Integration and Development

Hanoi, 4‐7 December 2008 





Hoang Van Van, Prof.Dr.  Nguyen Quang Ngoc, Prof.Dr.  Truong Quang Hai, Prof.Dr.  Pham Hong Tung, Assoc.Prof.Dr.  Piere Asselin, Assoc.Prof.Dr.  Tim Kaiser, PhD. Candidate  Thaveeporn Vasavakul, Dr.  Alec Holkombe, PhD. Candidate  Charles Keith, PhD. Candidate  Ju Hyung Shim, PhD. Candidate 






ORGANIZATION COMMITTEE: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Vu Minh Giang, Prof.Dr.Sc.       
Vietnam National University, Hanoi 



Chairman   Co ­ Chairman   Member    Member  Member   Member   Member   Member   Member   Member   Member   Member   Member  

Tran Duc Cuong, Assoc.Prof.Dr. 
Vietnam Academy of Social Sciences 

Lam Ba Nam, Assoc.Prof.Dr.   Nguyen Quang Ngoc, Prof.Dr. 

College of Social Sciences and Humanities, VNU Hanoi  Institute of Vietnamese Studies and Development Sciences, VNU Hanoi   

Phung Xuan Nha,  Assoc. Prof. Dr.   
College of Economics, VNU Hanoi 

Pham Van Ngoc, Dr.   



Planning ‐ Finance Department, VNU Hanoi 

Nguyen Thi Viet Thanh, Assoc.Prof.Dr.  Hoang Van Thang, Dr.       

Political ‐ Students Affairs Department, VNU Hanoi  Centre for Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, VNU Hanoi 

Vu Ngoc Tu, Assoc.Prof.Dr.    

International Relations Department, VNU Hanoi 

10. Pham Hong Tung,  Assoc.Prof.Dr.   
Academic Affairs Department, VNU Hanoi 

11. Vu Dinh Giap, Dr. 




Office of the President, VNU Hanoi 

12. Nguyen Thi My Loc, Assoc.Prof.Dr.   
Faculty of Education, VNU Hanoi 

13. Truong Quang Hai, Prof. Dr.  


Institute of Vietnamese Studies and Development Sciences, VNU Hanoi   


14. Nguyen Thi Anh Thu, Dr.  15. Vo Khanh Vinh, Prof.Dr. 




Member   Member   Member   Member   Member   Member  

International Relations Department, VNU Hanoi  Vietnam Academy of Social Sciences 

16. Nguyen Van Nhat, Assoc. Prof.Dr.    17. Tran Dinh Hao, Assoc.Prof.Dr. 
Vietnam Academy of Social Sciences 

Institute of History, Vietnam Academy of Social Sciences 


18. Nguyen Ngoc Tuan, Dr. 


Vietnam Academy of Social Sciences 

19. Nguyen Thi Hong Phan, Dr.   
Vietnam Academy of Social Sciences  

CONTENTS: 1. Traditional Vietnamese history   2. Contemporary Vietnamese history   3. Vietnamese culture  4. Cultural exchange  5. Vietnamese economy  6. Vietnamese society   7. Vietnamese laws  8. Traditional Vietnamese countryside and agriculture  9. Contemporary Vietnamese countryside and agriculture  10. Urban and Urbanization  11. Linguistics and Vietnamese language   12. Vietnamese literature and art  13. Source materials for Vietnamese Studies and methods for information  exploitation and analysis    14. Education and training of human resources  15. Theory and training methods in Vietnamese Studies   16. Synthetical area studies  17. International relations   18. Natural resources, environment, and sustainable development 



Panel 1: Traditional Vietnamese history 

























Table of Contents





PATROLLING AND CONTROLLING THE SEA                                                                                                   IN THE EARLY NGUYEN DYNASTY (1802 ‐ 1858)   Le Tien Cong  16  THE AUSTRO ‐ ASIATICS, AUSTRONESIANS AND THE FORMATION                                                        OF ANCIENT STATES IN VIETNAM     Luong Ninh  17  GUANGZHOU SITUATION AFTER NUNG CHI CAO’S REVOLUTION  Morita Kentaro     18 


























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FINANCIAL MECHANISM OF THE LE ‐ TRINH REGIME IN THE 18th CENTURY ‐                            AN ANALYSIS OF LUC PHIEN     Ueda Shinya  36  ELITE AND GOOD GOVERNANCE: A CASE STUDY OF VIETNAM AFTER                                                  THE 10th CONGRESS  AT THE VCP     Abraham K. M. Leong  39 


Panel 2: Contemporary Vietnamese history   









Table of Contents









DAO NGUYEN PHO (1861 ‐ 1908): A CASE STUDY FOR CULTURAL INTEGRATION                            AND DEVELOPMENT     Dinh Xuan Lam   46  THE REBELLIOUSNESS OF CONTEXT: VIETNAM VILLAGERS                                                                   AND THE COLONIAL ALCOHOL MONOPOLY 1897 ‐ 1933     Gerard Sasges    46  STRATEGIC PURPOSE OF TET 1968  Ho Khang         47 





















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HO CHI MINH‘S SKILL AND SPIRIT IN THE NATIONAL LIBERATION TASK                                         IN VIETNAM 1920 ‐ 1945     Vu Quang Hien  74  RE ‐ EXAMINING HO CHI MINH  Yoshiharu Tusboi     75 







Panel 3: Vietnamese Culture 



Table of Contents















85     86     87 





THE VIETNAMESE ORIGIN OF ORIENTAL ZODIAC NAMES                                                  (CHINESE ZODIAC NAME IS A MISNOMER)     Nguyen Cung Thong, Thach Sanh 
















































and definitely fixed their social position. lists of doctor degree laureates and epigraphic inscriptions). origin. official career steps. the author draws conclusions concerning the administration system model current at that time. doctoral degrees. military and political influence and economic power. family relations. With generation of the centralized bureaucratic monarchy in Vietnam by the 2 nd half of the 15th century.18th Century Vietnam”. Assoc. military officials and eunuchs in the ruling segment of society. But up to now. Russian Federation During two decades the author has been carrying out research on the administrative system in Vietnam under the medieval dynasties.001] HIERARCHY OF POSTS AND TITLES AND RULING STRATA IN 15th – 18th CENTURY VIETNAM UNDER THE HAU LE DYNASTY Antoshchenko. As a result of quantitative analysis on the socially active strata of officialdom at that period.). the real role and authority of civil. the results of author’s study have not been published in any other language but Russian.Prof. first of all on posts’ and titles mentioned in official historical records. official post and honorable title are two characteristic features of historic personages in the mentions of the majority of narrative sources. Moscow State University. Any card includes the following items: all sorts of names. 3   . a post and a title became social marks. Institute of Asian and African Studies. forms of posthumous cult.Dr. est. On the basis of different historical sources (mainly dynastic annals. Simultaneously. degree of closeness to the dynasty. the political and social characteristics of state and society on different stages during the reign of Hau Le dynasty in Vietnam. and in the year of 1991 defended a PhD thesis entitled “Officialdom in Social Structure of 15th . some 3 thousand biographical cards were composed. which clearly stratified representatives of the ruling class.Panel 1: Traditional Vietnamese history [01. Vladimir.

Prof. comparison with the Nguyen court records is a complex problem. the accounts released by the Nguyen historical office describing the early history of the Nguyen were not published until decades or more after the events described in those texts took place. is not yet fully understood.002] THE ROLE OF THE “MINH HUONG” DURING THE EARLY NGUYEN DYNASTY Zottoli. and migrant populations from areas of south China. and their relationship to the Nguyen rulers. Council on International Educational Exchange Both settlers from the areas ruled by the Nguyen lords. have been shown to play a part in the integration of the Mek ong Delta region into the Vietnamese state. Relevant texts include descriptions of specific regions. A few texts from the eighteenth and the early decades of the nineteenth centuries provide us with some additional data. This will help us to a step toward a more detailed and multi . family histories. and accounts from neighboring countries. I examine sections of several historical texts pertaining to persons who have been described as Chinese or “Minh Huong” and their relationship to early Nguyen leaders. time periods. Brian. the origin of the “Minh Huong” (or “Minh Loyalists”). In this paper. 4  . In some cases.Panel 1: Traditional Vietnamese history [01.faceted understanding of the nature of the “Minh Huong” involvement in the founding and early development of the Nguyen Dynasty.Dr. reports of foreign visitors. However. and geographical areas. Since these texts deal with different topics.

Scythians (yezhi) and ancient Austro .004] SAKI . which was “RESPIRATORY DISTRESS BY ASPIRATION PNEUMONIA.SCYTHIANS AND DONGSONIANS: A MEETING OF ANCESTORS OF THE RUSSIANS AND ANCESTORS OF THE VIETNAMESE Deopik Dega. a considerable group of European .in the upper reaches of Sikiang. which was: “SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE BY SPONTANEOUS ANEURYSM RUPTURE” and the cause of his death. Scythians. Moscow State University.Panel 1: Traditional Vietnamese history [01. The paper is based on archeological excavations’ materials from a burial mound of Shitzaisan (district Tszinin.raced 5   .003] THE DEATH OF EMPEROR QUANG TRUNG Bui Minh Duc.Asians (boye) in a contact zone of the Dong Son civilization and the steppe world . province Yunnan) and a unique find in Central Asia (southern part of the middle basin of Amudariya River). are to be some of the ancestors to the eastern branch of Slavs (subsequently . Combining the present medical knowledge with the remaining reliable historic documents. who populated in ancient times extensive spaces of the Eurasian steppes from Danube to Ordos. Dr. it was possible for us to deduce the cause of his illness. Russian Federation The paper presents conclusions on the cultural contacts of Saki . Prof. Yantsu and Songha rivers in the 6 .Russians).” [01. The comparative analysis of animal and human images has made it clear that at the interfaces of bronze and iron ages.Dr. USA Emperor Quang Trung passed away at the age of 40.7th centuries BC.

footwear. they disagree on the background of Thuc Phan .Thai groups) within the sphere of cultural influence of the Dong Son civilization. Here they confronted the South . a nomadic military and economic complex. well known to nomads from ancient period till XIII century A. Merging and deep mutual penetration of two strong cultural traditions was embodied in original sculptural compositions on the top planes of bronze drums where distinguishing features of newcomers from northern steppes are accurately visible: big height.Panel 1: Traditional Vietnamese history nomadic population moved from the area of Semirechje and north .005] BAN PHU CITADEL. long direct swords on cross . “animal style” in art. Most scientists agree on the factual existence of Au Lac country as successor to Van Lang country and King An Duong Vuong as a successor to King Hung. tight variegated trousers. short jackets with long sleeves. the history about Thuc Phan An Duong Vuong and Au Lac has always been an appealing topic to social scientists.eastern Kazakhstan to valleys near lake Djan (the north of Yunnan) through a pass.Mongolian population (Austro . However. shaved heads. And this was the first historically recorded meeting of the ancestors of Russian and Vietnamese peoples. traditions of expressional ritual dance.Asian and proto . A REMINESCENT OF THE THUC PHAN – AN DUONG VUONG TOPIC AND VIETNAM HISTORY Dinh Ngoc Vien Committee of Propaganda and Education. Newcomers formed a ruling stratum of the ancient state Tien (Dan).D.belts. beards (false at times). [01. brought specific Scythian cults of a bull and of a sacrificial column. Cao Bang Province Being one of the core issues in Vietnam history. est. 6  . signs of European race on the face.An Duong Vuong and many new findings have been made around him. armor with high collars.

managing to keep his throne. archeological records also verify the Tay background of Thuc Phan . the external wall is built as defense while the internal wall surrounds the area where the King lives. during all of which he used tricks to win. Hung Dao. Beside folk records.known among Tay minorities in Cao Bang. to the South of China was a country called Nam Cuong. Thuc Phan challenged the Lords in games of mind and strength. the King of the central region. Hoa An. which is nowadays known as Cao Binh. His inheritance and the birth of Au Lac marked a cornerstone in Vietnam history. that his young son Thuc Phan was heir to his throne upon his death. suggesting the connection between the Co Loa citadel and the Tay . which at that time was well .An Duong Vuong. Stories tells of Thuc Che King. thus. Nam Cuong was divided into 9 regions (in Vietnamese called Muong). who is leader of the Tay Au tribal alliance neighboring to Van Lang. the central region was inhabited by the King and the surrounding 9 regions by the nine Lords. 7   . which covered West Zhangzhou (China) and today Cao Bang province. Remains of the citadel are still found there and memories of the regions and the citadel linger in people’s minds. Legend says that to the end of the Hung King era.Panel 1: Traditional Vietnamese history It was in 1963 when the legend about “Nine lords fighting for throne” was found out. Cao Bang. Nam Binh capital has two layers of surrounding wall.Thai minorities. The capital of the central region was called Nam Binh. He was appointed leader of the alliance fighting against Tan invasion and then inherited the throne from Hung King. which provoked other lords to bring troops into the capital claiming their throne. which is called Ban Phu citadel. With his intelligence.

Dr.006] NGUYEN DYNASTY`S POLICIES ON CATHOLICISM Do Bang. Hue University of Sciences Catholicism was introduced to Vietnam and established here on grounds of not only religious values per se but also socio . 8  . These temporary measures were considered by most Nguyen Kings as effective in maintaining their control over the hearts and minds of their people and thus over their sovereignty. the stricter the ban on Catholicism was. the more acute the conflicts and difference to arise among Vietnamese people. Assoc. Nguyen Catholic policy depended on the regime’s relationship to France as well as other Western countries. especially the Nguyen dynasty in 19th century. Thieu Tri. Religious persecution in fact became a pretext for the French invasion of Vietnam and one of the causes of the Nguyen dynasty’s downfall.Prof. The failure of Nguyen dynasty to protect our country from the French invasion is a valuable lesson about our policies on religion in general and on Catholicism in particular. different Nguyen Kings such as Minh Mang. However. to be on the alert and to adopt preventive measures against Catholicism in general.Panel 1: Traditional Vietnamese history [01. Tu Duc implemented different policies on Catholicism including serious persecution of followers and even a full ban on the religion. However.political and cultural ones which caused Vietnamese feudalism.

both sides assert their win.VIETNAMESE ARMED FRONTIER CONFLICT IN 1059 1060 DESCRIBED IN VIETNAMESE AND CHINESE HISTORICAL SOURCES Kurokhtina. presented to the throne) by Ma Duanlin. the Chinese historians corrected in their works the result of this military campaign. But Chinese sources like History of the Song empire (Song shi) and Draft recovered edition of the Song history (Song huiyao jigao) contain a lot of facts about medieval Vietnamese state Daiviet that enlarge our knowledge about the Vietnamese history at that time as foreign writers record facts that may not be noticed by the natives. So we should be able to surmise what the actual events were in reality. the Chinese historians were mostly interested in foreign policy and the relation between Vietnam and China. the earliest source Dai Viet su luoc is half written about the sacral history of Daiviet and the court. First. The Vietnamese chronicles are more detailed than Chinese. the authors of Dai Viet su ky toan thu preferred political history. Evidently.Chinese armed frontier conflict in 1059 . Elena Institute of Asian and African Studies. Russian Federation Historians traditionally study Vietnamese medieval history relying on the Vietnamese chronicles (Dai Viet su luoc and Dai Viet su ky toan thu). We also briefly review Wenxian tongkao (General review of written documents.Panel 1: Traditional Vietnamese history [01. Second. The most striking example of the difference between the sources is a description of the Vietnamese . 9   .1060. Sometimes the chronicles describe the events in a different way.007] THE CHINESE . In chronicles. We compared the chronicles calculating the volume of hieroglyphs in each annual article and also compared described events. Moscow State University.

Prof. Like those who had traveled to the Chinese capital before him. Late in the eighteenth century.Panel 1: Traditional Vietnamese history [01. Like his predecessors.009] PHILIPHE BINH: A DIFFERENT TYPE OF VIETNAMESE ENVOY Dutton. Assoc. USA For centuries.influenced cultural heritage. George. Institute of Orient Studies. the Vietnamese courts sent emissaries to the Chinese capital to engage in diplomatic discourse.standing diplomatic 10  . Russian Federation The paper focuses on comparing some opinions of Vietnamese researchers who see Gia Long as a pro . this man was selected for his cultural knowledge and his prestige within the community he represented. He traveled not to affirm long . Such envoys were men of learning and deep understanding of Vietnam’s Chinese . and to reaffirm Vietnam’s recognition of China’s supremacy.008] VIETNAM . And yet. but the Jesuit community of northern Vietnam. this was a remarkably different man on a profoundly different journey.WEST RELATIONS IN THE DAI NAM THUC LUC CHRONICLE (GIA LONG DYNASTY) Murashova. [01. he wrote poetry along the way to express his emotions and to comment on the landscape as he passed it. The author’s approach is somewhat between and nearer to Dai Nam thuc luc.western leader with the data of Dai Nam thuc luc which presents Gia Long as a ruler who did not permit the western outsiders to intrude into his country's internal affairs. Insitute of South East Asia Studies. another envoy was sent out from Vietnam on a long journey to a remote capital. Dr. Philiphe Binh represented not the court. Russian Academy of Science. UCLA. Galina.

and that in Tonkin.010] SKETCHES ABOUT THE ROLE OF EUNUCH IN FOREIGN ECONOMY UNDER THE LE DYNASTY IN THE 17TH AND 18TH CENTURIES Hasuda Takashi Kyoto National University. According to Japanese records. A letter from Nghe An to Japan says that Japanese tradesmen in Nghe An are unable to proceed to the capital since Van Ly Hau are absent. and a different worldview. hopes to clarify on the role of status of eunuch as a political actor in the royal court. He exchanged letters with Mr. Van Ly Hau’s historical records are hardly found in Vietnam official historical records but foreign ones. it is written on a stele found in Nghe An that Van Ly Hau was an eunuch working the Lord Trinh palace who scored many achievements. where he was in charge of foreign economic activities during the first half of the 17th century. Suminokura. This paper will examine Philiphe Binh as an envoy of his community. Korean historical records also tell about Van Ly Hau. Binh’s extensive writings allow us to explore his experiences and consider the implications of this very different type of envoy. [01. Japan Eunuchs played an important role in military. Besides that. we find some records by Europeans revealing the role of other eunuchs in Dai Viet foreign economic activities. Those are strong pieces of evidence for Van Ly Hau’s role in Nghe An. Besides. financial and foreign economic activities under the Le Dynasty in the 17th and 18th century. he lived in Nghe An. representing a different community.known Japanese tradesman at that time. but to create new bonds between the European Catholic world. This paper. a well . 11   . based on the records of eunuch Van Ly Hau. considering the parallels with earlier Chinese envoys as well as the radical differences.Panel 1: Traditional Vietnamese history ties. a different culture. Some of them even climbed to an equal rank to military officials and literal officials.

containing rights and obligations of personality and property. The cuccession regulations of living property includes testament cuccession regulations and un . The right of property of a foster child had right of property’s cuccession of foster .mother with foster child. The right of property’s cuccession of foster child contains cuccession regulations of worship property and cuccession regulations of living property. The normal rearing of foster child commonly receives and nurses one’s child as attentive to aged parents. Dr.father and foster .child.father or foster mother. They bulld laws of relations between foster .Panel 1: Traditional Vietnamese history [01. 12  . In the laws of the Nguyen dynasty. The rearing of a foster child for ancestral worship receives and nurses one’s child for anniversaries and festivals in the religion of ancestral worship and the death anniversary of the foster . Compared with the Laws of Le dynasty.parents and foster . These adopted regulations in the Laws of the Nguyen dynasty shows that they had been fully developed.011] THE ADOPTED REGULATIONS IN LAWS OF THE NGUYEN DYNASTY (1802 .1884) COMPARED WITH MODERN VIETNAMESE LAWS Huynh Cong Ba. the Laws of the Nguyen dynasty had made distintions carefuly between the normal foster child’s rearing and the rearing of foster child for the ancestral worship.parents.testament cuccession regulations. the adopted regulations had set very concretely. The Laws of the Nguyen dynasty had determined of right and obligation of foster . Hue University of Education The adopted regulations are laws of the rearing of foster child. The laws are even better than those in Vietnam today.

The economic purpose was also one of the significant reasons that the Nguyen Dynasty accepted the tribute system. economic. In fact. Another reason that the rulers of the Nguyen Dynasty accepted the tribute system was to enjoy the privileged authority from investiture of the Qing emperor. was important for the international trade at the time. as a part of the tribute system. The dynasty accepted that it was a vassal of the Qing Dynasty and that its rulers admitted the authority of Emperors of China according to the tribute system. Seoul National University. this is not the only reason the Nguyen Dynasty accepted the tribute system. however. The Nguyen Dynasty.modern period. the Vietnamese rulers were able to strengthen and secure their orthodoxy through the Chinese emperor’s investiture. And also the Vietnamese hoped to build their firm cultural and national identity as a civilized state. The Nguyen Dynasty wanted a secure access to Chinese books and literatures for their intellectual desires through this tributary system to the Qing court.012] A HISTORY OF VIETNAMESE .Dr. which is the first Vietnamese dynasty that united Vietnam like today built its tribute system to Qing China for some 80 years since 1802.CHINESE RELATIONS IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY: MYTH AND REALITY OF THE TRIBUTE SYSTEM Yu Insun.Panel 1: Traditional Vietnamese history [01. Prof. Korea This study is to examine the nature of the tribute system between Vietnam and China in the pre . this tribute system was only a practical one for which the Nguyen Dynasty chose to take political. The diplomatic envoy’s visit to the Qing court. The security purpose is more important: to avoid the Chinese military threat against Vietnam and to provide safety to the Nguyen Dynasty. and cultural advantages. In reality. 13   . in fact. However. The focus is to be on the Nguyen Dynasty’s relations with Qing China in the nineteenth century from the Vietnamese point of view.

This particular attitude of the Vietnamese was not new. While the Nguyen Dynasty had remained and stayed as a subordinate state to the Qing Dynasty for the practical purpose.Panel 1: Traditional Vietnamese history Sometimes the Vietnamese rulers gave the court officials some of the goods. even superior to its Chinese counterpart. 14  . However. Even though Vietnam’s diplomatic relations with these countries were relatively inefficient. “diplomatic relation in equality” (bang giao) within the country along with the expression. “Vietnamese envoy to Qing China” for Vietnamese diplomats to the Qing court. even though both Vietnam and China were connected as a subordinate state and a suzerain state. In reality. I would like to point out that most of the previous studies have tended to neglect these ideas on the relation between the two countries because they shared the ideas of the Chinese view of the issue only. “accommodate the distant”). in order to strengthen their authority. On the other hand. As for an example. even though the Nguyen Dynasty used the term of the “tribute system” for the official diplomatic relation to the Qing. the tribute system was not practically sufficient as a political system. To sum up. its rulers claimed themselves as emperors and used their own reign titles in their country. it is significant that the Nguyen Dynasty created its own world order against the Qing Dynasty of China. which the Nguyen court called “the harmonious management of distant peoples” (nhu vien: literally. which they had earned through the tribute system. the Nguyen Dynasty’s achievements in Confucian culture and the Qing Dynasty of the Manchurians further strengthened the Nguyen court’s firm identity and nationalism along with spiritual sovereignty. In addition. the Vietnamese pride in the cultural achievements and developments later influenced and helped Vietnam to form its own world order (Dai Nam de quoc trat tu) over its neighboring countries. it used the expression. the Vietnamese believed their cultural status was equal to China or sometimes. it believed on the other hand that it was equal to the Qing court in reality.

Dr. historical chronologies have mistakes in both form and content and therefore need to be re . The old genealogy of the Mạc family in Niên biểu Việt Nam was taken from Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư and is inaccurate. the date of enthronement. This paper reports on two forms of historical chronologies: the detailed historical chronology and the elemental historical chronology.examined. and other archaeological finds to construct a new exact chronology for the Mạc dynasty. Institute of Communication and Technology. VAST Historical chronologies are indispensable texts for social scientists. 22 competitive examinations. the date of death. For the detailed historical chronology. This paper also states the author's contributions in contents of the new historical chronology in wanting it to be more abundant. detailed. However. based on Đại việt sử ký toàn thư in 8 reigning years: Cảnh Lịch. Previous areas of confusion such as recognizing Dục Đức. Previous historical chronologies erroneously wrote the Mạc kings to be part of the genealogy of the Nguyen and Trịnh lords.013] ETABLISHING THE VIETNAMESE HISTORICAL CHRONOLOGIES Le Thanh Lan.Prof. Some new lines about form were recommended by the author in the detailed historical chronology tables of his book Lịch và niên biểu lịch sử hai mươi thế kỷ (0001 . Thuần Phúc.2010) with the intention of editing and supplementing them in their next republication. the date of abdication of Kings and Lords were stated by author exactly in each day.Panel 1: Traditional Vietnamese history [01. and exact than previous historical chronologies. Quang Bảo. This is completely different from the old one which appeared in the Niên biểu Việt Nam. The author's essential contribution was based on 60 stone inscriptions. Hiệp Hòa as having reigned in the same years will be clarified by the author. Sùng 15   . The author wrote them in chronological form because the Mạc were the actual dynasty in Vietnam. the beginning day of reigning year. fullness of the birthday. The author also hopes to present the elemental historical chronology in a more compelling format. Assoc.

century of rule (1802 1858). MA.Panel 1: Traditional Vietnamese history Khang. we need to set up a historical chronology of China. [01. Additionally. The chronologies of the contemporary dynasty or the family genealogy have been collated with the chronologies of the principal dynasty. and establishing sovereignty over the maritime border was the most important. patrolling. our ancient books often recorded China’s reigning years and the Chinese ancient books also recorded events concerning our country history.1565 in the old chronology that was reduced less than 3 years in comparison with 1565 . Particularly. This paper examines these efforts by the Nguyen dynasty during their first half .1568 given in stone inscriptions. The historical chronologies of the principal dynasty of Vietnam and China have been collated mutually. Because our country had been dominated by people from the North for many years. so it’s possible and necessary for reference. the Nguyen dynasty implemented many methods for defense. Diên Thành. Of these. Đoan Thái. Phan Chau Trinh University Knowing the importance of the sea with respect to national defense and security. 16  . especially regarding the threat of invasion from the West. controlling.014] PATROLLING AND CONTROLLING THE SEA IN THE EARLY NGUYEN DYNASTY (1802 . Its efforts on this front helped maintain peace and stability in the region. Hưng Trị and Hồng Ninh.1858) Le Tien Cong. the Thuần Phúc reigning year was recorded of 1562 .

in the upper level of earth tombs. bangles made of shell.015] THE AUSTRO . earrings of nephrite and carnelian in the shape of two . at the excavation in Ly Son . the Re ethnic group. College of Social Sciences and Humanities. about 20 tools of late Paleolithic period (18. Hoa Dziem). about 10 earth tombs were found. where a cemetery containing urns dating from 5th century BC to 1st .ASIATICS.the Island of the Re people. bringing with them their new culture.Polynesians seem to have come to Vietnam from the East sea. and its practice of the ancient ritual of buffalo sacrifice and of “tomb . in the lowest level. at the site Lung Leng (Kontum province).g. 000 years ago) were uncovered (a Paleolithic hand axe in Lung Leng. the presence of burial mores in earth tombs (without coffin). in the bottom of excavated pit.groups.Asiatics comprising 878. and vases (e.Asiatic people. AUSTRONESIANS AND THE FORMATION OF ANCIENT STATES IN VIETNAM Luong Ninh.. the body lay face up). These practices dating back to the 5th century BC are suggested by excavations at the Island Re .house “ building. boat tombs (boat shape coffins. VNU Hanoi In Vietnam nowadays there are two ethnic minority groups living in the Western Highlands and along the central coast. The first group seems to have lived in the Western Highlands since ancient times and is characterized by Neolithic tools and ceramics.groups. the Re 17   . 791 people in 18 sub . in which. The Malayo .Asiatic groups. some earth tombs were uncovered showing the vestiges of ancient indigenous people. and the use of jewelry (collars. 208 people in 5 sub . characterized by the presence of cremation burial mores in vase (the Cemetery of vases). The first group is the Austro .Ly Son. In one of the tombs was a cadaver with “ground teeth and enlarged ears”. the construction of urns and ceramic tools. the use of iron tools and weapons.headed animals. Prof.2nd centuries AD was discovered. one of the Austro . one of the ancient mores of Austro . The second is the Malayo Polynesians including 803. In the upper level.Panel 1: Traditional Vietnamese history [01. and.

