types of people in his writings, but he does not spell out a specific system or method of typology. However, some of Gurdjieff's followers have done so. One of them, Susan Zannos, provides detailed information about the basis and the origin of the study of human types in her book "HUMAN TYPES". She points out that the study of human types is very ancient, in fact far older than recorded history. Her concepts are also reflected in "CRazYZoo!", as are the views of

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Gurdjieff, of course, whose science belongs to the knowledge of esoteric schools of antiquity.

YOU AND THE PLAYERS IN THE CRAZYZOO! STORY
This story is about unusual zoo animals trained by an extraordinarily gifted young man named Aislin to get along better with each other and with people. You are being asked to play along in the story by involving yourself in it. You do this by making certain choices, once before starting the story and once while reading the story. Your first choice is as follows. Choose which one of the three animals described below resembles you most: the Lion, the Saint Bernard or the Fox? According to popular notions about animals: • The LION occupies the role of the king of beasts; he knows how to assert his powers and his strengths; he also assumes his responsibilities as a protector at all times.

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• The SAINT BERNARD manifests gentleness, loyalty and readiness to help. He finds persons lost in the snow and proffers aid and comfort to them. • The FOX shows craftiness and slyness and always outwits everyone. A strong survivor and full of ideas, he demonstrates great versatility and adaptability. NOTE: It is important in this exercise to consider the three animals as equals. None of them is either superior or inferior to the other two. The three are different, but they are equal. Which one of the three animals resembles you most? You no doubt possess some characteristics of all three; this is normal. However, you must choose the animal with the strongest OVERALL likeness. Make your choice by following your instincts rather than by analyzing. Following your instincts will help you reach the right conclusion quickly. Please tick below. __ LION __ SAINT BERNARD __ FOX Great! You will have a better read after making this choice.

— You and the Players in the CrazYZoo! Story —

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Later in the story you will be asked to make another choice. You see, there are two different lions, two different Saint Bernards, and two different foxes. You will be deciding which of the two is more like you.

CHAPTER 1 AISLIN, A BOY WITH AN UNUSUAL TALENT
Once upon a time there lived an unusually gifted boy called Aislin. His name is derived from Celtic and signifies a dream, vision, inspiration. Aislin's dream was a world where people understood each other and lived in harmony. Aislin's unusual gift was his inborn ability to see three rings of color around people. The three colored rings would be arranged in a different order for different individuals. In some persons, the first ring would be red, in others it would be blue, and in still others it would be green. Aislin discovered early that people whose first color was red would look and act differently from those whose first color was blue or green. He then observed that the second color was not always the same either. For instance, some individuals whose first color was red would have blue as their second color, whereas in others green would come second to red. The same kind of variation was evident in individuals whose first color was blue or green.

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Aislin learned from observation that the second color in people gave additional clues as to what they were like. For instance, his father, whose first colored ring was red and his second ring green, was a policeman who strongly believed in law and order and always defended the underdog. But when things didn't go his way, he could become impatient and sometimes even violent. However, Aislin's uncle, whose first color was also red, was much different from his father. He was a successful businessman, liked to have parties, and had many hobbies that he was good at. The less admirable side of his uncle was his tendency to think too much of himself and to treat his employees like his children. Aislin noted that his uncle's second color was blue, not green like his father's. Aislin observed similar differences in blue people whose second color was different. The same was true for green people. Because of this insight, Aislin had a way with people. People were amazed, because they felt that the boy could "see through them". Aislin was looked upon as a boy wonder. At first, Aislin couldn't understand why people made so much fuss, as he thought that if everybody looked at the colors of others they would soon learn to get along better with them. Of course, he soon learned that other people could not see the rings of color. People found Aislin's gift strange. While they were amazed at his maturity in dealing with people, they were also puzzled because of the strangeness of it all. After all, Aislin was just a boy, and it was

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awkward to deal with him like with an adult. Nobody wanted to talk much about the whole thing, because people felt it was just a little too weird. They couldn't understand it and felt uncomfortable with it. Aislin would have liked people to find out about the colors that surround each person and he was unhappy that his ideas were being avoided by the world. He continued to be absorbed in his thoughts and spent most of his energy trying to make sense of people and of the world. Then one day Aislin's mother took him to the zoo. Aislin was fascinated by the animals. He discovered that animals too had three colored rings around them! He was most taken by an imposing lion with an abundant mane whom he named Leo. Aislin could not stop looking at Leo sitting there majestically and looking back at Aislin. It was as if Leo and Aislin communicated with each other. His mother decided to let Aislin spend some time in front of the lion cage and sat down on the bench a few yards away. She had brought a book to read in case of such an eventuality. As soon as no-one else was around, Aislin started to talk to Leo: "Hi Leo, you are such a nice lion. Did you know that I can see rings of color around you? Your main color is red. The next one is green and the third is blue. I know that when you get mad, your red color becomes very intense and the green and blue diminish. But when you calm down, your colors become normal again". I know, because my dad is like that.

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Leo seemed to listen to Aislin. His head even went up and down and Aislin was sure that Leo was telling him that he understood. Aislin continued: "You know Leo, your friend over there (pointing to the big lion not too far to the right of Leo) also has a nice red ring around him, but his second color is blue, not green like yours." Again Leo seemed to nod at Aislin's remark. Leo added: "That's why you two are different. Your friend does not get upset as easily as you do, and he likes to have a lot of fun". As Aislin finished talking, the other lion got up and started moving around in a peculiar, back-and forth circular motion as if he wanted to be amusing and funny. Aislin was excited and started imitating the movements and laughing out loud. He shouted: "You are funny, Eden!" He had instinctively given the other lion the name Eden. Names for animals seemed to simply come to Aislin's mind from nowhere. It was difficult to pull Aislin away from the lion cage. He wanted to stay longer, and he also wanted to see more of the other animals. Unfortunately for Aislin, his mother had to return home. But before leaving, Aislin had his mother promise that they would come back soon. His mother was very happy about Aislin's enthusiasm. On the way out they passed by the cage of the foxes and Aislin saw one whose main ring of color was a beautiful green. Its second color was blue and the third red. Aislin imagined talking to the fox the way he had talked to Leo the lion. But there was no

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time. He resolved to talk to him the next time. He would call him Urban. As they were leaving the foxes' cage, Aislin pointed out to his mother another fox who also had a beautiful green ring around him and whose second color was red rather than blue. "Mom", he said, "you know that fox there is much different from the first one. He plans and is well organized, but the first one we saw is much more curious and more innovative". His mother just nodded, wondering where Aislin took all this information. The name that popped into Aislin's mind for the second fox was Ernest. He was eager to talk to Ernest as well on his next visit. As they got to the exit of the zoo, Aislin's mother asked the zoo keeper about the opening and closing hours, telling him that her boy Aislin was in love with the lions and with the foxes and wanted to come back soon. The zoo keeper said to Aislin: "When you come back, Aislin, come and see me and you can ask me questions about the lions and the foxes". Aislin thought that was nice, but what attracted his attention at that moment was the big Saint Bernard dog by the side of the zoo keeper. It had such a nice face and the main ring of color around him was of a marvelous blue, accompanied by green and some red. Aislin petted him and said: "Hi Udo, you have such nice colors". The zoo keeper was surprised at the name Udo and asked Aislin: "Why do you call him Udo?". Aislin replied: "It's a good name for him". The zoo keeper did not argue. He added: "Udo has a brother who likes to keep more to himself; do you

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want to see him?" Aislin eagerly agreed. The zoo keeper brought Aislin and his mother behind the building where they saw another beautiful Saint Bernard. He was a little smaller than Udo, and Aislin noticed that his main color ring was also blue, like Udo's, but his second color was red rather than green. The zoo keeper asked jokingly: "What would you call him, Aislin?" Aislin replied without hesitation: "I call him Casimir". "Why Casimir?" asked the zoo keeper. "Because I think that's who he is - Casimir", replied Aislin. He thought to himself: "Adults ask funny questions!" Aislin went back to the zoo often. His mother accompanied him at first, but soon Aislin returned by himself. He helped the zoo keeper with all kinds of chores and the zoo keeper saw in Aislin a remarkable talent in dealing with animals. Aislin seemed to communicate with them. The animals seemed to be drawn to Aislin. They were expecting him and where happy when he arrived. He not only played with them but was also able to make them do things that amazed even the zoo keeper. All animals listened to him like highly trained dogs listen to their master. The news about Aislin's unusual talents made the rounds and when he was still a teenager he was made assistant zoo keeper. The zoo keeper himself, who was getting on in years, was pleased because he had been wondering for a while who would be taking over on his retirement in a few years. When he did retire he was able to recommend Aislin as a highly

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competent replacement. Aislin became the youngest zoo keeper in memory. Aislin was happy, and he had a dream. His dream was to train the animals to live in harmony with each other and with the human visitors without being housed in cages. No cages and no fences. He had lengthy sessions with Leo, Eden, Casimir, Udo, Urban and Ernest. The animals responded positively. They could all see the color rings. They had no trouble understanding what he was talking about. Nor were they afraid of change as much as people were. They learned easily. They were eagerly awaiting the day when they would be fully trained and allowed to live outside their cages. Together with the animals, Aislin developed a system of assigning leadership roles to the six animals in accordance with their colors. He concluded that the six animals in the group represented the six basic types. He gave each type a name and added what motivates each type as well as what the main fear of each type was. He also described each type's main qualities as well as the tendencies each type had to watch for. He drew up a training chart and reviewed it in detail with the six animals. The group found that the chart summarized well what they were like and what they had observed together. It was of great help in working to continually improve their understanding of themselves and of other animals as well as of people. Here is the chart:

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The animals knew that the day was near when cages and fences would be removed and they could move freely around the entire territory of the new zoo. They all resolved to use and develop their qualities and to not let their fears take over. They had developed strong leadership abilities and Aislin was confident that things would work out well for them. They would be able to look after themselves as well as after the other animals assigned to them. They would be able to respect the territory available for the free zoo and provide the leadership required so that other animals would do the same. That optimism and resolve demonstrated by Aislin and his team were put to the test from day one.

CHAPTER 2 LEO THE “DOER” LION
Adaptation to the new freedom presented many challenges and more than a few surprises. There was not only the challenge of adapting to an open environment. There was another challenge, that of wild animals that were now drawn to the free zoo territory. They wanted the territory for themselves as well as the food and water. It was the task of the six trained leaders, with the help of their teams, to keep unwanted animals out of the zoo territory and to accept animals willing to live by the rules of the free zoo and be integrated into the teams. Then there was the challenge of hunting. One of the rules of the free zoo was that all zoo animals had to participate in developing food autonomy through hunting, not only in the zoo territory but also outside of it. This was again done under the leadership of the six trained animals. Then there was a certain risk connected with the two Saint Bernards. They were domesticated animals, not used to coping with animals who were wild by nature, especially animals who had never lived in a zoo. Aislin had insisted that they be part of

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the group of leaders. He was sure they were the best representatives of animals with a blue color ring. Even though some of the scientists and other experts involved in the decision where skeptical, they were unable to provide a meaningful opposition to Aislin's plans, for they didn't dare to put in question Aislin's abilities with animals. But the thing that worried Aislin most was the reaction of the experts and of the public. He knew that the skeptics would pounce on every opportunity they could find to criticize Aislin's free zoo project. And he also knew that the public could easily be swayed by critics and fear mongers. But Aislin would not be deterred. He was confident that things would work out eventually. As was to be expected, all six animals had their difficulties in assuming their leadership roles as planned. However, Leo struggled most of all. He found it particularly hard to control his strongly aggressive nature. He had done well in training, but in the totally free environment he seemed to forget everything he had learned. He was now dominated by his inborn need to be clearly in charge. Leo was being challenged left and right, especially by some of the animals that didn't come from the zoo. Leo's instinctive reaction was to deal firmly with anyone who put his leadership in question. His main challenger was a large lion who had the same temperament as Leo and who also wanted to be in charge. This lion came from the wild, hadn't been

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trained, and wanted to take over. Leo confronted him and a fight ensued. Even though Leo had all the necessary fighting instincts, during his life in the zoo he had not had the opportunity to practice the skills needed in a fierce fight. Leo was clearly the underdog in the initial phases of the fight. He was aggressive but not careful enough. His opponent suddenly tore a gashing wound in Leo's left shoulder. This only made Leo more aggressive. He jumped forward and tried to dig his right claw into his opponent's back, but the other lion quickly turned to avoid the attack and then immediately ripped Leo's side open with his left claw. Leo was now bleeding heavily and seemed to be getting weaker. His opponent expected Leo to give up the fight and leave. But Leo had no intention of giving up. While the other lion momentarily let down his guard, Leo lunged forward decisively, dug his teeth into his opponent's throat and held on until the struggle was over. His opponent was dead. Leo was bleeding profusely and would have died too if it hadn't been for the help and care of the two Saint Bernards. Casimir quickly intervened to apply his first aid skills by stopping the bleeding and closing the wounds and Udo was constantly at Leo's side to provide the liquids and plants that allowed for a speedy recovery. Needless to say that after his recovery Leo did not get challenged any more. He was the master of his team, and the team had learned from Leo how to protect the interests of the free zoo. Leo felt and acted like the king of the beasts.

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Whenever things went well, Leo would let things be and wouldn't address anybody. His team knew that when Leo was quiet, it was because things were satisfactory for him. This was his way of "encouraging" or "motivating" his team. No fuss, no noise. It was to be understood that everything was OK as long as everybody behaved as they were supposed to. In Leo's view, no open acknowledgment or other demonstration of approval was necessary. Aislin was concerned. He knew that the red color in Leo, with green the secondary color, made him a "doer" or a task oriented type of individual. During training, Leo had learned what needed to be done to become a good leader, but his dramatic and life threatening fight with the other lion seemed to have made him forget all the things he had learned in training about continually improving one's relationship skills. Leo had to develop those skills in order to become the type of leader they had all agreed was needed in the free zoo. He had to be less preoccupied with accomplishing tasks and he needed to reduce his fear of being ineffective at it. His preoccupation with tasks and the accompanying fear of ineffectiveness made him impatient and forgetful about the need to provide positive feedback to his team and to the individuals in it. Aislin decided to have a session with Leo. He reminded Leo about the common leadership behavior goals that Leo had agreed to pursue. He pointed out to Leo that although he was in control,

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he was not really looked upon as a leader but rather as a boss to be obeyed. He was being referred to as the "super doer", because others considered him to be an extreme "doer" type, focusing exclusively on tasks and neglecting relationships altogether. He reviewed with Leo the training chart with the six basic or classic types of individuals that they had studied together, the differences that existed between the different types, and the fact that each type had a neighboring type from whom he could learn by discovering the neighboring type's strengths and by working to develop those strengths in himself. Leo remembered that for him Eden was that neighboring type. Eden belonged to the relationship types (the "wooer" types). The strength he had and Leo lacked was diplomacy. Leo also remembered that the best way to acquire that strength would be to get Eden to coach him. He promised Aislin that he would work on that. Aislin was glad. Leo decided to first observe Eden and his team to find out what Eden was doing as a leader. He soon noticed that Eden commanded respect from his team, just like Leo did, but that in addition Eden was popular and much liked by his team. Leo was puzzled. It was evident to Leo that he was not as happy as Eden in his role as a leader. Leo felt "lonely at the top", while Eden seemed to be mixing socially with the other animals and having quite a bit of fun in his leadership role. As he observed Eden, Leo found that Eden did not deal with others the same way he did. Eden was

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not as direct or as blunt as Leo. Eden could be critical of others in a more constructive way, as a result of which he was not perceived as being aggressive or hard, nor insulting and offensive, the way Leo was. Eden, like Leo, took care of challenges in a forceful and authoritative manner, but when things went well, Eden would "celebrate" with the others, roar with laughter and run around with others in playful fashion. When little things went wrong, Eden, instead of being irritated, would nudge others on to find the solutions to problems themselves and to learn by their mistakes. Leo learned from observing Eden that as a result of his relationship strengths Eden was maintaining harmony in the team and was getting things done with hardly any confrontation. He rarely was violent. As a result Eden spent less energy than Leo on controlling things and he achieved greater prosperity for himself and for his team. In addition, Eden seemed to be in a good mood much of the time and seemed to have more time and energy to enjoy life. Leo was ready to find out more from Eden himself. Leo and Eden would meet occasionally, but Leo felt a resistance inside himself to what he thought was "having to be someone he was not". After all, Leo thought, he was successful in his role. So what if occasionally someone got treated roughly! Perhaps that was necessary to keep things running smoothly. Besides, Leo was convinced that if Eden had the same difficult individuals in his team, Eden would have to treat them the same way Leo did.

