Familial Snapshots: Representing Palestine in the Work of the First Local Photographers

Nassar, Issam.
History & Memory, Volume 18, Number 2, Fall/Winter 2006, pp. 139-155 (Article)
Published by Indiana University Press

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the arrival of the first automobile in Jerusalem in 1912. the gaslight. among many other events. described the introduction of such new products as the kerosene stove. as well as the attempted landing of an Ottoman military airplane in 1914.1 He also recorded. the phonograph and cinematograph. the arrival from Europe of new inventions would influence the way people lived and thought about their lives.Familial Snapshots Representing Palestine in the Work of the First Local Photographers iSSam naSSar This essay examines the ways in which the introduction of photography as a local practice in Palestine from the late nineteenth century affected the way Palestinians saw. along with the increasing impact of modernization.2 Jawhariyya’s diary provides us with a glimpse of the impact that these inventions had on people’s lives. it critically questions the notions of local and non-local before examining the specific ways in which photography was employed within the larger context of Palestinian society. Late Ottoman and British Mandate Palestine was a land in transformation. The political events of the period. Moreover. affected its political economy. imagined and presented themselves in photographs. The musician Wasif Jawhariyya. The essay narrates the history of the inception of photography as a local career in Palestine by tracing the activities of the first known local photographers. block ice. the theater. 139 . who kept a diary about his life in Jerusalem and its vicinity from 1904 until he was uprooted from Palestine in 1948. In this context. the growth of urban centers and the entirety of its social landscape.

which would have a major political and social impact in the region. Early photographic interest in the Holy Land was closely linked to a complex web of European connections to the Middle East at large as well as to Palestine itself—in particular colonial and scientific interest in the region. like the advent of modernity in general. Palestine’s weight in the life of the empire was not yet much greater than that of any other region its size.3 Crucial in shaping the nature of this European involvement was Palestine’s religious significance. which included at the time an area extending from Hebron to Nazareth.4 and numerous European travelers and expeditions arrived to explore the Holy Land. and a revived Christian interest in biblical studies and archaeology. but also geographically. cultural and political center of the Ottoman state.5 140 . which included Palestine. which was divided into two administrative districts (sanjaks).Issam Nassar Photography had arrived in Palestine several decades earlier. was still a provincial region within a larger empire. Political events connected with the rise of colonial interests in the Ottoman empire. which had ruled it since 1517. signaled the beginning of a new era. The city and region where Jesus had lived and died seemed to arouse an ever-growing interest in Christian Europe: over two thousand books on Palestine were published in Europe—and America—between 1800 and 1878. the arrival of photography was. It is in this context of renewed European interest in the Holy Land that photography was introduced in Palestine. However. at a time when the country. despite its gradual growth in importance. Indeed. as illustrated by various maps from the late middle ages. The prominent place that its “holy cities” occupied in the Christian religious imagination was reflected in the European perception of Jerusalem as the center of the world. The other side of Ottoman openness was the onset of persistent European involvement in the affairs of Palestine. in 1831–40. along with the Egyptian conquest of Syria. It also indicated the arrival of new times. Christians and Jews. largely the result of political and social processes whose center of gravity lay in distant places. the romantic passion for exotic sites. the religious significance of the district of Jerusalem. not just in a metaphorical sense. far away from the economic. gave it a special aura for Muslim. A European development rather than a modernizing trend that emerged from within Ottoman Palestine itself.