000 years ago. the origins of these people as well as of the 803. a possible staging area for a new wave of migration in the 5th century BC to the coast.Polynesians remains unknown. 208 Malayo . Presently. [01. 000 Gia Rai people speaking Malayo . which left a large cemetery of burial vases . It was only 18  .Polynesia. Japan This report studies the significance of the upsurge and movement led by Nung Tri Cao to the history of Lanh Nam territory. The people of Lung Leng presented here from the Paleolithic era. Nowadays Lung Leng in the district Sa Thay is inhabited by 15. an area mainly located to the South of China. in Southern Viet Nam.000 Re people. and at Lung Leng (Kontum). 18.Asiatics Proto Môn happened at the same time with the coming of the Malayo .Panel 1: Traditional Vietnamese history inhabited island. Nung Tri Cao fought against the Song dynasty. where a cultural level of habitation and a cemetery of cremation vase tombs with artifacts of bronze.016] GUANGZHOU SITUATION AFTER NUNG CHI CAO’S REVOLUTION Morita Kentaro.Polynesian language. the development of Aborigines Proto . and more than 100. suggesting they co . and come directly to the bronze and iron ages with the mores of cremation burial vases.the embodiment of the reputed culture of Sa Huynh. Being a leader in the right hand side area of Giang Ta. 180. One finds only the coming of the speakers of the Malayo .existed and co . In Can Gio and Oc Eo.Asiatic Re and other ethnic groups had lived before.Polynesians.operated to form the Kingdom of Funan. was found covering the level of earth tomb from the earlier time. MA. 000 Banahr and Sedang people speaking Austro . iron. The Sa Huynhian .Asiatic. which roared the entire Lanh Nam territory. Waseda University.Austro .Chamic culture came later in the 5th century BC to Quang Ngai shore where the Austro . seem to pass through the Neolithic stage.

19   . Wada Rizaemon. Empo.017] THE VOC AND THE NON-DUTCH PEOPLE: WHY THE NON-DUTCH PEOPLE COULD WORK IN THE COMPANY Nara Shuichi Institute of Orient Studies. show that Song regime and officials appointed to Lanh Nam territory managed to restore the area and supervise and further protect Quang Nam ward.Caron. F. for example. And also this paper focuses on the relation between the Tonkin Kingdom and the company.Song relationship and social development of the Lanh Nam territory but also helped improve supervising policy over the area. geographical records and steles. I shall focus on the non Dutch people.Panel 1: Traditional Vietnamese history after such experience that Song regime paid more attention to reinforcing its reign over the Lanh Nam territory. Moreover. Song’s officials who contributed to the successful repression of the upsurge were appointed to Quang Nam ward. In this paper. [01. personal contacts with Nung Tri Cao also helped change the awareness and living habits of inhabitants and officials there. It is useful to reconsider the character of this company for the analysis of the character of Modern. for the reconsideration of the character of the company. It is agreed that it was thanks to Nung Tri Cao that construction and restoration policies in Quang Nam ward were implemented faster and more actively than ever. Many remains of the upsurge provoked by Nung Tri Cao are found in Lanh Nam territory. In short. the upsurge and movement provoked and led by Nung Tri Cao left great impact not only on the Ly . China’s historic materials such as official historical records. Japan The East India Company of the Netherlands is thought to be a modern stock company in the early modern era.

which was his true objective during his life as an official under the Tran regime. Looking at the historical context and Ho Quy Ly’s activities. he has no other way but to gain for himself the highest rank of Quoc To Chuong Hoang (the Father of the State) in 1394 and the King himself in 1400. Ho Quy Ly was forced to face up with the conservative royal family who held conservative opinion. should he want to maintain his reforms and implement anti .Prof. is not sufficient to conclude that he had had a conspiracy to steal the throne from the Tran regime. He was arrested by the foes together with his soldiers in 1407.invasion policies. Besides. Ho Quy Ly finally managed to gain the emperorship and give birth to the Ho dynasty. During the period from early 1400 until the establishment of the Ho regime. Ho Quy Ly defeated Chiem Thanh invaders and organized the preparation to fight against Ming invaders. Along with the renovation process. Unlucky enough. the resistance was unsuccessful while the renovation process was halted in the middle. however. VASS The mere fact that being a politician under the Tran dynasty for 30 years.economic reforms have been implemented. When Ho Quy Ly participated in Tran politics. Assoc.Dr. In that context.Panel 1: Traditional Vietnamese history [01. After the King’s death. Institute of History. a different conclusion can be made. the regime was already weakened and the society in chaos. far . cultural and socio .018] HO QUY LY’S POLITICAL CALCULATION: THE THRONE OR NATIONAL REFORM AND SECURITY? Nguyen Danh Phiet. 20  . What is more noteworthy is the trust given by King Tran Nghe Tong to Ho Quy Ly’s reforms. Ho Quy Ly himself saw the throne merely as a means to push forward reforms and ensure national security. History and human calculation often goes a far more complicated track. Chiem Thanh from the South and the Ming dynasty from the North scared the regime with threats of invasion. a King and a King’s Father.reaching military.

Determine to fight for defending national independence. Concept: Military philosophy is the most profound knowledge. Prof. sovereignty. Some contents of traditional military philosophy: . He accepted losing his throne as he lost the resistance war to the North dynasty. defining objectives. fighting tactics and the art to win in the war for liberation and the war for country defence of the nation. our ancestors learned many lessons from valuable experiences. The failure by no means destroys his dignity and his resistant emotion.a key part of traditional Vietnamese philosophy. "whatever sacrifices we have to endure… we must be determined to achieve independence". hoping that his successors will fulfill his wishes. military philosophy can orientate and mobilize people and community to struggle for elevated objectives of social life. the throne offered Ho Quy Ly a means on the path to pursue his objectives but he was unsuccessful in doing so. Institute of Vietnamese Military History Through thousand years of fighting against aggressors for national independence. ideology that is experimentalized and condensed into theory with the purpose of guiding. which characteristic makes him a respected reformer in Vietnam’s history in the late 14th century and early 15th century. especially on military philosophy . analyzing forces.019] TRADITIONAL VIETNAMESE MILITARY PHILOSOPHY Nguyen Minh Duc. which was the tactics used by several Kings after him. determine not to be slave 21   . With its great ability. He made no compromise in a calculation to keep the throne. Assoc. [01. "better a glorious death than a shameful life". In short. sovereignty.Panel 1: Traditional Vietnamese history Ho Quy Ly was determined not to yield to the invaders despite their dominating strength. Dr.

Panel 1: Traditional Vietnamese history . Although France had anticipated the Guangdong government’s intentions. That was the way to fight "using a small force to defeat a big force. using weakness against strength. "avoid the east.The whole country is strength to fight the enemy. stage 2 (1930 . However. they did not encounter any reaction from Vietnam because Vietnam at that time had surrendered its sovereignty to the French. Having confidence in the invincible strength of soldier. "reluctantly to employ military manpower". we need inherit the good values in military philosophy of our Ancestor and raise a new peak in order to steadily defend the socialist Vietnam Fatherland. combining fighting and negotiating. "hit the head of the snake first". stage 3 (1945 . The dispute can be divided into five stages: stage 1 (1909 .The way to fight is multiform.Heightening the great justice "using the great justice to defeat brutality”. using a small army to fight against a big army" For the background being. even women fight". "when the invaders arrive. Vietnam Association of Historical Science The dispute began in 1909 when the government of Guangdong province (China) considered the Paracel Islands of Vietnam to be terra nullius. [01. so they carried out an illegal exploration and seized the island. . stage 4 (1954 22  .020] HISTORICAL BACKGROUND LEADING TO THE DISPUTE OF VIETNAM’S SOVEREIGNTY OVER PARACEL AND SPARTLY ISLANDS: CAUSES AND SOLUTIONS Nguyen Nha.1954). which would be unfavorable to French interests in China.1945).1930). it did not interfere because the French government feared that it might cause a new movement of “chauvinism” among Chinese people. raise agitation the west". avoid "employing only military manpower" . Dr.

especially official documents and gazettes which annually recorded the state’s occupation and enforcement of its sovereignty over the Paracel and Spartly islands such as map drawings. These documents are not as few as those attached to the letter of Governor General Pasquier to the 23   . they left a vacuum in the East Sea (South China Sea). landmarks. Taiwan and the Philippines. the historical situation was unique producing disputes with different causes and of dissimilar natures. This was during the Cold War period. the US did not oppose China’s invasion of the Paracel Islands in January 1974. quickly invaded some of the Paracel and Spratly islands. After signing the Shanghai General Communiqué with China in 1972 and the Paris Agreement with Vietnam in 1973. the Paracel and Spratly islands located south of the 17th parallel were to be under the control of the Southern government of Vietnam. Historical truths and solution? Numerous documents proving Vietnam’s sovereignty have continuously appeared throughout different eras. Vietnam was also divided into two governments. especially gas and oil reserves. when the world was divided into the Capitalist and the Socialist blocs. during the Cold War and the hot war.Panel 1: Traditional Vietnamese history 1975) and the present stage (1975 to the present). comrades and brothers who were mutually supportive of one another in this international dispute. Vietnam now has about 30 different types of documents. from the reign of the Nguyen Lords (early 17th century) to the Tay Son Dynasty and then the Nguyen Dynasty (from King Gia Long onwards). etc by the Nguyen Dynasty’s naval force. The cause of the dispute changed thereafter. tree planting. mainly public documents. well diggings. temples. within the context of the Cold War. The dispute has continued owing not only to the inherent importance of the Islands’ strategic position but also their natural resources. When French colonialists withdrew from Vietnam in April 1956. Since the Southern government of Vietnam could not effectively extend its sovereignty over the Paracel and Spratly Islands. China. erection of monuments. According to the Geneva Agreement to which China was a signatory. the Northern and the Southern governments of Vietnam had allies. Vietnam became unified. After 1975. In each stage.

With respect to China.operation among member states to their mutual benefit. regardless of his/her political persuasion. such as Book 3 of Hai ngoai ky su (Records of Overseas Events) of Thich Dai San (a Chinese author) in 1696 recounted that a Nguyen Lord sent ships to collect valuable sea products and goods from sunken ships in the area of Van Ly Truong Sa (i. The truth of Vietnam’s sovereignty over Paracel Islands is clear. when France clearly affirmed Vietnam’s sovereignty. there is no Vietnamese government and no Vietnamese person. Even Chinese documents. as discussed above. but has also always respected China as the more senior country by following the tradition of being a “fringe of China” and never having the intention to endanger Chinese interests. and not along the coast as China claimed. unified country and has friendly relationships with all countries in the world including China. Meanwhile. Paracel Islands). and especially that of Bishop Taberd published in 1833 recounting that King Gia Long had officially affirmed Vietnam’s sovereignty over the Paracel Islands in 1816. The cause for the dispute does not exist anymore. ASEAN countries should make concessions in the spirit of closer co . various western documents have come to light. Vietnam and China share a common border as well as valuable lessons of history. who does not regard as paramount the return of the Paracel Islands to Vietnam and the protection of the integrity of the Spartly Islands.years . 24  . the United States and Russia..old tradition of resolute protection of its independence and autonomy.e. “What is Caesar’s must be returned to Caesar. Thus. Further.Panel 1: Traditional Vietnamese history Minister for Colonies on 18th October 1930. Vietnam has a thousand . Vietnam has been an independent.” On the basis of the 1982 Convention on the Law of the Sea. An Nam Dai quoc hoa do (The Illustrated Map of the Great Nation of Annam) by Bishop Taberd published in 1838 as an appendix to the Latin-Annam dictionary clearly showed that “Paracels seu Cát Vàng” (Golden Sand) to be part of Vietnam with the same coordinates as at present. such as those of Jean Baptiste Chaigneau and Gutzlaff (1849).

Panel 1: Traditional Vietnamese history Any solution based on the use of force such as the invasions of the Paracel and Spartly islands by Japan in 1938 .Prof. It was regrettable that the paradoxical circumstances of our country at the end of the 18th century did not permit him to realize to a greater extent the mission which history had given to him. sincerely invited all wise people of whom he had a high opinion.021] EMPEROR NGUYEN HUE .. The Quang Trung (QT) dynasty stayed within that historical limit. Under circumstances in Viet Nam in the last decades of the 18th century.. The work from "slightly open" to "widely open" could not be accomplished by only one emperor. In our opinion. QP slightly opened an issue for Vietnamese society in that period.QUANG TRUNG'S RENOVATED THOUGHT IN NATIONAL CONSTRUCTION POLICY Nguyen Phan Quang. the NCP comprised renovated thought in order to change the nation's situation . Moreover. QT determined to concentrate all the nation's intellectual sources. Assoc. 25   . France in the 1920s. QT's efforts essentially created a “hinge” so that a new page in Vietnamese history could be turned. by a policy which was courageous and in conformity with the tendency of his time. With the intention that the policy of national renovation would soon become reality.Dr. Vietnam Association of Historical Science Until now. [01. then cultural and other.economical first. or China in 1974 and 1988 should be renounced. but rather what he sought to expressed in his NCP. a dynasty in power had to construct a monarchical state. our remarks on Quang Trung's (QT) National Construction Policy (NCP) differed. Nevertheless. the time during which QT carried out his NCP was four years only. This paper does not try to establish whether QT's policies were reformist or not.1939.

Each toring is headed by a leader who ruled by military. social and political alliance as a military alliance where the leader plays a notable role in times of war. In an attempt to clarify on the social structure called toring and its leader. Gia Rai people (or may be called the Jarai people) in the now Gia Lai province lived in a community of many villages structured together called the toring. Gia Lai Province Long before the French applied its colonial occupation over the mountainous area to the West of the Central and Southern Vietnam. we hold that toring refers to a combination of neighborhood villages located in one territory. yet their inter . while no information other than the name of the other torings are known. Toring is not so much a religious. in Kron Pa province and toring Lon Hudrung in the Pleiku plateau. Department of Culture. toring Lon Chu Chreo is the only one studied by many projects and familiar to many people. economic power and even god’s power embraced on him. meaning led by Sa Gam. Dr. in Ayun Pa. many Torings become the territorial basis where established provincial administration. By making comparison between preceding writers and local writings. Of those torings.022] PRECIMINARY STUDIES OF TORING AND TORING’S LEADERS (A DIALECT FOR VILLAGE) IN GIA RAI REGION IN THE EARLY 19th CENTURY . Toring consists of villages that share their origins and then expand to other neighboring villages. toring Lon Sa Gam.LATE 20th CENTURY PERIOD Nguyen Thi Kim Van. with focus on toring Lon Uncle Chreo and toring Lon Sa Gam. this article for the third Vietnamese study conference is aimed at shedding more light on the subject.Panel 1: Traditional Vietnamese history [01. Some torings are still mentioned these days such as toring Lon Chu Chreo. meaning led by Chu Chreo. Ia Pa in Gia Lai province.relationship remained loose. Toring turned into an alliance in times of war. After the French gained occupation over Tay Nguyen. Sports and Tourism. 26  .

They represented an enlightened intellectual class and at the same time a subordinate mandarin serving the Court and obtaining many favours from the king. social positions and even their lives. College of Social Sciences and Humanities. labeled social elite. overcoming the complex fear associated with the risk to their own fortunes.SCHOLARS’ PERSONALITIES IN THE LE . VNU Hanoi In traditional Vietnam. 27   .officials had to choose between ideology and politics.023] ABOUT OFFICIALS . Yesterday always sends messages to today. a divorce between theory and reality. most of the Vietnamese intelligentsia on trial at present will certainly maintain their courage and their personality in a social engagement with a historical responsibility. or they persisted in keeping their personality of an authentic intellectual. not easy to compromise. The Le . rejecting any seduction and threat. an open element in a closed structure. with an obvious separation between a rigid ideology and a dynamic life. Whether they gave up the firmness for losing their scholar’s personality to maintain their individual security and welfare as mandarins. Among various behavioral patterns.class. Dr. Facing trials and temptations. that is to say.TRINH PERIOD Nguyen Thua Hy.Trinh period was such a disordered and paradoxical historical stage.officials were those who had succeeded in their academic and political careers. the Confucian scholars formed an inter .Panel 1: Traditional Vietnamese history [01. Assoc. Scholar . Apart from the opportunists who have betrayed themselves. there happened a serious differentiation of personality. the Scholar . They took with them a vague and dualist personality. Prof. vertical stratum.

techniques. techniques and products. either tangible or intangible cultural elements. the old citadel and court music. categories. craft artists.024] INFLUENCE OF CRAFT GUILDS DURING THE NGUYEN DYNASTY ON HUE Nguyen Van Dang. product diversity and the urban lifestyle.Hue since early 17th century until 1945. It will explain how the state industry affects population movement and structure. namely. Particularly speaking.Panel 1: Traditional Vietnamese history [01. The paper then goes on to analyse and emphasise the guilds’ influence on the society at that time. especially the evolution of Hue urban area. with regards to profession policy. it highlights the industry’s influence on defining the appearance of Hue urban culture. including the folk crafts and other industries. Hue University of Sciences This paper first briefs about the achievements of the state craft industry established by Nguyen Kings and Lords in Phu Xuan . Finally. two of which are now recognized by the UNESCO as world’s cultural heritage. The paper aims at highlighting the organization of craft guild in Hue citadel and its achievement. Dr. the paper focuses on the industry’s influence on defining professional structure. on which ground the urban population was born. 28  .

Dr. the Tran royal families and the elites were essential actors in preserving. together with the whole nation.025] DAI VIET’S CULTURAL TREATMENT OF REGIONAL COUNTRIES SEEN FROM THE TREATMENT AND ATTITUDE OF THE ELITÉ UNDER TRAN REGIME Nguyen Van Kim. the Tran culture left its in the process of national culture evolution. confronted with severe challenges coming from the regional political and cultural environment. Tran Khanh Du. Tran Nhat Duat.established cultural streams. Besides its achievement in developing the Vietnamese Truc Lam Zen sect.founded cultural treatment towards outside pressures and influence. Tran Quang Khai. By doing so. It is considered that they represent the combination of different cultural groups. They developed a proactive and well . what they produced were the elite and scholar cultural stream. creative and active way of thinking.minded kings such as Tran Thai Tong. College of Social Sciences and Humanities. VNU Hanoi During its 175 years of development. promoting and adjusting cultural values.Panel 1: Traditional Vietnamese history [01. Tran Thanh Tong and Tran Nhan Tong are talented warriors such as Tran Hung Dao. 29   . Dai Viet culture under the Tran regime. They played an active role in identifying a "Vietnamese way“ of thinking and ideology. Alongside bright . held the biggest responsibility to the whole nation and were the most capable to receive and deal with the sea of knowledge coming to them. becoming the influential mainstream in the society.up and reinforcement of cultural identities. nationalism and awareness of national independence were reinforced. the inner strength and outside strength and the vertical and horizontal combination between cultural. on which ground patriotism. furthering the building . with their political power. The modern cultural stream was inherited from long . thus. It was their cultural consciousness and behavior that offered the vivid demonstration of their patriotism. political and religious elements. As a result. both of whom were representatives of an era of cultural brilliance. Prof. Assoc. The elites.

He even employed Vietnamese priests from both Dang Ngoai and Dang Trong to assist him in his mission. and Sai Lord’s relative under her Catholic name Maria . Dang Trong’s capital. in the Dang Trong (internal area or region to the right river bank) Catholic priests reached every corner of the region among to establish Catholic village there. Institute of Asian and African Studies. Due to policy shortcomings and the failure to mobilize their inner strength to catch up with and adjust to the evolution of the era. Da Nang. Russian Federation During the first ten year period from 1615 to 1625. Moscow State University. Hue.026] CATHOLIC VILLAGES IN VIETNAM IN THE 17th CENTURY Novakova Oxana. Priest Buzomi was the first one to establish such village in the South of Vietnam.Magdalina). challenges got in the way of the development of the royal elite .ranking women in the Trinh Lord and Nguyen Lord administration. Priest Alexandre de Rhodes was responsible for establishing parish villages in the Dang Ngoai (external region or region to the left river bank) during the 1627 1630 period.Buddhism monarchy gradually weakened and was finally removed by the rationalist Confucian oligarchy. the number of which was few at that time. Vietnamese women also played an important role in establishing Catholic village.Buddhism model.Panel 1: Traditional Vietnamese history To the end of the Tran regime. yet. 30  . parish villages were established at the earliest. particularly high . [01. Dr. such as Trinh Trang Lord’s younger sister under her Catholic name Ekaterina and her 17 relatives. Where most priests inhabited such as in Fai Fo (Hoi An). the elite . He remained the village’s priest for 20 years.

Some of these movements such as those by Hai Ba Trung. Dr. By using the contemporary Dutch documentary sources the paper aims at presenting the picture of the Vietnamese diasporas on the island and its geographical implication. they approach the period from the upsurge movements by Vietnamese people against the occupation of the Chinese feudal regime.027] THE VIETNAMESE DIASPORAS IN THE SEVENTEENTH . people living there. The Vietnamese. served under the Company and participated in the European expedition on the remote Austronesian tribal areas of the aforementioned island as other nations such as the Hokkienese and the Javanese did.028] A STUDY ON SOME AN NAM LEADERS UNDER THE TANG OCCUPATION Pham Le Huy. [01. [01.CENTURY DUTCH-TAIWAN AND ITS GEOGRAPHICAL IMPLICATION Peter Kang. VNU Hanoi Political studies on the period Vietnam occupied by government from the North are characterized by three main features: first. National Donghwa University. Ly Nam De. Prof. are treated in a better way and live in solidarity together. MA. 31   .Panel 1: Traditional Vietnamese history Those Catholic villages were characterized by new cultural and social features distinct from those found in other traditional Viet villages. Taiwan The paper mainly explores the Vietnamese activities in Taiwan when the island was under the jurisdiction of the Dutch East India Company in the seventeenth century. Particularly. predominately from Central Vietnam. be they poor or rich. College of Social Sciences and Humanities.

This paper tries to make the best use of the abovementioned materials in an attempt to shed light on the activities of local leaders under the Tuy . Dr. development of maintenance of those leaders’ heirs. the studies’ scope is focused on the Red River Plain. [01. shed light on the nature of local autonomy and the building up. Hankuk University of Foreign Studies. Second.Panel 1: Traditional Vietnamese history Mai Hac De. render little knowledge about the North West region. the abovementioned studies hardly dig deep into more reliable official historical records. some are Vietnamese Chinese.Duong (Tang) occupation. Vietnam's territorial expansion has been pursued over the long haul. Some of them are the original Vietnamese. Korea Territorial expansion of Vietnam is one of the examples that show the history of mankind has been governed by the law of the jungle. Prof. This study is aimed at analyzing territorial expansions during the Late Le Dynasty which has pursued the objective most actively. its history has been characterized by the ambilateral of struggling nationalism and aggressive nationalism. Vietnam's territorial expansion started from the Ly dynasty (1009 1225). Just like its long history. while the others not. As a result. we hope to add up to our knowledge about this period. Finally.029] TERRITORIAL EXPANSION OF THE LE DYNASTY OF VIETNAM Song Jung Nam. Due to the logics of power and geopolitics Vietnam's territorial expansion has been made mainly toward the South. thus. Some of those movements’ leaders were for autonomy. some are original Chinese and some belong to ethnic minorities. By doing that. Thanh . 32  .Nghe . carried out on a small scale.Tinh plain. Historically Vietnam has been the target of Chinese territorial expansion policy on the one hand and at the same time pursued its own version of territorial expansion policy towards the weak Champa and Cambodia. succeeded in raising high the independence and autonomy flags while the others were of spontaneous nature.

Panel 1: Traditional Vietnamese history In its territorial expansion into the South. thus. As a result.China relations and Vietnam Cambodia relations. Thang Long. with the exception of a portion of Chinese doing business in Pho Hien.cultural society. Vietnam's territorial expansion validates the historical experience that "the relationship has never been friendly between neighboring countries". Those who migrated to the North are mainly officials and soldiers of invading troops rather than tradesmen.racial and multi . It was because the Chinese.030] THE ROLE PLAYED BY CHINESE IN ESTABLISHING AND DEVELOPING URBAN AREAS IN CENTRAL AND SOUTH VIETNAM FROM THE 17th CENTURY TO THE 19th CENTURY Tong Thi Quynh Huong. has accelerated the commercial development and made Vietnam as a multi . the Chinese population in the North is small and diverse. [01. Chinese people built up their own villages and neighborhood. Ties between Vietnam and Thailand had hotly contended for the domination of Cambodia was unfriendly. by supplying the much needed labor. MA. 33   . Hanoi National University of Education Chinese came to Vietnam from the very early time since the BC era and have expanded their population throughout the country over the centuries. exerting weaker influence on the society than those living in the South and Central Vietnam. Despite some exceptions Vietnam Laos relations was also the case. too. Like Chinese living in other Southeast Asian countries. It is true in the cases of Vietnam . in Vietnam. during a long process of habitation and doing business. On the other hand. Chinese immigrants' contribution was decisive factor. in which stable and developed Chinese community are settled down and seen as part of the Viet community.

Some of them. Along with Hoi An and Cho Lon. Champa polities played an important role on the sea trading route so called Nanhai that link between the South and East Asia throughout the centuries. where noteworthy was the role of Chinese tradesmen.Panel 1: Traditional Vietnamese history Along with the establishment of Chinese community is the emergence of crowded and active commercial urban centers in the South and Centre of Vietnam. Cu Lao Pho. is under Chinese tradesmen’s influence. This artwork was dated in circa 8th century AD (Exhibiting at Museum of Champa Scultpture in Danang. The polo itself and the figures of the horses are the best example to learn about the trade relationship between China and Champa. were pivotal not only in the establishment but also the prosperity and downfall of those commercial centers. such as Thanh Ha.relief of the polo players is the unique sculptural work that found in Champa art as well as in the ancient Southeast Asian arts.031] THE BAS . It is agreed that Chinese people. Bao Vinh’s commercial activities are also dominated by Chinese tradesmen as well. a city established by Chinese immigrants. Cho Lon. Thanh Ha is inhabited mainly by Chinese tradesmen. Bao Vinh. evolved into regional and international commercial centers and transit points. Cu Lao Pho.RELIEF OF THE POLO PLAYERS IN CHAM SCULPTURE: CONSIDERING ON THE HORSE TRADING BETWEEN THE CHAMPA KINGDOM AND EAST ASIA FROM THE 7th TO THE 15th CENTURIES AD Tran Ky Phuong Vietnam Associaton of Ethnic Minorities’s Culture and Arts The bas . Those commercial centers made no less important contribution to national economic development in centuries to go. Historically. Hoi An. [01. particularly the tradesmen. Vietnam). 34  .

however imperfect.Panel 1: Traditional Vietnamese history This paper will deal with the horse trading from China into Champa and attempting to figure out how the Cham people (urang Campa) used horses in their daily activities depicted in the sculptural works from the 7th to the 13th centuries. Attention was also paid to the rule of law. At the central levels are the King’s secretariat. Dr. ward in the capital and town in the rural areas and villages. Prof. The court was restructured and improved in all aspects. VASS Following the landmark era under the Khuc. Assoc. The capital was moved from Hoa Lu to Thang Long in 1010. headed by the King. The army was organized into the troops in the Forbidden city and troops in the provinces. Ngo. Local administrative units were organized into provinces in the plain and in the mountainous areas.13th CENTURY PERIOD Tran Thi Vinh. Such form the foundation for developing a historic Thang Long culture.13th century period under the Ly dynasty witnessed new development. was restructured. 35   . was pivotal to its economic and national defense achievements. Dinh and early Le dynasty. On the field of foreign affairs and home affairs. marking a new era in the national history. court’s main offices and specialized offices. especially its success in defeating the invasion threats to national fate from the Song dynasty in the North and the Chiem regime in the South.032] POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS UNDER LY DYNASTY IN THE 11th . The first written code was introduced under the Ly dynasty. [01. which were then divided into different arms. Vietnam’s politics in the 11th century . the dynasty adopted a flexible policy. The political structure under the Ly dynasty./. The administrative government at the central and local levels. Institute of History.

which strengthened the military to the detriment of the Le regime.AN ANALYSIS OF LUC PHIEN Ueda Shinya Hiroshima National University. Despite numerous studies on the village . conclusion is made that the free ride assumed by eunuch originates from the combination of the financial and military mechanism.ranking position in the six ministries are given to eunuchs.Trinh regime from the angle of an analysis into the “Six Ministry” administrative structure in the Lord Premises.TRINH REGIME IN THE 18th CENTURY .Panel 1: Traditional Vietnamese history [01.nation relationship and the role of the eunuchs in the administration.033] FINANCIAL MECHANISM OF THE LE . Section 1 is an analysis of the functions of the six ministries. thus. Japan This paper will lay out the major characteristics of the Le .depth studies are done on the structure and organization of the administration due to the lack of research material. From those arguments. arguing that the six ministry system represents budget allocation to each ministry.     36  . They even hold military rank. controlling local tax collection system. holding that the six ministries send their junior officials to work under the supervision of local military leaders. Section 2 lays out some arguments that some high . few in . The last section dwells into the relations between finance and the military.