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Eden was aware of Leo's demanding style and thought that it was a pity Leo worried so much about not being effective as a ruler. He was sure that Leo carried his need for accomplishment too far. Even though Leo had asked him to be his coach in developing diplomacy, Eden noticed Leo's reluctance to change his behavior and he didn't quite know how to broach the subject, knowing Leo's quick defensive ways of over-reacting. Leo and Eden kept avoiding the subject. Aislin noticed what was going on between the two and he decided to intervene. He wanted things to move, all the more so since he had just read an alarmist article with the curt title "CRazYZoo!" that had appeared in a popular newspaper. It was written by one of the experts who had been very skeptical about Aislin's plans for the free zoo. It was evident to Aislin that the writer hadn't seen for himself what had been going on in the free zoo after the abolishing of cages and fences. The writer was painting a picture of total chaos, of wild animals taking over territory, stealing water and food, killing many zoo animals, and zookeepers and zoo animals running for cover. Aislin concluded that the skeptical expert may have heard about Leo's fight with the wild lion from a visitor or tourist and had taken the opportunity to try and prove Aislin wrong. Aislin met with Leo and Eden and relayed to them the contents of the "CRazYZoo!" article. He stressed the importance to follow up on the leadership training and to practice mutual support in

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developing individual strengths. Leo and Eden were in total agreement and met the same day to exchange comments about people's reactions. Leo related to Eden how annoyed he had been at the gawking and prying by the increasing flood of observers, curiosity seekers, tourists and safaris of all kinds that were passing through. He was ready to pounce on those humans, to scare them off and get rid of them. But Eden cautioned him about that kind of reaction. He reminded him of the "CRazYZoo!" article and warned that if Leo reacted too strongly, the humans were liable to make things worse not just for him but for everybody. The humans might decide to change the zoo back to what it was before. Or they might recapture him and put him in a cage in another zoo. Or they might even conclude that he was getting to be too unmanageable, too dangerous, and they might eventually decide that he needed to be shot because he had gone "crazy". After all, similar things had happened occasionally in the earlier zoo, for instance when animals were too strong in expressing their displeasure at being confined. Eden reminded Leo about the behaviors with humans that worked best when they were living in cages. When you didn't like something you got a better reaction from the human zoo keepers if you just shook your head and then looked rather kindly at them, begging for some understanding. Humans would often find that way of acting very endearing and, understanding what you wanted, they would

— Leo the "Doer" Lion —

19

change their mind about the intentions they had for you. For instance, instead of insisting that you had had enough to eat they would give you an extra piece of meat, which they wouldn't do if you growled at them and made a scene, because that would make them stick to their idea that you didn't deserve any more food. Eden said that this type of accommodating behavior was a form of diplomacy and that diplomacy was a superior approach for getting along, not just with humans but also with the other animals. Leo did remember. He remembered vividly that he had struggled with this idea of diplomacy of which Eden was now reminding him. He had always viewed diplomacy as a form of hypocrisy. He couldn't help having reservations about it to this day. Nevertheless, Leo agreed to make an effort to change his behavior with humans. He did recall how humans could get very extreme in their response to animals whose behavior they considered undesirable. Leo decided to try to follow Eden's advice and he started to practice what Eden called "diplomacy" with the human visitors. He would sit innocently in front of the crowd of human onlookers, at times shaking his big mane, at other times looking at them kindly or holding his head at an angle as if indicating a curious attitude toward the crowd. He found that this latter gesture worked particularly well. Leo was pleasantly surprised at how well he was doing with the humans. He realized that he was not only succeeding in entertaining humans and making them

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happy, but that he was also feeling better himself and even enjoying his time spent with the human public. Instead of feeling miserable as before, he was now rather happy. Seeing this, Eden congratulated Leo for his "performance" and explained to him that there was a good definition of the difference between diplomacy and hypocrisy. Diplomacy, he said, is a way of helping the other individual (or group of individuals) to meet you half way. This allows for mutual agreement, which is a positive result, because you both end up winning; there is no loser. Hypocrisy is different. When one is hypocritical one tries to win and make the other side lose. Diplomacy leads to a win-win. He then asked Leo to look at what had happened as a result of his entertaining behavior with the human crowd. Leo's behavior could be seen as a form of diplomacy, as Leo had made an effort to avoid being irritated and to prevent possible conflict. Leo listened attentively. He started to feel better and agreed with Eden that this was now a "winning" situation for him, and that the crowd was also "winning" since they appeared happy. This realization did not come easy for Leo, as it was hard for him to overcome the feeling of having to force himself to behave in an insincere fashion. Acting as an entertainer felt like hypocrisy. He shared with Eden that he did not feel like that any longer. He no longer considered the effort he made as insincere, but rather as a more mature way of dealing with a personally challenging situation. Eden

— Leo the "Doer" Lion —

21

approved and stressed that hypocrisy means trying to hide something from the other for the purpose of one's personal gain or advantage only, which is not what Leo had done. When Eden asked Leo what he thought about using diplomacy with his team, Leo said that diplomacy was all fine and dandy but that he still wasn't sure that this diplomacy thing was something to use with his team of animals. After all, he had to keep his difficult team under control and well organized by using a direct and decisive approach. Noticing Eden's disapproving look, Leo paused for a while, after which he asked Eden whether he knew of any one specific thing that Leo could do to improve his way of being the leader of his team, or was he, Eden, just being lucky with his own team in that there were no "difficult" individuals in it like there were in Leo's team? Eden thought to himself that Leo could at least have thanked him for guiding him to cope better with the human crowd! But Eden knew that Leo had a hard time expressing approval. He knew also how difficult it had been for Leo to change his behavior and that deep down Leo, without saying it, was very thankful to Eden for having helped him to improve his outlook toward the human crowd. Eden had learned that individuals belonging to Leo's type consider it wise not to give praise "unduly" because they don't like to be too "sentimental" about things! Eden quickly overcame his momentary disappointment at the fact that Leo expressed so little

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appreciation for his advice. He was aware that Leo would benefit greatly if he used some diplomacy in his dealings with his team. Eden was glad that Leo had decided to talk about it now, because he felt that Leo deserved to have more satisfactory relationships as a leader. After all, Leo had such strong qualities. Leo's sense of duty, his respect of principles and rules, and his sense of justice and equality were exemplary. If Leo could only not worry so much about not being effective in making others respect his values. It was evident to Eden that Leo was afraid he would be ineffective as a leader if he did not make absolutely sure that everyone knew his job well, carried out his responsibilities well and followed rules to the letter. Leo also seemed to feel that he needed to make everyone aware that he would not miss a beat if anything went wrong. This was his idea of proper leadership behavior. He seemed to think that if rules were clearly and simply stated and offenders were dealt with severely, any negative reactions would automatically be taken care of and no discontent would remain. In Leo's view, anybody who was conscientious would appreciate this. If any individual failed to cooperate, that individual showed a wrong attitude and needed to be taken to task and punished. It was also evident to Eden that Leo was convinced that it was in the natural order of things that there would always be some individuals who are not well intentioned, who lack the desire to

— Leo the "Doer" Lion —

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cooperate and who don't want to follow the rules, no matter what you do. Leo seemed to believe that one of the main tasks of leaders was to look out for such individuals and to put them in their place. If that didn't help, the solution would be to "get rid" of them one way or another. Eden felt that even though there was some truth to that view, he had to find a way to make Leo realize that he tended to jump to conclusions too frequently and too quickly when it came to individuals who did not perform well enough at the start. He had to make Leo see that many individuals simply need extra time, encouragement and training to understand, to get involved, and to become proficient. Eden realized it was difficult to tell Leo what to do to improve his leadership. Eden did not think it would do any good if he told him outright. He felt that Leo needed to discover for himself which specific change in behavior with his group would be the most helpful for him. Since diplomacy was Eden's strength, he replied to Leo in the following way. "It is true, Leo, that I may have fewer problem cases in my team than you have in yours. I don't know. I have a collection of different types of individuals just as you have. And you remember no doubt our long sessions about different types of individuals. You know that every type sees things differently. Because he sees things differently, he will respond differently to you. So what works with one individual does not necessarily work with another.

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You and I, just like any other leader, should ideally be able to recognize the way every individual sees things and we should be able to communicate differently with each different type". Leo interjected, "well, maybe that's true when it comes to nuances and fine points of leadership, but don't you think that the basic requirements are always the same?" Eden asked: "What sort of basic requirements are you talking about?" Leo said: "There are several, for instance everyone needs to know what is expected of him and everyone needs to be told when he is not meeting expectations". Eden: "You are absolutely right about that. Leaders who do not make known clearly to individuals and teams what is required of them are falling down on that basic responsibility of a leader. They are also falling down on their responsibilities if they fail to inform individuals or the team when requirements are not being met. Such feedback needs to be given promptly and as frequently as each situation demands". Leo: "I am glad you agree. I tell my team in no uncertain terms what I expect of them and I let them know without beating around the bush when they don't perform." Eden: "I know you do, and not all leaders have those strengths. Now, let's get back to your question as to whether there is any specific thing you could do to create more satisfactory relationships with your

— Leo the "Doer" Lion —

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team members. This is really quite a personal thing, and it would be preferable if you yourself selected what you feel is the most important first step you could take to change the effect you are having on your team". Leo: "That sounds easy, but I really don't see what that could be". Eden: "This is always difficult at first glance. But here is a way to begin finding an answer. We have already talked about your strengths. One important thing to remember about strengths is that every strength has an accompanying weakness. As you know, a strength can also be called a motivation. If we summarize your many strengths, we can identify your main strength or your main motivation as being that of accomplishment. You are motivated to accomplish tasks and goals. You have a strong sense of duty and you are able to make decisions quickly and go into action. You do this by being mindful of the principles of equity and of rights. You make sure to define tasks and goals clearly and explain rules and regulations to everyone. Now as I said, every strength has as its counterpart a shortcoming which in effect is basically a fear. Your main motivation, which as I said is accomplishment, has as its counterpart a main weakness or main fear which is ineffectiveness. You are worried about not being effective in what you do. And when this fear is triggered, it can take away from your ability to assert your strengths. The more pronounced the fear, the more your strengths give

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way to impatience, aggressiveness, violence, hurtful directness, excessive task orientation, and even rudeness in relationship behavior. Does this make sense to you?" Leo: "I guess I do get impatient easily". Eden: "OK. So how do you usually express your impatience, Leo?" Leo: "I immediately growl with disapproval". Eden: "Right. Do you think that if you did not start to growl every time something goes wrong your team would take that as a sign of less impatience?" Leo: "I think so. But that would be hard to do all the time". Eden: "That's right, it would be. For this reason you must set yourself a more modest goal and aim to refrain from growling only part of the time. Would you think it would be reasonable to refrain from growling half the time? Or perhaps one time out of three?" Leo: "I guess I will start with one time out of three." Eden: "That's very wise. Now, it is important that you look at this goal as a worthwhile goal, and that when you succeed in refraining from growling one time out of three during all next week you give yourself a pat on the back and recognize that you have achieved your goal. This will help with your self-esteem and help you stay motivated, and it will also help you to aim for the same thing again the following week. What's more, if in the first week you

— Leo the "Doer" Lion —

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far exceed your goal, you might even set a higher goal for the following week. Are we agreed on that?" Leo agreed, although he was a bit puzzled about the self-esteem remark. He didn't say anything but he thought that there was nothing wrong with his selfesteem. He continued listening to Eden who also warned Leo that he would have to expect that his team might at first be surprised at his changed behavior. Perhaps some might even be a bit skeptical about his intentions. But he said not to get discouraged by such reaction from his team because at first they might be unsure about how to react to the new behavior. This was normal and the team would soon get used to his new ways and appreciate them. Leo nodded. All weekend long Leo kept mumbling to himself that every day next week he would remember not to start growling when something didn't go quite as he wanted. Monday came and Leo was ready. At the beginning he found it hard to remind himself of his resolve every time a situation came up. In addition, and despite Eden's warning about not minding the group's initial reaction, he was worried that his group would find that he was not demonstrating strong leadership if he did not behave like his usual self. But he caught himself and kept to his resolve. As a result he managed most of the time not to voice his disapproval immediately when something did not go right. Instead, he looked at the individual concerned with an inquiring expression. Usually this would cause the individual to start explaining, and

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Leo was surprised how often there was a valid, or at least fairly valid, reason for the problem that had arisen. In many cases the individual concerned would explain how he would go about preventing the same problem in the future, and in some cases Leo offered his own solution based on his extensive experience. On the whole, he thought that the week had worked out extremely well. At the end of the week Leo recounted to Eden the experience of the week, including the doubts that had arisen in him at the beginning of the week concerning his image as a leader. Leo concluded that despite this everything went very well, as in two cases out of three he had responded in a manner that he himself considered satisfactory. This was twice as good as he had planned. Eden congratulated him and asked him what kind of recognition he had given himself for this achievement. Leo replied that he did not really feel it necessary to go through that part of the process. Eden realized immediately that Leo hadn't understood the part about self-esteem that he had pointed out to Leo last week. Leo hadn't accepted the idea that self-recognition is an important part of goal setting. Eden asked Leo to talk a little about his initial doubts concerning his image as a leader. Leo explained that he had felt that by not reacting promptly and bluntly as usual he would be giving the impression to his group that his leadership strengths were getting weaker. Eden then gave the following explanation about self-esteem.

