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1. Waste in Sri Lanka
The average composition of the household waste we measured (by weight), seems to be roughly as follows: 15% 30% plastics, 30% 40% paper, 0 30% organic fraction and 10% 30% rest-fraction (wood, glass, metal). The plastic and paper fractions make up most of the volume of household waste, but can be significantly compressed. The organic fraction makes a relatively large contribution to the total weight, due to its high density and water-content.Packaging materials make up more than half of the plastic and paper fractions, both by weight and by volume. A significant part of the paper-fraction is already made of recycled materials. Only a small part (less than half) of the plastic fraction would be easy to recycle mechanically. Most packaging materials produced in Sri Lanka do not state the material type. Restaurants and eating-houses produce a lot of food and kitchen remains, which are usually collected by local pig farmers, who use it as animal feed. Retail shops produce mostly packaging waste.Plant material makes up a very large part of the collected municipal waste. Estimates give around 60% 90% for the organic fraction (by weight). Waste collection Analysis of data has revealed that per capita per day waste generation on the average is 0.85 kg in Colombo Municipal Council, 0.75 kg in other Municipal Councils, 0.60 kg in Urban Councils and 0.40 kg in PradeshiyaSabhas. The total Municipal Solid Waste generated in the count y is assumed to be around r 6,400 tons per day and the daily waste collection by Local Authorities is estimated at 2700 tons. Cleaning of (main) roads and markets has been recently in some areas especially in Colombo, Galle, and Kandy seems to function by private companies better than the former public cleaning systems. Waste collection and cleaning is mostly paid out of assessment tax and trade licenses. Frequent cleaning and collection of roadside waste is mostly restricted to main roads and town areas. Cleaning of the roadside drains is included in the duties of the local authority cleaners, but is currently insufficient. The main product- and solid-waste streams
Waste disposal Households generally dump or burn their waste materials. Dumping is usually done in a shallow pit in the ground, along the roadside, on a nearby dumpsite, in low-lying marshland or in waterways or waterbodies. Dumped material is often periodically burned. Local authorities usually dump their collected waste on privately owned land. Finding suitablesites is difficult, and current sites are therefore often over-used. Officially, waste is not burned by the authorities after dumping, but it does happen. Source: Garbage in Sri lanka,2000 1
Waste management in Sri Lanka Solid waste management in Colombo Figure 1Bloemendhal Dump Yard-CMC The Colombo Municipal Council (CMC) which administers the largest and the most developed Local Authority in Sri Lanka has a duty to ensure favorable conditions for a high quality life for the residents living within its area of authority as well as those who work and conduct businesses within the city.resulting in the waste being disposed of in anindiscriminate manner by the purchaser. asamended by Act No.The main legislative enactment and regulations thatdeal with the issue of waste disposal are: The National Environmental Act Provincial Councils Act Local Government Ordinances Hazardous Waste Regulations At the national level. or just dump the wasteon vacant land.rrcap.org/pub/soe/srilanka_waste. The environmental regulations are laid out in theNational Environmental Act No. 47 of 1980 (NEA). the 13th Amendment to theConstitution (1987) which decentralizes power to theprovinces.For example. Under Section 12 ofthe NEA. 2. industrialwaste is bought merely to recover the container. 56 of 1988. from timeto time. In some instances.Some industries sell the waste for reuse.pdf) In the absence of a secure disposal facility. the Central Environmental Authority (CEA).may with the concurrence of the Minister. Alternatively.rrcap.pdf The legal and regulatory framework relating tomunicipal solid waste and hazardous waste disposalis set out both at national and local government level.unep. waste oil is sold for treating timberand as a fuel for burners. with a sound and sustainable environmental protection system. and the Provincial Councils Act. Institutional and LegalFramework (Source:http://www.hazardous industrial waste is generally stored on sitewithout adequate management. someindustries dispose of their hazardous waste togetherwith other municipal waste. No. give to any Local Authority in writing suchdirections. to do or causeto be done any act or thing which the Authority deemsnecessary for safeguarding and protecting the environment within the local limits of such LocalAuthority . businesses and industries located within the city is about 700 metric tons per day. whether special or general. 2 . 42 of1987 contain provisions for waste management.org/pub/soe/srilanka_waste.The quantity of wast produced by the e households. Disposal of HazardousWaste(Source: http://www.unep.