M. [02. the Hoa has owned its special characteristic. different from other ethnic communities. the Hoa is the 4th largest ethnic community among Vietnam’s 54 ethnic groups. was established after the 10th Congress of VCP. Institute of Southeast Asia Studies. Assoc. the Hoa has gone through Vietnamese history from the establishment and development of commercial towns including: Pho Hien.034] ELITE AND GOOD GOVERNANCE: A CASE STUDY OF VIETNAM AFTER THE 10th CONGRESS AT THE VCP Abraham K. Hoi An.Panel 2: Contemporary Vietnamese history   [02. The paper also explores the extent to uphold positive elements and 39   ..Years Plan (2006~2010). Chi Nan National University. VASS Accounting for 1.Cholon to the struggling for national liberation. Taiwan A new generation of leading elites. They promote economic development not only for Vietnam. Prof. The new elites present their good governance in the past two years although some economic difficulties should be overcome. However.035] THE HOA IN VIETNAMESE HISTORY Chau Thi Hai. Dr. including the Politburo of VCP and the new Cabinet. This paper therefore aims to identify and analyze its special characteristics and to determine how these characteristics manifested in themselves the mobilization of the Hoa community. but also to face a trouble world which frustrate some of the other economies. They are conferred to lead the country to achieve the goals of the new Five . Saigon . Together with other Vietnamese ethnic groups. In this paper we just examine the above elite and their good governance in the economic context. Leong.13% the population of Vietnam.

oan Bun . Prof.hoa Hiap .oan Bun . i. People in Taiwan and Vietnam both adopted armed resistance during the early occupation. Japan and French.hoe were the major organizations playing an important role on cultural enlightenment movement in Vietnam and Taiwan. they shifted to cultural and political resistance with the emergence of the 20th Century.OAN BUN . respectively.e.. To achieve the goal of cultural enlightenment. Dr. after that. In other words.Panel 2: Contemporary Vietnamese history mitigate negative elements in order to mobilize human resource of the Hoa community in the Doi Moi period in particular and in the international integration nowadays general.HOA HIAP HOE Chiung. Wi . In Vietnam. the promotion of national education was regarded an important job. they 40  .1945) and Vietnam (1862 . Cheng Kung National University. the promotion and standardization of Romanized colloquial writing in the first half of the 20th Century eventually became the foundation of the contemporary Vietnamese writing system. Taiwan Both Taiwan (1895 . Han characters (chu Han) were widely adopted in colloquial writing. Cultural enlightenment was considered by the nationalists an important tool to equip people to resist colonial rule at the beginning of 20th century. although the writing in Romanized colloquial Taiwanese was developed in the late 19th century. it was not widely accepted by the members of Tai .vun. Writing based on colloquial language rather than traditional classical Han was thus considered an important tool to eliminate illiterates. Assoc.hoe.036] CULTURAL ENLIGHTMENT MOVEMENT: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF VIETNAM’S DONG KINH NGHIA THUC AND TAIWAN’S TAI . Vietnam’s Dong Kinh nghia thuc and Taiwan’s Tai . As for Taiwan.1945) were colonized by foreign regimes. The purpose of this study is to compare and contrast these two organizations with regard to their role on cultural enlightenment movement.hoa Hiap . In contrast. [02.

This paper points out that the crucial factors in determining the different outcomes in Taiwan are as follows: 1) elite’s identity as Han ethnicity.Panel 2: Contemporary Vietnamese history   preferred Han characters more than roman scripts. separated by a border at the 17th parallel. University of Washington. The paper analyzes spatial claims of the Vietnamese states founded in 1945 and 1949. USA Reducing the complex historical. Consequently. and mutually exclusive state claims. social and regional aspects of the Vietnamese wars to a simplistic dichotomy regarding the period after the 1954 Geneva Conference is a widespread phenomenon. their connections to nationalist precepts and loyalties. Consequently. Vietnamese in the center and south opposed to the RVN are rhetorically and symbolically excluded from this space.both in popular discourses and in scholarship .the conflict is one between countries (or political entities) called “North Viet Nam” and “South Viet Nam”. and 2) elite’s different familiarity with Roman scripts and Han characters. routinely conflating “South Viet Nam” with the Republic of Viet Nam implicitly assigns sole legitimacy over a space smaller than the RVN’s declared reach and larger than its actual control for most of the war. Particularly. Assoc. [02. Romanized writing in Taiwanese is not wide spread as it is in Vietnamese.037] NATIONAL LIBERATION AND THE COLD WAR IN VIETNAM: SPATIAL REPRESENTATION OF WARS AFTER 1954 Christoph Giebel. regional identities. The emerging binary of “South Viet Nam” and “North Viet Nam” after unification elections were denied reflects a Cold War need for clear demarcations that belied complexities of competing nationalist visions. hindering a better post . and how the 1954 Geneva Accords sought to accommodate these opposing assertions.Cold War understanding of the wars. political loyalties. In this flawed binary . 41   . Prof.

calling for a new culture and their activist’s propagation poems were a great contribution to the revolutionary and patriotic literature stream. however. Huynh Thuc Khang and Tran Quy Lap in the 1903 . The Reform Movement was both public and secret. Prof. Institute of History.038] THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE RENOVATION DRIVE IN THE EARLY 20th CENTURY IN VIETNAM IS HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL EVOLUTION Chuong Thau. The movement contributed to raising people’s awareness of human rights and revolutionary sentiments in an attempt to copy the example of the West civilization and Meiji renovation movement. which was a reason for the colonialists’ repression attempt.1909 period and the Movement Studying in the East in 1907 by patriots. such as the Renovation Movement in An Nam led by Phan Chau Trinh. the Studying Overseas Movement led by Phan Boi Chau in the 1905 . Dr. opening progressive schools.colonial education system. VASS The reforms carried out in the 20th century were marked by patriotic activists and movements. Assoc. The movement. all being a manifestation of the protest against the French ruling and the archaic feudal . 42  . The movement first scored some major achievements such as acquiring progressive capitalist ideology. was an explosive phenomenon at that time and marked a milestone in Vietnam’s historical and cultural evolution process.1908 period.Panel 2: Contemporary Vietnamese history [02.

now more than thirty years after the end of the American War? 43   . the role women played in the war and the revolutionary movements is brought forward. where does all of this leave contemporary Vietnam. USA Vietnam is a country that has been at war for thousands of years and this has been influential on the construction of Vietnamese collective identity. This research provides an in . Based loosely on initial research conducted in Vietnam during the Fall of 2006 in which interviews were conducted with female veterans of the French and American wars. What made Vietnamese women volunteer for military duty in such incredible numbers? What social phenomena allowed these women to step out of the traditional female roles of mother.Panel 2: Contemporary Vietnamese history   [02.depth look at the construction of gender identity in Vietnam. daughter and step into the role of warrior? Were they really stepping out of a role at all? What happened after the war ended? Were women equals in society as they had been on the battlefield? In regards to gendered identities. The construction of the gendered identity of Vietnamese women shows the complexity of the national identity amidst a variety of competing factors.. examining cultural influences such as Buddhism and Confucianism.039] HEROIC SUFFERING: THE GENDER IDENTITY CONSTRUCTION OF REVOLUTIONARY DENTITIES OF VIETNAMESE WOMEN Jack D. Harris. Cristina Marie Bain Hobart & William Smith Colleges. wife. Prof.such as the famous Trung sisters. as well as historical influences .

a sound solution about women issue would contribute to the Vietnamese integration into general world s’ orbit.Panel 2: Contemporary Vietnamese history [02. the revolutionary intellectuals and the Communists were aware that in order to emancipate women and achieve gender equality. the bourgeois and lower middle class intellectuals advocated the feminism in Vietnam colonial society through variety activities like a writing for the press. delivering the speech on female education campaign. Vietnam National University. Therefore. Vietnamese women developed into a social force. Hanoi By the early 20th century. due to the impact of democratic . Following the women‘s right movement leader in the world. College of Social Sciences and Humanities. Dr. the women issue in Vietnam was not only an internal theme but it also a universal one as well. etc Meanwhile. This was the matter of Vietnam modern history and social change and national liberation movement together. together with struggle against the idea which restricted women’s right only in colonial society. Particularly in women campaign of global context early twentieth century.040] THE WOMEN ISSUE IN VIETNAM BEFORE THE AUGUST REVOLUTION 1945: CONTENT AND SOLUTION Dang Thi Van policies.revolutionary ideologies and the feminist movement in the world. Thus. which drew the attention of contemporary political parties. under the effects of colonial exploitation plans and French cultural . struggling for women’s personal freedom and liberal marriage. they attached exaggerated importance to training female 44  . the women issue had been shaped in Vietnam. the national liberation and setting up a democratic and republican state should be conducted firstly. establishing womanly fair and association for vocational training. opening bookshop or reading rooms to improve women‘s knowledge. encourage them in doing charitable works. In addition.

district and commune levels. Australia This paper examines DRV center . and controls on movement. organizing feminine revolutionary groups. commerce. Australian National University.locality relations during the late 1940s. for example tax collection. when the imperatives of war and revolution meant that much government activity was in the hands of 'resistance . and the judicial system. Certain functions will receive particular attention.Panel 2: Contemporary Vietnamese history   executives. I will conclude with some thoughts on how the Anti French Resistance experience influenced the DRV state after 1954. I want to understand the degree to which communication was sustained between the central government in the Viet Bac hills and committees as distant as the Mekong delta and Quang Ngai. important economic position.administration committees' (Uy ban Khang chien hanh chinh) at inter zone. and complex relationship with areas controlled by the French Army. Marr. the 'currency war'. I will focus mainly on Interzone III (Lien khu III) because of its large population. and the manner in which local operations were conducted. often under very difficult conditions. 45   . Prof. The large number of female participants in Communist struggles was not only an important factor in the success of the August Revolution but also demonstrated the judicious policies of the Communists with respect to the issue of women’s liberation. detention facilities.FRENCH RESISTANCE David G. barnstorming women in taking part in the revolutionary movements was led by the Communist Party. province.041] INTER ZONE ADMINISTRATION DURING THE ANTI . [02.

Vietnam National University. rather than a simple reaction against the repression of contraband alcohol.Panel 2: Contemporary Vietnamese history [02. Ohio University.043] THE REBELLIOUSNESS OF CONTEXT: VIETNAM VILLAGERS AND THE COLONIAL ALCOHOL MONOPOLY 1897 . Dao Nguyen Pho had the opportunity to receive new knowledge coming to Vietnam in the early 20th century.1908): A CASE STUDY FOR CULTURAL INTEGRATION AND DEVELOPMENT Dinh Xuan Lam. USA Seen from the perspective of Ha Noi. The Director of the Dourness was moved to write that “the importance of these acts of rebellion. and 46  . This is a narrative that in many ways continues to structure our understanding of life in colonial Indochina. a picture of violent confrontation emerges that ties these acts less to opposition to the colonial regime. He made big contribution to the advancement of the patriotism movement in the early 20th century. is obvious”. which do not appear to have been spontaneous and which one should attribute to a political movement.042] DAO NGUYEN PHO (1861 . He changed his ideology from feudal patriotism into democratic capitalist patriotism. Prof. In the month of April 1909 alone. the village was a source of violent resistance to the alcohol regime in particular and to the French regime more generally. the French from the narrative. Prof. College of Social Sciences and Humanities. Yet once we de .1933 Gerard Sasges. [02. Tonkin saw a total of 14 “rebellions” arising from searches for contraband alcohol. Hanoi As a patriot born of a Confucian scholar family.

It also confirms the effectiveness of these acts of negotiation and confrontation. Their actions show how villagers did not perceive themselves as resisting officials of the colonial state.proven ways to threats to the village’s security. even at the risk of massive reprisals. to resist claims on their surplus.044] STRATEGIC PURPOSE OF TET 1968 Ho Khang. and privileging the testimony of ordinary villagers. [02. this issue has been one thing that attracts the military circle and historians home and abroad. Dr. the villagers contested the authority . The chapter then discusses how in their actions.Panel 2: Contemporary Vietnamese history   more to the ongoing struggles of villagers the world over to exclude outsiders. Assoc. Vietnam Institute of Military History The most significant and complicated event in the whole US . but rather holding Douanes agents accountable to the villagers’ concepts of right and wrong. Prof. villagers opposed their own customary authority. One of the concerns drawing many different considerations is that why Vn launched the General Offensive 47   . but rather as responding in time . if illegal market for ruou that continued to supply the majority of Vietnamese villagers. which ultimately carved out an independent.of those who entered the village and broke its laws. In these cases. For 40 years. To claims of authority they refused to accept. villagers were not simply defending their homes and their families. It then moves on to examine the crucial role village watchmen played in incidents of violent confrontation. and sought to punish formally the representatives of the Douanes for acts the villagers perceived as immoral or illegal.both real and symbolic . By foregrounding the discrepancies that arise from different perspectives. or to punish acts they perceived as illegal.VN war came to Mau Than Tet Holiday in 1968. this chapter confirms the advantages of de centering the state and instead placing individual acts of confrontation and violence firmly in their local context. This paper opens by sketching out some of the practices villages in Tonkin traditionally employed to protect their security in an insecure environment.

To Vietnam. The temporary demarcation line and Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) . in fact.the 17th Parallel is the problem containing this characteristic. Afterward. [02.045] THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE DEMILITARIZED ZONE – 17th PARALLEL AFTER GENEVA AGREEMENT IN 1954 Hoang Chi Hieu Darkong High School. in this research. abundance and violence. but also was the place where international responsibility must be represented towards Vietnam in maintaining Geneva Agreement’s content righteously.hand documents. DMZ was the minimized image of the resistance war against the American with the diversity.Panel 2: Contemporary Vietnamese history Campaign targeting to the South .Revolution. targeted to what real object in the strategy of the plan .1973).1975) has left behind.the 17th Parallel not only made the balance of the two power: Revolution and Counter .makers’? Under the light of newly published documents and in . As a result. the DMZ/17th Parallel was the first place where violent battle occurred among our people because of the invasion by American imperialists supported by their lackeys. On the world wide scale. we would like to dig into the real strategic target of Mau Than General Offensive Campaign. It is also in the DMZ that Vietnamese Communist Party made a profound impression. DMZ . it would clarify Vietnamese hard spirit and ingenious scheme in the confront with a grand aggressor of the 20th century. but lots of matters relating to this sacred war are getting more and more meaningful on the macroscopic and microcosmic level. it fascinated the world’s attention as one of the important negotiation matters during the happened of Paris Agreement on Vietnam (1968 . it’s the fight of 48  . Quang Tri Province The Vietnamese people’s resistance war against America to defend their nation (1954 .wide city system on the occasion of Mau Than Tet Holiday? That Campaign.

by face to face with the enemy to defeat step by step the American and lackey’s plot and trick in undermining our revolution and then liberated the entire Southern DMZ in 1967. This writing. The aim of this article is to present sketches about Japanese soldiers’ contribution to the resistance against French colonist and the success of the solidarity policy waged by the Communist Party of Vietnam as well as mark an important step in the historical friendship relationship between Vietnam and Japan. 49   . [02.the 17th Parallel after Genève Agreement and operation rules of DMZ.Panel 2: Contemporary Vietnamese history   Southern . Dr. Some of them even became members of the Vietnam Workers’ party and even receive medals and rewards from the DNV government and army. in which it makes clear that in reality DMZ. Vietnam National University. those Japanese were assigned different task in the military and administrative units of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam’s government.. Assoc. military and foreign affairs. . During the war and years after that.Northern people and the troop in the respect of economics.. College of Social Sciences and Humanities. Hanoi During the resistance against French occupation. the Vietminh force had the participation of Japanese soldiers who deserted to Vietminh force following Japan’s defeat in the First World War. presents the establishment of DMZ . politic.046] CONTRIBUTION BY JAPANESE SOLDIERS TO THE RESISTANCE AGAINST FRANCE Hoang Hong. Notable are their assistance in military training and their participation in the early period of the war. Prof. was not established adequately as in the Agreement’s regulations. firstly. culture.

and in Vietnam.opting its symbolism and mirroring its media techniques. and the way in which nationalist elites in the 1930s.en . juxtaposed against French Sûreté reports to trace how intellectuals reacted to the ideological constructions of the bourgeois colonial state by co . the oppressive and omnipresent police power. to explore the mechanisms of control that the colonial government used to curb these oppositional discourses and to promote narratives favorable to the French administration. health and hygiene and bourgeois luxury.047] PERFORMANCES OF MODERNITY IN COLONIAL SAIGON Judith Alexandra North Henchy University of Washington Libraries. USA This paper examines what I am calling the per formative aspects of the colonial Vietnamese state. scientific progress. I argue that the rhetorical framework through which the French administration struggled to maintain the dignity of its civilizing gestures. Recognizing that the hegemonic practices of the colonial state now had at its disposal the theories and technologies for engendering a regime of covert desire that naturalized its power. these men (and few women) understood the need to 50  . as they came to increasingly understand their influence on the modern popular imagination. Performances of state in the local Saigon media promoted images of the colonial government as benevolent guardian of the mission civilisatrice. While the official judicial language of the rational polity engaged the public imaginary through the ostentatious assumptions of the modern rational state. This work uses newspaper and other printed sources. and the public disclosure of court proceedings against convicted activists. the vector for the promise of modernity. against a background of colonial exploitation and materialism’s degradations. was increasingly transparent to a cohort of intellectuals trained by the French academy in the principles of political philosophy. particularly those in Cochinchina. emboldened this group of intellectuals to turn to these philosophical understandings of modern discursive and semantic forms. It draws upon records from the French colonial archives in Aix .Province. were able to counter the rhetorical and ritual stances of state with performances of their own.Panel 2: Contemporary Vietnamese history [02.

Ju Taiwan National University As a mirror image of each other. Using sources from several sides.” This policy lasted until 1956. the article presents and analyzes why the Ngo Dinh Diem regime implemented the refugee policy. economic transformation accompanying communist party dominance and FDI driving economic 51   . how religion impacted the process of implementation.Panel 2: Contemporary Vietnamese history   adapt the tools of oratory and rhetorical coercion to engage in this new struggle for the production of meaning in the media.1956) Le Thanh Nam. China and Vietnam have been observed sharing similar structural and institutional traits such as socialist regimes. what the measures were to perform this policy. MA. and the life of refugees in the South Vietnam. focusing on the period 21 July 1954 to 21 July 1955. particularly archival documents. One of the important points of the article is the author’s implication that the refugee policy was the first step toward the collapse of the Ngo Dinh Diem regime nine years later. [02. [02. the first policy the United States and the Ngo Dinh Diem administration implemented was the “refugee policy. Hsin . Hue University of Education After the Geneva Agreement (1954).048] THE MIGRATION POLICY OF THE UNITED STATES AND NGO DINH DIEM ADMINISTRATION AFTER THE GENEVA AGREEMENT (1954 .049] SOCIALIST TRADE UNIONS IN VIETNAM AND CHINA: A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE Lee.

Panel 2: Contemporary Vietnamese history development. rural trades are still spontaneous and unstable and are getting more and more difficult against the background of increased population and unemployment. the paper goes on to give a sketch of their ups and downs during the transitional period. Dr. however. However. labor regimes in the two countries are divergent which are attributed to relatively higher autonomy granted to Vietnamese General Confederation of Labor (VGCL).1989 period. they can not get out of their traditional shortcomings in terms of production. Institute of History.economic life of the whole country. [02. On their paralleled way from socialism to state corporatism. competitiveness against imported products and environmental pollution. 52  . AT this moment. Therefore. Following an overview of the situation of traditional trades in the area in the pre . they quickly developed in terms of quality. capital. The author traces historical origins of the discrepancy between the two and argues that CCP and VCP have maintained diverse linkages with their respective trade unions due to different definitions of revolution. product variety and succeeded in resolving many socio economic problems seen in other rural areas. The solution remains a hard question.050] TRADITIONAL TRADE IN THE RED RIVER DELTA SINCE 1989 Luu Thi Tuyet Van. VASS It is impossible to mention Vietnam without mentioning traditional trades in the Red River delta rural areas. discrepant degrees of survival pressure and individual power structures in high politics. traditional trades throughout the country moved from the central planning mechanism to the market mechanism. Since the dissolution of the central planning mechanism for the craft industry. in particular. after a short period of difficulties. the unique developmental paths proceeded by the two new born communist authorities have been responsible to for appearances today. which have been playing the role of an important rural industry in the socio . technologies.

It is rural trades that help preserve traditional cultural identity. created a new physiognomy and essence of conception of the position and role of people. added and developed. he advanced and defined people were the offspring of the country and he made a farther advance when he asserted that people enjoyed happiness and freedom which was the most important criterion of an independent country. Inherit good tradition of his family. Ho Chi Minh National Political . his nation and the precious value of Eastern and Western culture. he outdid his predecessor. [02. Ho Chi Minh not only inherited. Comparing this Ho Chi Minh’s conception with predecessor’s conceptions. Yet. Ho Chi Minh also mentioned and solved the relation between people and their country clearly. the historical role and the target. people participating.THE MAIN MOTIVATION FOR DEVELOPING THE COUNTRY IN HOCHIMINH’ IDEAS Ly Viet Quang. 53   . MA. Those were steps in Ho Chi Minh’s conception of the relation between people and their country. From rekoning people were the root of the country. his fatherland. considering people as the roots and taking people to be the roots. Ho Chi Minh highly appreciated of the position and role of people in cause of revolution of his nation. is one of some precious worth of the Vietnamese traditional patriotism and traditional culture of mankind.Panel 2: Contemporary Vietnamese history   Some rural trades may no longer exist in the near future or may turn into a modern industry.051] PEOPLE . it is undeniable that they have made tremendous contribution to the national over the last two decades. we can find the Ho Chi Minh’s conception advanced both the profundity and the humane worth.Administrative Academy Ideas of appreciation of the position and role of people. There were basically differences between Ho Chi Minh’s conception of “people were the roots” and “took people to be the roots” and his pedecessor’s conceptions in real position.

People Newspaper The conduct of a revolution plays the decisive role in determining whether it will succeed or fail. Better knowledge and effective adjustments helped resolve the social contradictions in Vietnam. the need to determine an independent. 54  . MA. [02. During the process of leading the revolution. Nowadays. Those mistakes were due to many factors.052] FOR A MORE EFFECTIVE REVOLUTION . and at the end gave the revolutionary movement a great boost. the Communist Party sometimes failed to come up with appropriate decisions that the revolutionary realities required.Panel 2: Contemporary Vietnamese history In our country’s cause of renovation now. This had serious consequences for the revolutionary movement and caused great losses to the revolutionary forces. when the Communist Party has to lead the country to develop in a very new setting.reliant approach which suits the realities and is based on good scientific methodology has become even more meaningful. develop new struggle forms and expand mass organizations. Aware of the situation. self . Ho Chi Minh’s contributions to finding out and promoting the position and role of people as a root and motivation still have been worth and it is essential to be aware of these and apply these in policies of the Party and Government in oder to make our country more and more prosperous and stable.A HISTORICAL VIEWPOINT Ngo Vuong Anh. both subjective and brought on by history. Ho Chi Minh and the Communist Party made great efforts to readjust the way to conduct the revolution.

[02. troop Vietnam People Army: mature time up to now.Panel 2: Contemporary Vietnamese history   [02.1965 PERIOD Nguyen Ngoc Dung. Communism is totalitarian and contrary to the freedom and democracy of Capitalism. VNU Ho Chi Minh City According to the point of view of Americans. College of Social Sciences and Humanities.Precursor and establishment of Vietnam People Army including: Farmer worker self . Dr. the strategy of “containment” launched by the Eisenhower cabinet aimed at two targets: stopping the “red wave” of 55   . Prof.053] ARMED ORGANIZATIONS . Dr.054] DEMOCRACY AND LIBERTY ESTABLISHED BY AMERICANS IN THE SOUTH OF VIETNAM IN 1955 . So.defense force Bac Son and Cochin China guerrilla Platoons of national salvation troops and Armed Propaganda Brigade for the Liberation of Vietnam Ba To guerrilla. ethnical Party revolution to achieve administration. Quang Trung guerrilla and Tran Hung Đao base Armed Brigade for the Liberation of Vietnam National defense force. Assoc. The essay also shows brief of armed organization . Vietnam Institute of Military History This essay shows the essential of armed organizations for democratic.PRECURSOR AND ESTABLISHMENT OF VIETNAM PEOPLE ARMY Nguyen Manh Ha.

in restraining Communism in the world. it takes heart and mind to make accurate assessment of a complicated person like Nguyen Van Vinh.1965. [02. period 1955 . Indeed. Through historical factors. the USA intervened in many countries.Panel 2: Contemporary Vietnamese history Communism and broadening America’s democracy around the world in American’s way. Among them were states with different levels of socio . However. Among them was Vietnam.055] NGUYEN VAN VINH’S CONTRIBUTION TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF VIETNAMESE LANGUAGE NEWSPAPERS AND THE SPREAD OF THE VIETNAMESE SCRIPT Nguyen Thi Le Ha Institute of History. all of them became enemies of American democracy. who made valuable contribution to the cultural treasure. politically aiming to get democratic western and American values. the Republic of Vietnam was born. Under America’s umbrella. So. due to the lack of space. VASS In Vietnam’s modern history there exists a gap of knowledge about the Western trained scholars such as Nguyen Van Vinh. coming of American democracy. Communism realizing in international Communism movement did not remain united. this article is confined to studying Nguyen Van Vinh’s contribution in the cultural field in the 20th century in four aspects: 56  . the author points out that. from 1945.sightedness. the regime of Republic of Vietnam. splitting into different factions. In spite of that.economic development pursuing different political objectives. was not democratic and was actually against American strategy on broadening their freedom and democracy around the world. He receives very conflicting assessment from his critics for his contribution to the cultural treasure and for his political short . However.

056] VIETNAMESE TRADITIONAL BRAVERY AND THE CAUSE OF NATION BUILDING AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT Nguyen Trong Phuc. Assoc.Panel 2: Contemporary Vietnamese history   1. 2.Administrative Academy The Vietnamese nation has a rich history of nation building and defense and social development. creativity and the desire for independence and freedom. Dr. The period from the 2nd centruy BC to the 10th century Vietnam was under the North colony and managed to gain independence at last. 3. they are the ability to adjust and the eagerness to learn and reform. That new era opened with the August Revolution in 1945. democratic and civilized nation. Prof. Failing that. national strength and a fair. self . including the traditional skills and spirit of the whole nation. That period was linked to Dai Viet civilization. a nation would never survive and develop. Nguyen Van Vinh’s contribution to the development of Vietnamese language newspapers. particularly. Both objective and subjective factors are determining in such course. Nation building is along with the development of national culture and a civilized society. The first period of nation construction. the period of Au Lac under Van Lang from 7th to 3rd century BC is attached to the development of Red River civilization. 57   . Besides. which are. Some objective assessment about Nguyen Van Vinh. Ho Chi Minh National Politics . His contribution to encouraging and spreading Vietnamese script. Feudal regime was established then and maintained until the 19th century. A briefing of Nguyen Van Vinh’s background and career. Since then the nation set on the path toward a socialist regime with prosperity. National skills and spirit have been defined during these periods. [02. The period from 1858 to 1945 was a period of the war for independence and preparation for a new era of national development.