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"Self-esteem is how you feel about yourself in your unconscious. It is based on the behavior you are used to, both the behavior on your part and the behavior on the part of others. Your unconscious knows that when you behave in a certain way, others will react in a certain way. These behaviors are acquired over time, through repetition. They have become automatic and familiar. They have become habits. You have developed your self-esteem around those habits. When you decide to change your behavior, you are challenging your habits and your self-esteem. That's why you found it difficult to change at first. And don't kid yourself, your habits have not been changed permanently yet. You haven't repeated the new behaviors often enough, and those initial resistances you experienced will keep coming back until you have replaced the old habits with the new ones you have chosen. Does that make sense to you, Leo?" Again, not being used to this kind of thing, Leo was only half convinced. Eden insisted that Leo needed to give the idea a chance by giving himself a recompense or granting himself a favor. Leo tried to think of some kind of self-reward but couldn't come up with anything. Eden thought to himself: "Typical reaction of an IDEALIST!" (Idealist is the name of the type of individual to which Leo belongs). Eden then asked Leo whether there was any activity that Leo enjoyed a lot but did not find much time for. Leo had no trouble finding such an activity. He said he would like to spend more time roaming

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outside the zoo territory and perhaps catching a small warthog which he could feast on. Eden thought: "Finally!" and encouraged Leo to reward himself that way without delay. He added that rewards, whether for one's own achievement or for that of others, were most effective when they were given with as little delay as possible. Leo found Eden's reasoning convincing enough and he took off immediately towards the savanna. When he came back about two hours later, after a good ramble and after having ingested a small warthog prey, it was evident that he was more than a little satisfied. In the weeks that followed, Leo's attitude toward his group continued to be more relaxed. Leo's team responded to his new behavior and his improved mood by being in better humor themselves. They also opened up more to Leo by staying more around him and by exchanging experiences. They were less afraid of him, yet seemed to respect him just as much as before, and showed by their own behaviors that they were more appreciative of his leadership. Both Leo and Eden were happy and appreciated each other as if they had just become a "mutual admiration society of two". Aislin smiled as he read a new article in the papers with the title "CRazYZoo! REVISITED!". The writer was a journalist who had visited the zoo after reading the previous article. He explained that he found things surprisingly well and safe. He was especially fond of the behavior of the lions! He

— Leo the "Doer" Lion —

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concluded that they seemed to have turned "from aggressiveness to mellowness".

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CHAPTER 3 EDEN THE “WOOER” LION
While helping Leo discover certain things about himself and about others and enabling him to make life better for himself and for his group, Eden discovered tendencies in himself about which he was increasingly unhappy. In his case the tendencies he didn't like had kept creeping up on him as life in the new zoo improved. At first, Eden wasn't aware of what was happening. Things sort of grew on him without being noticed. He kept having fun in his leadership role but felt that his team was less and less happy with the results and they did not look up to him with as much confidence and respect as at first. Eden had a vague feeling that his leadership wasn't as productive as it had been. He felt that he was more driven than before to create opportunities for personal pleasure and enjoyment and that he was eating too much. He was using his talents, but he was getting involved in too many activities and most of them were for the purpose of pleasing his senses and his tastes. He was indulging himself. He felt that his

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team was aware of his new state of mind and that this bothered them somehow. They weren't as close to their leader and they were not as forthcoming with him. The relationships weren't as good any more. Eden was unhappy. And he kept eating too much and kept getting fatter. Eden realized that he too, like Leo, had a neighboring type with a quality Eden did not possess. It was Casimir. Casimir was of a peaceful nature. He was smaller than his brother Udo and kept more to himself. He felt that the most important thing in life was to be happy. He hated quarrels and avoided getting involved in emotional conflicts whenever possible. Also, he was the opposite of a show-off, as he liked to work by himself without attracting attention. He had a sensitive nature, was discreet, persistent, and loyal towards his friends and associates. When he decided on an activity or a cause, he would stick to it and become highly proficient at it, as he was able to pay attention to details like very few others could. In crisis situations of a physical nature Casimir would demonstrate an uncanny ability to stay cool and level headed. Eden, like the other animals, very much appreciated Casimir for his qualities. Eden felt that Casimir was the only one with whom he could share his feelings of unhappiness. Later, he never regretted opening up to Casimir, because Casimir not only understood right away how Eden felt, but he was able to help Eden discover the main cause of his unhappiness.

— Eden the "Wooer" Lion —

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It should be noted that Casimir had always liked Eden's passive and positive attitude. Eden, like Casimir, wasn't looking to change the world. In addition, Eden had the knack of enjoying the world the way it was, which attracted Casimir because he often found it difficult to enjoy things as much as Eden did. Casimir preferred Eden's lion nature to that of Leo, whom he found too intent on changing things. It's not that Casimir did not like to improve things. He was very good at perfecting whatever he was doing, but he felt that one didn't have to be as driven and as directive with others as Leo was. Many animals felt the same way as Casimir, considering Leo to be pushing himself and others too hard to accomplish things. As mentioned earlier, Leo the action type was nicknamed "the doer lion", whereas Eden was known as "the wooer lion" because of his good relationship abilities, his diplomacy, and his general ability to effectively "woo" others. The two expressions became so popular that soon enough all the relationship type animals were known as "wooers" and all the task oriented types as "doers". That's how it came to be that in addition to "doer lions" and "wooer lions", there were "doer Saint Bernards" and "wooer Saint Bernards" as well as "doer foxes" and "wooer foxes", etc. When Eden confided his unhappiness to him, Casimir pointed out something Eden already knew but did not apply to himself. He told him that Eden had many strengths and that every strength is

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accompanied by a corresponding shortcoming or weakness. Eden thanked Casimir for that reminder and explained to Casimir how he had helped Leo to identify his main strength or main motivation, as well as his main weakness or main shortcoming, or main fear. Casimir replied: "OK. Let's explore your main motivation, which is pleasure. What does pleasure mean for you?" Eden replied: "There are all kinds of things. I don't know where to start." Casimir then asked: "Do you enjoy to celebrate with your group?" Eden replied: "Doesn't everybody?" Without answering Eden's question, Casimir then asked: "Do you enjoy eating and many other pleasures?" "Of course!" said Eden. Casimir then asked: "Do you enjoy using your many talents to create harmony in your group, to be a diplomat, to protect your group, and to help them to have all they need and be well off?" "I do, Casimir. My group is doing well. By the way, as far as diplomacy is concerned, I helped out Leo who, as you know, used to be quite undiplomatic, but he has much improved lately following my dialogue with him". "There you go, Eden, said Casimir. You have great strengths. We can say that your main strength or main motivation, are the pleasures that we just

— Eden the "Wooer" Lion —

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reviewed, and that you want pleasures both for yourself and for others." Eden answered: "You are so right. It's amazing how much easier it is sometimes to understand yourself during a dialogue with someone else rather than trying to understand your unhappiness all by yourself. You have just helped me to be much clearer in my mind about what my strengths are, even though I thought that I knew exactly what motivated me." He reflected for a moment and then said: "Come to think of it, my dialogue with Leo had a similar effect on Leo. I was able to help him to better understand his own strengths of which he was well aware already". Casimir said: "As mentioned earlier, our main strength or main motivation has as its counterpart a main weakness or shortcoming, or a main fear. Did you say that you also identified Leo's main fear?" Eden said: "Yes, we did. It is the fear of ineffectiveness, which tends to make Leo impatient, aggressive, insulting, violent and excessively task oriented". After a moment, he added: "I know the next thing you are going to ask me. You will want me to talk about my own main fear, that of physical privation. I learned in our training that physical privation is my main fear, but how do I know that it's the cause of my unhappiness?" Casimir then asked: "Perhaps one way to find the answer is to ask yourself : What are the things I am doing that I would like to change, and: What are the things my team is doing that make me unhappy?"

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Eden: "Well, my team seems to rely less than before on me as a leader and they keep more to themselves. Mind you, they are comfortable and well fed and seem quite satisfied. It is just that they don't look up to me as much". Casimir: "What about you? You look quite comfortable and well off yourself – and well fed too!" Eden: "Actually, this is something I am not too happy with. I mean my looking well fed, because I am too well fed. And now that we are talking about it I must admit that I have become a bit overindulgent in food and in other pleasures. I think this makes me more lethargic than I should be. Come to think of it, I have been taking things too easy lately and I have gotten out of shape." Casimir: "When you say that you are lethargic, out of shape, and overindulging in food, you are probably also saying that you are not as sharp as you used to be. Could this be the reason your team does not look at you with as much admiration as they used to?" Eden: "Yes, I am sure it is. I am simply too much into the pleasure of eating and I am slowly going soft". Casimir: "Could it be then that it is your fear of physical privation which makes you overindulge in pleasure in a certain way?" Eden: "Of course! I am enjoying the pleasures I have and I don't want to miss any of them because I am afraid they may not last. This has turned into a

— Eden the "Wooer" Lion —

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real compulsion, a compulsion to eat and to have fun". Casimir: "I am afraid so. Remember in the training we identified this as the danger your type, the INSPIRATOR, runs into. You are successful yourself and your team is successful. Thanks to your many talents and your ability to inspire others, your group has turned into an excellent team of hunters. There is always plenty of food for everyone as well as extra time and the other comforts. And you have not only gotten used to the pleasures and comforts but you want them so much that you have developed an unconscious fear that all of a sudden they might disappear. As a result, you are driven to enjoy them as much as possible while they last. That's more or less the conclusion you have reached yourself, isn't it: you have become addicted, as it were, to pleasures and to comforts". Eden: "Yes, that's how it feels, and now I am no longer comfortable with it. I can't afford to keep doing that. I can see now that my leadership is in jeopardy. My team may be worried that hunting will continue to fall off. Now I understand what was happening lately when I was having problems with two growing male lions. There were two young turks who tried to challenge my decisions. I realize now that they were testing me and trying to find an opportunity to dethrone me. They are getting bigger and stronger, and if I don't get back into shape one of them will soon force me out and take over. I can see clearly now that excessive pleasures reduce my

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ability and that of my team to continue acquiring the things we want, and those needs feed my fear of physical privation rather than reducing it." Casimir: "I think that's right, Eden. You may also find yourself being at times immodest or vain about all the things you are able to do, whereas others may see you as not very accomplished in any of them or as superficial. You get involved in so many things that you tend to become superficial, unable to explore fully any of your talents. This is known as being a dilettante. In that state, you can furthermore become indecisive. Your addictive behavior may also turn your natural generosity into a "calculating" one. This means that you could be trying to ensure that your generosity is always repaid in kind. These are the real challenges you are facing, Eden. The reduced confidence the team is showing in your leadership and the challenge thrown at you by the young males are the symptoms, not the causes of your problem. It is those personal shortcomings that you need to work on. This does not mean that all these weaknesses have become pronounced in you. It is up to you to determine which one of them applies most to you at this time so you can work against it and start to manage better the main fear that you have, the fear of physical privation." Eden: "I understand perfectly now. What I need to do is learn to focus better and not disperse my attention. I must select an activity that I want to pursue in depth and then I must master it. This will allow me to not squander my energies, to develop a

— Eden the "Wooer" Lion —

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strong interest, to get a high level of satisfaction from the chosen activity and not to have as much of a craving for food and for the other pleasures." Casimir: "I could not have put it any better. You want to establish a balance between having things and pleasures and not having them to excess. Being more focused will help you to cultivate that balance. You now need to identify the preferred activity that you want to focus on. After that, as you already know, you will need to set a goal that is both clear and measurable." Eden: "I think I know what I want to concentrate on. I have a lot of talent for teaching, and the area of teaching that appeals to me a lot is showing our young lions and other youngsters how to grow up properly and develop their strengths. Now that we have examined the question of focus in life, I am learning a lot in that area, and I will start helping the young to develop focus. I know that many of them have the same tendencies I have and they too do not explore things seriously enough and tend not to develop mastery of anything. I will be able to share with them how to overcome such tendencies." Casimir was very approving of Eden's decision. Together they worked out a teaching plan and a schedule for Eden to use in organizing his future teaching activity with the many youngsters in his large team. In a very short time, the results of Eden's approach became visible. Eden lost most of his excess weight, was more focused, and his teaching

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was appreciated both by the young and by their parents. Eden was spreading among his group the philosophy of balance. In his definition, balance meant striving for possessions and pleasures only to the extent that this did not compromise the ability to fully assert the qualities of one's type. When Casimir inquired how Eden was rewarding himself at the successive stages of success with his teaching goals, Eden said that he had discovered something highly rewarding. Whenever he reached the "celebration" stage in his goal setting, he would get members of his group together for a session of games. He enjoyed games immensely because he was good at games. He invited Casimir to participate in them. Casimir thought Eden was doing the right thing involving himself in something he was good at, and he told him so. Casimir was also glad that Eden invited him to participate in games. Not that Casimir had a particular liking for games, but he wanted to see how Eden was doing in relation to vanity, a trait that many INSPIRATORS are unaware of and have a hard time to overcome. Casimir noted vanity in Eden just by the way Eden had explained to him how he had helped Leo to identify and deal with his strengths and weaknesses. Vanity can translate into an irresistible need to show one's worth, to show how good one is. It reduces the INSPIRATOR'S effectiveness as a leader, and Casimir felt it his obligation as Eden's counselor to make sure Eden was OK on that score.

— Eden the "Wooer" Lion —

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When Casimir arrived at the game session, Eden already occupied the platform. The question of which game should be played was being talked about. Eden was at his jovial best with the group, and even though those present seemed to want to play cards, Eden, who excelled at Monopoly, sold the group on Monopoly. Some suggested to have a vote on it, but Eden adroitly asserted his "mentor" role for the games activity and managed to avoid the vote. Of course, Eden won handily at Monopoly and was in an excellent mood. Casimir noticed that some players were a bit miffed at the way Eden went about things. Eden told the group proudly that when the time was right he would show them how to win at Monopoly. One of the discontents asked Eden: "Why not show us right now?" Eden replied: "Let's just play some games to-day. I'll show you another game right now that's great fun as well, Pebbles." Pebbles was another of Eden's favorite games, because he always won at it. Eden explained to the group what the rules of the game were. He demonstrated how players take turns in placing and moving their pebbles in the different squares on the ground and showed the various moves that were allowed. He played several practice games with the other players, and when everyone was ready, he decided to start a tournament. Eden won the tournament, and he was having a party. It was evident to Casimir that not everyone was as pleased as Eden about the games session. A fox in particular, who seemed to have some IDEALIST in

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him, clearly resented Eden's way of running things. He came second in the Pebbles tournament and he was sure he only lost the game to Eden because he was too new at it. He didn't like the way Eden was basking in his winner's glory and he challenged Eden: "You think you are so great because you won at a game we are not familiar with. If you are so good at games, why are you so scared to play a game we all know and like? You are supposed to organize games for us, not for you. We didn't come here to watch how good you are". Swallowing his pride and trying to be diplomatic about the whole situation, Eden replied: "Listen, my intention was to have you enjoy games and have fun. I don't mind playing the games you want to play. I tell you what, let's decide together right now what games we are going to play next time". Suggestions were made, votes were taken, and a number of games were chosen. Monopoly and Pebbles were not in the list! Eden then thanked everyone for attending and congratulated them on their collective choices. Embarrassed and humiliated, Eden left the gathering immediately after. Eden went to see Casimir the day after, complaining about the gall of that fox. "I could have killed him", he said. He added: "That fox is jealous and a bad loser. Everybody else was perfectly happy with the way things were going, but this brat of a fox had to spoil things".