pictures of the country. It emerged. with the possible exception of Cairo. than those of any other Asian or African city. It was followed by a number of inventions. The subsequent shift from Ottoman to British rule after World War I in itself further fostered considerable growth and development in the urban sector. As evident by the recent use of photography by both contemporary Palestinian historians and by representatives of the national movement. but it also specifically affected memory and the organization of knowledge. Horace Vernet and Frédéric Goupil-Fesquet arrived in Palestine to photograph the land. Indeed. Palestine ceased to be the small provincial region within a vast empire that it had been under the Ottomans. which also became powerful signs of the modern industrial and “rational” age. one of the earliest of a series of inventions that would alter the way people related to time and space.Familial Snapshots As was the case with the earlier experiences of modernization in Europe. For under the British Mandate. the very same year in which Louis Daguerre announced the invention of photography to the world. old photographs became a central component of the Palestinian representation of the past. as will become evident below. were already popular in Europe and its North American colonies. Bethlehem and Nazareth. with it. in both art galleries and photographic exhibits. photography affected people’s image of themselves and their surroundings. the present. True. the telephone. the introduction of photography in the region by the Europeans would give them a certain strategic advantage in redefining or reconstructing the history of the “Holy Land. Depictions of Jerusalem in particular were more readily available.” At the same time. photography would play a key role in the formation of the Palestinian collective memory. hence modes of shaping the past and. with its own railway system and eventually its own airport. the case of photography is more complicated. By the middle of the century. to an extent. like other inventions it changed the way people related to time and space. primarily of Jerusalem. as a country with a central government. 141 . with influence over neighboring regions.6 Furthermore. instead. in Palestine too it was closely related to transformed technologies of knowledge. the bicycle. be imagined or inferred. constituted also one of the first signs of the arrival of the age of modernity in the region. the automobile and the airplane. Photography. But if the impact of the introduction of these technologies in the region can. In December 1839. such as the telegraph.

But contrary to what might be assumed. This made the local vs. the non-Muslim inhabitants of Palestine were organized into their respective religious communities and granted a large measure of internal religious and legal autonomy. some of them continued the type of work undertaken by the first visiting photographers. WHAT IS LOCAL PHOTOGRAPHY? The focus of the present essay on local photography in Palestine necessarily implies such a classification into local and non-local. to have performed broadly similar functions and served a similar clientele. an Armenian who was not born in Palestine would have felt at home there simply because 142 . or glued. since belonging to a recognized millet already established in the sultanate was more important than actual place of birth. and images of Palestine were often printed. especially in cases where photographers were Ottoman citizens but not from Palestine. as a rule.8 These photographs of Palestine clearly show that early photographers seem.7 Hundred of photographers—most of them Europeans—worked in the Middle East from 1839 to the end of the century. making them of little heuristic value. it seems to have been very large. and no neat distinction can be drawn between foreigners and natives of the area. As we will see. In other words. The situation of nineteenth-century Palestine blurs such distinctions. but it requires us to rethink this very distinction. While the precise number of amateur photographers who took pictures of Palestine in the nineteenth century cannot be estimated.Issam Nassar Photographs of Jerusalem were exhibited alongside those of Paris and London. there was no clear correlation between the diverging trends and the photographers’ origins. foreigner dichotomy highly problematic. in Bibles and Sunday school books. In most cases they produced photographs that corresponded with the image of the country as a Holy Land in order to sell them abroad or to visiting pilgrims. a different group of photographers gradually emerged who were either from the region or had resided in it for some time. Although visiting photographers from Europe dominated the scene for many years. According to the millet system. while others began to employ photography in new ways.

Familial Snapshots there was already an Armenian community that would have welcomed him as one of its members. or even from that of the early Zionist Jewish photographers. Jewish and European photographers is not as simple as it first appears. and in more recent times the work of Zionist Jewish photographers. The earliest photographic establishments were established in the late 1860s by Europeans who had moved to the region. Studies of early photography of Palestine tend to highlight the work of European photographers. they all often catered to the needs of their customers and in doing so crossed the assumed boundaries between the various types of photography. the implantation of photography in the region progressed through the creation of mixed production sites and heterogeneous groups of practitioners. Pascal Sebah in Istanbul. a clear-cut distinction between Palestinian. Only a handful of studies mention the contributions made by Palestinian—Arab or Armenian—photographers. which was largely devoted to the daily life and politics of the Jewish yishuv (community in Palestine). Photography.9 Nonetheless. despite the obvious difference in subject matter. their work also merits a study on its own because it stood out as rather different from that of their visiting European counterparts. no matter who they were. Although it is important to reinsert Palestinian photographers and their work into Palestinian history for obvious political reasons. Finally. introduced to the region by Europeans. the Zangaki studio in Port Sa’id. The often deliberate erasure of the Palestinians from Palestine and its history appears to have infected historians of photography as well. Alexander Scholch lists four photographers—described as three local Greek Orthodox and one Armenian—who worked in Jerusalem in 1877. only a year earlier they had numbered two (described as local Christians). who appear to have focused almost exclusively on Palestine’s biblical heritage. and later the American Colony photographic establishment in Jerusalem in the early twentieth century were some such examples. The Bonfils studio in Beirut. for. established itself as a local craft. the Ottoman census shows that there were practicing local photographers in Palestine as early as 1877. Those establishments often employed local apprentices who would eventually take up the trade. rather than on the lives of the native Arab population and society. In his thorough study of Palestine in the late nineteenth century. Still.10 So who were local 143 .