College of Social Sciences and Humanities. this paper will present commercial exchange activities between Vietnam and other Asian countries. Dr.political position bridging East Asia and Southeast Asia and opening a gate into the Southeast Asian archipelago. Laos. Japan and Korea were established in the ancient and medieval age. Cambodia. Thailand. and continued to develop rapidly. the respect for the traditional and the awareness of discarding the obsolete. In the beginning of the 19th Century. VNU Hanoi Vietnam is a small country but it has an important geo . Prof. under the domination of French colonialists. The relations between Vietnam and other Asian countries such as China. under the Nguyen Dynasty. under the direction of the Communist Party. Using a variety of different source materials. [02. Those activities have not only brought economic 58  . the relations between Vietnam and regional countries have increased despite the close control of the colonial government. It is the task for the whole nation. commercial exchange activities between Vietnam and its Eastern Asian partners were partly decreased by the central government’s “closed . Since the second half of the 19th Century. India. This particular position has favored Vietnam to develop its commercial relations with other Asian countries.Panel 2: Contemporary Vietnamese history They are also the determination to preserve the traditional and the eagerness to absorb human values.door policy” application.057] COMMERCIAL RELATIONS BETWEEN VIETNAM AND ASIAN COUNTRIES IN THE COLONIAL PERIOD Nguyen Van Khanh. to inherit the traditions of national skills and spirit and push forward the cause of reforms for a prosperous and civilized nation. in other words. especially those in Eastern and Southeast Asia from the middle of the 19th Century to the middle of the 20th Century.

contributing to the glorious victory of the whole nation’s national liberation. H’rê …. Being the long zone connecting all the western highland provinces of the south of Truong Son range with the far . the highlanders of variety of ethnic groups soon create their own qualities of laboriousness. Some features of the mountainous areas of the South of Central Vietnam during the years at the beginning of the 20th century. [02. contributed to establishing a large regional market but also promoted cultural exchange. 1. Dr Phu Yen High School The coastal provinces of the South of Central Vietnam are the places where there are many heroic. and in the mountainous areas live the Champa 59   . and having been oppressed and exploited by classes of feudalism. living in the plain . which is considered to be the majority (95%). increased and widened friendly relationship between Vietnam and regional countries. Ê . landlords. Many ethnic groups of Bana. resilient revolutionary traditions of struggles against foreign invasion. creativeness and the spirit of traditional undaunted ness in struggle to defend their right of existence and to defend their homelands. in the mountainous regions of the South of Central Vietnam have continually risen up against French colonialism.Đê.off provinces of the South of Central Vietnam. Hơroi Champa.058] THE STRUGGLES AGAINST FRENCH COLONIALISM OF THE HIGHLANDERS IN THE SOUTH OF CENTRAL VIETNAM DURING THE FIRST YEARS OF THE 20th CENTURY Nguyen Van Thuong. Cadong. Having met lots of difficulties in daily lives due to poor and bare highland soil.Panel 2: Contemporary Vietnamese history   benefits to each country. the Southern provinces of the South of Central Vietnam are the concentrated places of many ethnic groups living together with the Kinh.

etc later there are some of other ethnic groups migrating to settle there. and to win independence for their homeland and country. prevented the supply of salt. Bana (0. the movement of “Nuoc Xu” or “Nuoc Xu đỏ” led by Săm Brăm. and communes. 2. the French colonialists staged an economic blockade. 60  .4%).Panel 2: Contemporary Vietnamese history (1. food.9%). They all participated widely. etc from the plain regions. Ê . seized local products. by AmaLai.central Vietnam during the years of the beginning of the 20th century tended to be spontaneous. by Maboi. the ethnic people here suffered the life of drudgery and heavy taxes. resilient revolutionary tradition of struggle against foreign invasion in order to defend hamlets. attracted not only the mountainous ethnic groups of the South . causing great trouble for the French colonialists. When the French colonialists occupied and established their colonialist regime there. From the response to the struggle movement against French colonialism led by AmaJhao in Daklak province to the struggles against the phases of operation of the French regular troops to the western highland led by PotaoPui.9%). lacking consistent organization.central provinces but also those of the western highland provinces. Together with carrying out their policy. or the demonstrations against taxes led by AmaKeng. The struggles against French colonialism of the highlanders of the South central Vietnam during the years at the beginning of the 20th century Together with people in the plains regions. they represented heroic. the highlanders also continually carried on many struggles against French invasion under various forms. Considerably. Although the struggles of ethnic groups in the South . in the 1930s of the 20th century.dê (1.

Prof.Panel 2: Contemporary Vietnamese history   [02. Saigon experienced a great deal of social and economic problems. VASS This paper traces the course of Hanoi’s revolutionary strategy between the plenary session of the VWP Central Committee in January 1959 and the collapse of the second Geneva accords. were often not enough.1962 Asselin. Trent University.060] TREADING CAUTIOUSLY: HANOI‘S REVOLUTIONARY STRATEGY 1959 . [02. while the Soviet Union and. which had programs to look after refugees. As these differences mounted.Marshall Van. on Laos. Hawaii Pacific University. Pierre. USA During the period of warfare. Some southern revolutionaries wanted Hanoi to sanction armed struggle below the seventeenth parallel.Prof. however. This paper will examine these various social aid organizations and assess their work as well as their relationship with the state. During this period Hanoi threaded cautiously as it sought to offset conflicting pressures.AID ORGANIZATIONS IN SAIGON 1950s . for a period. in 1962. Along with international aid organizations.059] SOCIAL .Dr. Assoc. The state’s actions.Dr. which Hanoi wanted to remain neutral 61   . orphans.1970s Nguyen . Saigon and Washington extended their “war of aggression” in Laos and Cambodia. Assoc. The government of South Vietnam tried to deal with these problems through its Department of Social Welfare (Bộ Xã hội). Vietnamese voluntary groups also played a role in providing social assistance. China wanted Hanoi to concentrate instead on building socialism in the North. Some of the most pressing issues were associated with refugees and orphans. and other disadvantaged people.

and mobilizing international support for the revolutionary cause in Vietnam. this balancing act may well have been the most sensible strategy in view of Hanoi’s own fundamental interests. The dilemma Hanoi came to face was whether to respond favorably to the pleas of southerners and risk alienating the two communist superpowers. with the result that its strategy during this period satisfied everyone and no one. Under the circumstances. They were able to reach deeply into Vietnamese culture to produce material that had particular resonance for the people they were trying to influence.1950s: MOBILISATION IN A DIVERSE SOCIETY Robert James Hurle Australian National University The Viet Minh (the League for Independent Vietnam) led a successful challenge to the return of French colonial rule in Vietnam during the period 1946 to 1954. or defer to the latter to the possible detriment of the revolutionary movement in the South.often to the extent of their lives .Panel 2: Contemporary Vietnamese history in the building confrontation in Southeast Asia. This essay examines some of the propaganda material in detail seeking to understand its appeal and hence its effectiveness. Hanoi avoided this difficult choice until 1963. They began the work of mobilization soon after the formation of the League in 1941 and employed quite a number of interesting propaganda techniques in their mobilization the Resistance. safeguarding the flow of aid from the Soviet Union and China. for the moment at least. leading them to give support . The key to their success lay in the mobilization of a large part of the population of Vietnam to resist the returning French forces.061] VIET MINH PROPAGANDA OF THE 1940s . As it turned out. however. avoiding provocations that might engender American military intervention in Indochina. [02. which included preserving the legitimacy of its control over the revolutionary movement in the South. Some 62  . preventing the consolidation of power by the Diem regime in Saigon.

062] THE SITUATION AND UNIFICATION OF THE WEIGHTS AND MEASURES SYSTEM IN THE NORTHERN PROVINCES OF VIETNAM DURING FRENCH RULE Sekimoto Noriko. highland area but also delta area. the weight and measure unit is very abundant in Vietnam. but this matter was not yet researched much. PhD Candidate Tokyo University of Foreign Studies Area and Culture Studies. In addition these areas are very close to the frontier and there was the exchange with foreigners and minority ethnic groups. too. In this research. For that reason. representations of measure unit on official documents of both French colonial government and Nguyen dynasty were not unified yet. Therefore. The main conclusion is as follows: There is a specific character to the of topography in Tonkin. We have to recognize that. the means of transportation and communication were limited. At mountainous area and highland. we have to find and base on materials with systematization and similarity. such as the official documents which have the same form and was created on the basis of the same regulation. we focus on a series of letters from each governor of Tonkin provinces to resident superior in Tonkin about the unification of weight and measure. in order to compare and analyze effectively and precisely. from before up to now. the speed at which change occurred. they had an original custom and used 63   . In reality. the training of a body of propaganda cadres. there are not only mountainous areas. the contributions of intellectuals to the mobilization cause [02. That’s why the research in weight and measure is not an easy work because it is very difficult to collect all the case of difference about weight and measure in practice.Panel 2: Contemporary Vietnamese history   questions arise: about the limitations (or otherwise) of mobilization in a society as diverse as was Vietnam's. Japan Weight and measure are an essential system of the social economy.

for the first time in the history of workers in Vietnam. The measure system. all of Vietnamese members of the Saigon City Council belonged to the “Constitutionalists’ Party. The inspection of measure tools at all villages of these areas is also difficult. After perusing these historical materials.063] THE IMPORTANCE OF BASON SHIPYARD WORKER‘S VOTES IN THE SAIGON CITY COUNCIL ELECTION IN 1929 AND 1933 SHIBUYA Yuki. candidates of “Worker’s Panel. In addition. community. Japan From the late 19th century. Until 1933. which was the 64  . I delved into this historical event with reference to Vietnamese newspapers in that colonial period. won an election. such as Cong Luan. So there was original. and at that time. it was found that the votes of workers in Ba Son Shipyard. the people in Tonkin had not received a western style education enough.” On April 30. especially volume and capacity tools had been developed and became common custom at each locality. and French newspapers. it was still not easy to product the series of measure tools of the metric system precisely and sufficiently.Panel 2: Contemporary Vietnamese history their own measure units which were very diversified and different. PhD Candidate Tokyo University. 1933.” who were the representatives of laborers led by one Communist Party member. and Duoc Nha Nam. own measure system at local for production and buying and selling at their village. In delta. The above mentioned points were an element of area diversity on weight and measure system in Tonkin as well as were also difficulties to unify weight and measure system in Tonkin. such as La Lutte. Than Chung. the laws of the colonial government permitted Saigon City to establish a city council composed of Western and Vietnamese people to manage its municipal systems. mainly Red river and Day river delta ware an area with prosperous tradition of cultivation for a long time. [02.

He had an important influence as an educator. Cambridge University. Dr.065] HANOI INTELLECTUALS AS CONTRIBUTORS TO THE CULTURAL LIFE OF THE REVOLUTION AND LIBERATION STRUGGLE Susan Bayly. advocate of indigenous business and as a critic of outmoded cultural practices.TERM IMPACT Quinn . His activities in Quang Nam can be said to have planted the seeds of later revolutionary resistance against the French and Americans.064] PHAN CHAU TRINH AND HIS LONG .1954 liberation war. from the early days of the Duy Tan movement to his influence on the young Nguyen Ai Quoc and the revolutionary movement in general. Moreover.term legacy. Yet today his impact as a modernizer and cultural critic is being re . [02.evaluated in Vietnam. [02. This research is the basis of my recently 65   .Judge. U K This paper explores issues arising from my research on the achievements and experiences of distinguished Hanoi intellectuals who served the Viet Minh cause during the 1946 . USA Phan Chau Trinh is often remembered as a flawed nationalist leader. who chose collaboration with France over armed resistance to colonialism. Sophia Temple University. This paper will examine some aspects of his long .Panel 2: Contemporary Vietnamese history   sole arsenal in Indochina and a center of labor movement in Cochinchina. played a key role during the electoral campaigns in 1929 and 1933. his contacts with the French left (Socialist Party and La Ligue des droits de l’homme) sensitized French public opinion to the injustices of colonialism.

They were arriving on the base of international agreements between Vietnam and Polish People `s Republic and taking up studies. [02. mostly male. research training… This group was perfectly integrated.graduate studies. Assoc.Prof.Panel 2: Contemporary Vietnamese history published book Asian Voices in a Postcolonial Age (Cambridge University Press. which was ideologically and party economically engaged in the war going on in Vietnam and which felt a real affinity and sorry for the newcomers from a distant country. Poznań. 000 people from Vietnam live in Poland.. The migrants were young. post . Poland The presence of Vietnamese in Poland has become a fact. According to the estimated data from Ministry of Internal Affairs between 25 000 and 35. although the proportions weren’t disadvantageous towards females.Dr.066] VIETNAMESE COMMUNITY IN POLAND (IN THE EYES OF STATE ADMINISTRATION AND THE PEOPLE) Teresa Halik. Those migrants laid the canvas for the image of 66  . The first wave of Vietnamese migration is often called by the name of „historical migration”. Adam Mickiewicz University. well educated feeling comfortable in Poland. 2007). Considering the influx of Vietnamese to Poland. two main waves are distinguished: first from the period of war in Vietnam. I focus here on the ways in which the analysis of personal reminiscences and family narratives can help us to understand some of the challenges faced by members of Hanoi intellectual families as they sought to achieve advancement for the newly independent nation of Vietnam in a variety of modern technical and scientific fields. second. Poland was then a „kindred” socialist country. after 1990. My key concern is thus the remarkable cosmopolitanism of Vietnam’s educational and cultural life both during and since the period of the liberation struggle. most notably by seeking and acquiring training in the modern arts and sciences both at home in Vietnam and overseas.

declare their good feeling” abort Polish cultural sphere.diligent. many of them want to learn Polish and those are staying in Poland for a few years. Among them is a group of practicing Catholics. They form an internally very well organized group . patriot. smuggling goods. but also present one of the major and inertly better .young. watch TV shows etc. they organize common events on the occasions of Vietnamese and also Polish holidays.they publish some periodicals in Vietnamese. The second. Usually they settle in big urban centres. 67   . migration from both waves hale mixed. they became rather well integrated group. Most of them. we may say that the Vietnamese are not only a stable element of ethic landscape of Poland. resourceful. dynamic. different one is the image appearing from the perspective of the State administration representatives . at the bazaars and gastronomy .the image of Vietnamese of the 60`ties and 70`ties supplemented of the image of late 90`ties . had. polite hard working. There are two different existent images of the Vietnamese.bars with Asian food and Vietnamese restaurants. Some of Vietnamese declare also political reason as a factor „pushing” them out of the country.often detail trade. staying in Poland illegally. while talking. The first is a stereotype functioning in the Polish society . try to read Polish newspapers. those migrants are not motivated by economic incentives. Today. and from the point of view of an outside observer. mostly economic character. diligent and courageous patriot.a tight. In fact. they send their children to polish schools.organized communities aiming at staying in Poland. poor cal but wise. In conclusion. hermetic group.Panel 2: Contemporary Vietnamese history   Vietnamese 60`s and 70`s the ideal type” . The second wave that reached Poland. The sphere of their economic activity is mostly trading . as in general it is believed.

to liberate the society and the people.Vietnam revolutionary war took place full of 30 years and ended with the victory more than one third century ago. 68  . This essay will make more clearly about the peace and humanity thought of the Vietnam revolutionary war in 30 years. they also could not impossible to draw the vital lesson from Vietnam. Vietnam Institute for Military History The resistance of national salvation .067] VIETNAM REVOLUTIONARY WAR (1945 . The great victory of Vietnam revolutionary war in 30 years once more shines the spirit of loving peace and cherishing the charity and justice of the Vietnamese people. many books of the US scholars. to liberate and unify the country. prisoners. statesmen and generals were published to explain.aggression in Vietnam. A SYMBOL FOR PEACE AND HUMANITARIAN THOUGHT Trinh Vuong Hong. No more Vietnams". the typical feature of the Vietnamese culture.Prof. Two said . The resistance in Vietnam in which political objective is revolutionary objective itself (to gain the national independence.above factors are the basis of peace and humanity thought. The moderate. "culture of country protection". is the way to conduct the revolution. "culture of wet rice cultivation". all express the aspiration for peace and noble humanity. the people of enemy country. From the line of resistance to leading and solving war problems (with enemy. fighting contributed to create the long distinctive tradition of anti . This is a great historical event that surely needs to have much time and efforts to study to get to know about it more sufficiently and profoundly.Nixon "Real peace. prove and shift the blame. Asso. even make the truth incorrect. with a little reserved character of Vietnam people rooted from the agriculture life. surrender soldiers…). like a title of the book of the US former President R. etc). Dr.Panel 2: Contemporary Vietnamese history [02. Although. Throughout 12 centuries (in all of 22 centuries for founding and defending the country).1975). indifferent.

Prof. To construct the great union of stable ethnic groups is a great allegation. methods and to carry out propaganda and agitation among the people effectually for reinforcement and consolidation of the national great union in The High Land.Results and mentioned matters . then draw out experience to contribute the completeness of allegations. Dak Lak.Some experience. This is a significant and intensive affair in theory as well as reality. This is not only a goal but also a motivation of revolutionary career. However. perceiving correctly the position and characteristic of minority ethnic groups in the area. Gia Lai. crucial matters in national policies of The Communist Party and Government. defense and security.2006). Assoc.2006) Truong Minh Duc. during many past years. economy. construction and reinforcement of the national great union in The High Land have extremely set many urgent affairs.Panel 2: Contemporary Vietnamese history   [02. . Institute of Administration and Politics at Danang city The high land has five provinces: Kon Tum. one of the basic. the provinces of the High Land focus on consolidating and reinforcing to built the national great union. Consistent with the policies to consolidate and reinforce the national great union of the Communist Party.Policies of The Communist Party and Government for the construction of the national great union in The High Land in renewed age (1986 . and Lam Dong and has more than 45 ethnic groups (including 12 aboriginal ethnic groups). This region has been a place of great strategic importance in national politics. So.Dr. Dak Nong.068] CONSTRUCT AND REINFORCE THE GREAT UNION OF ETHNIC GROUPS IN THE HIGHLAND IN THE AGE OF RENONOVATION (1986 . This thesis refers to three matters: . to study and to estimate the leadership process is to realize construction of the national great union in The High Land in the renewed years. 69   .

the 11th century and from President Ho Chi Minh. After acceding to ASEAN. of WTO in 2006. then of FEALAC in 1999. Vietnam Academy of Social Sciences After more than two decades of renovation and development at magical speed.permanent member of the UNSC by a 183/7 vote at the UNGA.069] “VIETNAM IN THE CONTEMPORART WORLD” FROM THE ANGLE OF CULTURAL IDENTITY Van Tao. Vietnam became a founding member of ASEM in 1994 and a member of APEC in 1998. the Communist Party and the government. which were evident throughout the history.Panel 2: Contemporary Vietnamese history [02. tolerance and generosity 4/ innovative and creative mind inherited from ancestors since the 10th century. It is further evident by Prime Minister Nguyen Tan Dzung’s saying following Vietnam’s successful bid into the UNSC that “with the record of 20 years of successful reforms in home affairs and foreign affairs. 70  . Prof. Those political achievements are resulted from a civilization of thousand years of age. Vietnam became a non . the Vietnam ship is sailing to the high seas now. On November 16th. we are convinced to fulfill the task entrusted by the people and the meet the expectations of the world community”. particularly: 1/ an immortal strength tempered throughout national resistance 2 / an open cultural identity that is open for cultural exchanges with other great civilization in the world 3/ the quality of kindness.

Vietnam is viewed as an especially significant country in Southeast Asia because of its geopolitical disposition on the continent. Japan.070] THE VIETNAM FACTOR IN REGIONAL SECURITY SYSTEM Vladimir Kolotov. In order to comprehend the main trends of regional transformation we need to take into consideration recent events in East Asia with a special focus on the Vietnam factor. but also because of the vast prospected oil reserves under the South China Sea. In these circumstances. France. Vietnam remains a flashpoint of rivalry between major powers. not only because of its strategic location along vital Asian trade routes. It is clear that intelligent use of the Vietnam factor could either hamper or accelerate China's southward strategic 71   . the Soviet Union and the USA respectfully tried to establish their direct or indirect control over this country or at least to have good relationship with local political elite. where Vietnam is a key component of any regional security system. Dr. Nowadays China's southward expansion is in progress and a strong competition over Southeast Asia has started.Panel 2: Contemporary Vietnamese history   [02. especially in context of new relations between China and ASEAN countries. Rapidly changing geopolitical landscape of the world order in this critically important region poses a serious challenge to the foreign policy of major powers. During the last half of XX century Vietnam was a reliable detector of power balance in the region. Nowadays Vietnam is an area of open and underground rivalry between major powers. Potentially the situation is not stable because the changed economic balance does not correspond to political relations established between East Asian countries especially in the field of international security and now this balance is in process of transformation. close to China. St Peterburg University. Russian Federation The Vietnam factor in transforming East Asia nowadays has growing importance. That is why all major powers as China. It is expected that the current economic growth in China will inevitably be converted into political influence and will provoke significant security changes in East Asia on the whole.

reaching consequences for regional development. and Moscow.Japanese War. and through its history has traditionally followed a very flexible policy. separating overseas Chinese from their relationship with the Chongqing government to promote the end of the Second Sino . the author examined the Japanese policy toward Overseas Chinese in South East between China and the U.Panel 2: Contemporary Vietnamese history expansion. Various dispositions are considered not only in Washington. the players involved in these geopolitical calculations are mutually suspicious. but also in Beijing. Hanoi. and so far China has acted more successfully than the others.known that Vietnam is very skillful in balancing between major powers.071] JAPANESE POLICY TOWARDS FRENCH . [02.operation of Overseas Chinese to construct the Greater 72  . It is well . In order to solve the Overseas Chinese problem. the more space Hanoi has to maneuver. In the first part. College of Social Sciences and Humanities. secondly. Existence between hammer and anvil is not new to Vietnam and the general rule is the same .the more powers involved in the geopolitical game. VNU Hanoi In this paper.S. So the question of which orientation (toward Beijing or Washington) is more favorable to Vietnam in the current geopolitical situation remains open. and the future alignment of forces is not clear yet. based on resource materials of Japan. the Japanese policy toward South East Asia’s Overseas Chinese consisted of two parts: firstly. Hanoi is certainly worried by a possible regional stand . and does not want to be played in the same way Afghanistan was as part of efforts to contain the Soviet southward expansion 30 years ago. the "battle for Vietnam" will have far . the author examined the Japanese policy toward Overseas Chinese in South East Asia and in French Indochina. maintaining the economic co . However. MA.INDOCHINA‘S OVERSEAS CHINESE DURING THE SECOND WORLD WAR Vo Minh Vu.

Some studies by Dilip K. the author considered Japanese policy toward Overseas Chinese in French .Japan movement by Overseas Chinese through the French . Guangzhou. politics to historical 73   . In the second part of this paper. the third. As basically.Indochina. the second. assuring the economic connection with the Overseas Chinese. promoting the progress into French .assess this issue. VNU Hanoi Apart from the opinions of imperialist historians. Bryna Goodman (1995). some new tendencies have emerged to re . culture. political and propaganda issues was presented and executed.Indochina was determined as the important region in the policy toward Overseas Chinese in South East Asia in general.072] THE FORMATION OF A VIETNAMESE NORTHERN PORT CITY IN THE EARLY COLONIAL PERIOD: HISTORY OF HAIPHONG (1802 . who tended to underestimate the role of the aboriginal people in the formation of Asian port . a basic plan which covered economic.1888) Vu Duong Luan Institute of Vietnamese Studies and Development Sciences. this policy had the main subjects as the same with the policy toward Overseas Chinese in South East Asia and French .prosperity Sphere. Frank Broeze (1989). Meanwhile. separating overseas Chinese from their relationship with the Chongqing government. and Shanghai had obvious impacts on the establishment of maritime centre’s in this area.cities system in the colonial period. Yeung Wing Yu (1999).Panel 2: Contemporary Vietnamese history   East Asia Co . This policy had four main points: the first. point out that the governments and the dynamism of economic structures in many parts of Asia such as Singapore. [02. In order to achieve these aims. Basu (1985).Indochina’s Colonial Administration. executing the management of the anti .Indochina’s market of the Japan’s companies and products and the fourth. the development of port cities in colonial period was shaped by the conjunction of many factors such as natural conditions.

thanks to his consistent skill and spirit. The triumph of the August Revolution in Vietnam in 1945 assures the 74  . VNU Hanoi Having successfully found out the way to national liberation in 1920. Despite the fact that. Assoc.073] HO CHI MINH‘S SKILL AND SPIRIT IN THE NATIONAL LIBERATION TASK IN VIETNAM 1920 .Dr. Ho Chi Minh constantly built and spread a new revolutionary theory into Vietnam. economic and social context of Haiphong in the nineteenth century.1945 Vu Quang Hien.Prof. the author wants to delve into the political. to prepare forces and lead the national revolution in 1945 to final success.Panel 2: Contemporary Vietnamese history context. together with the Central Party. etc. Ho Chi Minh always followed the realities in Vietnam. creative and flexible view. local communities and the French colonial power during unstable period from independent period to early colonial era in Vietnam. investment of France in Haiphong before it became a concession in 1888. returning to Vietnam in 1941. College of Social Sciences and Humanities. This not only helps explain the causes of the development of Haiphong from marshy area to a modern port city. Having in mind a patient. but also shows clearly the relationship between Vietnamese government. for a quite long time Ho Chi Minh’s ideas and activities were not understood and approved by both International and Indochinese Communists and he himself suffered a great deal of both material and mental difficulties. Ho Chi Minh consistently followed his thoughts. [02. and established the Vietnam Communist Party in 1930. the management methods of Vietnamese feudal state and the intervene activities. founded the Vietnamese Association for Revolutionary Youth in 1925. This paper aims to contribute to knowledge about the development trajectories of colonial port cities in Southeast Asia through a case study of Haiphong. Based on Vietnamese and French archives.

As we follow the detail of the intellectual history of Ho Chi Minh. [02. We should learn more the original idea of Ho Chi Minh on the Republic. in the democracy and republic.Leninism but. This is a very famous device made by Ho Chi Minh. and developing creatively the international revolutionary theories and experience in order to make them fit into the circumstance in Vietnam. learning with criticism. if we reflect on the idea of this device carefully. this idea is not original in Marx .control spirit. we can find the fact that Ho Chi Minh tried to dream to construct a democratic country like the USA and a republic like the French Republic shown by his construction of" Democratic Republic of Vietnam". following closely the country realities. 75   .Leninism in order to get an independence and national liberation in the international circumstance in that time. Prof. based on his idea of Republic. and at every government office and public place in Vietnam. The abovementioned realities produce a lesson on promoting the independence and self .074] RE .Panel 2: Contemporary Vietnamese history   realistic and scientific value of Ho Chi Minh’s ideology of independence and freedom.EXAMINING HO CHI MINH Yoshiharu Tusboi. Ho Chi Minh adopted Marxism . Waseda University. when we try to do political reform of this country in near future. But. We can see this famous device on the main entrance of Ho Chi Minh Mausoleum. Dr. Japan "There is nothing more precious than Independence and Liberty".

They had long developed writing systems and indigenous illiteracies as a communicative means to their social.modern and French colonial periods. ethnographic.075] ETHNIC LITERACY AND THE MODERN NATION .colonial movements in the northwest in the 1940s. Prior to the French colonialism. rather than homogenous literacy. Dr.2005. Thammasat University.Panel 2: Contemporary Vietnamese history [02. mass education programs implementing Thai illiteracies were established. are crucial to the nation . economic.STATE: THE CASE OF ETHNIC THAI AND THE VIETNAMESE NATION . Consequently in 1955. the Thai established their semi . theoretically.STATE Yukti. the Thai .state formation. cultural.ethnic nationalism policy needs to be taken into account. I found that ethnic Thai language and literacy played significant roles in facilitating the anti .Meo Autonomous Zone was founded in the area where the Thai were dominant. during the early period of the Vietnamese modern nation . In the first Indochina War. and political formation during the pre .Meo) Autonomous Zone. this essay argues that multiple illiteracies. in order to re . 76  .state in the 1950s . Thailand This essay exhibits how ethnic Thai indigenous literacy contributed to the early period of the Vietnamese nation . the Thai contributed significantly to the war.autonomous chiefdoms.1960s.examine the Vietnamese modern history the multi . along with the establishment of the Northwestern (previously called Thai . To Vietnam case.state formation. Drawn from my linguistic. Ethnic Thai is listed as Vietnam’s second largest ethnic minority. and historical research conducted in 2003 . As a result. Furthermore.


Panel 3: Vietnamese culture  78  .