— Eden the "Wooer" Lion —

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Casimir thought: 'Typical reaction of an INSPIRATOR with strong vanity! He is not even aware of it. Eden didn't seem to realize that he had 'organized' things in order to make sure he would win and could show everyone how good he was!" Casimir knew that in such cases, INSPIRATORS need to be confronted in no uncertain terms about their lack of humility. You can't reason it out with them, because they will 'diplomatically' fail to see the point. That's why Casimir thought he had to devise a confrontational approach that would work. Here is what he replied to Eden: "I can see that you are upset about the way the fox confronted you. You feel that he had no business talking to you the way he did. You believe you did your best in trying to have a good session of games for everyone. However, as you know I was there and I lived through the entire session. I agree that the fox was aggressive in his reaction. But I don't think that being jealous and a bad loser was the principal cause of his frustration. I observed all the other players, and I also was aware of my own reaction. There is a trait in your leadership behavior that rubs others the wrong way. I hate to say it, but I do it for your sake, and because you asked me to help you perfect your leadership qualities. You have the trait that your type, the INSPIRATOR, has great difficulty with. We dealt with it in our training with Aislin. You may not remember which trait I am talking about, and that too would be typical of an INSPIRATOR, because it's hard for you to realize that you have it. I am

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talking about vanity. Some call it exaggerated pride. And in order to illustrate to you how your vanity came through yesterday I would like to go through yesterday's session with you". Casimir continued: "The way I want to do this is by asking you to play the role of the observer. I will play the part of Eden. I will do what you did yesterday, to the best of my memory. I want you to be as neutral an observer as possible and feed back to me what you see in the behavior of the Eden I will be re-enacting. Tell me if you see any humility in Eden's behavior, or do you see the opposite, vanity? I want you to be honest, because I am not looking to hurt you. I am your friend. Are we agreed?" Eden was not very happy about Casimir's remarks and felt uncomfortable about going through the games session in the way Casimir suggested. But he trusted Casimir and reluctantly agreed to the exercise. Well, if Eden felt uncomfortable about Casimir's suggestion, he felt much worse watching Casimir's reenactment. He even protested that Casimir was overacting. Casimir then asked Eden to re-enact himself the part he found overacted, after which Casimir again imitated Eden's re-enactment as faithfully as possible. After several such exercises Eden finally realized that he should indeed show more humility, and that his leadership effectiveness would increase as a result of it. After the next games session, which Casimir did not attend, he heard from one of the participants that everyone liked the games they played and enjoyed the

— Eden the "Wooer" Lion —

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session. Casimir also found out that there were several winners and that Eden only won once. Casimir was very pleased. When Casimir told Eden about the comments by the participant, Eden was happy and confirmed that there had indeed been a lot of fun at the session and that he, Eden, enjoyed seeing the others happy. He said that his greatest enjoyment actually came when he let others win and when he saw them enjoy winning. He thanked Casimir for helping him to recognize the vanity trait in him. Casimir was impressed with the maturity that Eden had reached in his change in leadership behavior and he congratulated Eden, reminding him at the same time how important it had been for Eden to select by himself what he needed to change. It had been essential that he himself recognize what he needed most, which was to focus on one thing he liked rather than dispersing his talents and energies. After observing the results of Eden's efforts, Casimir concluded that Eden had regained his team's recognition as their undisputed leader and that he had achieved this by working successfully on two things: having too many irons in the fire and wanting to show how good he was. Eden had learned to reduce his fear of physical privation, turning it instead into a sort of protective mechanism. He realized that while the tastes and temperament of the INSPIRATOR require that he have plenty of material things and sensuous pleasures, this need can become excessive. He

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concluded that it was necessary for him, the INSPIRATOR, to continually strive for balance, making sure, on the one hand, that he had enough to satisfy his rich tastes adequately and, on the other hand, that he avoid excessive material striving and over-indulgence in sensuous pleasures. He managed to do this through a continuous effort to focus and to avoid dispersing his energies. Eden's second achievement in leadership development was to become conscious of the need to continually strive for more humility and less vanity. He had developed a constant awareness of the tendency to want to be admired for his many talents. He realized that vanity can lead to paternalism, to treating all others like juniors, which is a negative trait, whereas having genuine pride in one's talents and achievements is not dependent on the admiration by others and is positive. Eden was content and thanked Casimir for listening and for his guidance. He asked Casimir not to hesitate to turn to him to share similar matters, if Casimir should ever find a need for it. Casimir assured Eden that he would, although he knew that the type to counsel him was not the INSPIRATOR, but the SUPPORTER, and that he would turn to Udo when the time was right. But as he was of a sensitive nature, he didn't mention it to Eden for fear of hurting Eden's pride.

— Eden the "Wooer" Lion —

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CHAPTER 4 CASIMIR THE "DOER" ST-BERNARD
Casimir's brother Udo had noticed that Casimir had often been with Eden in the last while and he knew that Casimir had been helping Eden with some personal objectives. Casimir had proudly shown Udo the details of the teaching schedule he was helping Eden to prepare. It was evident to Udo that Eden was doing much better lately, because he knew that Eden had been down earlier, had gained weight and had not been his usual self. Udo, who liked to work with others and listen to others, would periodically ask Casimir how things were going, and Casimir would fill him in, but only in a very general way. Udo understood Casimir's reluctance to tell him anything too personal about his dealings with Eden. He understood, because he knew his brother' discreetness and sensitivity, so he would not pry but rather wait for Casimir to share more if and when Casimir decided that the time was right for it. Udo loved his brother and he felt that others sometimes judged Casimir too quickly. Casimir could

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be willful, refuse to cooperate and isolate himself. But often others did not understand his need to make up his own mind, to not be pressured, and to be left to concentrate on a task without being disturbed. Casimir's type was that of a PARTNER. Partners are "doer" types and are appreciated for their loyalty and their conscientiousness because they can be relied upon to carry out the responsibilities they have agreed upon with another individual no matter how much or how long that individual is absent or otherwise unavailable. PARTNERS will do their job with devotion and with attention to detail and they prefer working alone without attracting attention. They aim to be happy and they hate conflict. Happiness is their main motivation and emotional conflict their main fear. Udo was thinking of Casimir's exemplary devotion and detailed attention to Eden's training goals. He was aware that Casimir had gone into so much detail that Udo had to ask him at the time not to overdo it. Udo had helped Casimir to remove a lot of details from the plans and Casimir had thanked Udo for his advice, because when Casimir had removed the many detailed steps in Eden's training plans Eden seemed relieved about the changes. The details he removed included notes about when Eden was to make certain gestures, such as when to move forward toward the class and when to move back, when to address one or the other side of the class, etc. Udo knew that Casimir was aware himself of his tendency to go into too much detail, which would

— Casimir the "Doer" St-Bernard —

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make him lose sight of the overall picture. Udo realized that this tendency came from Casimir's main fear, emotional conflict. Because of this fear, Casimir was in the habit of isolating himself by spending a lot of time on details. This was his unconscious attempt to reduce contact with others and diminish the likelihood of meeting with emotional conflict. Udo had concluded a while ago that Casimir's main fear, emotional conflict, was getting too strong. Casimir was not only being highly individualistic but he was also seeing the external world too much as a dangerous and a menacing place. It was not physical danger that Casimir feared. Casimir was the first to come to the aid of others when accidents happened. He was cool and levelheaded in emergencies such as those caused by falling branches, fires, sand storms and torrential rains. What he was unconsciously afraid of was getting involved in relationships with others, even work relationships or game relationships, because in his eyes they might become the source of emotional conflict. It was evident that to Casimir, emotional conflict was the equivalent of loss of happiness. As a result, he kept too much to himself and was obstinate about not participating. Udo felt he had to talk to him. And now appeared to be a good time, since Casimir was experiencing an excellent relationship with Eden. Udo asked Casimir: "It seems like you keep getting along well with Eden, are you?" Casimir replied: "You know Udo, he is about the only real friend I have".

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Udo: "You say 'real' friend, Casimir. You mean like bosom friend, close friend. How about some other friends, such as normal friends, just friends or buddies." Casimir: "Can't think of any. But that's OK. Who cares, anyway." Udo figured that Casimir was being defensive. But knowing Casimir's sensitivity and dislike of being pressured, he simply said: "It doesn't matter. I am glad you are doing real fine with Eden". Udo knew that he had to wait for Casimir to take the initiative to share. He new that PARTNER types like Casimir need to let an idea or a suggestion sink in and be digested, after which they themselves often come up with the very same idea or suggestion. Casimir's happy relationship with Eden was such that it didn't take Casimir too long to feel the need to talk to Udo about relationships in general. He said: "You remember I told you recently that I didn't give a damn about not having friends or buddies. But Eden again talked to me about the fun he was having with other lions and I began thinking. "What's wrong with me? I could have more fun with others. Others have even been telling me that I am isolating myself too much. But I thought that I have always been that way and that it's the fault of others." Udo was glad his brother had started to share and said: "There is nothing 'wrong' with you, Casimir" (he was putting the accent on the word "wrong"). You already know that your type is that of a PARTNER, and you also know that the PARTNER'S main

— Casimir the "Doer" St-Bernard —

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strength or motivation is happiness and his main fear is emotional conflict. You tend to worry about getting into emotional conflict when dealing with others". Casimir: "I guess you are right. But I wonder why lately, all of a sudden?" Udo: "Maybe it just appears to have been only lately. But it does not matter. As you know from your experience with different types, especially your latest experience with Eden, the important thing is to recognize the way in which your own behavior is affected by your main fear, so you can start to get more control over the fear. Among the tendencies that are common for PARTNERS who have a pronounced fear of emotional conflict are the following: too much attention to detail, lack of ability to see the whole picture, being obstinate, isolating oneself, and experiencing the external world as a dangerous and menacing place. It's up to you, Casimir, to pinpoint the tendency that seems most applicable to you at the present time". Casimir found that difficult to do. He wondered out loud whether there was a way to change his feelings about emotional conflict. After all, Eden too had emotional conflicts with some individuals and that didn't stop him from continuing to develop new relationships. Udo congratulated Casimir for that observation. He explained to Casimir that he was probably just too sensitive about emotional conflict. He told him that he knew of an exercise in four steps that could

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help to improve his ability to deal with emotional conflict and he asked Casimir whether he wanted to go through those steps right now. Udo knew very well that the PARTNER in Casimir would first want to know what the steps were and then he would want to "see", which meant that he would want to digest the information first and then decide what to do next. So, in order to get Casimir to reflect, Udo introduced the four steps as follows: Step 1: Look at conflict as something positive, because conflict is a kind of problem and problems can be solved. Step 2: Attend someone else's conflict resolution session to learn how it's done. Step 3: Start a new relationship and expect conflict situations to arise. Step 4: Practice what you have learned in Step 2 to resolve your relationship conflict. Udo emphasized the importance of Step 1. He asked Casimir to push himself and give the benefit of the doubt to the idea that conflict is part of life, that it's normal, and that it's bad only when it's not being dealt with. He reminded Casimir of the example of Eden's relationships. Eden is not afraid to deal with conflicts, he settles them, and his team has cohesiveness and team spirit because they face their conflicts.

— Casimir the "Doer" St-Bernard —

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Udo added that when the moment arrived, he would be ready to help Casimir solve the conflict if Casimir asked him. As Udo had expected, Casimir wanted to think about it. Nevertheless, Udo was a little worried that Casimir might decide to forget the whole thing. However, only two days later Casimir got back to Udo saying that Eden had invited him to observe a conflict resolution session the day before with four members of his team who were fighting over an insignificant disagreement involving transportation of carcasses after the kill of prey in a successful hunt. Casimir did attend and said that he was surprised how emotional the four participants had been in defending their respective points of view and how simple the solution was once everyone had listened to the others. As an aside, Casimir mentioned that he was very happy to have Eden as a friend because Eden was such a good facilitator and teacher, having diplomatic and problem solving skills that were much appreciated by his team. Casimir said he might go back to another conflict resolution session with Eden's team and participate in it, but if none came up, he was so enthusiastic about it all that he was ready for Step 2 with any group! It turned out that Eden held another conflict resolution session on a different matter a few days later. Casimir was invited to express his point of view and he was very happy with the outcome of the session. The conflict had to do with the pecking

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order in Eden's team. Emotions were running high because one young lion was aggressively looking for higher seniority in the team whereas most agreed that he should wait his turn. Although he was very young he was strong for his age and he managed to get some members of the team to side with him, as they probably expected favors from him later. Again, everyone was given a chance by Eden to express his or her view, but things nevertheless got very heated because many felt that the challengers were using power tactics to gain an advantage and they told them so in no uncertain terms. Then Eden asked Casimir do state his view. Casimir first thanked the team for letting him participate, and then he did a very astute thing: he told the challengers that it was good to be ambitious and to try to improve their position. He also congratulated them and all the others for stating their views and for listening to all opinions, and he said he felt privileged to give his point of view to such a fair minded and dynamic group. He then said that he was sure the challengers now realized that there was strong opposition to their initiative because many considered that the initiative had come before its time. They were still young and their time would come. Casimir added that since he was not part of the team but was looking in from the outside, he could be neutral, and as a neutral outsider he felt that those opposed were correct in their insistence that traditional rules of the team should be respected. He also said that he was sure that those opposed were in

— Casimir the "Doer" St-Bernard —

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no way against the others personally but simply wanted to ensure that fairness continued to prevail in the team. Casimir's statement was presented with such reasonableness and composure that the emotional tension got diffused and everyone soon agreed to observe the traditional rules of the team. Casimir had used his ability to remain levelheaded during conflict resolution! After the session Eden congratulated Casimir for his intervention and told him he was happy to have him as a friend. This pleased Casimir no end. Casimir continued to manage well his fear of emotional conflict. Thanks to his brother he had acquired a helpful reflex which he applied in the following way. Whenever Casimir noticed that he was being reluctant to participate in a group activity or respond positively to someone else's desire to exchange views with Casimir about something controversial, he would ask himself: "Am I reluctant because of the possibility of conflict, yes or no?" Unless he could answer with a definite "no", which happened seldom, he would push himself to participate and to exchange with others. This new habit of his turned out to be very beneficial for Casimir, as his involvement with others became a source of happiness for him. Conflict seldom arose as a result of such involvement, and when it did arise it was most often very mild and was easily resolved. Nevertheless, Casimir always needed to push himself to participate or to meet with people. He

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realized how true it was that a type's main motivation and main fear were a permanent personal feature. They never disappear entirely. They are the principal reason why each type has a lack of balance, and why each type needs to try to achieve greater balance by continually making a conscious effort to hold his main fear in check. Being aware of this permanent challenge helped Casimir to understand what better balance meant for him. He realized that he was experiencing satisfying interaction with others when he made an effort to participate, but he was also aware that he was no longer experiencing his fear of emotional conflict as a fear but as a needed protective mechanism. This enabled him to ensure that in addition to reasonable involvement with others he could enjoy frequent solitude and regular opportunities for sustained concentration, something needed by the PARTNER type more than by any other type. Casimir's friendship was being increasingly coveted because of his great depth of feeling and his exceptional ability to concentrate, regardless of the subject or activity. Nevertheless, it was still difficult to become Casimir's friend because of his natural secretiveness and cool distance, but those who had gained his friendship felt highly rewarded by his loyalty and his sensitivity.