”12 In other words. According to this approach. it can be considered local photography. for instance. locality becomes an issue related more to social context than to physical place. Muslims. the photographs of Ramallah taken by the American Elihu Grant between 1901 and 1904 can be termed local photography. on the one hand. European residents. perspectives. and Zionist photography. it is fruitless to focus exclusively on the national. it was the image and not the photographer that mattered most. on the other. Whether the photographers were Armenians. then it was in demand regardless of who produced it. which tended to focus almost exclusively on the Jewish settlement project in Palestine. was far more interested in Holy Land images than in the people of Palestine. It is the context in which images were produced. Hence. Locality is essentially a quality that is “constituted by a series of links between the sense of social immediacy. If their work reflected the fabric of Palestinian society at the time by representing its life from within and catered to the local demand for photographs instead of simply catering to the market demand for Holy Land paraphernalia. what confers on them the quality of local is essentially the work they produced—and its relationship to local topics. the subject of the photograph becomes crucial since it is very clear that the different markets of exchange were interested only in what the image depicted and its subject’s relation to a particular community of viewers. In this sense. If the picture depicted the desired image. viewed and assigned meanings that must be placed at the core of our attempt to discern what is local about them. a local is a person who has an attachment to a certain locality with “interests arising out of such attach11 ment. Christian Europe. Not only do they capture life in the town but they were 144 . the technologies of interactivity. Christians or Jews. and the relativity of contexts. Arabs.Issam Nassar photographers—and what does this appellation mean? According to the New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary. in examining the emergence of local photography. local photography would be any photography that represented social life in Palestine as opposed to the depictions of biblical landscapes. ethnic or religious identity of the photographers at the expense of the work they produced and its relation to the local society.” In his discussion of locality. Arjun Appadurai argues that it is connected more to relations and contexts than to places and location. exchanged. It is for this reason that. interests and publics. In other words.

James in Jerusalem. His return to Jerusalem later that year and subsequent appointment as patriarch did not “dampen his enthusiasm for photography. and a number of photographic establishments in a handful of cities served a growing demand for photographs within Palestine. In 1863 he left Jerusalem for Europe.”15 Many of Garabedian’s students went on to practice professionally and soon controlled the local market. One of them was Garabed Krikorian. the area outside Jaffa Gate was Jerusalem’s “Central Station. for most of the photographic studios subse17 quently established were also located in the vicinity of Krikorian’s studio. soon became an important photographic establishment out of which a new generation of photographers would emerge. a distinctly local photographic tradition began to emerge toward the end of the nineteenth century.16 The studio. At the time when Krikorian opened his shop. where he visited Manchester. which was located outside Jaffa Gate of the Old City of Jerusalem. cars and travelers arriving from nearby villages as well as from Jaffa 145 .Familial Snapshots also produced for the benefit of the town—despite the fact that Grant himself was an outsider. Even the location of the studio would acquire special significance. and by the time of the British conquest in 1917/18. who in 1885 opened the first photographic studio in Palestine. at the Armenian convent of St. the Armenian Patriarch Yessayi Garabedian established what would become the nucleus of local photographic practice. Several photographic studios had been established in Jerusalem and Jaffa by the turn of the century. photography was already a local craft.” Not only was it packed with horse carriages. In the early 1860s Garabedian had started courses in photography within the church compound in the Old City of Jerusalem.14 The beginnings of local photography in Palestine can be traced back to the early 1860s when.13 THE EMERGENCE OF A LOCAL PRACTICE Although the overwhelming majority of nineteenth-century photographers working in Palestine were either Europeans or Ottoman subjects from regions far away from Palestine. London and Paris and kept abreast of the latest developments in photography. one of the earliest local photographers in Jerusalem.