077] TRACING PARTIAL TRUTHS: ON THE APPERANCE OF THE TAY HO PALACE FROM A HISTORICAL ANTHROPOLOGY VIEWPOINT Chu Xuan Giao Institute of Cultural Studies. This includes the perception of a threat of homogenization resulting from the neoliberal framework of global capitalism. Just as Vietnamese thinkers have stressed the important role of culture in economic and social life. [03. Dr. USA Based on a review of Vietnamese writings on the topic from the past two decades. Vietnamese thinkers approach cultural development in the context of globalization and with reference to Vietnam’s distinct heritage. VASS Based on written records collected from a religious location narrow in geographical scope . not only potentially economic. history. in light of these conditions. advanced through marketization. Vietnamese views overlap with some common perspectives of scholars and commentators from elsewhere in the world who are concerned particularly with the cultural dimensions of globalization. many international thinkers also conceive of neoliberal hegemony as.Panel 3: Vietnamese culture  [03. This work explores the distinct ways in which. Prof. Assoc. and its cultural economy (particularly. in this paper I explore Vietnamese perspectives on the challenges and opportunities presented by globalization.076] IN PURSUIT OF CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBALIZATION Cheng. and current goals of economic development. Hawaii Pacific University. but also a cultural practice. this paper will 79   . commercialization. the media). Grace.the Tay Ho palace and other relevant records.

we go on with tracking back to the partial truths about Tay Ho Palace. which often suggest the timing at the 16th century following the incredible poetic presentation between Lieu Hanh and Phung Khac Khoan. Taking that finding about the specific birth timing of Tay Ho Palace as a starting point. This essay aims to discover the Hanhi’s folk knowledge of water (past and present) in order to evaluate its advantages and disadvantages 80  . Dien Bien Province There are an estimated 2. using the method of thick description used in historical anthropology. [Robert Layton 2000]. which is 50% of the whole commune’s population. In spite of the high mountain. Dien Bien College of Education. is not conclusive of the paper’s aims.Panel 3: Vietnamese culture  give a suggestion about the appearance time of that religious location. Starting from the partial truths about Tay Ho Palace. we put forward the issue about Mother Lieu’s grand narratives as well as about the achievements made by folklore studies on Mother Lieu. 500 Ha Nhi people in Huoi Luoi commune in Phong Tho district of Lai Chau province.078] THE HANHI`S FOLK KNOWLEDGE OF WATER MANAGEMENT (IN HUOI LUOI COMMUNE IN PHONG THO DISTRICT OF LAI CHAU PROVINCE) Dang Thi Oanh. our paper will point out that the Palace was established long after. The finding is rather new. which need to be aware of. The Mau religion “is in itself of political nature and must be evaluated on the basis on its impact on human lives”. MA. That is the seemingly unintentional contribution of contemporary folklore studies on Mother Lieu into consolidating the grand narratives about her and its own transformation into part of the grand narratives defining the way of thinking of the Mau religion’s veterans. Unlike other projects on the same topic. the Hanhi people have a lot of experience in managing their water resources. [03. perhaps to the end of the Nguyen regime or the first half of the 20th century. yet. from which we move on to put forward questions and review of the grand narratives about Mother Lieu and Tay Ho Palace.

[03. Folk knowledge of using and managing water of the Hanhi people is simple but effective and flexible. Institute of Religious Studies. It is important in settling and earning a living.THE CASE OF VIETNAM Do Quang Hung. customs and conventions to protect water sources. the proper Marxist thought of atheism creates an objective standpoint for the State to execute its role of unifying and harmonizing religions’ interests and national benefit.Panel 3: Vietnamese culture  influences to sustainable development. the Hanhi people have a lot of faiths. it should be also added that the secular state of Vietnam does not impose the atheist ideology on the whole society as well as in the relations with religious thoughts. From the awareness of water’s role in life. 81   . The investigation show that water sources in villages of the Hanhi people in Huoi Luong are mostly from mountain creeks and springs. Dr. This is a valuable base for the government to propose laws and policies in managing water sources. VASS This paper deals with the adaptation and building of the secular state model in the case of Vietnam from the middle of the 20th century until recently both in theory and in practice. Prof. In reality. between religion and politics.079] BUILDING A SECULAR STATE MODEL IN A DIVERSIFIED RELIGIOUS ENVIROMENT: THE INVARIABLE AND THE VARIABLE . In contrast. Of all experience of the Hanhi people in using and managing water. atheist and Marxist state. Vietnam has had creative solutions for the building of a truly non . Based on the foremost principal of separation between church and the state. The research area is 10 mountain villages of the Hanhi in Huoi Luoi commune. the experience of leading water to mountain fields for crop is highly valued. They make use of the terrain in getting water for their lives.religious. The author believes that the most important issue in the choice of the secular state model is how to find a suitable model for recognition of religious organizations.

the most important worshiping place of Confucianism in Vietnam. this article highlights the mark of Vietnamization in Confucianism under the Tran Dynasty by mentioning the event of 3 Vietnamese being worshiped at the Temple of Literature . The mark of Vietnamization in Confucianism under the Tran Dynasty becomes even more evident in the correlation with Ly Dynasty and early . However.three Vietnamese were co . This adoption was featured by the establishment of the Temple of Literature in Thang Long to worship Confucius. MA. another historic event took place at the Temple of Literature when Chu Van An. the cultural contact and exchange between Vietnam and China became voluntary and Confucianism served as Ly dynasty’s foundation to form and consolidate its absolute monarchy.Panel 3: Vietnamese culture  There are. Three hundred years after establishment. however. VNU Hanoi Entering Vietnam nearly 2000 years ago but as the product of a forced cultural contact and exchange. Trương Han Sieu and Do Tu Binh . College of Social Sciences and Humanities. Tran shared with the two Dynasties (Ly and Le) many 82  . In the sixteenth century. [03. Confucianism did not originally have a high status in Vietnamese society during China’s domination.worshiped together with Chinese Confucianists under the Tran Dynasty. Similar to other factors in the cultural exchange and contact. variables and invariables that Vietnam should always keep in mind while perfecting this model in the context of the diversified religious environment. the four Great men and seventy talents.Le Dynasty which are considered the foundation for Confucianism’s formation and development to the highest status in Vietnam. Confucianism always tended to be Vietnamized and become closer to the Vietnamese way of thinking and way of life.080] THE TRACES OF “VIETNAMIZATION” IN CONFUCIANISM UNDER THE TRAN DYNASTY Do Thi Huong Thao.

seven villages were known as traditional earthenware making including glazed stoneware from the central to southern part. [03. about 20 villages throughout north to south are making it and ethnic minorities of each region maintain the earthenware within their traditional lifestyle. urgently needing to gather sets of earthenware to preserve real material and make records of the making process and technical contents throughout whole country by Museum of Ethnology and each provincial museum in Vietnam In this report. Flatten forming and assemble firing are characteristic technical styles of Palei 83   . However. Yuko Hirano**. and arrange technical contents mainly in forming and firing process for position among Southeast Asia. especially focused on the genealogy and relation of Yunnan province of China and Cambodia or so. Vietnam’s Confucianism no longer absolutely followed China’s Confucianism but featured the maturity of Vietnamese culture. where maintains the traditional technical style firmly. BINH THUAN PROVINCE Keiichi Tokusawa*.Panel 3: Vietnamese culture  similarities under the impacts of Chinese cultures at the early stage of independence after 1000 years of Chinese domination. Do Kien*** * ** *** Okayama University of Science The Japan Society for the Promotion of Science The Institute of Vietnamese Studies & Development Sciences Development of traditional earthenware making in Vietnam were concerned with various relations of ethnic minorities in mainland Southeast Asia. Bình Thuận province. This is the reason why the fact that only Tran Kings worshiped Vietnamese Confucianists clearly marks the Vietnamization of Confucianism under this Dynasty. But in fact. the stop and extinction of earthenware making are seen by maker's aging and the situation of successor’s absent.081] THE STUDY OF THE TRADITIONAL EARTHEN WARE MAKING TECHNIQUE IN THE CENTRAL VIETNAM: MAINLY FORMING AND FIRING IN PALEI LIGOK VILLAGE. in recent years. In Vietnam. we focus on Bình Đức village (Palei Ligok in Chăm).

082] WORSHIPING ANCESTORS OF VIETNAMESE CATHOLICS IN THE RED RIVER DELTA. Conclusion 84  . This issue will be described and explained through historical documents.A traditional ethics of the Kinh.Panel 3: Vietnamese culture  Ligok village. it can be seen Vietnamese Catholic’s concepts of death. BAC NINH DIOCESE) Le Duc Hanh Institute of Religious Research. Tu Ne parish village (Bac Ninh): Past and Present. and material on the field in Tu Ne parish village and others and the rule of Catholic dogma. Content of paper is as following: 1. View of the Vatican of Vietnamese Catholic’s ancestor worship. VASS The aim of this paper is to make clear some terms related to the commemoration of ancestors of the Kinh Catholics in the Red River delta (Northern Vietnam). Special characteristics of ancestor worship in the Kinh Catholic community. heaven and purgatory. soul. Similarities and differences in ancestor worship between the Kinh Catholic and the Kinh non . but also from Palei Chaok village of Chăm people in Ninh Thuận Province and Đông Giang village of K’ho people in Bình Thuận province in the central Vietnam. And they are not only different from the mainland Southeast Asia and other. 9. 6. The way of behaviour of missionary associations to ancestor worship issue.Catholic. Basis of worshiping ancestor in the Kinh Catholic community. That is worshiping or respecting or honoring ancestor. The Kinh Catholic’s attitude and opinion towards ancestor worship. [03. 8. From there. 3. Worshiping ancestor . 5. survey data. 2. 7. 4. VIETNAM (APPROACHINH RELIGIOUS ANTHROPOLOGY THROUGH A CASE STUDY: TU NE PARISH VILLAGE.

084] GRAVE WORSHIP IN THE CENTRAL VIETNAM Suenari Michio. nor the exact genealogical relation in most of cases. [03. Even if they know they are graves of patrilineal ancestors. This absence of interests in the individuality of ancestors in between the apical ancestor and close ancestors seems to be closely associated with the “middle blank” 85   . Prof. they might pay a brief pray when they put the incense stick. Tokyo University. Japan This report considers the term “di cho” as used by fishermen in Truong Son ward. In these cases. The value created in the negotiation between fishermen and buyers is monetized and the negotiation process is one kind of human interrelationship that includes both economic and cultural elements. they visit other graves from the senior generation to the lower. Dr. Osaka National University. they clear the grave offering one incense stick without any other ritual behavior. When they come to the grave of close ancestors such as their parents or grandparents. It presents a study on the value stream and the human relationship as demonstrated by the value stream. Asian Cultures Research Institute. Then. Japan The weak concern about the individuality of grave ancestors would be the most conspicuous feature in the Vietnamese grave worship during its season towards the end of the year. After clearing the grass over the graves of the apical ancestor and his sons.Panel 3: Vietnamese culture  [03.083] THE MEANING OF “ĐI CHỢ” (GOING TO THE MARKET) Lee Joon Won. paper money and incense stick. They organize a worship group of male descendants of patrilineal ancestors. an elder plays a brief ritual with offering of betel nuts. they do not know the name. Sam Son town in their trade.

In other words. Together with economic globalization.085] MULTI . [03. 86  . a farm village to the outskirt of Hue city during 2006 .2007. not necessarily Westernization.directional modernization and globalization that is actually Westernization.directional modernization and globalization where each nation builds its own modernized society and enters globalization in different ways. Currently. economic in its nature. This is a powerful cultural exchange amongst peoples and nations with their own identities being preserved. multi directional cultural globalization is the internationalization of ethnic culture and the “ethnicalization” of international culture.Panel 3: Vietnamese culture  structure in genealogical knowledge. Prof. The second is multi . VASS Globalization. has been recognized in Vietnam and some other Asian countries.SECTOR CULTURAL GLOBALIZATION Ngo Duc Thinh. The first is unit . cultural globalization has also been taking place at different levels regardless of our will. The author started from considering globalization as the development in which building a modernized society is included. there was a new concept of “multi directional cultural globalization. This was also recognized in other activities in ancestral altar or in am (small shrine in the yard).Dr. From the above theoretical background. modernization and globalization show two tendencies. Data were collected in Thanh Phuoc. Institute of Cultural Studies. The definition and the tendencies of cultural globalization are the questions that should be raised.

the delta and Hochiminh city will soon play a strategic role in national economic and cultural development. Yet. It is local religions that help diversify the delta’s culture. After a long process and thanks to cultural exchanges and absorption. One of these characteristics is the birth of obviously local religions in the later 19th century and early 20th century. In many aspects. which process is going on at the moment. Viet culture as per Cuu Long river delta is a selective heritage of traditional culture and the absorption of new cultural values in the new inhabitation in order to create their unique cultural characteristics. Many religions have appeared in the region such as Buddhism. This report is based on the viewpoint that religion is after all a social and cultural phenomenon. they develop many cultural similarities.Panel 3: Vietnamese culture  [03. College of Social Sciences and Humanities. Prof.086] LOCAL RELIGIONS AND THEIR IMPACT ON THE LIFE IN SOUTH VIETNAM Ngo Van Le. It is affirmed that the Viet community in the South did 87   . VNU Ho Chi Minh City Cuu Long River Delta is the biggest delta in Vietnam with a square of 39. Islam and other local religions. It will focus on explaining the reasons for the establishment of local religions in the late 19th century and early 20th century and their impacts on cultural life in the delta. Ethnic minorities in the delta started their life at different time and are different in economic development level and their social and religious structure. Viet people account for a majority of population there. the delta is a promising land for those who seek for a settlement and prosperity and happiness. 000 km2 accounting for 12% of the national territory. Despite being a relatively new land. Those local religions are essential in Viet people life. they are confined to the Viet community in the South. Catholicism. Dr. gain achievements and protect their achievements. They came here and joined efforts to exploit the delta.

Ha Noi.Ha Noi.economic foundation. Thang Long .politics. The Chinese phonetic form of chŏu (Beijing dialect) and other dialect forms are not related to the name of the Ox even when the Chinese character is traced to its original structure.088] CULTURAL FEATURES OF THANG LONG . Assoc. Cultural and economic contact and exchange is a feature and a historical natural process of Thang Long . Prof.HA NOI AFTER A THOUSAND YEARS OF ECONOMIC AND CULTURAL CONTACT AND EXCHANGE Nguyen Hai Ke.Ha Noi can be regarded as 88  . the author had some conclusions: 1. Victoria. Both Chinese and Vietnamese cultures show strong images of this animal through proverbs and old sayings.087] THE VIETNAMESE ORIGIN OF ORIENTAL ZODIAC NAMES (CHINESE ZODIAC NAME IS A MISNOMER) Nguyen Cung Thong. VNU Hanoi Studying the cultural contact and exchange of Thang Long .Dr. Thach Sanh Glen Waverley. [03.economy. but phonetic analyses show a very different story. [03. Based on its characteristics in terms of geo . basic structure and socio .Panel 3: Vietnamese culture  selectively inherit Vietnam traditional cultural values on the one hand and create their new values as appropriate in the new conditions on the other hand. Australia This article shows how Sửu as the second Zodiac name is related to Vietnamese tlu/trâu. geo .Sc. College of Social Sciences and Humanities.

The ancestral worship belief has a strong endurance over the generations and creates a powerful influence to rule over the Vietnamese life with regards to the community.the residence of the souls .089] THE ANCESTOR WORSHIP BELIEF AND ITS INFLUENCE LIFE .Panel 3: Vietnamese culture  an open municipality. receipt and finally absorption. VNU Hanoi The Vietnamese ancestral worship belief has been formed and developed on the basis of human spiritual conception on the world as well as on the economic. Assoc. The “next” world and the souls of the dead exist in invisible form so we are unable to be aware of them through visuality but we are through feeling.7%) think that after death.2007) show that most of the Cau Giay district’s residents (61.5%) suppose that the “next” world . Dr.Prof. People’s economic and cultural contact and exchange is one of their natural demands. family and individual. frequent.Ha Noi with a high status and remarkable sustainability.lasting and diversified content of economic and cultural contact and exchange of Thang Long . identity and sustainability have been formed and expressed through contact and exchange. This is also the foundation. MA College of Social Sciences and Humanities. and the basic. long .Ha Noi 3. social and ideological basis of the Vietnamese society through the development stages in history and has contributed to the creation of a specific national culture. 2.Ha Noi has been having results from cultural contact.. Our survey results (2006 . the human’s soul will separate from the body and move to “live” in another world . political. It is the contact and exchange of civilization and culture that provide the culture of Thang Long . They (69. [03. The identity of civilization and culture as Thang Long . intuition and experience.the world of saints and gods and the the replica 89   .STYLE OF HANOI’S PEOPLE IN THE PERIOD OF CULTURAL INTEGRATION Nguyen Hoi Loan. The cultural vitality. Nguyen Thi Hai Yen.

Ancestral worship is a invisible strand to cement the past . the generations in the family and the family . and models of houses. the funeral is performed as a ceremony to see the relative off to depart on a long difficult journey but it is thought that the residence of the souls is the tombs themselves and the souls always sit on the altar to see the activities of their descendants. The ancestral worship belief firstly helps the residents to satisfy the need for morality and then the spiritual needs. the residents believe that the souls of ancestors can thoroughly understand what the descendants bare in their prayers and the souls of ancestors will become a solid support for the descendants when they have sorrow. Through practicing the rituals of the ancestral worship. Thenceforth. For example. gold. Through the activities of practicing the rituals (nearly 100% residents worship their ancestors in the family). For the Vietnamese in general and for the Cau Giay district’s residents in particular.. With values contained in ancestral worship belief. it is somewhere very far but very near. the “next” world is very close and strange to the real world. misfortune and 90  .present . the souls do the same activities as when they were alive. It is thought that the ancestor’s soul in the “next” world will receive the offerings. This belief has a strong influence on their daily life. caser and other furniture (votive paper). The offerings for the sacrifice normally are delicious dishes. the “next” world has all things existing in the current world. they express their belief in the traditional moral values of the community. in the souls of their ancestors. gratitude and respect to their ancestors for giving them birth. the money. not by the real things but by their “souls” through burning of offerings.line. Therefore.future. The ancestral worship belief is practiced by the descendants to express their love. tools. the generations will have the system of criteria in teaching piety to their descendants and to themselves to form a system of moral behavior when treating others. clothing. beautiful clothing. mixed with the real world but full of contradictions. in the “next” world and in the invisible power of their ancestors. the members in the family line are connected with each other.will be buried with the remains of the dead. fostering and educating them as well as to gain merit The study results also show that the ancestral worship belief has been a need for most of the Hanoi residents..Panel 3: Vietnamese culture  of the current world.

Through these rituals. The belief that worships Mẫu. College of Humanities and Social Sciences. Undisputed are the influence of folk religious beliefs on the mass people. The residents always sincerely express their affection for the souls of ancestors and hope for the support from ancestors. in contrast. Second. MA. by equalizing Nature to Mẫu or Mother. as human beings appear from the nature and nursed by natural resources. they should respect nature as their bearing and breeding mother and seek shelter from nature. This is obvious due to their dependence on the nature and supposed nature’s power for agricultural success. VNU Hanoi Throughout the thousand . which. In particular. the belief also demonstrates their wishes for exploration of the nature and its domination. They obviously hope that they would never be deprived of the natural resources.090] VIETNAMESE BEHAVIOUR TOWARDS THE NATURE SEEN THROUGH THE RELIGIOUS BELIEFS IN THE MORTHER WORSHIPPING Nguyen Huu Thu. opinion and emotion towards the universe. ease mental pains. First.year history of development. 91   . is undisputedly the sanctuary for the mass people’s thought. [03. they can release the psychological tension. partly shows Viet people’s friendly attitude towards and respect for the nature. despite being a folk belief. human beings and human treatment towards the nature and in the society. the Viet social life in general and spiritual life in particular has witnessed enormous changes. That belief. and create energy for themselves to overcome the difficulties in their lives. in respecting nature as their mother.Panel 3: Vietnamese culture  loss. However. would unceasingly expand while the bad things would be dissolved. Vietnamese people lay their hope in nature that the latter would never fail to breed and protect their family and community and would bring prosperity and the best things to them.

to edit. they supplement each other making achievements more and more profound. First trend includes the researchers who have mainly concentrated their attention to explain events. These two different trends neither come in conflict with nor annul each other. How to distinguish Vietnamese culture from the culture of 92  . depending on his specialty and the conditions he has. have expanded their activities in both trends. Each researcher has his own way to approach his goal. which would affect their life and survival. Vietnamese people send their aspiration for domination of natural forces into the image of Lieu Hanh Mother and her disguise in actual historical actors. However. Several researchers.changing nature.Panel 3: Vietnamese culture  Third. The second trend includes the researchers who have mainly concentrated their attention to collect. Many serious and careful scientific researches have been published under different forms. There gradually appeared two main trends.091] VIETNAMESE CULTURE: A FIELD OF SCIENCE. [03. That domination aspiration by no means implies the temptation to freely exploit natural resources but the wish to mitigate natural disasters. Only by doing so can Vietnamese people survive and thrive along with the ever . from reality of these two trends. centers and components of Vietnam culture. TWO TRENDS OF RESEARCH AND SEVERAL BIG ISSUE OF TODAY Nguyen Khac Thuan Binh Duong University In the last few decades. we see that there are many questions that need to be discussed to quickly establish unanimity in ideology. phenomena and cultural trends. not many in numbers. Big current questions are: How to define the cultural space of Vietnam?. Vietnamese culture has interested many scientific researchers from different scientific fields. to summarize and to introduce the establishment process and different locations of civilizations. On the contrary.

[03. To achieve ideological unification on these matters.out the system of cultural terms. How many native civilizations were there shining in our country in the past?. Which is very easy to mistake and misunderstanding normally?. The paper "Study on the traditional festival the third of March in Vietnam from longtong festival in Zhuang ethnic group in China” mainly bases on analyzing the origin. College of Social Sciences and Humanities. How overseas components have appeared. nature and meaning of longtong cultural festival of the Zhuang ethnic group 93   . still preserves many valuable cultural traditions formed from the ancient time. What is the cultural character?. How and at which level they have affected to Vietnam Culture.Viet cultures.Panel 3: Vietnamese culture  Vietnamese people?. said to be one of the descendant groups of the ancient Hundred . The above outstanding matters are very important not only on the method of conclusion but also on the great value of realistic practice.092] FROM LONGTONG (三月三) OF ZHUANG ETHNIC GROUP IN CHINA TO A INTERPRETATION OF THE TRADITIONAL FESTIVAL “THE THIRD OF MARCH” IN VIETNAM Nguyen Ngoc Tho.Viet race. Accordingly. MA. the study on Zhuang longtong festival is absolutely necessary for the research of ancient Hundred . the longtong festival on the third of March of each lunar year (or 三月三 /San’yue’san/ in Chinese language) is known as one of the typically special festivals for many precious local cultural identities can be found on it. How to harmonize the relationship between preserving the cultural character and the integration of cultures? And what is the matter of building up and fully working . VNU Ho Chi Minh City The Zhuang ethnic group in present China. we must take a fundamental pace on the long path of approach to the study Vietnamese culture. In Zhuang customary tradition.

nature. From that point.H..rooted Han Thuc festival. 1944.Panel 3: Vietnamese culture  and some other peoples in China as well as the ethnic Tay. M’dhour people not only cremated the                                                                   1 J. They have almost the same dialect as the Cham and Rhade people in Darlac.I. [03. Chez les M’Dhour du haut Phu Yen.093] THE ETERNAL WORLD OF M’DHOUR PEOPLE: JAR GRAVES IN THE SA HUYNH CULTURE Nguyen Thi Hoa.originated Longtong Festival of Zhuang ethnic group and others in present China. the most obvious difference between M’dhour people and their neighboring ethnic groups are the custom of cremation”1.. a French scholar.rooted Han Thuc festival (Cold . I. there are habitations of M’Dhour people.Food Festival 寒食节). in 1944: “In the South of Ba River and in the both sides of H’nang River. p. Southern Institute of Sustainable Development There was interesting information mentioned in the paper of Lamarches J. The paper includes 3 parts: (1) Event: Introducing and analyzing the origin. the paper connects with the similar customary traditions in the festival “the third of March” in Vietnam to argue that there existed a real and purified Vietnamese festival “the third of March” in the ancient time before being replaced by Chinese . (2) Analysis: Discussing on the traditional “the third of March” festival in Vietnam from longtong festival of the Zhuang. characteristics and cultural meanings of Hundred Viet . who have been more or less mixed with Cham people. Dr. N0175.Lamarche. Nung in Northeastern Vietnam to demonstrate that the festival truly originated from the ancient Hundred Viet tradition.21 94  . (3) Conclusion: Affirming the real and purified Vietnamese festival “the third of March” existing the ancient time before being replaced by Chinese .

Based on our preliminary understanding. dead bodies were buried in a hole underground. in Dong Cuom Vestige in Binh Dinh Province. but they also put ashes into jars.known Sa Huynh culture. we also found the custom. according to which a dead new . it was kept till the 1980s. their practice of cremation and jar burial will be presented in my full report. especially. which were used to contain traditional wine. This fact is relatively suitable to recent archaeological findings in the jar grave area of Sa Huynh culture. Prof. there were also underground graves in addition to jar graves. The question here is whether there is now an existing group of people that used to be one of the owners of well . VASS The article presents a general view of cultural life of Vietnam after twenty years of renewal. Assoc. or a dead body of the rich was put into a big copper pot to be buried in a grave underground. and in Sa Huynh Cultural Vestige in Suoi May highland village (Song Hinh District. And. pointing out the positive achievements and the limitations in the 95   . Phu Yen Province). different from the cremation practice among Cham balamon. there were some pot graves. the above .mentioned burial practice still remained among M’dhour community until 1975. Regarding to M’dhour burial practice. nearby the present habitation of M’dhour people. M’dhour conception on the eternity world. to be buried underground with belongings of the dead. [03. there were a lot of ashes and broken bones in the jars. however.094] THE CULTURAL LIFE OF VIETNAMESE PEOPLE AFTER TWENTY YEARS OF RENOVATION Nguyen Van Dan. in Lai Nghi Jar grave area in Quang Nam Province. M’dhour burial practice was. jar graves and underground graves were found for the first time in the area which is about 60 km far from the sea coast due West. in some areas. in addition. in Go Que grave area in Quang Ngai Province. Institute of Social Sciences Information. For example.born child was put into a jar to be buried (called first burial). Dr.Panel 3: Vietnamese culture  dead body.

In the section 2 . that is it must be managed by laws. The section 3 analyzes the “Changes in conception of life and in lifestyle of the Vietnamese”.” [03.. warning that freedom and responsibility must go hand in hand. literature and art. which have been realized thanks to the leadership of the Vietnamese Communist Party. École Française d’Extrême . This is the manifestation of political culture’s role.cultural life of Vietnamese people.ANTHROPOLOGY IN THE NORTH OF VIET NAM Tessier Olivier. festivals. sports. beauty contests and fashion model show. And the author concluded: “Cultural life asks to be managed scientifically and reasonably. The section 4 presents the process of “Restoring and bringing into play traditional cultural values”. the author asserted the political .Orient The work of Henri Oger "Technical people Annamite" is the product of an unprecedented study on the material culture of Vietnam from the early twentieth 96  .Prof. The section 5 .“Renewal in freedom of creation and its limits” . which is entitled “Issue arising from culture renewal”.095] THE BOOK « TECHNIQUES OF AN NAM PEOPLE » OF HENRI OGER THE FIRST ACHIVEMENT OF TECHNO..Panel 3: Vietnamese culture  cultural aspect”. democratic. Assoc. modern music.the author analyzed the positive results and the limitations in the domain of cinema. Only so we could build up a culture that is humane. the author pointed out the disease of “abuse” in diverse domains of culture and in the exercising of cultural liberty. The article is composed of 6 sections.right respectable and constitutes the dynamic for development. photography.. which is entitled “Culture renewal in terms of political . Dr. pointing out the positive and negative effects of this process on socio .legal achievements. Phillippe Le Failler. In the last section.“Absorbing world cultural values in order to enrich Vietnamese culture” . In the first section.shows the progress of Vietnam in respecting and promoting the freedom in cultural creation. human .