— Casimir the "Doer" St-Bernard —

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CHAPTER 5 UDO THE "WOOER" ST-BERNARD
Udo was a valued member of the IGRC, the Inter-Group Relationship Committee. Abner, the chairman of the committee, was an Inspirator like Eden, but extremely ambitious. He was a very pronounced kind of "wooer lion", full of hype and optimism and always ready to get groups together to celebrate any success he could identify for a group. He might even throw a party if the only result of a full day's team hunt was a tiny rabbit! It was obvious to the astute observer that Abner had political ambitions. Some did not like him at all. They saw him as having too much vanity and as trying to be noticed like a cock on a dunghill that's trying to compete for a powerful position. Abner knew how to delegate all the organizational and administrative tasks to others, concentrating his energies and talents on defining what should be done and on animating, with a lot of pizzazz and diplomatic skill, the many meetings, parties and other get-togethers for which the various

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committee members made the necessary arrangements and preparations. There was one task that Abner recognized was of key importance to the reputation of his committee, and that was the task of helping individuals who had special problems. Abner was aware that Udo had extraordinary abilities in providing such help and he made sure that any such special problem cases got referred to Udo, because his work scored a lot of approval points for the committee. Udo was happy in this work. There were many animals who were getting help from him. After Leo there was Alric whom he was helping to lick his wounds after being unexpectedly dethroned by an unusually strong and smart young lion. Alric, an able Idealist, was forced into early retirement, which is no joking matter in the world of lions. He lost his position, his power and his access to his female companions, he no longer shared in the spoils, and for all intents and purposes he was in the category of has-beens who are no longer considered an asset to the community. It was a tough world for Alric and Udo felt for him. There was not much Udo could do, but everyone knew about the "Alric case", because Udo had saved Alric from certain suicide when he brought Alric back from a far removed area of the savanna to which he had retreated with the intention of starving himself to death. Alric was connecting frequently with Udo and was able to keep up his morale and stay content. He was also being helped by

— Udo the "Wooer" St-Bernard —

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several other individuals who made sure that he was comfortable and had enough to eat. By far the majority of cases referred to Udo were those of animals hurt in conflicts with others, mainly conflicts that ended up in nasty fights causing injury, such as an ear or a tail being bitten off, an eye being lost, or other wounds suffered from which it was hard to recover. In many such cases Casimir would be asked to administer first aid, after which he would refer them to Udo for continued support. Udo was known for his help and his kindness, and often animals ran to Udo without being directed to him. Abner was very pleased, of course. He knew he could rely on Udo, who never complained and never said "no", regardless of how many cases he was asked to handle. Being appreciated gave Udo the energy to carry a load that was getting heavier as the population grew and as the number of incidents requiring his assistance increased. At times he felt exhausted, as he spent more and more of his free time helping others and was unable to enjoy the routine comforts that were part of the essential requirements of his type. But he was sure that other committee members were aware of his work load and that they were doing their best in trying not to overload him unnecessarily. That's why Udo was puzzled when Abner asked him to take on another area of responsibility, that of looking after the cases of stubborn lack of team spirit. Those were individuals who just wouldn't pull their weight, despite all the cheering and motivating

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done by Abner and by team leaders. They would simply not share in the efforts during a hunt, whether in the tracking down, cornering and killing of prey, or in the moving of carcasses. When it came to sharing in the spoils, however, they would eagerly participate. Udo was baffled and at first felt disappointed at having been given the additional task. Abner did not seem to realize that Udo was carrying a heavy load. On the spur of the moment, Udo wanted to refuse, to say "no". But that impulse was outweighed by his feeling that his help was needed and that it wouldn't be right to refuse. He was wondering whether in the end he was really overloaded or whether he was simply not using the right work methods. Maybe by setting priorities better and doing better time management he could handle more. So he accepted without reservation, which met with Abner's praise for Udo's loyalty to the committee and his outstanding work on behalf of those in need. As usual, Abner didn't ask Udo how he was doing on a personal level or whether adding the new responsibility would make his work load too heavy. Udo was incapable of realizing that all Abner was interested in was himself. Everyone else did not really exist for Abner. What happened next was unavoidable. In a short while Udo became totally exhausted and suffered a serious health breakdown. He couldn't function for weeks. Casimir jumped into the void to look after the more serious cases of injury. Abner referred the cases of stubborn lack of team spirit back to the team

— Udo the "Wooer" St-Bernard —

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leaders. They gradually learned to deal with such individuals as all team leaders became more and more involved in the study of types and were able to improve their ability to recognize and better deal with the fears that caused individuals to develop negative tendencies in their behavior. When Udo recovered, he slowly regained his interest in handling his traditional cases. Abner didn't quite realize what had happened, but he was concerned about Udo's health and he often told him to "take it easy" or to "do what you can – tomorrow is another day", and similar mechanical signs of encouragement. Udo regained his old form and Abner never again gave him additional areas of responsibility. But Udo was still struggling with his work load. There were so many cases, and he just couldn't say "no" to any of them! Urban, one of the foxes, had been observing the two Saint Bernards. He was fascinated by the differences that existed between Casimir and his brother Udo. While Casimir was happy working alone, Udo was always out meeting others! Urban found Udo very vulnerable, always ready to help, without seeming able to make a distinction between those who appreciated his help and those who were taking advantage of him. Urban found Udo too gullible. He was convinced that Udo's main fear had gotten too strong and that it unduly reduced Udo's ability to assert his qualities. Urban was knowledgeable enough about types to realize that Udo was a SUPPORTER type, whose

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main motivation is liking. Udo appreciates the world around him and likes everything in it. He loves nature and all living things it contains and he likes to help others. The main fear of Udo's type is attachment. It had taken Urban quite a while to understand what that meant. He learned that SUPPORTERS are born "wooer" types, but what happens is that they tend to live for others and even live the lives of others. For instance, they may like someone's family so much that they forget about starting their own. They have great virtues that come naturally to them and that other types should practice intentionally, such as personal warmth and the ability to accept this difficult life, and most particularly to accept others and to help others, as well as the ability to find pleasure in the small comforts and familiar routines of everyday existence. Those virtues are in short supply, but in the case of the SUPPORTER they can turn into personal obstacles or shortcomings, as they cause the SUPPORTER to become fearful of getting attached. The way it works is as follows. Being lovers of small comforts, SUPPORTERS tend to be satisfied with what they've got. Even if a SUPPORTER knows there are better things to enjoy, he prefers to continue his present enjoyments more than the time and effort it would take to make a change. He considers his cup at least half full and is afraid of losing the enjoyments this provides for him. If the food is not all that good, he will say "at least we are not starving". If the living quarters are rather poor, he will think "but it's home". Even if he doesn't

— Udo the "Wooer" St-Bernard —

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really like what he is doing all that much, he likes to continue doing it more than he likes the effort it would take to make a change. If he doesn't really like the role he plays in his team, he might respond "at least I am well accepted and that makes me feel comfortable". The SUPPORTER likes to languish and enjoy rather than to be active. In his thinking, getting attached too strongly to something or somebody new might upset things. When the SUPPORTER does get involved, it is usually not on his own initiative, but because he wants to please someone or to render a service. Every type's main fear starts as a protective mechanism designed to provide adequate opportunities to satisfy one's main motivation. The fear of attachment of the SUPPORTER is a fear of taking too strong a liking to something new or someone new, because he is justifiably concerned that he might put at risk the little everyday enjoyments and comforts that he already has. His type needs those comforts. Udo, in his work for the committee, was incapable of making use of this protective mechanism. He went overboard with providing help to individuals in need. He did not protect the personal time he needed for everyday comforts, and he put his health at risk. He ignored the balance he needed as a SUPPORTER type. When a SUPPORTER manages to maintain a reasonable balance, he is able to protect his own time and peace of mind and to provide help and assistance

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to others without being taken advantage of. The absence of balance in a SUPPORTER manifests itself in one of two ways. Some SUPPORTERS who are not in sufficient balance suppress their fear of attachment and yield totally to the urge to help. They become unable to say "no", take on too much, neglect their need to quietly enjoy the little everyday comforts, let others take advantage of them, and they eventually suffer a breakdown of their health. That's what happened to Udo. Other SUPPORTERS who lack balance will yield totally to the fear of attachment and try to find total satisfaction from their little enjoyments and comforts. They become neglectful, negligent, and resistant to change. They function in a kind of vegetative state, paying only superficial attention to the needs of others. Thinking back and recalling some of Udo's more typical behaviors, Urban found that life in the free zoo had been harder for Udo than for his brother Casimir. Before being in the free zoo, Udo had been more dependent on people's kind attention than Casimir. And while the other animals liked the two Saint Bernard brothers and protected them well in the free zoo, the wild animals were not as kind and attentive to the Saint Bernards as the zoo keepers had been. Urban knew that Udo was missing some of those gestures of kindness that he used to receive from the zoo keepers, most of whom liked Udo for his gentle and helping nature. It seemed to Urban that Udo was now bending backward to earn the

— Udo the "Wooer" St-Bernard —

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attention of the other animals, and he was ready to do anything asked of him. He did not seem to be aware that some were clearly taking advantage of his good nature. Urban found that Udo was not being assertive enough, unable to say "no", and too much of a follower. This made Udo incapable of making good use of his relationship strength, that of not only helping others but also of asserting himself in relationship matters and of advising others on such matters. Udo was a secret admirer of Urban. He was amazed at how easily Urban handled crowds, how well he put his ideas across with his ease of expression and his charm. What impressed him most was that Urban never allowed others to get the better of him. Urban seemed able somehow to sense when an individual was harboring hidden motives or was insincere in some other way and he was able to deal effectively with such an individual. Urban and Udo got to talking about types one day after Urban had been challenged by another fox. That fox had criticized Urban's recommendations about improving the way the different groups cache the surplus food near their denning area, to be eaten later. Urban was head of the FCC, the Food Cache Committee, mandated exclusively to deal with this important aspect of the food supply. The challenger maintained that Urban's recommendations were incomplete and should be voted down, because they should include ideas about the types of food the groups should hunt for. He argued that Urban

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interpreted the description of his committee's responsibilities in too narrow a fashion. According to him, the type of food to hunt for was covered in that description, and he proposed that Urban prepare a new report in which this other aspect was included. Urban knew that if one stretched the meaning of the description of responsibilities, one could make a case for inclusion of the kind of food to hunt for. But he was convinced that the committee already had its hands full and was unable to assume the suggested new responsibilities. There were many groups represented on the committee and the committee members were already spending inordinate amounts of time consulting with the groups and helping them to organize their own research. It just was not reasonable for the committee to accept any new tasks. By skillfully outlining the recommendations in his report and the scope of activities of the committee, Urban proved to all present that the question of the type of food to hunt for must be considered as something entirely different and should be looked at by a new committee. Urban succeeded admirably in making sure that the challenger's proposal met with a resounding "no" when the time came to vote. After observing the whole episode, Udo congratulated Urban for his talent of presenting a polished and effective refusal to an unreasonable request. Udo added that he wished he could express such an effective "no" when the situation requires it.

— Udo the "Wooer" St-Bernard —

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Because of the empathy he felt for Udo, Urban was happy to connect with Udo about the subject of one's talent and stated: "Thanks, Udo. Dealing effectively with unreasonable requests comes natural to me because, as you know, expressing ideas effectively is the main motivation of my type, the INNOVATOR. Your main motivation being that of liking, you like to do things for others, to be helpful to others, and sometimes you do this to a fault. I know from observing you that learning to be assertive and to say "no" when required would be of great value to you. Perhaps I could work with you so that you could practice this skill." Udo was pleased and said: "I would really like that. I think learning to 'be assertive and able to say no' is a good way of putting it. I occasionally get remarks to the effect that I let others take advantage of me or even 'walk all over' me. I often have a hard time saying "no" when I should say "no". Also, I let others change my mind when I shouldn't. I don't know why I do that." Urban replied: "That's exactly the right question to ask: Why do I act the way I do? I say that's the right question to ask because we both have learned that every type's main motivation is accompanied by a main fear. And it is when this fear grows too prominent that we experience difficulties in asserting our qualities. Your question will help identify what your main fear is. Are you with me, Udo?"

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Udo reacted by saying: "Of course, Urban. I forgot to fall back on my knowledge of types! I use that knowledge when I try to help others and I neglect it when it comes to dealing with my own problems. It is now obvious to me that my main fear, that of attachment, has played tricks on me. I have not used my fear of attachment as a protection of my need to enjoy everyday comforts, which is a necessity for my type. Instead, I have ignored that need and overused my emotional urge to help others. That urge seems to have taken the form of an almost desperate attempt to get approval from others. I am trying to please at all costs which diminishes my ability to provide genuine help. I must keep in mind that providing genuine help includes refusing requests that are inappropriate, or setting an individual straight when he is mistaken, unreasonable or simply tries to take advantage of me. That's the explanation, isn't it?" Urban: "You got it!" Udo: "Now I need to go about trying to adjust my behavior. Where do I start?" Urban: "That depends on what is, in your own view, your most pressing undesired behavior at this time. You know what the SUPPORTER'S negative tendencies are of two kinds: either showing a lack of concern, being neglectful, negligent, accepting the status quo and resisting change, or being a follower instead of being assertive, and being unable to say no. Which of these applies to you most?"

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Udo: "I see what you mean. I think my priority is that of not being assertive enough, unable to say no. I'll set as a goal to be more assertive. Can you help me make that goal concrete and measurable?" Urban: "Let's see. Are there situations, or was there a situation in the recent past, when it was most important that you be assertive and you failed to do so?" Udo did not have to reflect for long and immediately told Urban about the breakdown of his health after he failed to refuse new tasks given to him by Abner. He added: "I guess what's most important for me at this time is to learn to say "no" whenever appropriate". Urban: "Exactly. Now, you already know how to set a goal and follow up on it. You also know that none of us can change overnight. You need to set a goal that is both a stretch goal and an achievable one". Udo: "Yes, you're right. I know it won't be an easy task. And I know that in order to succeed with this goal I need to be reasonable in my initial expectations about the number of times I will succeed with my new behavior. I will set myself a success rate of 50 % for the first week." Both Urban and Udo were happy about the conclusion of their exchange. Udo felt better about himself and about his future involvement with others, and Urban was looking forward to seeing Udo become more able to say "no" and more assertive in defending his type's needs.

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As time passed, Udo succeeded beyond all expectations. He went on to become not only the chief of the IGRC, replacing Abner, but also the chief advisor to all group committees on matters of individual and collective compensation and rewards. Incidentally, other group leaders of Abner's ilk also got replaced by individuals who were not as boastfully vain, as full of pride, and as paternalistic. Udo would be called in frequently to discuss a group's compensation policy or to explain its intricacies, such as how to weigh the benefits going to the one killing a prey as against those for the one carrying home the carcass over a long distance. He was also much sought after for advice on coaching team leaders on how to deal with individuals who had stubborn morale problems, for instance in the case of those who felt demotivated because they were inept at hunting, since being an effective hunter was a basic requirement in the free zoo. Udo managed to do all this because he had learned to judge correctly when to say "no" and how to do it effectively. This allowed him to delegate better and to protect his personal time so he could enjoy the little everyday comforts that are important to his type, the SUPPORTER.