Khalil Ra’ad became known for his studio portraits as well as for his photographs of family events.Issam Nassar and Bethlehem. Edward Said recalls in his memoirs how his own family used to have their portraits taken by Ra’ad in Jerusalem. He was first introduced to photography when he was an apprentice at Krikorian’s studio. the photographer Khalil Ra’ad. however.”18 Around the same time as Krikorian and Ra’ad had their studios in Jerusalem. had a number of photographic studios. but it was next to Hotel Fast. and Thomas Cook’s Travel Office. Krikorian’s shop remained open under the management of his son Johannes until it was lost in 1948 after the division of the city between Jordan and Israel and the transformation of the location into the dangerous no-man’s land that separated the two parts of Jerusalem. Sawabini. although it seems plausible. Following his return to Jerusalem. was a native of Jaffa who learnt the trade during his university education in Russia. The same fate befell Krikorian’s main competitor. the photographers Daoud Sabonji and Issa Sawabini opened up their own photographic establishments in Jaffa. would also become an important photographer in Jaffa and neighboring Tel Aviv. We do not know if the first was connected with the famous Sabonji photographers in Beirut at the time. Holy Land pictures were in demand all around the world. In the early 1890s he opened his own shop and later decided to study photography in Switzerland.” Ra’ad. Ra’ad was the first Arab photographer in Palestine. Jaffa and Jerusalem. who is described as “a slightly built white-haired man. The presence of professional local photographers in the early twentieth century points to 146 . He had what appears to be a vibrant photographic career judging by the many photographs found in family collections that have his signature affixed on them. whose shop was across the street from Krikorian’s. Said presents us with a detailed description of what he called “the demanding rigor of Khalil Ra’ad’s hooded tripod camera. Haifa. and the other photographic studios followed suit. As far as we know. Sawabini’s Jewish apprentice. he was appointed the official photographer of the Ottoman army. a certain Rachman.” used to take “a great deal of time [to arrange] the large group of family and guests into acceptable order. It is reasonable to assume that Krikorian chose this particular site for his shop because of the area’s function as the main tourist stop in town. After all. perhaps the most important hotel in Jerusalem at the time.19 By the end of the Ottoman period all three major cities of Palestine.

Although the first two also did much work for the tourist market that was no different from that produced by their earlier European counterparts—images of holy sites. they often imitated images they had seen in early European photography. I will examine the photographic practice of the three early photographers of Palestine. the individual identity of the people portrayed. in local photography. Ra’ad and Sawabini. The choice of pose. it was not uncommon for urban women to be photographed dressed as Bedouins or Bethlehemites (figure 1). setting. Krikorian. reenactment of biblical stories. object and subject was in the hands of the photographer. had a number of costumes at the disposal of their customers who could choose to be photographed in the guise of other “more exotic” locals. It appears that the newly emerging class of urban aristocracy had fully adopted European attire and lifestyle and. the object of the picture was his or her own subject: it was they who decided to be photographed and chose the pose and image in which they would appear. For example. along with it. they did so with an eye to the tourist market interested in biblical images. Early European portrait photography in Palestine tended to ignore. They photographed personal. family and other social occasions and documented political changes in Palestine throughout their careers. The studios of Krikorian and Ra’ad. The subjects of photographs by Tancrède Dumas. Indeed. religious ceremonies. the bulk of the work of these three photographers was connected to the life of their communities. This habit might be explained by the fact that many of the customers of the early local studios were more likely to be from the wealthy urban segments of Palestinian society.Familial Snapshots the birth of a new photographic tradition with respect to the way in which Palestine and its people were depicted in early European photography. In contrast. the Bonfils studio and others were often depicted not as particular individuals but as representatives of “types” of people living in the Holy Land. Interestingly. visits of statesmen and views of the major cities—there was another part of their work that catered to a different clientele. the perception of peasants and Bedouins as exotic Orientals. however. among others. Although the early European photographers—particularly residents with studios in the region—also produced some portraits of local people and photographs of social events. and therefore less known. In what follows. Even though the resulting image could in many cases be very similar to those commonly produced by European photographers. the role of the 147 . or even obliterate.

in a lower position. with his wife at his side. the man—at the center. Jerusalem. is quite remarkable. Najla Krikorian as a Bedouin woman. 1921. The first and perhaps the most common was the production of family portraits.e.20 individual being photographed—as a passive object or as an active participant in the choice of subject—remains an important distinction in the context of the present discussion. 1.Issam Nassar Fig. surrounded by the rest of the family. The ease with which such local subjects posed in front of the camera. which was rather common first among Christian Arab families but was soon adopted by rich urban Muslim families as early as the 1920s. when contrasted with the unknown models. A studio portrait by Johannes Krikorian. Such photographs would typically depict the head of the household—i. The patriarchal nature of 148 . Several trends can be discerned in the practice of early local photographers.