The purpose of this communication is to present the outlines of that original study focusing on the scope of work by Henri Oger and its pioneer in the field of anthropology technique. gestures. it is the only witness to the variety of popular industries that prevailed in northern Vietnam at the beginning of last century. Prof. This observation of a religious come . As such. Accompanied by a Vietnamese artist. VU University Amsterdam.SECULAR VIETNAM Oscar Salemink. Besides the undeniable aesthetic quality of his prints which makes it a true art book. it is a comprehensive documentary corpus can be used by Vietnamese and foreign researchers in their business recovery or historical analysis of the dynamics of paternity by a comparative technique with current practices. offers a full edition of this book is enriched with a translation into Vietnamese Romanized (Quốc ngữ) of all annotations and captions written in Chinese characters (Han) and demotic (name). The Netherland It is a truism to state that religious beliefs and ritual practices have made a come .back or 97   . as is obvious from the expansion of religious organizations. SACRALIZATION AND THE PROFANE: THE CATEGORIES OF THE RELIGIOUS THE SACRED IN POST . festival and other events. 000 documents have been collected in the form of drawings and sketches that allow us to see so many processes. The center of the EFEO of Hanoi.Đổi mới Vietnam.back in post .096] SECULARIZATION. [03.Panel 3: Vietnamese culture  century. the proliferation of ritual practices and the seeming ubiquity of pilgrimages. More than 4. he traveled the streets of Hanoi and the suburbs of the capital to identify and seize the tremendous diversity of industries and businesses developed by the little people. in collaboration with the General Science Library of Ho Chi Minh. not neglecting any aspect of the private and public life at the time. tools and crafts that are associated their vernacular names.

tinh thần. mê tín di đọan. between sacred and profane. dead kings. Many Vietnamese would claim that these do not constitute religious activities or affiliations. nghi lễ. in this paper I would like to focus on the second assumption by exploring what is considered to belong to the category of ‘religion’ and the ‘sacred’ in Vietnam. the vast majority has tacked ‘không’ [none] under tôn giáo [religion] on their identity card). sùng bái.religion in Vietnam.religious in nature may be sacralized. thiêng liêng .or “real” . Whereas in previous publications I have drawn attention to the communist and capitalist projects as political religions. linh thiêng. geomancer [thầy địa lý] or soothsayer [thầy bói]. This might also explain why the worship of heavenly deities [đạo thánh] . In contrast. actively promoted by the Communist Party before 1986. even when they would regularly visit a officially not recognized as a religion [tôn giáo]. dị giáo. everyday cultural or economic practices in the public sphere that are often seen as non .is predicated on two assumptions. The first is that this ‘religionization’ follows on a period of secularization. I would like to 98  . as they often associate the category of religion [tôn giáo] with organized. and more recent political leaders. When asked about their religion. In this paper. This brief digression suggests that political prescriptions and proscriptions circumscribe what is considered a legitimate . visit an astrologer [thầy số]. a temple.evidenced by the currency of such terms as đạo. then. Outside organized religion and the political realm. tín ngưỡng.related to much of the present interest in spirit possession and Mother Goddess worship . institutionalized religious practice around a clear doctrine. exemplified by the various world religions present in Vietnam which may compete or overlap with the dominant political religions. political practice is often sacralized and ritualized. most Vietnamese citizens would claim that they have no religion (e. thờ cúng.Panel 3: Vietnamese culture  revival . and most certainly venerate their ancestors [thờ tổ tiên]. The second assumption is that the distinction and the boundaries between the religious and the secular. giác ngọ. tôn giáo. embark on a pilgrimage. On the other hand. I argue that neither of these two assumptions can hold against available evidence. are clear and unambiguous. as in the recent expansion of the Hùng King Festival or in the veneration of mythical heroes.g.

we only refer to the contribution of Catholicism to Vietnamese culture. transgressed and re .drawn in Vietnam’s post . Spreading the Catholic faith was no doubt an efficient tool of the western imperialists in every step of the process to impose a European style of nationalism on the Vietnamese people. Hanoi National University of Education From the early 17th century. The significance of this impact is a complicated issue and until now. It can’t be denied that Catholicism has had a great impact on our culture. MA. In this report.20TH CENTURY) THE VIETNAMEME Pham Thi Thanh Huyen. the propagation of Catholicism in Vietnam was both intensive and effective in its nature. the period during which Catholicism is thought to have had the most profound effect on our culture. we will focus on several aspects of Catholicism’s contribution towards Vietnamese culture from the late 19th century to the early 20th century.097] THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF CATHOLIC COMMUNITIES CULTURE (17TH CENTURY . from the 17th to the 20th Century. Turner 2006). and how that affects valuation of what is seen as legitimately ‘religious’ in contemporary Vietnam.Panel 3: Vietnamese culture  explore how the boundaries between the sacred and the profane are drawn. This process was linked to the invasion and colonization of Vietnam by western nationalists and their imperialist objectives. there have been few projects where this issue had been deeply researched. According to the scope of this seminar article. The birth of the Vietnamese script The importation of modern print technology and the development of the printing press in the early 20th century The importation of Christian architecture and art 99   .Revolutionary ‘religioscape’ (cf. Appadurai 1996. [03.

Panel 3: Vietnamese culture  There is little doubt that the primary role of the Catholic priest was to engage in missionary activity and convert the Vietnamese people to the catholic faith. The living 100  . Catholicism and its missionary agenda. In Vietnam this activity probably succeeded to a greater degree than their original intentions. the migrants found ways to adapt their religion and beliefs to the natural circumstances in the South. There is no doubt that three decades of imported Western culture. Southern Institute of Social Sciences In their migration to the South. much of it implemented through religious conversion to Catholicism. The personality of the Southerners is characterized by extremism and determination. present day Vietnamese culture is a combination of the traditional national Vietnamese character and more recent values that have been imported from Western civilization. Confucian ethic of a life dedicated to family. The Eastern.Dr. sought to bring western civilization to what they saw as a backwardly feudal regime. has left a profound effect on Vietnamese culture. [03. also respect the customs relating to a deep reverence for their ancestors. which seems to contradict the tolerance found in Northerners in a very reasonable way. As a result. most Vietnamese people. The contribution of Catholicism having one of the most profound and continuing influences on the present day Vietnamese national character.Prof.098] THE COCHINCHINA SEEN FROM A RELIGIOUS PERSPECTIVE Phan An. is still very strong in Vietnam. Assoc. Being an important component of western culture. Moreover. Catholic or otherwise.

This piece of writing would like to investigate the history of Vietnamese royal garden forming . In Vietnam.099] THE HISTORY. under the Nguyen dynasty (1802 . Indeed. the writing would like to deal with such activities as researching. requiring a dialectic viewpoint. Le and Nguyen. tolerance and extremism. a well . Dr. [03. Especially. RESEARCH AND THE RESTORATION OF VIETNAMESE ROYAL GARDEN Phan Thanh Hai. Vietnam The royal garden is a special work of architecture connected closely to the royal architecture throughout monarchies. Additionally. the royal garden took shape and developed approximately a thousand years ago. their personality is a combination of seemingly contradictory character. 101   .known urban garden urban acknowledged as the World Cultural heritage by UNESCO. therefore. It is even harder to withdrawn a conclusive description of Southerners’ personality as it has been continuously changing over the last 300 years. Tran.declining. throughout such dynasties as Dinh.Panel 3: Vietnamese culture  conditions require them to be determined and extreme as a prerequisite for survival there. Le. and enhancing the values of this unique cultural heritage. Hue royal gardens developed strongly that contributed to increase the beauty of Hue capital city. Hue Monuments Conservation Center. CURRENT STATE. restoring. Ly. such as openness and conservatism.1945).developing . The religious viewpoints give us better insight into the personality of the Southerners.

especially the căi hóng 彩虹 cầu vòng (rainbows) do have the radical for “worm” or “snake”. Graduate Institute of Linguistics. shé 蛇 rắn (snack).. the grandchildren of immortal” (Con rồng cháu tiên). snack.. This suggests that Vietnamese are familiar with the notion of “dragon”. we investigate Chinese characters which relating to “dragon” bears the radical for “worm” or “snake” (蟲字. serpents. “snakes”. Finally. chongzibu. the radical for “worm” or “snack”] 102  . MA.. [Dragon. rainbow. Then.100] A CASE STUDY OF DRAGONS AND RAINBOWS Quang Kim Ngọc.Panel 3: Vietnamese culture  [03. we conclusion suggest that “Chinese dragons” might have been influenced of Southeast Asia countries. This paper attempt to provide an explanation for the idea proposed by Trần (1996) that dragon traits originated from Southeast Asia country and then spread to China. Moreover.. bộ“trùng”trong côn trùng). Next. in linguistically speaking. Tsing Hua National University Vietnamese are proud of referring to themselves as “the children of dragon. Kuang Yu Chang. What are the relationships between “dragons”. This paper will address the following issues: first is the universal psychological factors have conspired repeatedly in the creation of the idea of dragon various part of the world. a concept that itself extends far back into the Pleistocine... serpents” and “rainbows”? This study will support the idea of Professor Robert Blust (2000) The origin of dragons. Prof. for instant: jiāo lóng 蛟龍 Giao Long (serpents),pán lóng 蟠龍 Bàn Long (one . chī lóng 螭龍Ly Long (hornless dragon). He argues that dragons evolved from rainbows through the concept of the rainbow serpent.horn dragon).. this study also leads us to consider that some southern cultures spread upward to the north. names of dragons in Vietnamese and minority languages in Vietnam suggest “dragons” are often related to snakes.

100 lay people. The Hanoi church has been opened as social space. 103   . for which it took different forms from some practices of some Caodai communities in southern area. By having come to believe in Caodaism. divorced or widowed in Vietnamese society means it alienated from social security system because Vietnam society had been under patriarchy. First.Panel 3: Vietnamese culture  [03. I will pay attention following two points.101] CAO DAI COMMUNITY AS SOCIAL SPACE IN HANOI CITY. Second. The experiences singled. Adherents of Hanoi church consists of a priestess and 50 . On the other side. Around 90% of them are old women over 60 years old. through the analysis of practices within adherents of Cao Dai church “thanh that thu do Ha Noi”. the capital of Vietnam. most of them have been experienced single. They emphasize the specific relationship in the Hanoi church. In this presentation. Japan The aim of this presentation is to clarify how the Cao Dai community formed and what the Cao Dai community means as social space in contemporary northern Vietnam. the Hanoi church has been not only religious place but also social space which they had interaction. NORTHERN VIETNAM Sato(Ito) Mariko The Graduate University for Advanced Studies. divorced or widowed. they could get new relationship with adherents in Cao Dai community. which is the only Cao Dai church in Hanoi city. the Hanoi church had founded in 1937. and formed within a social context in northern area. Most of the previous studies on Caodai took a sociopolitical viewpoint on dynamism in southern area for reason of Caodai had large affected the nationalism movement in 20th. I will give a specific example with some ritual practices in the Hanoi church. which provides alternative social relationship for women on the outskirts of a patrilineal society.

In addition. China and the relationship between the book of family rites and Vietnam’s two particular family rituals pre . both local and foreign.Prof. English is more widely used as well as Internet as a means of communication. Dr. including international theatre and cinema festivals. Assoc.103] CONTEMPORARY VIETNAMESE CULTURE: GLOBALIZATION AND MARKET Sokolov Anatoli. mainly mass culture tends to expand. Russian Academy of Sciences. Cultural exchange and advent of foreign.Panel 3: Vietnamese culture  [03.102] A PRECIMINARY STUDY ON THE BOOK OF FAMILY RITES Shimao Minoru. foreign musicians’ performances and translation of literary works and so on. Keio University. Modern Vietnamese literature is characterized by multiple trends from formalistic experiments to the rise of mass literature. RUSIA The paper stresses the changing context of Vietnamese culture development and functioning with the state still continuing to control cultural product. Fewer productions at the state film studios go along with the rise of production at private film studios and with joint cinema production with foreigners including Vietnamese émigrés. electronic mass media and “a new literary environment”. Japan I have been analyzed the documents of particular family rituals composed and published in Vietnam from the later period of the 17th century to the early 20th century to thoroughly understand the impact of Confucianism on Vietnam cultural and social history. Indigenous literature as a whole evolves towards the tastes of mass consumer. [03. TV retains its 104  . Institute of Oriental Studies.composed. I also have been doing survey the relationship between Vietnam documents and Minh dynasty’s ones.

control and high sense of responsibility towards to the self and the society. This paper therefore draws attention to such integration of Buddhism and Buddhists into the social life. Rapid expansion of tourism (international as well as domestic) which is growing to be one of the country’s leading industry. the “impermanence” or “changeability”. Mercy and Equality. [03. Mercy is the concept of ethical conduct and altruistic behaviors. Commercialization of musical industry and fine arts (especially picture . Understanding the “not . on the other hand. In the feudal regime. 105   .galleries’ business) demonstrates the trend to consumerism and entertainment in culture. about the true nature of phenomena. Therefore. commonly known as The Buddha. demonstrates the scale of Vietnam’s involvement in the process of globalization. Buddhists often came from the elite and scholar class. Equality refers to the equal intelligence among people. they acted in the interests of both the mass people and their own. self .self. they had the duty to spread the teachings of the Buddha to the people.104] ENGAGED BUDDILISM APPLICATION IN REAL LIFE Thich Hue Dang Vietnam Buddhism Church Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices taught by the awakened teacher Siddhartha Guatama. Non . they need to integrate into the social life and apply the teachings in order to assist the mass people on the path towards happiness. Buddhists can help change the people from bad to good and enrich the society with kindness and beauty.Panel 3: Vietnamese culture  leading role as the main source of information and inspiration of cultural life.self”. On the one hand. Humanity refers to the notion of confidence. which determines its popularity to the world.self is the concept of changeability of the personal self. Not . which are Humanity. Buddhism plays the role of spiritual guide for the people against the exodus of foreign values and acts as moral guide for a progressive society.

Sc. the writer used only the method of observation and deeply interview in some black Ha Nhi villages living in Bat Xat of Lao Cai province and the flower . search for the method of forest protection with the spiritual belief to create the forbid paths and set up the regulation in the community. problems related to in Viet community features in integration period of time. Since. Dr. 106  . measures of conservation. VNU Ho Chi Minh city Reports shows community feature as one typical of the Vietnamese cultures basic character: concept. its effects and consequences.106] COMMUNITARIANISM OF THE VIETNAMESE PEOPLE AND ITS PROBLEMS IN THE PERIOD OF INTEGRATION AND DEVELOPMENT Tran Ngoc Them. research history. In order to understand the local knowledge in forest protection. Sports and prioritized culture and personal prioritized culture. Lao Cai Province The main target of this paper is to understand the traditional behavior of the Ha Nhi people for the forest protection. Especially. community features and personal character . Ha Nhi. Department of Culture.Dr. Prof. the role of community in the forest protection is always dignified. difference between Viet community features and other North East Asia’s ethnics community features. College of Social Science and Humanities. [03. promoting its pros and limiting its cons. expression.Panel 3: Vietnamese culture  [03.105] THE LOCAL KNOWLEDGE FOR FOREST PROTECTION OF THE HA NHI PEOPLE LIVING IN VIETNAM Tran Huu Son. living in Muong Te district. definition. Lai Chau province.

Gradually. Vietnamese traditional timber houses can divide into two categories: Northern group and Center and Southern group.Panel 3: Vietnamese culture  [03. (3) On the other hand. some traditional structural members were emphasized with plentiful decoration to become a symbol of traditionalism. but both of two structure types evolved from a simple structure made from bamboo with one pillar stand in the middle and dug into the earth that were so popular among locals. (4) Several structural types appeared in Nghe An and other provinces in Central Vietnam have the characteristics that reflect the influence of other Southeast Asian culture. the houses were built with timber structure which columns stand on the stone base has a long history date back to 16th century. 107   . Conclusions are: (1) In terms of architecture culture. This structure had included Viet’s original technical and might be called Vietnamese traditional architecture. this structure had been developing to five types in order of changing in custom and daily life meanwhile adopted traditional disciplines. National University of Singapore This paper refers to the typology of Vietnamese traditional timber structure and its development progress base on analyzing a huge survey data on ten provinces in Vietnam. Although the oldest house among this group was built in 19th century. (2) As for the first group. Until early 20th century. Developing this structure has led to perfection of wood working techniques from the North. the second group only included two structure types which are totally deferent to the first group. Dr.107] THE ORIGINS AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF TRADITIONAL ARCHITECTURE OF VIETNAMESE TIMBER HOUSES Tran Thi Que Ha.

flexible foreign policy. for a long time.D)… The Ly Court cared much about agricultural production. Quốc sư Viên Thông (1080 . took part in the court and became special political advisers of Ly’s kings. Many monks. helped to defend our country against aggressions of Sung and Champa. quốc sư Thông Biện (? .1225 A. Dai Viet under the leadership of the Ly dynasty had kept good relations with neighboring countries. for example. the Buddhistic influences on politics are reflected in the government structure. the law (Hinh Thu law.Panel 3: Vietnamese culture  [03. 1042 A. They were known as Quốc sư (or National monk). Buddhism developed strongly and influenced many aspects of life. the government’s domestic policies.D).1134 A.D). On the other hand.D). Buddhist temples were built everywhere.1151 A. therefore. However. a prosperous development of Buddhism during the Ly dynasty also created bad effects.108] THE INFLUENCES OF BUDDHISM ON THE POLITICS OF THE LY DYNASTY Tran Xuan Tri Hanoi National University of Education During the Ly dynasty (1009 . who were honored. Buddhism and its effects is one of the most important factors that promoted socio economy development in Dai Viet. 108  . decreased the land taxes and supplied food for poor people. especially the Chinese Sung to the North and Champa to the South. In my opinion. especially politics. created a lot of cultural achievements. The treasury became exhausted and agricultural production lacked of employees for when many people wanted to become Buddhist monks.

think of its source”. 109   .Panel 3: Vietnamese culture  [03. The proverb indicates the need for appreciation and devotion to the merit individuals. which is the foundation for building up the sense of confidence and pride and other moral values such as humanity. THINK OF ITS SOURCE” IN THE CONTEXT OF INTERNATIONAL INTEGRATION AND NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Vu Van Thuan. Assoc. setting up an altar in commemoration of ancestors and commemorating the Village God. That cultural value plays a pivotal role in consolidating the people’s spiritual strength and their sense of responsibility towards national development.109] CULTURAL VALUES EXPRESSED IN THE PROVERB “WHEN DRINKING WATER. the founding father of the village.Dr. impartiality. That cultural value is practiced in many ways. those who give birth to us and those who assist us in our life and work and appreciation and dedication to our family and hometown. It is essential that the value be promoted. such as by holding anniversary in the family. bravery.Prof. will. namely. mind. Ho Chi Minh Political and Administrative Institute The aim of the project is to lay out the development and main ideas of the traditional value demonstrated by the proverb “when drinking water.


PANEL 4 Cultural exchange .


it must struggle to achieve national independence again. if in an independent country people are not entitled to happiness. according to Ho Chi Minh. Vietnamese people will positively and effectively contribute to the world’s advance by not only the past nimbus but sound wisdom.Integration and development” issue should be based on Ho Chi Minh’s development philosophy. this independence is absolute nonsense.” Under the colonial regime. But. it has nothing. aspiration.tradition of the nation. career and ideology had pointed out Vietnam’s development principle: “when a nation loses independence.110] HO CHI MINH . Ho Chi Minh National Political and Administrative Studies Academy It is essential that doing research on “Vietnam .Freedom . National independence is a premise for development.Happiness” is the permanent. “Vietnam . Vietnam should not only integrate into but also cooperate with other countries. A significant lesson that Ho Chi Minh left us today is to be clearly aware of the fact that Vietnam should not be separated from the world.Panel 4: Cultural exchange   [04. freedom. skill and spirit of present and future. It is an indispensable process. Assoc. the world also comes to Vietnam to create prosperity and general advance for human being. In Ho Chi Minh’s spirit.Integration and development” will come true.Prof. “Independence . To liberate and develop. so that we will filter world’s quintessence for its development. It should be noted that development is first based on internal force. consistent ideology throughout his entire revolutionary life. 113   . Conversely. without independence. With our wisdom and humane . internal force is not separated from external force. His life. That creating the former and exploiting the latter will generate the total force for liberation and development. it is crucial that we should be really “public spirited and selfless” people. However. Only by this way.INTEGRATION AND DEVELOPMENT Bui Dinh Phong.

Southern Institute of Social Sciences This study is carried out in the context of Vietnamese society transforming quickly from a centralized economy to a market economy. it came in obvious contact with various systems of economy.111] CHANGES IN THE SOCIAL STRUCTURE AND CULTURAL IDENTITY OF NATIVES OF THE CENTRAL HIGHLANDS OF VIETNAM (TAY NGUYEN) DURING THE RENOVATION PERIOD: A CASE STUDY OF GIA LAI PROVINCE Dao Huy Quyen. The alarming problems include poverty. The “new wind” has created a radical change in the life of native people of Tay Nguyen who were previously restricted to their own villages. religion and traditional culture. a revolution in population. and the vulnerable economy in the region is now falling behind One problem is free migration. illiteracy. politics and culture. multi . MA. even the systems of health care. education. land use rights in addition to the danger of losing identity are taking place.religious. its policies have not succeeded in ensuring the sustainable development for this region. deforestation and environmental devastation. When Vietnam turned its door open to the rest of the world.Panel 4: Cultural exchange  [04. In order to solve the problems 114  .sufficient economy in the past used to allow them to live comfortably in their mountains and forests. race. when Vietnamese society becomes open. etc. especially the preservation of traditional culture. which put local authorities at a new challenge. The traditional heritage of Tay Nguyen is being dominated by other cultures to the extent that many of its values are lost Tay Nguyen is a multi . The self . This has left new challenges and conflicts as many elements of Tay Nguyen society are assimilated while many others are denied. multi .racial. Although Vietnam government has prioritized resources to develop Tay Nguyen. However. which brings about division of agricultural land. spoken and written language. urbanization.cultural region. therefore appropriate policies should be applied.

. 115   . [04. Vladivostok. contacts between professionals.. education and tourism abroad. including development of international relations and the world economy. they do not. We must also analyze good impact and the downside of socio . it’s important to apply new and subjective views to assess the nature of the problems. scholars.Panel 4: Cultural exchange   arising. bilateral trade and investment activities. Cultural tolerance in the world and cultural links practice between countries and nations influence directly the development of international tourism. international business and trade. family links between relatives living in different countries. Only then can we find out an approach to solution to sustainable development of Tay Nguyen. All abovementioned aspects play a role in accordance with their level. Promoting and sharing of cultural values demands professional approach and deep understanding. etc. because only an expert can convey the sharp insights into the country and the culture. Who need this valuable knowledge? Both the country who wants to introduce its cultural values to attract foreign visitors: tourist. investors etc. THE LAND OF DRAGONS AND FAIRIES” – A SECRET OF SUCCESSFUL CULTURAL PROMOTION AND EXCHANGE Daria Mishukova. National cultural values can be promoted in different ways including special state decisions about cultural exchange during festivals and other activities. ties of friendship between individuals. Dr.economic policies in use. Russian Federation Culture plays an important role in our life. how it is affected in a new context or which rule is relevant. to name only some of them. publications and cultural issues.112] THE BOOK “VIETNAM. Do they always bring the desirable results? Obviously. academia. because misunderstanding and intolerance to other cultures still exists. We must realize the full value of the culture of thousand years in this land.

so the author was awarded with an honorary certificate by the Vladivostok city authorities in honor of 147th anniversary of the city foundation on 02/07/2007. VTV4. with media appearance of the author on Vietnamese channels VTV1. business and glamour magazines both in Vietnam and Russia. These reasons make the publication of English language version of the book to be a very useful instrument in development of cultural links between Vietnam and other countries and nations of the world.Panel 4: Cultural exchange  and foreign investors or businessmen who want to develop a new market and conscious tourists who want to have better understanding about cultural diversity. OTV and radio “The voice of Vietnam” and “The voice of Russia”. because knowledge and understanding brings friendship and tolerance. Written and first published in Russian language in 2007 the book is considered as one of the best publications about Vietnam both for general information and professional purposes in Russian language. 116  . Tuoi tre. Russian channels PTR. Far Eastern branch of the Russian State library just to name some of them.The land of Dragons and Fairies” was considered a valuable contribution to improving cultural links and understanding between people of Russia and Vietnam. This statement is underlined in many feedbacks from the readers and numerous official reviews from the Department of East Asian languages and civilizations of Harvard university. Department of International affairs and tourism of regional authorities. The Land of Dragons and Fairies” by Daria Mishukova can be a good example to prove the above idea. Zolotoy Rog). The book presents values and beauty of traditional and contemporary Vietnamese culture in a nice and exciting style and gives better understanding about Vietnam and inspires readers to learn more about Vietnam. The book “Vietnam. representative office of the Ministry of Foreign affairs of Russian Federation in Vladivostok. Moreover the book “Vietnam . Department of External relations of the Vladivostok city Administration. Konkurent. Daily Novosti. Dai doan ket. The book was highly praised in numerous reviews in newspapers (Lao Dong.

Through the mainstream of history. there were many upheavals caused by the war meanwhile the Cham people/culture in the Great Viet Nation was received voluntarily by the Viet people/culture in many centuries. in the progress of the Viet and Cham acculturation.Panel 4: Cultural exchange   [04. Assoc. the acculturation itself is only "voluntary". the Cham culture had been "silently" mixed with the Viet culture and contributed many particular cultural colors by time. through the Viet and Cham acculturation.mixture". the Viet . As result. the consideration of the boundary can help us to have better knowledge in the diversity of the Viet culture in particular and of the Vietnamese culture in general. Although it was not as clear and strongly expanded as the Chinese culture. Colleges of Humanities and Social Sciences Studies. one can understand more clearly the common attitudes on the way of acculturation as well as the acculturation itself. Sports and Tourism Besides the thousands years of cultural exchanges with the Han culture. the Great Viet Nation had another acculturation with the Cham culture in its history process. There are two ways of acculturation: peace and war. Therefore. However. Until today. [04. On the other hand. one can see that Cham (cultural) elements have influenced many aspects of including the progress of "race blood .113] CHAMS AND VIET: CULTURAL BOUNDARIES Dinh Duc Tien Ministry of Culture. VNU Hanoi Vietnam mass media has seen both ups and downs during its 143 years of development but notable are its comprehensive development since the renovation 117   .Cham cultural boundary is still vague.Dr.Prof.114] MASS MEDIA IN THE DEVELOPMENT AND INTEGRATION PROCESS Dinh Van Huong.

Panel 4: Cultural exchange  process throughout the country and in the industry itself in 1986. Trinh Minh Hien** * Cultural Center of Haiphong **Historical Science Association of Hai Phong The story of Nele citadel and Asoka tower has been mentioned by many researchers: .Nele means ‘black mud’. Nele citadel’s location was in the South . the industry is evaluated in terms of its achievements and failures. 1937. it will firmly and sustainably move ahead in the general push for national prosperity and strength.332) based on Nele citadel’s name. XXXVII.East of Dinh An.115] NE LE .CAPITAL IN THE TIME OF ASOKA Dong Thi Hong Hoan*.East of Dinh An (or An Dinh) district. i. In this paper. [04. seven miles from the river. Do Son area now (Book “Universe Thai Binh Chronicle” says : “Nele citadel was in Tong Binh district in the Tang time. What is important is the conclusion that the continuation of reforming the industry presents an objective historical requirement. should the industry master the opportunities and overcome challenges.e. opportunities and challenges in the future. In the face of opportunities in conjunction with challenges. Claude Madroll (Le Tonkin ancient BEFEO.DOSON CITADEL . its tower and amphitheatre constructed by King A Duc still exist …” Nele in the meaning of Sanskrit means Hell and in the area of Tam Dao there is a pagoda named ‘The Hell pagoda’ (the word ‘Lele’ in Chinese is phonetically transcribed from the word ‘Naraka’ (Sanskrit) which means ‘Hell’ As to the event of Buddhism’s penetration from India into Vietnam.East of An Dinh district in the Han time”. the literary work “Linh Nam strange stories” has referred to the story of Chu Dong Tu who on the 118  . Luu Han Ky in his “Giao Division’s Chronicle” wrote : “Nele citadel was situated in the South . which was in the South . 262 . explained that Nele meant ‘black mud’.