— Udo the "Wooer" St-Bernard —

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CHAPTER 6 URBAN THE "WOOER" FOX
Urban's career in the free zoo was never in jeopardy. He was not only a born idea producer, but also a highly appreciated presenter, performer and entertainer. However, he was always plagued by selfdoubt, a frequent characteristic of his type, the INNOVATOR. Despite the approval and acclamation he usually received, he always had doubts as to whether he was really liked. He was also afraid of being left out or abandoned. After a presentation or a performance he would often leave early rather than stay on, because he wanted to avoid the possibility that others might start leaving before him and abandon him. Whenever Urban got involved in a discussion, he had to have the last word for fear of losing control over the subject and of letting someone else's idea dominate. Urban knew from the reactions of others that there were those who did not appreciate this aspect of his behavior. He had a hard time coping with that because in his view, he had to be careful about individuals with ulterior motives,

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individuals who were looking to control things and take over the spot light. His friend Ernest, a fox belonging to the PLANNER type, had told Urban recently to "lighten up". It happened after a public debate which Ernest attended as an observer. A proposal was presented which was critical of a recommendation made by Urban. True to his type, Urban skillfully manoeuvred against the other proposal, even though it was basically well thought out. The proposal contained only minor shortcomings, but Urban failed to acknowledge any of its merits and exaggerated the importance of its minor flaws. After the discussion, when talking to Ernest about it, Urban complained that the other presenter was not only a weak debater but was also unwilling to admit the flaws in his proposal. Ernest knew, of course, that Urban was not only a "wooer fox" and that he had charm and a quick mind, but that he had a pronounced fear of lack of control. Urban always had to be right and always had to have the last word. Urban often did have bright ideas and many times his ideas proved to be superior to those of others. But this was by no means always the case, and Ernest found that Urban's strong fear of not being in control sometimes made Urban behave in a rather obnoxious manner. Ernest felt that it behooved on him as a good friend to confront Urban head on about this matter. Ernest responded as follows to Urban's complaints about the other presenter:

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"Urban, you need to lighten up." Urban resented that remark, even though he valued Ernest's friendship. Since he didn't want to lose Ernest whom he knew to be a serious minded and fair individual, he did not say anything. Ernest, noticing that Urban's feelings were hurt, continued as follows: "Look, Urban, we've been friends for a long time and I think you will agree that we should be frank with each other. We have talked before about the tendencies of different types of individuals and we have reviewed together both your type and mine." Urban: "You mean I am not being objective in this case?" Ernest: "Well, listen to yourself. You are criticizing the minor aspects of your opponent's proposal, the lack of polish in his presentation and the slight imperfections of some of the details. But when you look at the fundamental arguments in the proposal, the ideas behind them are sound, and you should have acknowledged them in front of everyone." They reviewed together the main ideas in the opponent's proposal, after which Urban said: "I guess you are right, Ernest. I wasn't being fair to the presenter. I don't know why I did that." Ernest replied: "Maybe you and I should talk about that. I might be able to help you to find the answer to your question". Urban was eager to get Ernest's help.

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Ernest continued: "You must realize that most of us who were at the debate admire you for your skills and your charm as a speaker. Nevertheless, there were some, and I was among them, who were not comfortable to see you trying to take unfair advantage of a presenter less skilled than you." Urban: "Is that really the impression I gave? It wasn't my intention to take advantage of the presenter. I just wanted to point out the improvements required in his proposal." Ernest: "Let's be frank, Urban. You are the INNOVATOR type, and as you know, all types have a main fear that pushes them to act in an unbalanced fashion, which action they then try to justify, and that's what you are doing right now". Urban: "Hold on a minute, Ernest! What am I trying to justify? You will agree that the proposal I am criticizing was poorly presented and needed corrections." Ernest: "You are still doing it! You are trying to justify your failure to acknowledge the basic soundness of your opponent's proposal. You are focusing on matters of secondary importance, while ignoring the most important aspect of the proposal." Urban: "All right, it's an oversight. I assumed everybody realized that the proposal was basically sound. I guess I am a stickler for detail." Ernest: "Urban, you are doing it again! Even with me you are trying to manoeuvre your way to maintaining control. Urban, I am your friend, and I don't want to have a long and unpleasant argument

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with you on this matter. Will you listen to me attentively, without interrupting me, while I explain to you how I see it? If not, we'll just drop the matter." Urban realized that his friend was serious and he remembered that on a similar occasion Ernest had "dropped the matter", after which their relationship had cooled off and had remained cool for a long period. Urban did not want this to happen now, and he replied: "I'm listening." Ernest: "You have got to realize, Urban, that your main fear, the fear of lack of control, plays tricks on you. When you feel strongly that your idea should win, which happens often, you will skillfully manipulate statements on both sides. Unfortunately, because of your skill and your charm you often succeed in convincing others of the correctness of your deceptive conclusions. You may not realize that you are doing this. Justifying or rationalizing what we do is something we all practice. Each type has his own way of rationalizing its main tendency or main feature. Each one of us tends to rationalize or justify our incorrect actions when they are caused by our main fear. Are you with me on this, Urban?" Urban: "What you are saying is that my fear of lack of control caused me to unconsciously try and convince the audience that my proposal is better, no matter what was stated in the other proposal, and that therefore I felt the other proposal did not need not be examined properly and should be dismissed out of hand."

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Ernest: "That's putting it very bluntly; but yes, that's about the size of it. The question is, can you admit to this?" Urban: "I am starting to understand what is meant by "tendency to manipulate" in the description of my type. I feel it's quite an insidious thing, because it comes so natural to me when trying to defend my point of view. My problem seems to be not knowing when to stop defending my point of view." Ernest: "Remember the exercises in active listening that we practiced in our study of types? Active listening might be the best way for you to learn to know when to stop sticking to your idea, because active listening forces you to examine the other person's idea closely." Urban: "OK. Let's see. In active listening the first thing I have to do is respond to the other party by stating in my own words how I understand the other party's position. I then wait for the reaction. If the reaction is in the affirmative, I know I have understood the other party's position. At that point I can start comparing the merits of that position with my own position. How am I doing?" Ernest: "You are doing just fine. Putting the other party's message in your own words and feeding it back to the other party will make you focus on the other party's point of view." Urban: "What about my comparison of the other party's position with my own? How do I insure that my comparison is objective?"

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Ernest: "Your objectivity will be increased by the next step of active listening. That step is having the other party feed back to you, in their own words, what you have stated as being your position. This will give you the opportunity to re-think your own point of view. You are likely to become more objective after doing that." Urban: "I can see that. But the problem with discussions in a public forum is that it would be awkward to ask the other party to repeat my position." Ernest: "Yes, of course, unless the situation lends itself to it, such as when you know that the other party is familiar with the technique of active listening, which is the case with most of our groups. If this is not the case, the second best approach would be for you to say something like this: 'Now that we both agree on the correct interpretation of your proposal, please allow me to restate the proposal that I have presented so that we can agree on its interpretation.' That should give you an opportunity for greater objectivity." Urban: "Agreed. Now I guess I need to set some goals, so that I can start with some specific situations where it would be best to practice active listening. I will also track the results I am able to achieve." Ernest: "Excellent. I suggest you define those situations right now, while you are close to the subject. And don't forget to aim for reasonable scores rather than perfect ones. If in the beginning

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you succeed half of the time, you should feel good about that and congratulate yourself for it. You can aim for higher scores once you start exceeding the 50 % level. And remember, doing this will be of great benefit to you. You are a popular individual, and you will be liked and appreciated even more once you have reduced your annoying tendency to be overbearing and even manipulative. Others know that you are very smart, and they will think that you are even smarter if you do not try to be right all the time." Urban got the message. He started applying himself in very serious fashion. In the first week he was very unsure of himself, and he told Ernest about that difficulty. They agreed that instead of trying to change his behavior immediately, Urban would take a couple of weeks to only observe what was happening in the situations he had identified. He would then review the situation each time after the fact to find out whether or not he had been trying too hard to keep control. After the first two weeks, he was able to apply the active listening technique only some of the time, and only during the sixth week was he able to achieve 50 % success, and not without repeated meetings with Ernest who had him adjust his goal as he went along. It was a long haul, but Urban's efforts paid off and his reputation as an outstanding speaker kept spreading. It also greatly reduced Urban's self-doubts, and his energy level increased.

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As an INNOVATOR with a very quick and inquiring mind, Urban continued to demonstrate a keen interest in the most diverse subjects. He continued to make his ideas known and to defend them, but he was more objective in doing so because he had succeeded in turning his fear of lack of control into a protective mechanism. That means that Urban was less afraid that inferior ideas of others would replace his. He realized that the ideas of others are often just as good as, and sometimes even better than, his own. He took note when this was the case and made sure to acknowledge, praise and support such ideas. As a result, Urban was constantly being consulted for new ideas and regularly invited as a debater, presenter and entertainer. He had become about the most popular individual in the free zoo, someone others were inquiring about when they planned an important meeting or a social function. As a team leader, Urban spared no effort to bring his team up-to-date on all issues. As soon as a new idea, a new method, a better way of doing things came up, he would introduce changes in the team's way of doing things. He was convinced that whenever something better came along, the old must immediately be replaced by the new. This worked well for a while, but Urban noticed that his team started to be less and less enthusiastic about the changes that he was introducing. Something was wrong. He mentioned the situation to Ernest. Ernest knew that INNOVATORS who are team leaders can be so fond of change that they forget that

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teams need time to adapt to change. He explained to Urban that a team is composed of a number of different types of individuals who have to learn to work together. They need to develop a rhythm in their collective functioning. If a previous change has not yet been fully assimilated into that team rhythm, the team will find it hard to understand the benefits of a new change and will feel uneasy about it. They will sense a lack of continuity, a lack of stability. Some team members will feel that it's hard to know which way to turn. They want time to become familiar and comfortable with the existing method or procedure or equipment, otherwise they cannot see the benefits of the proposed change. The leader who is an INNOVATOR tends to forget that different types of individuals working together cannot change as quickly as an INNOVATOR working alone. He must make sure the team is ready for the change he is contemplating, otherwise the change will be counterproductive. Urban understood what Ernest was saying, but no matter how hard he tried over the weeks and months, he always had the feeling that his team was too slow in adapting to change. He suggested to Ernest that the best thing might be to make his team a pure INNOVATOR team. He would keep only INNOVATORS, transfer all other types to other teams and recruit INNOVATORS from the other teams. Ernest did not want to reject the suggestion out of hand and proposed to put it on the agenda of the team leaders' meeting. He felt that it would be

— Urban the "Wooer" Fox —

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better for Urban to have all team leaders give their reaction to the idea rather than get only Ernest's views. He recalled that Urban had already talked about an INNOVATOR team during training with Aislin, and everybody had understood quickly why teams composed of only one type were not a good idea. Perhaps for Urban the matter was not handled in sufficient depth at that time. In Urban's mind, a team made up exclusively of INNOVATORS would necessarily be less problematic than any other team, whether a mixed team or one composed exclusively of members belonging to a type other than INNOVATOR. INNOVATORS don't let go of their ideas easily! Urban was quite happy to discuss his suggestion with the other team leaders. He couldn't help being stimulated by this opportunity to convince his colleagues of his brilliant idea. Ernest went to see Aislin to get his help in preparing for the meeting. He pointed out that he felt Urban's suggestion needed to be treated in depth, otherwise Urban would automatically prolong the meeting and try to control the discussion or even manipulate it to get the conclusions he wanted. After evaluating the situation, Aislin and Urban agreed to organize a role play that would clearly illustrate the difficulties a team composed exclusively of INNOVATORS would encounter. The exercise worked out beautifully. Here is how it went. Aislin asked Urban to participate in a role play and act as one of a team of six INNOVATORS, the

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other five team leaders acting also as INNOVATORS. In other words, Udo, Casimir, Leo, Eden, Ernest, and Urban all acted as members of the same team of INNOVATORS. Before the meeting, they were asked to review the tendencies of the INNOVATOR, so they could all act out those tendencies effectively during role play. Aislin acted as the team leader. He started by asking the team to effect a change in their method of work. It was the same change that Urban had talked about to Ernest. He asked Urban to be the first to state his views. Well! Everyone had a better idea than the other team members. Urban's presentation was, of course, well-prepared and well-delivered. After all, he had been the originator of the proposed change. He had all the arguments and was at his charming best. The other members of the hypothetical team, making sure to act as inveterate INNOVATORS, did not let themselves be impressed by Urban, their INNOVATOR colleague. They all agreed that a change was necessary (as INNOVATORS are apt to do) but they couldn't agree on the nature of the change. As is likely to happen among INNOVATORS, they each had a better idea and each made sure to defend his idea to the fullest. As they had been instructed by Aislin, they worked hard during role play to find good points of improvement over the ideas put forth by the other members. In the end, many of the ideas had a lot of merit, but each INNOVATOR wanted his idea to be the chosen one. The team could not come to an agreement, even

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though the role play lasted for over an hour. It should be noted that, as instructed, the participants did not take this as just a game, but as serious role play designed to illustrate an important principle about how types function. They effectively demonstrated the kind of difficulty a team composed exclusively of INNOVATORS would have if they tried to reach agreement. Urban got the point and thanked his colleagues for the demonstration. He did add that he thought they had sometimes exaggerated the INNOVATOR'S behavior, but then he admitted that at other times a real INNOVATOR could have been even more adroit in defending his ideas than they had been. When Urban and Ernest met the next day, Urban took the initiative to review the role play. They had a good laugh about it all and Urban said that he now understood clearly that it was not a good idea to aim at teams composed of one type only. Mixed teams are best. He saw that his role as a team leader was to take into account the motivations and fears of every type in the team and to allow the team a certain time to consider and assimilate change so that they could maintain a sense of continuity. Urban established a check list of steps to go through before introducing any change to his team. They included verification of the degree of familiarity the team had developed with the existing routine and of their level of understanding and acceptance of the reasons for the proposed change. Before meeting with the team he would also review each team

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member's motivations and fears according to type, in order to take these into account when discussing proposed changes with them.

— Urban the "Wooer" Fox —

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CHAPTER 7 ERNEST THE "DOER" FOX
During the prolonged period when he worked closely with Urban to help him progress toward his goals, Ernest frequently thought of his own main motivation and main fear and asked himself what he could do to reduce his unbalance. As he himself had pointed out to Urban, every type is unbalanced by nature, although the unbalance is different for each type. He knew that no blame should be attached to the individual for his unbalance of type, as that unbalance is inborn and has to do in part with such things as the glands that are dominant in a person. For instance, the production of adrenaline by the adrenal glands is quickest and strongest in the IDEALIST type, and this conditions the quickness and the intensity of his responses. Being a PLANNER type, Ernest decided to examine his main motivation (truth) and his main fear (mental confusion) and to see how and to what extent he manifested his type's unbalance. He knew that in the PLANNER, this unbalance translates into the tendency to go overboard in analyzing and

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planning things. Getting all the facts is something the PLANNER finds necessary in order to feel that he has the whole truth and that he has avoided any possible confusion. Ernest realized that in his own case, when he analyzed too much he usually slowed down things unnecessarily. He decided to set a goal to gain greater control of this tendency. He wanted to develop his goal in methodical fashion, which is the way of the PLANNER. He proceeded to review all the ways in which he had been trying too hard in the past to get to the absolute truth. He ended up describing to himself over thirty past events in which he, directly or indirectly, seemed to have been spending too much time in accumulating facts in order to avoid mental confusion. One of the over thirty occasions where Ernest thought he had been too concerned with getting all the answers, or pushing too hard to get to the whole truth, happened about six months following the opening of the free zoo. His team had asked him to form a small committee whose task was to examine the new environment and find all the food sources in the new surroundings, including the adjacent areas outside the territory of the free zoo, which might have been ignored for one reason or another. Ernest set up a committee that reported to him within a week, giving full details about the type of food that was available, including mice, vole, fruit, berries, other vegetation, insects, young deer, wild boar, rabbits and other animals. They concluded that all food sources were being tapped. They added that the