The mother is dressed in a manner that suggests she belonged to Victorian America or Britain (figure 2). The photograph thus presents us with a mélange of ideas and attitudes belonging to various contemporaneous cultural trends. held by her mother (Olinda). Alfred and Olinda Roch with their daughter Ortineh.21 The positioning and the gesture of the father are intended to affirm the values of patriarchy that were strictly upheld in Arab society of the time. The contrast here between the postures of husband and wife brings to mind John Berger’s observation regarding the existence of a convention in modern European art where men act and women appear. and the posture of the mother suggests that 149 . A studio portrait taken in 1911 by Sawabini shows the father (Alfred Roch) standing with a finger pointed toward his baby daughter (Ortineh). Arab society in Palestine at the time is evident in such images.Familial Snapshots Fig. 2. 1911. Photo by Issa Sawabini. Jaffa.

Nonetheless. such as the US and India. post-mortem photography was not unknown in other parts of the world in this period. with the coffin raised a little and surrounded by the family. photographs of the family without the patriarch started to become common in certain regions and social classes. was post-mortem photography (photographing the deceased before or during the funeral). The second trend was first associated with photographers from missionary groups active in Palestine at the time. In fact. Photographs of deceased clergy. in which many local photographers took part. In many instances. It also demonstrated a more general human trait: taking a picture with 150 . the subject’s last picture was also the first. can be found in the photographic archives of many churches of Palestine dating back to the late nineteenth century. As time went by. The attire of all three shows the trend toward Westernization among the local upper class. especially of those who were associated with the Quaker school (the Friends School). Both Ra’ad and Sawabini regularly photographed school graduation ceremonies. The resort to post-mortem photographs in the case of Palestine was perhaps due to the fact that the subject had never been photographed during his or her lifetime: in that case. Emigration to the Americas or wartime conscription might explain the father’s absence (indeed. it was not uncommon for local photographic studios to advertise that they specialized in funeral pictures. weddings in Ramallah. where the Quakers had their headquarters at the time. Their pictures often appeared in Quaker publications originating in Philadelphia in the US. This tradition. It was common for missionary schools to hire photographers in order to produce images showing their charitable activities for the benefit of their founders abroad.Issam Nassar she was attentive to the way she would appear to viewers.23 The third trend that was common in certain areas. which was apparently limited at first to the clergy. the deceased would be photographed almost in a standing position. especially patriarchs and bishops. it is likely that such photographs were taken for the benefit of the absent father). It is not known how this tradition emerged in early photography of the Near East. including those discussed above. seems to have become popular among Christians in the early part of the twentieth century.22 Photographing the graduating classes of the missionary schools was another common practice. particularly those with a significant Christian population.

while a head—also of Mr.”24 Indeed. According to an eyewitness account. who captured the site from the Israeli forces in 1948. show leaders such as Abd al-Qader al-Husseini. One of the few such photographs.25 Other photographs documenting the 1936 Arab revolt and the 1948 war can often be found in family collections and archives. Ra’ad. but in the field and outside the confines of the studio. and more as a means of documenting social and private lives. Several photographs from the 1940s by Hanna Safieh. Clearly. Another photographer who documented the 1948 war was the Gaza-based Abd al-Razak Badran. portraits of resistance fighters. less as an art. commander of the al-Jihad al-Muqaddas (Holy War) Army. such as Hanna Safieh and Ali Zarour. and later. one that employed the medium in ways that were significantly different from the European depictions.” which includes both studio portraits of men in army uniform and pictures of combat or events related to the various wars and rebellions that affected Palestine at the time. In an almost surreal setting. and the need for griefstricken relatives to cling to memories of the deceased. Safieh also photographed the Arab attack on the Jewish quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem in May 1948. the next generation of local photographers. While the studios of Krikorian. A fourth trend in local photography is what I would term “war photography. photography had found its own place within Palestinian society. for example.Familial Snapshots the deceased surrounded by family members was perhaps.. Skafi—is placed on a plate in front of them! 151 . “an expression of a combination of love . dating back to 1922. One can find photographs of Palestinian men in Ottoman army uniform and in British police uniform. Skafi posing in four different positions (figure 3). as Christopher Pinney pointed out in his discussion of this phenomenon in the case of India. shows a man named Mr. and Sawabini (in Jaffa) produced this type of portrait. three Mr. such photography can still be found today. posing for the camera surrounded by other armed men. Skafis are sitting around a dining table eating potatoes. The trends discussed above attest to the fact that there was indeed a local Palestinian photographic tradition.. commander of the Jordanian forces. Photographs that suggest that the medium was used as an art form are rather rare—and nonexistent in the case of our three photographers. took similar pictures. as well as the battle of the Gush Etzion Jewish settlements (between Bethlehem and Hebron) in May 1948. Safieh traveled in the tank of Abdullah al-Tal.