Nele time were clever and creative when depending on the natural terrain of three sides bordered by the sea. This point also needs a further research. To exactly determine in which area of Do Son Asoka tower is situated further depends on archaeology. Someone says that the tower of the Ly dynasty was built on or near Asoka tower. The team of evangelists led by king Asoka came to Nele by sea and built the tower here. Our presentation has rejected the opinion that Nele is in the area of Tam Dao. i. Nele citadel was a man . Phat Quang. river and mountain to protect the security of the local residents against acts of God and hostile forces… 119   .made citadel or the ancients only used mountains and the sea of Do Son as a natural citadel. The Do Son people in the pre . King Ly Thanh Tong had Do Son tower built in the 11th century. This remains only hypothesis needing further research. Hai Phong is situated near The Bach Dang river’s mouth in which there have been plentiful archaeological vestiges since the ancient time. Archaeology has proved that the area of Do Son. Geology shows that Do Son terrain in the ancient time was a hilly area which was bordered by the sea in three sides and bordered by the Hong river in one side (as per ‘The geographical monograph on the whole county of Hai Duong”). A time after king Asoka left Nele. an Indian monk.e. the tower collapsed and one knows this event thanks to the poem “Recalling the old time when climbing the tower mountain” composed by Mien Trai Hoang Xuan Hoan.Nele and post . and then got Buddhism transmitted by him.Panel 4: Cultural exchange   waterway to the sea for trading came to Do Son and met a monk named Ban. Monk Ban (Phat Quang) lived in a cave (Cave pagoda) in Do Son.

our Party implements policies. journalism in our country in the years of renovation has played an important role in the process of exchanging. VNU Hanoi A lot of complicated changes. and enhancement of prestige and position of Viet Nam in the international forum. Colleges of Social Sciences & Humanities. Prof. Despite these circumstances.Panel 4: Cultural exchange  [04. Considering that culture is intellectual fundamental. 120  . tough challenges of natural calamity. cultural issues are the main concern of our Party. receiving and integrating international culture. In that connection. Vietnamese journalism does well in taking part in education of self . Under that light. solutions with a view toward building and developing advanced Vietnamese culture with national character. Viet Nam now faces the impact and complicated changes of globalization. presentation of the country and the people of Viet Nam. disadvantages of market economy. implementation of independence policy. the Communist Party of Viet Nam sticks to the socialist orientation. dynamic of social development.116] VIETNAMESE NEWSPAPERS IN THE PERIOD OF RENOVATION: THE PROCESS OF EXCHANGING AND INTEGRATION CULTURAL INTERNATIONAL Duong Xuan tradition. widening foreign information channel. Dr. opportunity and challenges occur in our country as well as over the world. diversification and multilateralization of international cooperation. Assco.

CHINA. on the side it can show us the general picture of culture of four states in the beginning of exploring the sky and establishing the land (geographic boundaries. the work of understanding the state .Panel 4: Cultural exchange   [04. religion. reliefs. 121   .building and state . China. KOREA AND JAPAN Ha Thi Dan. On the basic of understanding of state . however until now it is still alive and powerful. Korea and Japan. In this meaning. Institute of Southeast Asia Studies. Korea and Japan as so the contact. VASS Myth is a cultural category which had appeared from beginning of mankind (in what the real and legendary factors interacted and mixed each other.building myth (the process of state . habits…). Although meeting at crosswords of cultural lines as such. Korea. As from that find out the inter relevant points on the same fields of these countries -the countries of what there are estimated are the countries that lie in inter . rituals. that is the basis on which the differences and cultural identity of every state .nation in the general and common river of regional culture separately. MA.keeping) of four states: Vietnam. but each country shows its original and generous colors in its beautiful myths. China.117] MYTHS OF NATION .building myths of four states: Vietnam. And so. China.BUILDING IN VIETNAM. and in general. of human culture. Japan have had contributed a big part for searching the independent characteristics of each state: Vietnam.relevant sociolinguistic countries. connections and influences of each other on the cultural fields of these countries in the beginning of nation building.

will grow bigger and bigger than the part each individual.118] CULTURAL ENVIRONMENT AND THE CULTURAL ENVIRONMENT IN VIETNAM Ho Si Quy. as it was in the past? Base upon reliable qualitative and quantitative data’s. each community can create. but the use of the theory on cultural environment is clearly a new approach to the consideration of familiar questions. weaker. and amend? More concretely.the “Flat world” philosophy now deprived of the responsibility to control. That is the problem.than . 122  . determine the context. such man” is only one of many behavioral logics which are not too bad in modern social relation? Or has the role of philosophy itself changed .food culture” or “stewing . Vietnamese Academy of Social Sciences The problem of cultural environment is not new. is it true that the part in it where man has no right to choose. Assoc.dimensional and ambiguous with its “logic of imposition”? As for the cultural environment. is it true that the context has become such that man. regulate.Prof.Panel 4: Cultural exchange  [04. which is steadily developing in the direction of becoming multi . If natural environment is the regrouping of factors outside the social .human system making sufficient conditions for each subsystem of this system to identify itself and progress. is it true that the European rationalist and anthropological culture has become too “classical” and “secular.Dr. in a society.pot culture”? Or is it only a “superficial choice” of globalization times? Is the present philosophy too weak. leaving society to the mercy of less . as an individual. then cultural environment is regrouping of factors inside the social . more tightly defined and restrained.” now getting replaced by a “fast . the paper proves that: 1. build.human system making conditions necessary for this system to exist and develop. and. is becoming increasingly smaller. in which “such environment.clairvoyant logics of life. as necessary. the part which he is compelled to adapt to.

so hopefully every individual.Dr. there are still many challenges and attractions. so dynamic and positive. Yoshida Yasuko. Thailand and Myanmar was found in middle age and contemporary relics in Japan.Panel 4: Cultural exchange   2. Studies on Vietnamese pottery in general are very preliminary. Sakai and Edo. clay account for 148 pieces (32%) while colored patterned pottery account for 63 pieces (13%). This report reflects the findings of surveys on Vietnamese china relics found in Japan. MA. Never in the past has the cultural environment in Vietnam been so rich and varied. Most pottery produced in the 14th and 15th century is found in Okinawa while those produced in the 16th to 18th century are found in Nagasaki. [04.119] VIETNAMESE POTTERY AND CLAY FOUND IN JAPAN Kikuchi Seiichi. 123   . Japan Pottery originated from Southeast Asian countries such as Vietnam. the dynamic and active rhythm of Vietnam’s cultural environment are now enough to foster good ideas and stimulate discovery and creation. respectively. Besides. we find more similar studies on the subject. As we go further into the study. In total 467 pieces of Vietnamese pottery are discovered this time and its relics are found in 101 locations. The degree of richness and diversity. Hoa Lam pottery account for 178 pieces (41%).. Osaka and Tokyo. which used to be commercial centers then under the name of Nagasaki. Prof. it is possible to say that of those potteries found from the relics. with so many opportunities and challenges as is now the case. But on the flip side. analysis of these potteries found this time tells us about their age and their excavation. this study would be useful for the studying of pottery age and for other domestic or international researchers. Therefore. whose age is identified to be from the 14th century to the 18th century. Such collection may be helpful in identifying the age of those Chinas and the transport plane from Vietnam to Japan and its domestic transport lane. no Vietnamese pottery was found or no information was recorded. which reminds us of commercial exchanges between Vietnam and Japan. Showa University. Most of those Chinas are found to be produced in Vietnam. Of these. family. Therefore. so encouraging and attractive. and community will become vigilant before the risk of losing the way or making a mistake.

Panel 4: Cultural exchange  [04. and other means of mass communication. Prof. perfect and enhance the absorption of national culture into the businessman’s mind. and affects many objects. Regularly organize exchanges between businessmen and other circles. businessmen learn diverse information from different approaches. culture certainly is the most fundamental factor to enable businessmen. Assoc.of . mass communication bodies in order to build up the advanced culture imbued with the 124  . the author explains relevant definitions: 1) Definition of culture in organic relation with the circles of business as well as. First of all.born means of mass communication. state. omitting out . soul and action such as: Pave the way for the inheriting. 2) Definitions of mass communication.doing. and assert their trademarks. the author concretizes the roles of mass communication to propagandize. Mass communication makes up public opinions. By so . the internet and other newly . culture and national culture. develop . Diplomatic Institute of Vietnam The article is comprised of 3 main parts: 1. or among business circles themselves to clarify the role of cultures. typical appearance of the enterprise they are factors which are hindrances to development. BUSINESSMEN AND NATIONAL CULTURE IN THE ERA OF THE COUNTRY’S INTEGRATION AND DEVELOPMENT Le Thanh Binh.120] MASS COMMUNICATION. continuing positive factors. enterprises to build up. Communication and interaction are the red thread woven though all cultures. 2. radios. would they have cultural identity. In the “planer and planer” world due to communication. Especially after clarifying the definition of culture and national culture. Through newspapers. status and position in the global markets in the era of integration. the author affirms that businessmen have to appropriately behave in accordance with the national culture. maintain. 3. The third part of the article is about suggestions for enterprises. In the second part. create their own nuance.Dr.

Together with the Viet in the coastal land. the Tho. [04. [04. Thanh hoa has been proved to be the residence of humans since long ago. At present. a few Vietnamese students go to Phnom Penh to pursue their undergraduate studies. Their focus is Khmer language and literature. the Mong. The mountainous area of Thanh Hoa with the Muong culture is a land which is extremely 125   . there used to be the Muong. enterprises in the stable. the Thai. and prosperous development of the country. aims to put the personal experience of these students in the wider context of the country where they temporarily live. This research.121] VIETNAMESE YOUTH STUDYING IN PHNOM PENH. Hong Duc University.Panel 4: Cultural exchange   national identity and boost up the role of businessmen. Dr. CAMBODIA Leyre Benito Otazu Spain Thanks to a bilateral scholarship program between Vietnam and Cambodia which has been in place for many years now. Thanh Hoa Province Thanh Hoa is the land of a long history with all the great landmarks of each important historical period from the primitive time up to present.122] THE MUONG PEOPLE IN THANH HOA AND THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE VIET AND THE MUONG Mai Thi Hong Hai. the Kho . in the field of both youth studies and international relations. different tribes just live alternately together though in different biological zones. the Dao. that is a country whose population still maintain a dual relationship with their neighbor who inhabited in the mountainous area of Thanh Hoa.

culture among the Muong tribe and between the Muong and the Viet. which brings this culture both the similarity and the difference compared to the Muong culture in other places Muong. Therefore. CHINESE BUDDHISM AND CULTURE . Dr. The data on population. specifically is Lý .culture has created a special aspect in the culture of the Muong in Thanh Hoa. the culture of the Muong in Thanh Hoa has always been a unique color.Prof. folk culture as well as field trip. [04. part 2: the outsider Muong who emigrated from Hoa Binh province.RELIGIOUS BELIEFS OF LOCAL ETHNIC GROUPS Nguyen Cong Ly. The process of living together and the cross .WITH INDIAN BUDDHISM.Trần Buddhism. with the data collected from archeological documents. Colleges of Social Sciences and Humanities Vietnam National University. Documentation. Ho Chi Minh city Showing the character of Vietnam Buddhism.Panel 4: Cultural exchange  rich in folk culture particularly border culture. this is thriving period of Vietnam history with the Đại Việt spirit to contribute Đông A powerful. part 3: a mixture of Viet and Muong who come from different places. While doing research on the Muong in Thanh Hoa. Assoc. families and the typical cultural aspects shows that the Muong in Thanh Hoa consisted of 3 parts: part 1: the internal Muong (the insider Muong to be distinguished from the Muong from Hoa Binh province who is named “ the outsider Muong or the external Muong”). it is suggested that Thanh Hoa is the place where cross . in the cultural panorama of the Muong in Vietnam. It has always played an important part in the research on the culture of tribal people and the relationship between the Viet and the Muong. ethnological research. bring about the advance by leaps and bounds of social 126  .123] VIETNAMESE BUDDHISM IN EXCHANGE .

Dr. [04. when a missionary named Alexandre de Rhodes (Dac Lo in Vietnamese) of the Jesuit Order came to Cua Bang (Thanh Hoa province). This article put Vietnam Buddhism among four relationship of exchange . 127   . Institute of Religious Studies.124] THE IMPACT OF CONTACTS BETWEEN VIETNAMESE FOLK BELIEFS AND CATHOLICSM IN THE TONKIN DELTA Nguyen Hong Duong. Bui Chu. Thai Binh. a missionary named Inekhu was present in Tra Lu and Nam Chan (Nam Dinh province at present). The propagation of Catholicism in Vietnam gained a good result in the Tonkin delta. According to chronicle recorded in Cuong muc. The Tonkin delta is also the first region which saw Catholic missionary work.transformation: with Indian Buddhism. Prof. Religion beliefs of worship Mẫu. with religious beliefs of local ethnicites and with culture of local ethnic groups. Hai Phong. Vietnam pagodas not only worship Buddha but also worship Mẫu. Bac Ninh and Hung Hoa with a number of believers about one third compared with the total number of Catholic believers in Vietnam. there are 7/26 dioceses of Catholic established in Northern Vietnam. At present. Assoc. in 1533.Panel 4: Cultural exchange   idea of Vietnam nation at that time. and Vietnam nation heroes… this is the evidence to exchange transformation of relation. Ha Noi.Trần Buddhism developed on the base of three relations exchange . while really historical documents dated March 19th 1627. worship Âu Cơ mother and worship Man Nương with the system of Tứ Pháp. Those are Phat Diem. VASS The Tonkin delta (now called Northern Vietnam) is an area in which Vietnamese popular believes are typical. with Chinese Buddhism. Especially Lý . As for the religion beliefs of local ethnic groups and culture of local ethnics groups meeting at the free character between Buddhism with local of rice inhabitant so that we see the transform of marvelous.transformation from three sources of foreign import.

These are topics mentioned in paper. saving from misfortune and danger. so the theme has not been fully mentioned. Thus. the cult of geniuses and mother goddesses. the Virgin Maria is “motherized” as the Holy Mother. overpowering illness and great disaster. martyrdom Saints. Vietnamese Catholics had a New Year’s Eve party both in the Catholic Church and in traditionally communal house. In common with reverence for the Holy Mother. Vietnamese Catholic in Tonkin delta had done it at the different levels. and even catching thieves. Catholic Church permitted full . or shown in one village but not others. The impacts of native beliefs on practicing religious activities of the local people in the Tonkin delta can be seen as strong or weak in each Vietnamese Catholic village. The types of native beliefs to which Catholics faced when propagated into Tonkin delta are Lunar New Year greeting. Although until 20th of October 1964. Those are transformed to traditional village good geniuses with such powers as: bestow a favor. Apostle and other saints are respected. it is interesting to note how the process of contact took place. Catholics did not accept native popular beliefs and religions when propagating into Vietnam in general and Tonkin delta in particular. The impact of the geniuses’ cult on Catholicism is shown first in holding mother goddesses in reverence. decorated chair parade and offering flowers to a deity. For example. 128  . That is also worship ritual with offering flowers respectfully. Grant and Grow. Ancestor worship is one of the popular beliefs having impacted deeply on Vietnamese Catholics in the Tonkin delta. Also. blessing.fledged to practice ancestor worship. and what the impacts of it would be. With the Vietnamese custom of Lunar New Year greeting. ancestor worship. The Holy Mother is believed to have three functions: Protect. it maybe limited in documents.Panel 4: Cultural exchange  Being practitioners of a monotheistic religion.

and Dau festival). 129   . with access to the treasure of intangible cultural heritages considered as one. Accordingly.C. ancient Vietnamese residents had chosen the Dau area lying along the Dau River. Similarly. The authors realized that in the first centuries B. Those ancient people mixed themselves with nature and upheld a strong belief that community prayers for protection and assistance were answered.Panel 4: Cultural exchange   [04. Bac Ninh) to initially enquire into and recognize the exchange between Vietnamese culture and regional cultures. there were means to help with the understanding of that cultural exchange process. "image" of the Great Mother called Man Nuong. the authors have gained understandings on the first phase of the exchange between Vietnamese culture and regional cultures. Bac Ninh province) Nguyen Huu Toan. In the first centuries of Christian era. the Dau area quickly became a large.125] EXCHANGE BETWEEN VIETNAMESE CULTURE AND CULTURES THE REGION (Some intangible cultural heritages in the Dau area Thuan Thanh district. to settle.. activities of Dau market. MA. outstanding economic and cultural centre of those ancient Vietnamese residents. this study chose to access some intangible cultural heritages from the Dau area (Thuan Thanh. and other regions took place quite busily. in which the process of exchange between local culture and regional cultures was regarded as an important one. the Dau area emerged as a political centre of the Giao Chi District and an ancient urban area where exchange of trade and culture between Vietnam and China. Starting from such thoughts. Le Quoc Vu Ministry of Culture. where conditions were favorable for production and stable settlements. India. Studying some intangible cultural heritages in the Dau area (including the practice of worship of Thach Quang Phat. Information and Tourism Various influences have contributed to the formation and development of Vietnamese culture.

with the participation of Vietnam in globalization process are appearing new cultural elements. In its history the Vietnamese people have. Dr. which will combine one with other to form new advanced culture holding to national identity. HCM City College of Architecture Cultural exchange is a kind of macrocosm symbiosis between the cultures. The acculturation is a form of the transformation of latent benefits coming from cultural exchange into real ones for every symbiotic party. ACCULTURATION AND CULTURAL IDENTITY PRESERVATION OF VIETNAM IN THE GLOBALISATION PROCESS Nguyen The Cuong. as said by the late Professor Tran Quoc Vuong. At present time. Furthermore. by means of extraordinary acculturation power. 130  . and interference between Vietnamese culture with cultures of China.126] CULTURAL EXCHANGE.roads of civilization” into superiority good for enriching and developing its culture.Panel 4: Cultural exchange  As a result. integration. [04. and resisted victoriously all attempts of exterior dominant powers to identify the Vietnamese culture with one of dominant nations. India. maintained the identity of national culture by way of conserving and developing Vietnamese language. quickly grew into a typical example of the interaction. and the interference between them and old cultural elements will create new traditional and modern cultural factors. converted dangerous aspects of the position “cross . exchange. the Dau area. and other countries to become the cradle of mature Vietnamese culture and the homeland of Buddhism and Confucian culture of Dai Viet. and also a symbol of the microcosm symbiosis between some elements of different cultures. Vietnamese culture has created cultural connections that have united the Vietnamese nation in a solid commonwealth with great latent strength.

127] CULTURAL CHANGES IN VIETNAM THE EARLY 20th CENTURY Nguyen Thi Dam. modern with typical traditional culture today is taking lesson from Vietnam cultural changes in decades of the early 20th century. advanced masses culture. Ma. Vietnamese culture marked its milestone when building modern. Hue University of Education Report shows Vietnam cultural changes in decades of early 20th century in 2 aspects as cultural subject. Besides the Viet (majority) there have been some other native groups and immigrants. K’ho. Chinese. Stieng. Basing on these above . report clarified the unique phenomenon in Vietnam history in three early decades of 20th century. [04. basing on patriotism. Dr. material culture. Therefore. Dinh Co festival in Ba Ria . Vietnamese has chosen human quintessence for supplement and modernization of their culture. and Khmer who have lived together and exchanged culture to form the cultural identities in traditional belief festivals.128] STUDYING OF THE CULTURAL EXCHANGE THROUGH TRADITIONAL FESTIVALS IN SOUTH . 131   .Vung Tau.EASTERN VIETNAM Nguyen Thi Nguyet. In 1930. In the 17th century. scientific. MA. In that context. Cham.Eastern Vietnam is the residential area of many ethnic groups. Vietnamese culture has integrated into human culture especially western culture in both material and spiritual aspects. Some of them are: Annual Peace Ritual of Viet people.mentioned content.Panel 4: Cultural exchange   [04. Vietnam advanced. Dong Nai Province The South . Dong Nai Museum. Viet people came here to reclaim wasteland and resided. and spiritual culture. In this new context. such as the Ch’ro.

Cao Bang has nine out of 12 towns bordering China. Phuc Hoa. Thong Nong. traditional festivals in Dong Nai. on some major issues as follows: 1. they are closely related in their religious activities. Thanks to geographical closeness and similar background. Dr. the festival of Ba Den . preserve and develop the unique culture identities of Vietnam and other ethnic groups during the process of integration and development. An example of that close link is the cultural exchanges between Tay priests living in border area of Ha Lang town. Bao Lam.Panel 4: Cultural exchange  the festival of Ba Pagoda in Binh Duong.Linh Son Thanh Mau in Tay Ninh… In this article. Long Chau town of Zhangzhou province. ritual. Bao Lac. dressing. namely Thach An.129] RELATION AND EXCHANGE BETWEEN TÀY PRIESTS AND THE POPULATION IN THE HA LANG BORDER AREA OF CAO BANG PROVINCE Nguyen Thi Yen. Ha Lang. Trung Khanh. confirm. People living in the Northern provinces have lingual and geographical similarities and therefore. worshipping literature and amusements… Researching the cultural exchange of ethnic groups through traditional festivals in the Eastern South area of Vietnam will contribute to study. Institute of Cultural Studies. the author mentions the festivals which have been held in traditional belief units and the factors of cultural exchange which have been shown through the worship objects. Tra Linh. 132  . VASS Being one of the seven mountainous provinces in the North bordering China. Its shared border with China is the longest one in the North. food. Ha Quang. [04. Cao Bang province with people living in the King Long ward. Tay people living in the borderline area developed a close martial and blood relationship.

the current globalization contains capitalist characteristics.time of building and integrating the nation into the world. which also reflects the evolutionary rule of humanity that is nationalism. the Party and State of Vietnam always emphasize the development of an advanced culture with strong national identity both in the war . NATIONALISM AND THE PROCESS OF CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN VIETNAM Nguyen Van Truy. Vietnamese Academy of Social Sciences The process of cultural development in Vietnam in the context of international integration depends on two key factors: globalization and nationalism. Globalization and nationalism.developed country. like the particular and the general. reflecting the evolutionary rule of mankind. In the process of globalization. Priests practicing in this area are typical of Tay priests. In the context of globalization and taking the 133   . In the meantime.Prof. Priests are involved in cross . while the main concerns of Vietnam are the socialist . do not contradict each other when they share the common interests and objectives.characterized nationalism and integration. it is not a coincidence when some have warned that nationalism is a negative effect of globalization. As it has seen that. In the meantime. though Vietnam is a poor and less . Therefore. Assoc. working relationship and professional exchanges between them.time and in the peace .Panel 4: Cultural exchange   2. Although nowadays many people are doubtful about globalization.130] GLOBALIZATION. Thanks to this advantage of having a culture with strong national identity. but it is affirmed that globalization is an indispensable tendency. restraining globalization and creating worldwide crises. there is another tendency. Vietnam has defeated invaders as it is seen in history. [04. it is characterized with a rich and diversified culture with strong national identity. Therefore.border peer relationship. Vietnam has become an active member of globalization while accepting competition and risks as well as strict regulation of globalization.Dr.

the author will present his opinions on globalization.dominated globalization and the position of taking nationalism as a driving force of the country’s development. the author has been developing the firm belief that the ancient philosophical text “tau tae tching” which is found in old written exemplars in the Chinese language and attributed to Laotse is most probably rooted in the ancient traditions and philosophy of the Tai (Thái and Tày . “way of perceiving the world”. one wonders if Vietnam will be able to build an advanced culture with strong national identity. In this paper. As it is quite clear for the Kinh people.2                                                                   2 The author expects this idea to be contested in the beginning.131] THOUGHTS ON ANCIENT EASTERN PHILOSOPHY: LAOTSE Oliver Raendchen. and a specific value system. Another question is how to harmonize the relationship between the capitalism . nationalism from Vietnamese perspective and recommendations for promoting an advanced Vietnamese culture with strong national identity in the current situation. the “tau tae tching”. but he is sure that soon other researchers might also go more into depth into the theme to explore more aspects of this truth. MA. Southeast Asia Communication Center. In this research paper. is approached as a prescribed “way of life”. 134  .Nùng) peoples whose forefathers settled in historical times in what is today South China.Nùng) peoples on the other hand. Germany Vietnam is rich in minority peoples. Because of more than 20 years of comparative study in the ancient philosophy of Laotse on the one hand and the way of life and perceiving the world of the Tai (Thái and Tày . [04. a kind of ancient Eastern philosophy. but would be interesting to see if these ethnic minorities have any connections to world philosophy.Panel 4: Cultural exchange  nationalism as a driving force for the country development.

As such.. such as the qi and sin. The objective of the project is to verify the spread to Vietnam of the First Celestial Masters. [04. which is also known as the Way of the Five Pecks of Rice founded in the second half of the 2nd century in Sichuan. South China. the Thái and Tày . etc.132] THE SPREAD OF THE FIRST CELESTIAL MASTERS TO VIETNAM Onishi Kazuhiko South Korea Commerce and Translation Company Ltd. but in fact represents a whole value system. traditional laws. of the Tai peoples. gained further development. that of Confucius). It is reasonable to hold that the beliefs of the Celestial Masters. Therefore. the paper answers the three questions as to the mentioning of the belief in Vietnam historical records. To view Laotse (the “tau tae tching”) in connection with the forefathers of the Tai peoples (among them. how the belief found way into Vietnam and how it has been adapted to the local identity. it was also the source for intellectuals to compete with other value systems (e.. It is something like a bible of behavioural norms and was used not only for worshipping the holy “right way” of behaviour.Nùng of Vietnam) might contribute to a better understanding of ancient Eastern philosophies. two conclusions can be made to explain the spread of the First Celestial Masters to Vietnam. In doing so. all related to the Dragon and Tiger mountain. that Fujian acted as a bridge between 135   . were brought to Vietnam via the sea transport line by the Song scholars in the 12th and 13th century. Those beliefs in natural forces such thunder and lightning coincidentally found their match in the folkloric belief in natural forces and thus. the “tau tae tching” is philosophically much more condensed and abstracted.g. Vietnam historical records tell about the birthplace of the religion with fairy tales about Phan Vien and Nguyen Huy Oanh.Panel 4: Cultural exchange   Compared to the single concrete behavioural rules.

Dr. With China (and India) to form the National Dai Viet culture. how to save traditional humanity values from being lost in oblivion? 2. c. b.Panel 4: Cultural exchange  the religion and Vietnam and that the religion itself found similarities in local folkloric beliefs.133] CULTURAL EXCHANGE: VIETNAM AND THE WORLD Pham Duc Duong. VASS Nowadays. Standing on giant’s shoulders and walk (technological transfer) b. how to preserve national character? To answer. Toffler in “The third wave”. global cultural exchanges are extending. Combining similarities of Agriculture and post . 2. With French and Western culture to modernize Vietnam culture. Vietnam Association of Southeast Asia Studies. [04. With socialism to orient Vietnam culture towards socialist orientation. Author presented Vietnam acculturation so that to draw lessons and orients. One of the reasons leading to the changes in cultural model is cultural contact. 3) West . There are three subjects: 1.) While modernizing the national culture through West . Prof.industry civilisations as per analysis of A.East contact. 136  . forming a new characteristic namely cultural symbiosis with two challenges: 1) While focusing national sources on improving material life of the people in a market mechanism. Vietnam culture is the confluence of region and the world with three contact times: a.East integration to complement each other and utilize advantages of followers on two aspects: a.