— Ernest the "Doer" Fox —

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only improvement in connection with food might be to find a way to store more food for later consumption. Despite the fact that the committee members were unanimous in their report, Ernest worried that they might not have been systematic enough in their study. In his mind, they didn't seem to have presented 'the whole truth'. He divided up the committee into four 'sub-committees of one' and asked each member to observe specific food sources only. One member was asked to observe only rodents, another only deer, wild boar and rabbits and other animals, still another all fruits and berries, and the last one all edible young trees, shrubs, herbs and other vegetation. All four members protested that they had looked at everything and that the conclusion was obvious. Ernest insisted, giving members another week to report on their specific observations. A week later, Ernest presided over a long meeting, getting a detailed account of each member's findings. At the end of the meeting, Ernest thanked them for their work and asked them to come back in two days for another meeting where he would discuss his own conclusions with them. Once he and the committee would reach consensus, he would report the conclusions to a meeting of the entire team the week after. Well, Ernest's consensus meeting with his committee turned out to be a very laborious one. Not only did Ernest rehash all the details already reported by committee members in the previous

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meeting, but he asked detailed questions about the information that had been provided. As the meeting dragged on, Ernest realized that the members of the committee were not only getting restless, but they were showing signs of annoyance by pointing out that the new details Ernest was unearthing with his many questions did not contribute in any way to decision making but tended to create confusion in everyone's mind. To save face, all Ernest could do at this point was to start reviewing the conclusions the committee had originally presented to him. He justified the exercise by saying that it is always good to double check one's findings, and he thanked the committee for their painstaking work. The consensus that was reached added nothing to the original conclusions of the committee. Only the wording was slightly different. In order to show that something was accomplished, Ernest elaborated on the committee's suggestion about more storage of food for later consumption. He stated that he was adding to the list of new projects the examination of the way the food caches were being prepared. When the meeting was finally concluded, committee members looked at each other with a sigh of relief. After the meeting they were complaining to each other about the needless delay of too extra weeks and the additional long meeting before coming to the same conclusion they had initially presented. The complaints did eventually reach Ernest through

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the grapevine, and he realized that his insistence to get more facts had been misplaced. You will recall that the above experience was only one of over thirty experiences Ernest had remembered as examples of when he might have been overly analytical. Ernest decided to go through those experiences once again in order to see what type of goal he could formulate that would best help him to control the fear of mental confusion. He ended up defining an average of three different goals for each experience. He now had over a hundred possible goals. Ernest knew that he needed to start with one goal and he found it very difficult to narrow down his choice. He decided to sleep on it, hoping that the next day he would be more clear-headed and able to decide more easily. That night Ernest had a hard time falling asleep. His goal options swirled around in his head and he wondered whether the next day he would come to a decision after reviewing all his goals once more. He decided, well into the night, to be positive about it, and he finally fell asleep. Waking up next morning he started wondering whether his method of evaluating the question of his main motivation and main fear had been exhaustive enough. He decided that he needed to get some input from others, from individuals who knew him and who could advise him. He figured that the opinion of three individuals would be a minimum. He sat down to review all the possible individuals to consult. He had many names but only one individual he found

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worthwhile consulting: Leo the lion. Ernest made up his mind to meet with Leo right away and to see afterward who else there was. He respected Leo for his ability to decide quickly. He thought that Leo not only made fast decisions, but that most of the time his decisions were also very good ones. Leo simply had the IDEALIST's knack for making quick quality decisions. Leo was pleased to hear from Ernest. He had asked Ernest on several occasions to analyze projects for him and to plan for their execution. He found Ernest a very capable analyst and planner. Ernest's drawback was that he found it difficult to know when to stop analyzing. In the very first assignment Leo had given Ernest, Leo had to put a stop to Ernest's overly analytical and slow approach, because it created unnecessary delays. Leo knew the tendency of PLANNERS to want to cover all the angles, which is good in some cases and unjustified in many others. He also knew that PLANNERS belong to the "doer" types, but that often their "doing" is concentrated too much on analysis. He recognized the difference between the interest in details of the PARTNER and that of the PLANNER. The PARTNER tends to be fascinated by details and may get lost in them, forgetting the overall picture. The PLANNER always looks for the overall picture, and he wants as much detail as possible to get an accurate overall picture. Leo had reached an understanding with Ernest that before undertaking any project, he and Ernest would agree on the amount of time and

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effort it was reasonable to invest in analysis and in planning. When Ernest approached him with his project of a personal behavior goal, Leo smiled at the thoroughness with which Ernest explained his behavior-improvement challenge. When Ernest told him about his over hundred goals to choose from, Leo couldn't hold back his feelings of impatience and he let go of the following quip: "How can you waste this much valuable time!" He looked at Ernest and saw that he did not appreciate the gibe. Leo added: "Seriously, Ernest, you and I have worked together repeatedly on limiting unnecessary analysis for various projects, and you should have been aware that you were overdoing it in this case. You have over-analyzed more than I have ever seen you overanalyze. You could have asked me before going into all this review and I would have told you off the bat what your type-related problem is as well as how to try to correct it." Ernest: "It is true that you know me as well as anyone does, but I had to do my own thinking on the subject. This is not just any project. It has to do with changing the way I function, and I simply needed to go into it in greater depth than I would have to for some other subject." Leo: "We have talked several times about your fear of mental confusion and how it pushes you to try to get to the absolute truth no matter what it takes. There are two things you did not take into account in this case. First, there is no such thing as

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the absolute truth, especially in this matter. Much of it is a question of personal judgment. Second, outlining so many goal options does the opposite of what you were aiming at, which is clarity. Instead, all these possibilities create confusion which requires an inordinate amount of unnecessary additional time and effort to resolve. That means that in situations like this you need to trust your gut feeling more than anything else." Ernest: "Even if you are right about this, I don't know how to go about trusting my gut feeling in this case. It seems to me that I must make an analysis of some kind." Leo: "Your analysis in this case is simple. All you need to do is find the answers to two simple questions. Knowing already that you want to put a check on your fear of mental confusion, the first question to ask yourself is this: In what situation has the fear of mental confusion seemed to be most bothersome, or most unnecessary, or most inappropriate recently? The second question is: What action can I take to limit my tendency to over-analyze in such situations?" Seeing Ernest in an appropriately reflective state, Leo continued: "Try to answer the first question right now: In what recent situation did the fear of mental confusion seem most unnecessary? And remember, I said 'seem most unnecessary', because this is not something scientific but something more subjective, something where you want to know how you feel about it."

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Ernest related to Leo his experience with the committee he led in the exploration of the sources of food in the surrounding area. He said he realized that after the committee reported their unanimous findings, his fear of mental confusion was most unnecessary. He said he knew now that his insistence on a new round of research by sub-teams had been a waste of time and effort. Leo: "Excellent example. You answered the first question by identifying the situation in which the fear of mental confusion seemed most unnecessary. Now to the second question: What action can you take to learn not to over-analyze in similar situations?" Ernest: "I guess it's the same thing that we agreed upon for the projects I have been doing for you. I need to ask myself in each case how much analysis is required or justified." Leo: "Exactly. You have to apply the same rule to all questions, including personal matters such as your personal goal of behavior improvement. In other words, you have to decide in each case whether to do a formal analysis or not, and if you do require a formal analysis, how much time and effort it is reasonable to invest in the analysis. Because of your strong tendency to overdo analysis, you need to be disciplined in defining and in respecting those limits. Suppose you say to yourself that all you need is to quickly review things, you have to then be specific and define what 'quickly' means. Suppose it means two minutes. You must now make sure that you make your decision after at most two minutes. Or if

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you conclude that you can justify a formal analysis, but that you must not take more than two days for the analysis, you must time yourself and respect that limit." Ernest: "You are right. I will set myself as a goal that before starting to carry out any analysis, I will first answer the question: how much analysis is justified? I will then set my limits and make sure that I respect them." Leo: "You got it. Let's review together in a week's time how often you remembered to do this verification before starting an analysis. As you know, you will need to track yourself daily, since you have usually more than one opportunity each day to analyze one situation or another. And let's start with a 50 % success rate as an initial goal, which is the same that we set when you started this very technique in the preparation of analyses for my projects." Ernest agreed and was confident that he would reach the 50 % success rate in the first week because of his successful experience with the work projects he had carried out for Leo. Knowing the thoroughness of Ernest, Leo was just as convinced that Ernest would do well. The optimism of the two friends was vindicated in practice. Ernest succeeded 60 % of the time in the first week and after a while he made it a habit to evaluate the need for analysis each time he was thinking of undertaking one. He learned to turn his fear of mental confusion into a protective

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mechanism, which means that he was able to determine ahead of time when an in-depth analysis was required and when such an analysis was unnecessary or superfluous. He went on to become a highly effective decision maker. He was soon voted team leader of the year. Various teams kept calling on him to look at projects and ideas. Because of his skills to plan and to organize, in addition to his analytical expertise, Ernest was soon elected Planning Director for all teams. His opinion became to be regarded by the vast majority as the decisive opinion in matters that were of interest to all teams. The chart on the next page summarizes the characteristics of Ernest the PLANNER.

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If at the outset you selected the Fox as your animal, this is the time for you to decide which of the two Foxes is more like you, Urban or Ernest. If you are not absolutely sure of your choice, don't worry. You should keep in mind that you do not possess the characteristics of only one type, since all types have certain traits in common and some individuals possess quite a few traits of some of the other types. More about this later. Your task at the moment is to determine which one of the two FOXES has the most numerous or most marked of your characteristics. Tick off your choice below: /__/ URBAN /__/ ERNEST

CHAPTER 8 REVIEW OF FUNDAMENTALS BY ERNEST AND LEO
Ernest frequently met with Leo to review type fundamentals. He kept learning from Leo how to make quick decisions when required. He had found Leo more and more knowledgeable about types ever since Eden had helped Leo to improve his relationship skills. As a matter of fact, Leo had been calling regular study sessions where mutual coaching skills for all types were discussed. Leo was promoting the idea that all types can help each other to function better and that every individual who did so would greatly benefit himself. This was a very welcome idea to Ernest because Leo's idea was based on the principle that you will know yourself better if you improve your knowledge of the other types. Ernest always liked to see the big picture, and Leo had cut through the many details to present a clear overall approach to the study of types. During the sessions, he would require that every participant always look at all six classic types before

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setting a personal behavior goal. In this way, participants learned gradually to see their own problems in the context of all six classic types, which helped them to understand in what way the different types are "all in the same boat". As each was able to see how their own tendencies and those of others were related to type, participants developed a more open, more forgiving, more tolerant attitude to each other, enabling them to more readily help and encourage each other. During his last private meeting with Leo, Ernest said that he found it remarkable that Leo, who was a lion, could understand so well an individual like Ernest who, after all, was a fox. Leo replied: "You must keep in mind a fundamental principle we learned about types, and that is that all types have three important functions or intelligences in common: the BODY INTELLIGENCE, the HEART INTELLIGENCE, and the MIND INTELLIGENCE. We are all alike in that respect. What makes us different is the order of priority in which we use the three functions or intelligences." Leo continued: "BODY types, such as Eden and I, are dominated by our BODY intelligence, so we like to do things and we like to deal with things more than we like to deal with feelings or with theories. This does not mean that we have no feelings and are incapable of examining theories. HEART types, such as Udo and Casimir, being dominated by the HEART intelligence, tend to be dominated by

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feelings and emotions more than by things and theories, and MIND types, like you and Urban, are dominated by the MIND intelligence, and you are therefore motivated by ideas and theories more than by things and emotions." Ernest: "Yes, I need to keep looking at the overall picture. It takes some practice to see the overall picture clearly and to understand the relationships between types. There is one other aspect I want to share with you. Both you and Eden are BODY types and both of you are primarily interested in doing things and in working with things. Yet you are very different from each other." Leo: "Right. We are both BODY types. However, I am the "doer" body type who concentrates on tasks, whereas Eden is the "wooer" body type who concentrates on relationships. The basic difference again lies in the order of priority in which we use our functions or intelligences. Of course, both Eden and I use the BODY function as our first priority, but our second priority is different. Eden's second priority is the HEART intelligence, whereas mine is the MIND intelligence. In the same way, the two MIND types, you and Urban, do not use the same secondary intelligence, and the two HEART types, Casimir and Udo, also use a different secondary intelligence." Leo then reviewed the importance of reminding everyone that one of the most effective ways of selfimprovement is to develop the qualities of the type

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that follows one's own in the direction shown by the arrows on the charts. Ernest agreed, citing his own situation where he was able to learn from Leo who belongs to the type that follows that of Ernest. The chart on the next page summarizes the information Ernest and Leo pulled together about the secondary function or intelligence of each type. The intelligence of first priority is UNDERLINED, that of second priority is in CURSIVE print, and that of third priority is in ORDINARY print. The chart also has the arrows indicating the direction of flow in relationships between types. As stated in Leo's chart in Chapter 2, one can theoretically transcend type and become perfectly balanced by following the arrows from type to type and developing each type's qualities on the way.

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In subsequent meetings, Ernest and Leo reviewed the many other differences between types as well as the many ways in which the different types can learn from each other and help each other. Ernest was struck again and again by Leo's ability to make things clear and simple for everyone. He found that Leo had turned into an exceptional IDEALIST, because he was no longer authoritarian, although firm, no longer aggressive, although assertive, and no longer impatient and violent, although still very much action oriented. Leo had learned to replace his fear of ineffectiveness by a protective mechanism which allowed him to continue using his strength, that of achieving goals, and at the same time to take into consideration needs other than those of task and expediency. He had developed the habit of reminding himself to examine other aspects of leadership, including the need to celebrate successes, the need to include in his presentation of projects things such as how relationships will be affected, how conflicts will be avoided or dealt with, how all ideas will be taken into account, and how planning was done and will be continued. Ernest realized that in large measure it was thanks to Leo's leadership that adaptation to the new environment never stopped progressing and that the generally positive attitudes were such that continuous improvement had become the motto for all groups. All this was due principally to Leo's insistence on developing tolerance and the desire to exchange

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views. Leo achieved this by making sure that all training programs, whether skill training, team training, or leadership training, included teaching about types which is interwoven with the subject matter of each program. The information about types in training programs is aimed at creating an adequate understanding of self and of others in order to provide opportunities for participants to learn from each other and to help each other. This opens their minds to increased communication, reducing personal worries such as those about not being able to express themselves properly and other worries about being perceived wrongly. Working with Leo was very rewarding for Ernest. They worked well together organizing and facilitating regular training sessions which were attended by a steadily increasing number of participants. During one of the review session with Leo, Ernest was working on a revision of the introduction to the study of types in the different programs. Knowing Leo's exceptional ability to simplify and clarify, he asked him: "Leo, could you put in a nutshell what the results are of acquiring a good knowledge of types?" Leo thought for a moment and said that he would put it in the following way: "A good knowledge of types leads to an attitude of openness, tolerance, and readiness for change." Leo added that those gains translate into the following attitude:

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"No matter how good we are, as individuals and as teams, we can always be better and greater." Ernest liked those descriptions and proceeded to include them in the introduction of all programs. He also realized that this was the very attitude required in a successful program of continuous improvement, which was a new program Leo and Ernest were putting together. After launching the revised programs, Ernest and Leo became the team trainers for all teams, in addition to being the leaders of their respective teams. They created an admirable world of animals in a free zoo . . . a zoo that was not a "CRazYZoo!" at all, but a model community, which a growing number of observers and commentators were finding out. This is the end of our story. It need not be the end of what you do with it though, because you have acquired some valuable knowledge about yourself and about the six classic types which you can further develop for your benefit and the benefit of the people around you.