With European photographers certain ideas and traditions in photography were gradually established. * One might argue that photography in Palestine had several beginnings and multiple histories. 1922. almost more importantly. which I have briefly outlined in an attempt to establish an initial frame of reference.Issam Nassar Fig. The third “beginning” was connected with the start of the Zionist settlement in Palestine. First there was the arrival of photography in 1839 as a European invention. This beginning was largely connected with the advent of modernity into the Ottoman Empire and in particular into Jerusalem. Skafi in four different positions. Mr. Photographer unkown. This essay has sought to draw attention to a number of photographers who have so far been ignored and. but it also 152 . to carve a place in the history of photography in Palestine for what I have called a local photographic tradition. Then there was the “beginning” of photography as a local craft among Armenian and Arab photographers. Not only is the study of the development of local photography important for understanding the advent of modernity in its local form. Although there are numerous studies on both Zionist and European photographers of Pal26 estine. Much work still remains to be done in the field. little has been written about the local photography of Palestine. Bethlehem. which brought a number of photographers to the country to document the birth and the growth of the Jewish yishuv—something to which I have barely referred. 3.

1989). 5. 1961). edited by Issam Nassar and Salim Tamari. photographers “alter and enlarge our notions of what is worth looking at and what we have a right to observe. Before Their Diaspora: A Photographic History of the Palestinians. 25–30. See also A. see Alexander Scholch. 1890. Early local photography has left a large number of records of political and daily life. the best known being Walid Khalidi. (Berlin. Young and Michael C. William C.” Jerusalem Quarterly File. 9 (summer 2000): 5–34. 1876–1948 (Washington. it provides us with an insight into how local people viewed and “framed” themselves at that time. which appeared in my book. 2005). Economic and Political Development. see Issam Nassar. There are several pictorial histories of the Palestinians. Bibliotheca Geographica Palaestinae: Chronologisches Verzeichniss der auf die Geographie des Heiligen Landes bezüglichen Literature von 333 bis 1878. rept. 1850–1948) (Beirut. Al-Quds al-‘uthmaniyya fi al-mudhakkirat al-jawhariyya (Ottoman Jerusalem in the Jawhariyya memoirs) (Beirut. As Susan Sontag so rightly said. no. photographs play an important role in shaping what we know and how we know it. The plane crashed before it arrived in Jerusalem on its way from Jaffa. Gerrity (Washington. Laqatatt mughayyira: Al-taswir al-mahalli fi filastin. eds. See also Salim Tamari.Familial Snapshots offers the social historian important material relevant to the social changes that were taking place at the time. 2003). 1850–1948 (Different snapshots: Early local photography in Palestine. See Salim Tamari and Issam Nassar.”27 NOTES This article is based on my previous work. 6. “Jerusalem’s Ottoman Modernity: The Times and Lives of Wasif Jawhariyyeh. 2. The memoirs. British Interests in Palestine. After all. At the same time. 168–69. CO. 1800–1901: A Study of Religious and Educational Enterprise (London. 1993). DC. For further elaboration on this. Tibawi. Photographing Jerusalem: The Image of the City in Nineteenth-Century Photography (Boulder. 3. 153 . London.. 338–587. trans. Palestine in Transformation (1856–1882): Studies in Social. 1984). were published in Arabic in 2003 and 2005 by the Institute of Jerusalem Studies in Jerusalem and the Institute of Palestine Studies in Beirut. Reinhold Rohricht. 1. 4. 1997). L. For further information on Palestine in the nineteenth century. DC.