Urban Council and PradeshiyaSabha shall be the property of the Council . 8. 15 of 1987. followed by appropriate treatment and finally the disposal of residual waste. or Initial Environmental Examination(IEE). The legal framework for waste management at thelocal government level comes within the Local Government Ordinances . Application of Market based instruments including polluter pays approach will be recognized for effective waste management 4. the developer should obtain an environmentalclearance and should conduct an Environmental ImpactAssessment (EIA). 4. 3 . Whilst the CEA willbe responsible for overall management of the strategy. 5. which willbe followed by the drafting of national regulations onwaste management and disposal. 3. Adherence to National Environment Standards developed under the provisions of National Environmental Act will be ensured. 3. waste managers and service providers. Partnership will be encouraged to ensure efficient and cost effective collection. Sustainability of participation of all stakeholder groups in the entire waste management process will be ensured. reuse. 2007) 1. 2. 859/14 of 23rd February1995) states that the development of any waste disposalfacility with a capacity exceeding 100 tonnes per dayis considered to be a prescribed project. Waste management Policy Objectives(Source: National Policy on Solid Waste Management.and Gazette Extraordinary No. 772/22 of 24th June 1993. 2007) 1. The Ministry has drafted aNational Strategy for Waste Management. storage and treatment of solid waste and disposal of residues.Waste management in Sri Lanka The Environmental Impact Assessment Regulations(Gazette Extraordinary No. Resource maximization will be ensured by promoting sustainable production and consum ption and enforcing producer responsibility approach throughout the product life Cycle. Waste management Policy Principles(Source: National Policy on Solid Waste Management.the Municipal CouncilsOrdinance of 1980. To ensure environmental accountability and social responsibility of all waste generators. Efficient law enforcement will be recognized as an essential means of effective Solid Waste Management 6. 7. Appropriate resources mobilization strategies will be explored and sustainable financing mechanisms for solid waste management will be promoted. transportation. In suchinstance. National Policies on Solid Waste Management Various policies were introduced in 2007 by ministry of environment. 2. (Most of the above acts have modified by amendments and new acts have introduced by resent steps taken by the government No online documents are available) 3. the Urban Councils Ordinance andthe PradeshiyaSabha Act No. To minimize adverse environmental impacts due to waste disposal to ensure health and wellbeing of the people and ecosystems. To actively involve individuals and all institutions in integrated and environmentally sound solid waste management practices. To maximize resource recovery with a view to minimize the amount of waste for disposal. TheseOrdinances and Acts state that all refuse collected bythe Municipal Council. recycling and resources recovery to the maximum extent possible. Solid waste management will be managed adhering to the waste management hierarchy where the emphasis is on reduction of waste generation.