CHAPTER 9 YOUR KNOWLEDGE OF TYPES
If you have followed the story and made your choices, you have reached the following stage in your knowledge of types: 1. You have identified the classic type to which you belong. 2. You have learned how your type is different from the other types. 3. You have a good idea of how each of the six classic types is different from the five other classic types. Some readers, after making the initial choice of animal, eagerly turn to the story of their animal, skipping the stories of the other animals. If that's what you have done, there is no problem, as long as you now go back and read the stories you missed, because different principles or different basic aspects of types were discussed in some stories and not in others. In addition, in order to understand your own type well it is necessary to learn about the other five

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types. Understanding of your type is a gradual process. This understanding grows as you observe not only how you and other persons of your type function, but also how persons belonging to the other types function. At this point, it is necessary that you have a good idea, from reading the entire story, how each of the six classic types is different from the other five types. That basic understanding will help you to continually improve your knowledge of yourself and of others. Your knowledge of classic types and their application in practice will give you a more objective understanding of people and will greatly improve your interaction with all types of individuals. Additional Study As you gain experience with your new knowledge, you will have many questions about those of your behaviors, and behaviors of others, that seem at variance with the classic type descriptions you have learned. As can be seen from the headings that follow, there are a number of additional aspects to the classification by type. They can provide a fuller understanding of people, as each one of those other aspects affects classic type behavior in some way or other. Although this additional information adds complexity to the whole question of classification by type, it in no way invalidates the underlying characteristics of classic types. The simple fact is that nature has provided endless variety in all things

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existing, and human beings are no exception. In the end there are no two persons exactly alike. Depending on the level of interest you have in how people function, you may want to study and apply some or all of the sections that follow. If you have the opportunity and the inclination, you may also want to participate in one or more of the programs and workshops listed at the end of this section under "Practical Training". Essence and Personality In the study of types a distinction is made between the essence of a person and his personality. Your essence is made up of your inborn physical and mental characteristics, including the motivations and fears of the type to which you belong. Those characteristics are the strengths and the weaknesses you possessed at birth. Your personality represents all that you have acquired after birth, either consciously or unconsciously. Personality becomes an asset for the individual when it is based on correct learning, and it is a liability when it is the result of incorrect or faulty learning. Only correct learning can add to a person's balance and lead to harmony between personality and essence. Incorrect learning will result in the domination of personality over essence. No-one can experience healthy growth if his essence and his personality do not evolve in harmony. When personality becomes too strong in

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relation to essence, all kinds of bad results follow. The person becomes less healthy and starts to like things that are bad for him and dislike things that are good for him. Personality is an important part of who we are. Personality is indispensable to survival in society; it helps us to be on our guard and to be socially adept. However, personality is an asset to a person's overall growth only when essence is not being stymied. How can one insure balance in the development of essence and of personality? We have already learned how to improve personal balance through balanced use of the main strength of our type. You will remember that the method involved working on our negative tendencies. Once those tendencies are diminished, we are closer to personal equilibrium and we have encouraged parallel growth of essence and of personality. If we ignore negative tendencies, personality tends to dominate essence. To use an example, let us say that you belong to the INNOVATOR type. Your main motivation would be INTEREST (you are interested in everything, you want to know everything). The main fear accompanying that motivation is LACK OF CONTROL (you are concerned that your ideas might not be listened to sufficiently and that they might be replaced by ideas not as good as yours). The negative tendency fostered by that fear is the habit of WANTING TO HAVE THE LAST WORD. Suppose now that you realize that that's not a good habit, and you decide to reign it in. Let's say your

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effort is successful. You succeed in recognizing the good ideas that others present and you realize that, although you often have the best idea, sometimes the ideas of others are better. By acknowledging this, you demonstrate that you have learned objectively and correctly that while in many cases it is reasonable to defend your own ideas to the end, in some other cases it is proper to recognize and support the ideas of others. Because you have succeeded in this correct manner, you have allowed for parallel growth of your essence and your personality. You have learned to like what is good for you (to recognize the good ideas of others) and to dislike what is bad for you (to always want to be right). Suppose now that in pursuing the same objective, that of reducing your tendency to always want to have the last word, you lack objectivity and you learn incorrectly that you need to always yield immediately to the ideas of others and that you must never defend your own. In acting in that manner, you would be demonstrating that you have learned to like what is bad for you (yield always) and to reject what is good for you (adequately defend your own ideas). In other words, your incorrect learning has allowed the dominance of your personality over your essence. That type of bad learning, or incorrect learning, leading to the dominance by personality, can also occur when a person tries to imitate or borrow qualities of another type. Let us say that in certain situations or certain activities you would like to use a strength or quality you do not possess but you

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recognize in another type. Let's assume it is the ability of the IDEALIST to make DECISIONS QUICKLY yet correctly. You find out that in order to make correct decisions quickly you need to be more SPONTANEOUS and less ANALYTICAL than you normally are. After a certain time, you succeed in your effort. You know you have succeeded because an analysis of the quality of your decisions shows two things: first, despite the greater speed with which you made most of your decisions, the percentage of good decisions has increased; second, in those cases where you decided to make an analysis before deciding, the analysis was in fact necessary. In the above example, you have given evidence of correct learning, because you learned to judge correctly in which case it is necessary to spend time analyzing before making a decision and in which case analysis is superfluous. In other words, you learned to like what's good for you (be more spontaneous) and to reject what's bad for you (abandon all analysis). However, if the evaluation of the quality of your decisions had shown that the percentage of good decisions had diminished, you would know that you are guilty of incorrect learning. A closer evaluation might indicate that you made all your decisions quickly and neglected to analyze when analysis was required. You would have totally neglected the analytical strength of your type by overusing the strength you imitated or borrowed from another

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type. You would have learned to like what is bad for you (no analysis) and reject what is good for you (adequate use of your analytical strength). It goes without saying that imitating or borrowing negative tendencies of other types presents no advantage whatever, which does not mean that it does not happen. On the contrary, it is often easier to copy a negative trait than a positive one. In order to know whether you possess negative tendencies belonging to other types, you need to examine the descriptions of the classic types other than yours. Look at the negative tendencies of the other types (read the comments contained in the NOTE of each type). If you possess one of their negative tendencies, it may be strong enough to present an obstacle to the growth of your essence, making personality dominate over essence. If such were the case, you would need to set a goal to control that tendency. You will note that it is usually easier to control a negative tendency that you have borrowed from another type than to control your main negative tendency belonging to your own type. The reason is that a borrowed tendency is foreign to your nature and less anchored in your subconscious. It is also useful to read the descriptions of the strengths and motivation of the other types and to verify if you are borrowing them correctly. Are you, for one reason or another, trying to do things that suit those types but do not suit you at all? For instance, it is possible that you are trying to "motivate" yourself in the wrong way. You may be

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trying to develop a "personality" that is "too much" for you. Nowadays one can find persons of all types in just about every kind of occupation. Nevertheless, the persons who derive the most authentic satisfaction from their work are those who know themselves and who manage to have a job that suits them perfectly or, failing that, manage to adapt the content of their work to the needs of their type. As an example, suppose that you have just discovered that, despite being a "relationship" type of person, you have accepted an office job which totally lacks relationship content. You accepted the position because pay is good and the position offers you management prestige. Let us say that you now realize that the management prestige is too much of a personality consideration for you. In fact, you can see that by accepting the position you totally ignored the needs of your essence. You are discovering that the frustration and the lack of satisfaction you are experiencing at your job are the result of a lack of contact with people. You must now explore the various ways in which you can change things, starting with the delegation of certain desk duties and the addition of some relationship tasks. If that's not possible, it may become necessary to find a job more suited to your type and essence. In conclusion, when you discover that your personality characteristics are too pronounced, since you would function better if you did not possess them, you need to set objectives that enable you to

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change direction. This will help you to create better balance between the needs of your essence and those of your personality. The improved balance will help you to be continually aware of who you are, of what you are doing and of why you are doing it. Combined Types The grouping of people into six classic types represents a basic and rather general level of classification. Within each classic type, more detailed differentiations can be explored. One of the important differences between persons of any classic type is the amount of influence exerted by neighboring type characteristics. Every classic type has two neighboring types. They are situated next to one's own classic type in the direction of flow between types. They are connected by arrows to one's classic type as shown in the USE OF FUNCTIONS or INTELLIGENCES chart in Chapter 8. Since very few persons are pure classic types, it is quite likely that you belong to one of six combined types. Even though you have TWO neighboring types, only ONE of them combines with your classic type to become your combined type. That means that you share some characteristics of one of your neighboring types more strongly than those of the other neighboring type. The influence of neighbouring types varies. In one person it could be very strong and in another

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very weak. The precise strength or influence can only be known through observation and after having acquired a good understanding of the characteristics of the different types. There are relatively few persons situated exactly at the theoretical midpoint between two types. In most combined types, their basic classic type is dominant and its characteristics govern their behavior more than those of the neighboring types. As well, one of the neighboring types normally has a stronger influence than the other. Your next step will be to decide which of your two neighboring types is stronger. In order to determine your combined type, you need to look at the description of your own classic type in the chart USE OF FUNCTIONS or INTELLIGENCES in Chapter 8. You will see that one of your neighboring types is connected to your classic type by an arrow pointing to your classic type, while the other neighboring type is connected by an arrow going from your classic type to the neighboring type. You need to make a choice now as to which of the two neighboring types is represented more strongly in your make-up. As in your earlier choices, you need to be more spontaneous than analytical in making the choice. You are likely to possess some characteristics of both neighboring types. You need to decide which is stronger. If you find it hard to make up your mind, a good way to arrive at the final decision is to concentrate on the "NOTE" for each neighboring type and underline, among the tendencies listed there, the tendency that

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you find strongest in you, or that bothers you most and that you would like to change most. The neighboring type in which you find that tendency will be the one to associate with your classic type to form your combined type. The name of your combined type will be one of the following six names. 1. Idealist/Inspirator 2. Inspirator/Partner 3. Partner/Supporter 4. Supporter/Innovator 5. Innovator/Planner 6. Planner/Idealist

Because combined types possess a greater variety of characteristics, they are more complex than pure classic types. People often find it harder to understand combined types, and the latter also find it harder to understand themselves. It is important to note that the characteristics of the two types that make up a combined type do not get mixed up in a kind of melting-pot characteristics. Rather, the characteristics of each type will be manifested in alternating fashion, the person being more like one type at some time and more like the other type at another time. The strength and frequency with which the two types manifest themselves varies with their relative weight in your inborn make-up. The Center of Gravity Persons of the same classic type as well as persons belonging to the same combined type can be further differentiated by their center of gravity.

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The four centers or brains or functions Every person possesses four centers or brains or functions which compete with each other for the person's energy. Each center claims to be the true identity of the person within whom it functions. Each center or brain calls itself "I" and attempts to speak for the whole person. None of the centers or functions has any advantage over the others, either as a mode of perception or in terms of the person's chance of developing consciousness. Each has its own correct work. Each of the centers can, and usually does, work alone without connection with the others, even though they are operating simultaneously.

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Human Complexity As stated earlier, human beings, as all things existing, are complex by nature. In the final analysis no two persons are exactly alike. The center of gravity represents only one level of differentiation between individuals. The next level is a sub-division of each center. Each center of gravity is an integral part of the essence and is further divided into three distinct divisions. These divisions are made according to the attention required for the part to operate. At the lowest level of awareness – which is no awareness – are the moving and instinctive parts of each center. Since these two parts work with the same lack of attention and the same speed, the distinction is not important for the average student. The two are therefore treated as one, which is called the mechanical part. Each of the four centers has a mechanical part, and this mechanical part may be primarily moving or primarily instinctive, but operates without attention in either case. The other parts of centers are the emotional and the intellectual parts. The next level is an even finer division within each part of each center. Each of the three levels of each center is in turn divided into a mechanical, an emotional, and an intellectual part. This can be verified, but takes many observations over long periods of time. For standard purposes it is sufficient to be able to observe the three main divisions of each center. When it comes to the beginning student, he will do well to concentrate on recognizing the four centers of gravity.

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The Sunny Kind There are people of all types who possess an extra strong sunny side to their make-up. Their cheerful, childlike, creative and artistic disposition has the effect of making the characteristics of the type to which they belong less serious, less dark, less heavy, more youthful and more guileless. Their disposition tends to soften the hard edges of their type, to supercharge the assertive tendencies, magnify sensitivity, and often energize the passive qualities. While it is not hard to recognize those sunny qualities, it usually takes experience to be able to determine the underlying type of such persons. Persons with this disposition can be flighty, nervous, over-sensitive, naive and rather fragile. Male and Female, Emissive and Receptive In-depth study of sexual differences and sexual attraction is dealt with in the appropriate workshop (see the section "Practical Training" below). In the present section a general overview only is provided in order to give an idea of what the general features of female-male relationships are in the classification by type. First, it is important to understand that

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a) emissive and receptive types complement each other; b) there is a degree of receptivity and emissivity in each type. Second, when it comes to males and females of the same classic type, females tend to be receptive to males. The female of an emissive type will be receptive to the male belonging to the same emissive type but emissive to all others in the characteristic realm of her type. The characteristic realm is a person's predominant intelligence (either movement, instinct, emotion, or intellect). For example, the female INSPIRATOR is receptive to the male INSPIRATOR and emissive to all others in the realm of instinct. Similarly, the female INNOVATOR is receptive to the male INNOVATOR and emissive to all others in the realm of thinking. With receptives of a type, the male is emissive to the female but receptive to all others in the characteristic realm of his type. For example, a male IDEALIST will be emissive to a female IDEALIST and receptive to all others in the realm of movement. In a similar way, a male PARTNER will be emissive to a female PARTNER but receptive to all others in the realm of emotions.

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Practical Training Practical training is provided through public or in-house workshops that typically produce in participants an attitude that's best described as follows: "No matter how good I am, no matter what level of productivity or excellence I have achieved, I can always be better and greater!" Style of Leadership and Team Building A leadership program integrating knowledge of classic and combined types with leadership training. For leaders, managers and supervisors looking for a non-traditional approach to leadership training focusing on understanding of self and of others through self-learning and through exchange. Participants are enabled to understand and apply the leadership and team building principles and techniques in a personally significant manner. The results are greatly enhanced leadership skills through increased tolerance, growth in team orientation, and enthusiasm for and effectiveness in continuous improvement, both individually and collectively. My Team and I A team development program combining knowledge of types with team training. Self-learning and exchange between participants provide for improved self-esteem, better skills in communication and in consensus building, a feeling of belonging, and

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readiness and ability to make changes. A program that builds team spirit from within. Style of Selling for Superior Results Improved self-knowledge and the ability to size up others better, combined with sales fundamentals and selling techniques, create the basis for superior sales results for participants in this program. Learn how you can build on your personal strengths in selling and how to adapt your sales approach to the different types of perceptions and views of different prospects and clients. For sales persons, sales supervisors, and sales managers. Type Workshops Basic and in-depth knowledge of classification by type. Depending on the workshop chosen, you will be solidifying knowledge already acquired about types and you will be learning about subjects such as the evolution of the classification by type since ancient times, including the influence of astrology, the influence of Carl Jung, and the contributions by endocrinologists; and you will discover how type is manifested in children, how types are attracted to each other, how compatibility can be found, etc.

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Practical training is made available by BMLSSACE through its training partners. Please contact:

BMLS-SACE 5372 O'Bryan Ave Montreal QC – CANADA H4V 2A9 Tel.: 514-488-8689 Fax: 514-488-3257 e-mail: fglaus@videotron.ca