Photographs taken by Grant were printed in The Ramallah Messenger. 50–71. 88. Furthermore. 9. In the later years of British rule 154 . as might have been expected: next follow Spain. Laqatatt mughayyira. 31. eds. “Khalil Raad. 126–30.” Revue d’études Palestiniennes 37 (autumn 1990): 99–100.” in Anthony O’Mahony. The area had several inns for pilgrims and was the main transportation station for carts that traveled to other parts of the country. 16. M. for they were more widely accessible to the general public—both in the Middle East and in Europe—and can be considered the product of a market demand for Holy Land images. Modernity at Large: Cultural Dynamics of Globalization (Minneapolis. Venice. photographe à Jerusalem. For further information see Victor-Hummel. The 1876 figure is based on Warren’s Underground Jerusalem. “Culture and Image. 15 March 1860.. Thumb Index Edition (1993). ed. A Pictorial History of Ramallah (Beirut. See Badr al-Hajj. see Nassar. Arjun Appadurai. 178. Jerusalem and its neighbourhood. Yessayi Garabedian described his fascination with photography in his memoirs. France and England are greatly in the majority.. MN. A report on an architectural photographic exhibit in 1860 stated that “the photographs in this exhibit are judiciously classed by countries. 1996). the newsletter of the Society of Friends in New England. For further information about early local photographers in Palestine and their teachers. 186. calling it in Armenian arhest (craft) rather than arvest (art). Khalil Ra’ad. “Localism. cited in Scholch.v. See Ruth Victor-Hummel. See Nasseb Shaheen. Hanna Safieh and Abu Issa Freji all had there studios on Jaffa Road close to the Jaffa Gate can possibly be explained by the fact that they were all Christians who either lived in or were connected to the quarters close to the location. The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary. 1992). illustrating more clearly the type of photographs sought by the public. Luncz. 10.” 12. 11. Jerusalem: Jahrbuch zur Beförderung einer wissenschaftlich genauen kenntniss des jetzigen und des alten Palästinas (Vienna.Issam Nassar 7. 15. Goren Gunner and Kevork Hitlian. 13. Rome. s. Jaffa Gate was the main gate through which pilgrims and tourists arrived in the city from Jaffa either by carriage or by train. The present study confines itself to photographs taken by professional photographers.” 17.” See The British Journal of Photography. and the source of the 1877 figure is A. 1995). 14. Palestine in Transformation. “Culture and Image: Christians and the Beginnings of Local Photography in 19th Century Ottoman Palestine. That Krikorian. although the various nations are unequally represented. 1882). 8. The Christian Heritage in the Holy Land (Jerusalem.

1890–1933 (Jerusalem and Philadelphia. Edward Said. Examples can be found in Shaheen. 26. who traveled from one town to another. Revealing the Holy Land: The Photographic Exploration of Palestine (Santa Barbara. 1997). see Kathleen Stewart Howe. Documentors of the Dream: Pioneer Jewish Photographers in the Land of Israel. 2003). For Jewish photography in Palestine. The shortage in photographers meant that people of the surrounding villages and towns regularly employed the Jaffa and the Jerusalem photographers. This was most likely Pinchas Rachman (1888–1953). 1977). 45 and 47. John Berger. He owned a photography studio in Jaffa during the British Mandate period. Camera Indica: The Social Life of Indian Photographs (London. but further to the north in the new part of the city. 68. Laqatatt mughayyira. Christopher Pinney. studios were still being established on Jaffa Road. Photographers of Eretz Israel/Palestine/Israel (1855–2000) (in Hebrew) (Tel Aviv. ed. 23. 1999). 155 . Ways of Seeing (Harmondsworth. 27. 1997). for European photography. for example. 22. Abd al-Razak Badran (1919–2003) was born in Haifa. Susan Sontag. 139. 3.Familial Snapshots in Palestine. subsequently founding his Studio for Art and Photography in Gaza in 1941. Out of Place: A Memoir (New York. 25. UK. 24. 18. CA. 1998). He lived in Safed and Nablus before moving to Cairo where he studied photography at the School for Applied Arts at Cairo University. A Pictorial History of Ramallah. 76. See Guy Raz. On Photography (New York. 20. 19. 21. 1972). The photographs reproduced here are taken from Nassar.. see. The original photographs are in the archive of the Fondation Arabe pour l’Image in Beirut. Vivienne Silver-Brody.

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