taken the following steps with a view to protecting the environment. Institutional strengthening and capacity building needs of stakeholders with special emphasis on Local authorities will be addressed to promote effective waste management. Hazardous Biomedical/Health Care wastes will be managed so as to prevent environmental contamination and to minimize the risks to public and eco-systems. clinical or infectious waste in the province. Introducing bags and containers for categorizing waste. To introduce waste management regulations for Solid Waste. Solid waste will be managed in accordance with the 3R Principles with special emphasis on waste prevention approaches 2. The "Pilisaru" national solid waste management program has been articulated to translate this National Policy into actions. Issue of environment protection licenses to Local Authorities. 9. 45 Local Authorities were clustered to form 7 Waste Management Zones centering 6 Municipal Councils namely. 4. To implement the provisions of the Statute.Waste management in Sri Lanka Waste management Practice (Source: National Policy on Solid Waste Management. 3. Issue of instructions/guidelines on Waste Management to Local Authorities and other institutions. Aims and Objectives 1. Development and implementation of sub sectorial policies in line with the National Policy shall be made mandatory. Annual performance reporting and effective monitoring mechanisms will be set in place at LA level. Instituting legal action against the offenders who break the law relating to the protection of environment. up to date. Gampaha and Kalutara Urban Council. national coordination and financial and technical program facilitation through resources mobilization. Conducting awareness programs for the benefit of institutions which are concerned with environmental protection. Central Environmental Authority (CEA) The Central Environmental Authority is an institution established by an Act of Parliament to administer the laws relating to the protection of the environment in Sri Lanka. Moratuwa. Colombo. Importation of all types of post-consumer wastes will be prohibited. In order to ensure integrated implementation mechanism of the Policy. a three year Action Plan aimed at achieving short term strategic goals of the Policy has been formulated and commenced implementation (in 2009). 8. 2007) 1. 7. Land filling will be limited to non-recyclable. 4 . 5. to have a participatory approach to solve the waste problem in the Province. 4. non-compostable and inert material generated through waste treatment processes. Accordingly. Obtaining financial and technical assistance from external sources for effecting improvements to Waste Management. Institutional mechanisms will be established to prevent hazardous biomedical/heal hcare wastes t entering into the municipal waste streams. Public safety will be ensured through appropriate liability and compensation mechanisms. 5. Waste Management Authority (WMA) WMA is mainly established to manage waste in western province of Sri Lanka. The CEA has. hazardous waste. 2. To keep the environment of the urban and rural areas in the Province clean for the well being of the people as well as for the flora and fauna of the province. Dehiwala. 6. a national Apex Body entitled "the National Platform for Solid Waste Management' has been established with the view to provide overall guidance. 3. Regular monitoring and evaluation system will be established to ensure system improvements. Kotte. Implementation of National Policy on waste management. Negambo. 10.
env. To investigate the possibilities of using solid waste as a resource. transf r and e disposal. National Color Codes for Waste Separation Containers Green. 6. 9. recycling and resource recovery. To disseminate the technical know-how on best waste management techniques. To assist Local Authorities in the management and control of all categories of waste (municipal. Bottles Brown Metals. 5 . 12. especially in urban areas. To engage in such other related activities as are necessary to be undertaken by the authority in the opinion of the Provincial Council. To implement the said guidelines with the help of local authorities and waste management contractors who are presently involved in waste management. 5.Organic Waste Blue.Waste management in Sri Lanka 4. transportation. To promote the use of waste in products and by products and to promote appropriate research and development.go. Compost production promotion Figure 2 house hold compost bins Household compost bins were distributed among people and also available to buy from local hardware stores and shops. Some of the implementations to control waste (Source: http://www. To promote waste separation. Coconut Shells Orange Plastics/Polythene b. treatment.pdf) a. Now private and government industries have started compost production plants using organic waste in several locations.jp/recycle/3r/en/asia/02_03-3/08.Paper wastes Red Glass. reuse. 13. To prepare strategy for the waste management in the Province. To maintain a Waste Management data base and reporting system for all Local Authorities within the Western Province. 6. 8. 11. To coordinate with the Ministry of Provincial Councils and Local Government on all the foreign assisted and/or locally funded projects implemented by the Authority in the field of Waste management. hazardous and clinical or infectious) its collection. 7. 10.
Prepared by: Senavirathna. Metal and rubber recycling plants are also in operation at commercial level in some areas of the country. MD HiranyaJayasanka 6 . Sri Lanka Plastic.Waste management in Sri Lanka Figure 3 A private compost production plant Biogas and bio fertilizer projects are also now running at some areas successfully Figure 4 Biogas + Bio-fertilizer plant at Muthurajawela.