2. Dr. b . and then he has tested to cure many people from dangerous diseases. they are not identifiable with the Psychical Medicine for the effective treatment base much one the human factors. And it can be used to develop the human studies. 3 . Hong Duc University.energetic field.1 .Vietnamese Psychic Medicine is the way of special treatment of Vietnamese people.2 . Vietnamese people’s popular names that an “efficacious medicine”.Suggest keeping researching the following subjects: 137   method of the . and psychosis are not large and deep enough to decode Psychic Medicine.We can explain the medicine’s effectiveness by the mechanics of physical hormone regulation.Although the hypothesis of bio .3 .The way of Psychic Medicine treatment is very old but it can supply the modern medicine with a lot of advantage. and by the influential regulation of image. Indian and Chinese religious and connected with the local religious beliefs. 2. It came from the Asian Wizardry. current of biological electricity are taken to be related. by the effective artisticism to unconscious world and other psychoanalytical rules. its marvelous treatment result for some serious diseases has been admitted. Some opinions and hypothesis of quantum theory.Twenty years ago.134] SURVEYING PSYCHOLOGICAL MEDICINE IN VIETNAM Pham Minh Dieu. 2. Because of not understanding Medical Spirit yet. Thanh Hoa Province 1. the author himself got out of very serious illness. However. This theme has given some first conclusions such as: 2. some people consider it as the superstition. Universal energy.Panel 4: Cultural exchange   [04. Psychic Medicine is the therapy. which base on mystical power. A lot of serious diseases can be cured by Psychic Medicine a . This theme joins Psychic Medicine to human studies but use the g eneral Wholedynamic. medical biology.

the cradle of our history .Seeking again and researching on the Wizardry treatment occurrence in high land zones and in some Psychic Medicine treatment centre from religions and religious beliefs. flat. mountainous. Cultural 138  . In Vietnam's history.Applying the Psychical Medicine knowledge to abolish the superstition and control the religious activities. [04. cultural exchanges among regions throughout periods has created good conditions for development of regions and areas. created the civilization of our nation. advantageous environment. c .135] CULTURAL EXCHANGE AMONG REGIONS OF THANH HOA PROVINCE Pham Van Dau. Thanh homeland is one of the cultural cradles with especially small cultural. d . and territorial areas Development of the history of land. In the process of history.Find the way of treating some specific diseases by Psychic Medicine. the medical and tourist fields.Ma river delta has devoted to the cultural unity. and the human education and cultural exchange. particularly now. cultural exchanges among regions has been developed and expanded.Continue to find the way of helping patients recover their health b . natural conditions.Panel 4: Cultural exchange  a . Together with Red river delta . when integration and development have become an indispensable tendency of human beings. and need of social development has created favorable conditions to promote cultural exchange in this area. Thanh Hoa Province Cultural exchanges is one of the most important elements of development. Dr. Hong Duc University. Interaction among old cultures has created a cultural center in Ma river delta.

Cultural exchanges have been carried out on a great number of areas. Along with Hue. In 1991. Dr. India had not escaped yet to a centralized economy. Ho Chi Minh City Open University During many years. Thanh cultural exchanges and development has contributed to Vietnam's traditional culture which is the fundamental factor in cultural exchanges and integration during this age of globalization. It is the components of cultural exchanges and modifications that have confirmed the importance of cultural exchanges to over all social development. [04.Panel 4: Cultural exchange   interaction and development of the feudal state has created the cultural region with the special culture of the Thanh homeland . However. both material and spiritual and with various forms. Quang. The change is considered as a huge forward step for the over billion population country in South Asia. crisis of foreign currency reserves which had not purchased good enough for 2 weeks and deficit up to 8. India has aimed to become super power in terms of economy. inflation.136] SOME THOUGHTS ON THE STRATEGY OF MORDERNIZATION INDUSTRIALIZATION. the first time.door policy in order to attract investment. 139   . In these circumstances. The exchanges between Thanh cultural regions have not only highlighted the unique feature of this area but also influenced the national cultural development. the Indian government changed its economic thinking to an open .the border area of the North area. the country entered the world’s “Top 10” with GDP of 1 billion USD. till 2005. 5% GDP. Lang. … Thanh cultural region has enriched Vietnam's traditional culture. In the flow of national culture. REGIONAL AND GLOBAL INTEGRATION OF VIETNAM INFLUENCED BY THE GLOBALIZATION BUT FROM EXPERIENCES OF INDIA CULTURE’S ASPECTS Phan Thi Hong Xuan. Nghe.

they don’t depend on monks as in Banism. Thanks to these predomination and to subterfuge of the missionaries. which would be a valuable experience for developing countries. Believers can practice religion themselves. 140  . Islamism attracted a part of Bani believers. India might become the third most powerful economy just after America and China. Indian government has continued to pledge opening the economic door to foreign investment. Ngo Thi Chinh Vietnam Association of Anthropology Islam developed among Cham Bani people at Ninh Thuan and Binh Thuan provinces in early 1960’s.Panel 4: Cultural exchange  Also.religious community by governance of the Hakem board elected by believers. the change was recognized when the economist Man Mohan Singh took power as a Prime Minister.137] THE DEVELOPMENT OF ISLAM AMONG THE CHAM PEOPLE IN NINH THUAN AND BINH THUAN PROVINCES Ta Long.. With a vigorous change for a new opportunity depending on two main pillars relating to high growth rate of industry and service. Dr. At present. With continued efforts over the next 25 years. [04. including Vietnam as well in the process of regional and world integration influenced by globalization. due to the separation of Islamic believers from the Bani community’s cultural and inhabitant life in the same areas. Islamism could not expand out to the two communes which it has caught before about 50 years. religious custom and simple behaviors in wedding. religious creeds. funeral as well as in their management of population . Cham Muslims have conformed fully to the Koran. the question remains whether the image of an Indian civilization with cultural values considered to be a constant of Eastern culture might be overshadowed and also from a narrow view of the author how globalization might challenge developing countries and the role of culture in a strong economic development. However.

CHAM CULTURAL EXCHANGE IN CENTRAL VIETNAM: A VILLAGE IN THE HUE AREA Tran Dinh Hang. the stone drum at Hưng Nhơn. of Bùi Trành. In some cases they even actively changed from the attitude “kính nhi viễn chi” [“respect but stay away”] to the attitude “kính như tại” [respect the dead as they are still living]. the Vietnamese were at the time only a minority compared with the other indigenous communities in the area. they were afraid their descendants “might someday assimilate the Cham customs”.. “Lồi”. as described by L.Panel 4: Cultural exchange   [04. By and by.138] VIET . etc. a saying by Confucius regarding the world of spirits]. or classified them into “mục cổ tích” [“the section of tales”]. “Hời”. the Bà Ràng temple at Lai Trung. MA. Inevitably. which notes down the reason for the migration to the southern land.. the founder of Câu Nhi village) shows a process of peaceful relations and acculturation between the native community (the so . all because of an attitude of “kính nhi viễn chi” [“Respect but stay away”. those “strange things” became more familiar and changed the Vietnamese’s view. The Vietnamese assimilated the strange Cham idols and religious rituals by transforming them. Hải Lăng district. “with a mere vague memory” of the previous masters of the land.called people of Bồng Nga) and the Vietnamese newcomers. Sub . and in the end created new geographical names and worshipping sites related to Cham concepts such as “Giàng”.Institute of Culture and Arts of Vietnam in Hue The book “Thỉ Thiên Tự” (the village annals of Câu Nhi village. Quảng Trị province. The Vietnamese official history often referred to Cham historical monuments as “phế tích” [“ruins”]. a common holy image in the Vietnamese popular beliefs]. and even the cult of dead whales etc. in the 2nd year of Thuận Thiên Reign [1492]. by renaming the outlandish legends. 141   . and anecdotes with familiar and realistic Vietnamese names: the Dương islet at Phước Tích village. Cadière. the Bà shrine at Thanh Phước [Bà: Lady.

This pagoda was related to two other Cham holy sites: the Lồi Citadel. where the Nguyễn Court took the trouble to build a temple for the Cham King ’s worship. 000 BC (late Neolithic Age). VASS Between 5. as well as the help from both men and genies: From the embodiment of the genie of the Trảo Trảo river in the image of the green .Dress Heavenly Lady who was believed to appoint a celestial . and the Jade Bowl Temple dedicated to the Cham goddess Poh Inư Nưga who was now turned into a Vietnamese goddess Thiên Y A Na Lady Trảo Trảo. were not only worshiped in the villages. it is first opening to take shape Bach Viet groups and Lin Nan 142  . Goddess Thiên Y A Na (celestial goddesses) and also Lady Tơ (an earthly spirit who is worshiped both in Huế and Quảng Trị). to the legend of the Red . but also on the level of national ceremony It is noticeable here that those ceremonies are still preserved in the villages up to the present. with such important roles and mandates. Institute of Archaeology. [04. the Red . In this researcher’s opinion.139] THE CULTURAL RELATIONSHIP OF NORTH VIETNAM AND SOUTH CHINA IN THE LATE NEOLITHIC Trinh Nang Chung. Dr.Dress Heavenly Lady.Panel 4: Cultural exchange  Such an assimilation of new religious elements was advocated by the Nguyễn Lords’ political policy to gain support from the local people on the new land in the South. there existed between North Viet Nam and South China a complex and diversified common culture. The principle to revere and assimilate the indigenous cultural factors really helped the Nguyễn family win “cả lòng dân lẫn ý trời” [both the people’s trust and Heaven’s favour].mandated Lord to build the Heavenly Lady Pagoda (1601).dress lady who was said to assist the Nguyễn Lord to defeat the Mạc army led by Lập Bạo at Ái Tử in 1572. 000 and 3.

which waxed and waned later. Early times thus formed the basis for cultural relations to develop and be maintained subsequently. based on analyses and compares the present characteristics in North Viet Nam and South China. such as Ha Giang culture.early Bronze Age in the northern Viet Nam.. we think that: .Panel 4: Cultural exchange   area. contacts in culture in the late Neolithic period.There may have existed a system of large. .The owner of Mai Pha and present population in the coastal of Southeast China exchanged each other’s through stone and ceramic tools etc. Mai Pha culture were distributed in the mountainous region of the North. . China based on common culture is characteristic for the South area and not similar to North of China.early Bronze age established in northern Viet Nam. Phung Nguyen culture in the Northern area of Viet Nam. it appears that there were cultures of late Neolithic ..Ha Long culture had exchanged strongly and contacted with Southern China and Southeast Asia. in Viet Nam and China area there were exchanges. similar culture that included Ha Giang. . To see clearly the culture of relations between northern Viet Nam and southern China in the late Neolithic period. . 143   .Through archaeological data shown above. Up to this time. we can affirm that. Based on archaeological data. Xiao Ke Tong and Gan Ta Yan cultures. Ha Long and Bau Tro culture were distributed in the coastal delta and near islands in the northeast area and central part northern Viet Nam.The culture in Guang Xi had affected in moderation for people in the late Neolithic . we want to emphasize a natural truth: the ancient Bai Yue groups in Viet Nam and southern China had very strong cultural relations in prehistoric times. The influence of Ha Long can show clearly what we said above.

Panel 4: Cultural exchange  [04. Thailand. Dongson culture influenced different cultures in the same time. Dongson culture had strongly cultural exchanges with some different ancient cultures in south China.140] CULTURAL EXCHANGE OF THE DONGSON CIVILLATION IN COASTAL AND ISLAND REGIONS Trinh Sinh.2nd centuries AD. [04. In the cultural exchanges. Prof. It integrated some elements of cultures in different regions. Ministry of Culture and Information We have scored a number of achievements in setting up a clear borderline between the upside and downside in our culture and taken measures to gradually 144  . Assoc. China. In the Western. mainland Southeast Asia and island Southeast Asia. trade. Dongson culture contacted with indigenous cultures of Indonesia's islands. exchanges etc. The cultural exchanges of Dongson culture demonstrated that Viet people in the ancient evaluated exactly the situation of Pacific Ocean in production. Dongson culture dates about from 7th century BC to the 1st . Prof. In the Southern region. Assoc.141] FURTHER INSIGHT INTO THE HUMAN FACTOR IN CONTEMPORORARY VIETNAMESE CULTURE Truong Luu. VASS Dongson culture of the Bronze Age in Vietnam mainly distributed in northern Vietnam. Dr. Archaeological artifacts demonstrated Dongson culture presented in the northern region in Zhejiang province. It presented in coastal regions of Malaysia. Institute of Archaeology. Institute of Culture and Arts.

These thoughts are confined to as follows: . identifying the commonness and conflict between the market economy and our cultural orientation. which determines our position and status. Over the half decade of interaction with Russian culture. The first part of the paper will provide an overview of Vietnamese and Russian cross . 145   .A firm foundation of cultural value allows us to develop an open mind to the world across the border .Restoration of moral and mental potentials . theatre.Awake to the fact that we are still a least developed country and undeveloped in many ways to the region . Ministry of Culture and Information. Russian . in face of challenges of the era. [04. it is essential that we update our thinking and take up measures to enable us to overcome the downside of globalization.A proved affirmation that the purpose of culture is the human value . training. cinema. Vietnamese culture was influenced by Russian culture to different extent in different periods from different perspectives including literature.cultural ties from twenties of the twentieth century to present. However.142] VIETNAM AND RUSSIA CULTURAL TIES AND EMERGING ISSUES IN THE PERIOD OF INTEGRATION AND DEVELOPMENT Tu Thi Loan. .In addition to that.Panel 4: Cultural exchange   overcome the downside and bring national culture to development. Dr. Institute for Culture and Arts. education. Vietnam has had gains and learned experiences. fine art. Objective and unbiased assessments stated that this interaction is crucial in the current context of integration.Any mention of the nation can not ignore the concept of culture.soviet culture was a historic phenomenon with visible values. Exposure to Russian culture and that of former soviet countries is the fourth interaction of Vietnamese culture with other cultures in the region and the world.

. in the new century. Vietnamese understand the essence of Russian culture.Panel 4: Cultural exchange  publishing. . . especially classical culture.Vietnamese are active in the Vietnamese . we would miss an opportunity to enrich our own culture. Then it is real cross .Russian cultural interaction which was linked with the choice of national liberation made by the former president Ho Chi Minh. Lessons learned from Russian culture in the previous period are lessons of internal resource mobilization and affirmation of national identity in the context of integration.At present. ideology and political characteristics presented in the Russian culture during the soviet regime exerted undesirable influences on Vietnamese culture. Giving little attention to Russian culture while considering the world’s culture.However. and enabling both sides to gain more. and the culture of Russian overseas intellectuals. In conclusion. After the Soviet collapse. deep mutual understanding for mutual benefits while individual cultures retain their identity and own values. . 146  .culture and the fact that a nation could develop its creativity while learning about other cultures.Russian cultural interaction is broad and deep. The second part of the paper presents historical lessons drawn from the cultural relationship between Vietnam and Russia and emerging issues in the current context of international integration including the following: . Vietnam studies are developed and promoted in Russia and have gained considerable achievements. We should know what to learn and how and when to refuse.culture. it has been revitalized. the cultural relationship between Vietnam and Russia was not notable. However. etc. In the present arena. not the blind imitation of any cultural models or paradigms.There should be a mutual appreciation of cultures.Vietnamese . we have misunderstanding and little understanding of Russian culture. the paper emphasizes the inter . Russia has revived as a culturally and economically powerful country.

Trinh Chau University. he was considered as ”Vietnam ancient historical scholar”. Le Quy Don (1726 . an academic issue which taking researchers’s concerns is his life attitude. Ha Nam. literature. history of ancient idea. Therefore...1784). With Le Quy Don. philosophy. 147   .Panel 4: Cultural exchange   [04. China There is a famous confucian scholar in post King Le time in Vietnam. Researcher who carry out research of Vietnam can not do their work without access to his remands.143] IDEAS ON LE QUY DON’S LIFE ATTITUDE Vu Huong Dong. He had left back various writtings in Chinese with great value in many aspects such as history.. That was Mr. Prof. Dr.




Panel 5: Vietnamese economy


Bui Tat Thang, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Institute of Strategy for Development, Ministry of Planning and Investment

Vietnam economy has reached ever - significant achievements after 20 years of “Doi Moi” guideline and policy implementation in comparison with other ones in the past. Starting from one backward, sluggish economy following planning centralizing model, Vietnam economy has reformed into an advanced one with average GDP of world top ranking (7.5% annually) over two past decades. Vietnam economy has double its GDP after each 10 years. This results in many people getting rid of the poor and Vietnam has become one of WTO members. However, economy development means it is becoming more complex. In addition, Vietnam economy in particular and world economy in general is experiencing tough period in its development, with many new complexity unforeseen economic phenomena. Essential goods prices are increasing with strange manifestations. Consumers are suffering from pressure of high price, which may lead to return to threat of increasing poor. In macro level, trend of increasing price in strategic important goods such as petroleum, food and other goods which only pause in high price or even continue to raise higher has proved that world economy is changing into new era with even worse shortage of producing input resources. Upcoming time will be a significant important time to Vietnam economy development history. That brings Vietnam a chance to escape under developing group of countries, enter medium - low income group and then step by step go up into medium - high income group and then into higher qualified group. It is crucial to notice that in medium - low income time, some economies were caught in a so called” medium - low income trap” which there is no way to escape from that to higher group.


Panel 5: Vietnamese economy

Which reform steps that Vietnam economy need to develop in order to development sustainable and overcome foreseen difficulties and the “trap”? That is the main theme of this article.

Dinh Cong Tuan, Assoc.Prof.Dr. Institute of European Studies, VASS

Year 2007 was marked as European Union (EU) 50 years old. Over half century, EU has developed since the beginning of six foundation countries to 27 member countries nowadays. With the population of nearly 500 million people and contribute up to 28% of the world’s GDP, EU is powerful economic region one of three primary world economic backbones. Vietnam - EU economic relations develop with some new points. In comparison with past years, needs of goods, services in trade, investment and tourism is raising. Year 2007 was the first year Vietnam acted as 150th member of the World Trade Organization (WTO). This new position pave the way for Vietnam to broaden markets, do business in equality with other countries, including 27 countries of EU according to WTO commitment and international laws. In 2007, Vietnam - EU economic relations keep developing not only in scope but also in quantity and quality in various fields of investment, trade, and tourism.


Panel 5: Vietnamese economy


Dinh Cong Tuan, Assoc.Prof.Dr. Institute of European Studies, VASS

Culture was developed in parallel with human being, growing up and planning. Culture is the needs in social spiritual living, showing general development of one country, one era. Culture is not only the goal but also the momentums for sustainable development of a country. Therefore, problem of developing managing, business, human culture in the globalization period of time and international economic integration nowadays is urgent needed. This research had gone in deep in analyzing theory and practical basics of enterprise culture development at present time in Vietnam in general and in Ho Chi Minh City in particular.

Dinh Quang Ty, Dr. VCP’s Central Council of Theoretics

Report will show historic evidences for proving that market - orient economy has appeared in Vietnam for a long time. Report contains analysis of Vietnam market - orient economy in the past and explanation of reasons for shortages in acknowledge of market - orient economy in the period of time before the “Reform”. Report show evaluation of Vietnam market - orient economy’s present situation over past 20 year of “Reform” and its outlook.


Panel 5: Vietnamese economy


Do Duc Dinh, Prof. Dr. Institute of African and Middle East Studies, VASS

The paper stresses that Vietnam’s current No.1 priority is still inflation control, not high economic growth nor deflation combat. To prove this viewpoint, the author analyses and compares the similarities and differences in the characteristics, the levels and the causes of inflation, the impacts of inflation control measures applied by Vietnam during the two periods, prior - to - renovation and since - renovation, then relates these with those common experiences of inflation control in the world, therefore proposes some recommendations with an aim to contribute to the forthcoming inflation control actions in Vietnam, including: 1. raising the deposit rates to 1% over the inflation rates; 2. applying flexible exchange rates aiming to encourage exports and contain imports; 3. giving incentives to production and supply of goods and services in line with the efforts to produce new value; 4. well - assuring social security; 5. reducing at least 1% from the target for 7% of economic growth in 2009; and 6. preparing for the combat against deflation.

Duong Thi Lieu, Assoc.Prof.Dr., Nguyen Van Ha National Economics University

Economic globalization offers the opportunities of world - wide market access, however, forces Vietnamese businesses to face the risk environment with much more fierce competition. The globalization means commitment of participating in the international market adjusted by the transparent regulations, strict standards, avoided discrimination, tax reduction, market opening, intellectual property protection, labor measures and social responsibilities. In fact, a great number of Vietnam businesses

Panel 5: Vietnamese economy

have been mature to survive and grow. The main reason is that these businesses/enterprises have paid more attention to building their own cultures. Yet, some leaders and businesses have not recognized the role and motivation of culture in economic development. They even consider business culture as an out - of - reach area, not belonging to either their visions or operations. As a result, the phenomenon of short - sighted performance, counterfeit, dishonest trade and brand imitation are the major market troubles. The out - of - model habits with the prestige disrespect, relationship emphasis and dependence on state protection have been viewed as public existence. They create barriers in the integration process, containing problems with foreign partners. Vietnam business culture development is still a difficulty because of unpopularity in the country. To be successful in integration, business culture is needed to build from traditional and modern culture values, heritage of positive aspects from other business cultures for suitable application. To make the culture as own advantage, it is important to acquire transparency in policies toward destructive business, and launch an effective legislation system to ensure that culture disrespecting businesses would suffer much more economic losses than others.

Ha Van Hoi, Dr. College of Economics, VNU Hanoi

Services are becoming a key sector, significantly contributing to Vietnam’s export turnover. Efficient service exporting will bring our country huge economical benefit. However, while the service sector accounts for 60% globally, it is only about 40% of GDP in Vietnam. This shows that inadequate attention has been paid to this sector and the necessary efforts to increase the sector. In the process of international economic integration there are many challenges that the service sector will be faced

Panel 5: Vietnamese economy

with. Thus, there must be strong and strategic investments in this sector over a necessary period to adequate prepare the sector for full international integration. General solutions regarding the policy of improving service export that need to be delivered include: Enhancing knowledge and understanding about exporting services, Establishing an overall development strategy for increasing export services, Building infrastructure and technology for developing export services, Moving investment into the service industries, Strengthening trade promotion for export services and, Significantly investing in training and human resource development for service export. Moreover, solutions need to be created to enhance services such as: postal telecommunication and information technology, transportation, insurance, tourism, financial and banking.

Hoang Xuan Nghia*, Dr., Nguyen Khac Thanh**, Assoc.Prof, Dr. *Hanoi Institute for Socio - Economic Development Studies **Ho Chi Minh National Political - Administrative Academy

In the world, there is a rule according to which commodity economy appears and develops in cities - capitals; hence, the role of cities - capitals is displayed in leaden, improving and promoting development of the country. The development of commodity economy of Thang Long - Hanoi is not an exclusion of this rule. However, there are direct reasons: the prosperity of the wet rice civilization; the constant struggle between “thanh” (“town”, “capital”) and “thi” (market) in history; Thang Long was the place where cultures, handicraft and trading activities met and interfered with each other; finally, the Asian method of production with 3 vertices being (a) centralized feudal state, (b) rural commune and (c) public field relations. It

Panel 5: Vietnamese economy

was these factors that led to the birth and restrained development of commodity economy, made it come to life early but stagnant very long in a state of under development. Studying the laws of development of commodity economy of Thang Long - Hanoi offers an interesting look at the past and a useful orientation towards the future.

Le Anh Tu Packard Temple University, Philadelphia, USA

The paper attempts to identify the right mix of macroeconomic and monetary that can best serve Vietnam as it enters a challenging new phase of development market by rapid integration into the global economy. It argues that the central bank should adopt a monetary policy framework aimed at maintaining a stable and competitive real exchange ~ate - in other words, a suitable combination of innation and nominal effective exchange rate that supports a sustainable employment - creating growth path. Such a path requires several related developments to take place: an expansion of the medium - to - large enterprise sector, an economy - wide shift in the composition of output from household production to private sector production, and a reallocation of labor into the formal sector and into higher productivity industry and services sectors. Maintaining the appropriate real exchange rate, a key macroeconomic relative price that has a powerful impact on resource allocation, will help Vietnam’s transition economy to reduce its reliance on administrative levers and protectionist measure, while giving full advantage to the countryls most promising industries.


Panel 5: Vietnamese economy


Le Hong Huyen, MA. Central Office of CPV

International labor migration has a strong impact on the socio - economic development of Vietnam in both positive and negative ways. The government has to play the leading role in adjusting labor flows to guarantee a sustainable and rapid development of the country. 1. The advantage of international labor migration is to make contribution to the economic development of Vietnam. International labor migration helps Vietnam to deploy human resource to increase the Gross National Income (GNI); to increase family expenditures and savings, and individual investments in long - term; to increase the government investments for the improvement of human resource quality; to motivate to transfer economic structure to modern economy in long - term; to contribute directly to the improvement of human resource quality; to contribute to application of technical progress, new technology into production and motivation of industrialization and modernization process under principle “3I” (Imitation, Initiative and Innovation); to increase investment and expand goods and service markets of Vietnam into the world market. 2. The disadvantage of international labor migration is that female migrants cannot take care of their families and can be victims of human - trafficking; Vietnamese overseas workers are easy to have psychological wounds due to discrimination. Labor inflow to Vietnam has side - effects such as reduction of the net - export (NX) which leads to the reduction of the Gross National Income (GNI), import of western life style and culture which are not suitable to Vietnamese tradition and custom.

Panel 5: Vietnamese economy

3. The appropriate solution to sustainable development The government should obey two following essential principles. “Sharp - ended carrying pole” principle This principle requires selecting and dispatching labor groups at two poles to go working abroad for different purposes. Dispatching high - skilled workers, who have ability to acquire knowledge and new technology to go working in high - tech zones aims both creating high income for workers and implementing “3I” principle. Dispatching unskilled workers to go working in the fields, where native workers do not like to work aims both creating jobs for workers with satisfactory income and moving workers from labor - intensive fields for applying advanced and modern technology to increase social - labor productivity. “Pull” principle This principle requires selecting some fields such as oil filtering industry and IT where foreign workers like to work to motivate economic development or some positions such as director general, chief executive officer of state - owned companies and corporations to attract foreign workers.

Le Van Sang, Assoc.Prof.Dr. Asian - Pacific Economic Center

The report goes in deep in analyzing new context of Vietnam economic reforming, opening and integrating process. Trends of globalization, new regional economic cooperation, China’s Tonkin Gulf extended economic strategy are becoming new problems with Vietnam economic opening and integrating policy. Basing on those foundations, report shows measures making leaps in marine economy, free economic areas, coastal international cities development in the aim of bridging and connecting Vietnam to the world, attracting sources to Vietnam and

Dr. 160  .Panel 5: Vietnamese economy taking Vietnam integrated deeply and widely into world economy. [05. [05. because “culture is the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one group or category from another…” (Hofstede. clarifying present problems and challenges of this economic section toward whole country’s economic development and international integration. 1997). I believe.156] VIETNAMESE BUSINESS CULTURE: CURRENT SITUATION AND SOLUTIONS Nguyen Hoang Anh. only their cultures are different”. urbanization. he could say: “All people in the world are the same. cultural sensitivity in varying degrees has become an essential skill for every businessman. Assoc.Prof. pushing up whole country’s rapid and sustainable development.155] CHALLENGES TO FARMER HOUSEHOLDS: SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INTEGRATION Le Xuan Dinh. Hanoi Foreign Trades University “All people in the world are the same. The culture differences affect deeply all aspects of people’s lives. When the world is connected as one unique market. Speech stressed on aspect of securing rapid and sustainable economic development in trends of industrilization. including business relation. if Confucius knew the culture issue. Dr. and challenges on national food security in line with world problems in 21st century. only their habits are different” (Confucius). Communist Review Speech focuses on analyzing development of agricultural household over past 20 years of “Doi Moi” guideline and policy implementation.

VASS In today is globalization and knowledge economy. Finally. including researchers. This article will show world trend of service development in recent years.fastest growing economy3and promised market for foreign businessmen. it will provide some useful implications for foreign managers and businessmen in doing business in Vietnam! [05. But because Vietnam has newly joined in the internationalization process (since 1991). Nguyen Manh Hung**.Panel 5: Vietnamese economy Recently. making it the world’s second . changes in services and manufacture sectors investment. an article show that development of services sector in general which giving priority to innovative services is the opportunity for Vietnam economy in shortcut for rapidly changing from agricultural economy into services economy. especially world knowledge services economy. Vietnam is emerging as a “new tiger” in South .East Asia with around 8% annual GDP growth from 1990 to 1997 and continued at around 7% from 2000 to 2005. relating to changes in transformation of services economy. development of service for trade. momentum of development and growth of some services. The paper provides an overall view of present Vietnamese business culture.                                                                     161   .. * College of Economics. Dr. consumption and marketing is. Prof. From these above-mentioned trends. Assoc. and changes in productivity in services. The findings will show how Vietnamese way in management. service sector is important to world economy and national economy. Dr.157] DEVELOPMENT TREND OF THE GLOBAL SERVICE INDUSTRY AND THE ISSUE OF VIETNAM’S SERVICE INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT Nguyen Hong Son*. then Vietnamese business culture remains unknown to many people. trend of outside rental in services. VNU Hanoi **Institute of World Economy and Politics. negotiation. products. new features of services. based on documents and surveys have been done from 1997 up to now.

they would affect the West and the country as well. it is essential to study in . Therefore. College of Economics. Border economy is also the premise for the domestic economy to penetrate into other countries. MA Education Publishing House. World Trade Organization (WTO) is an 162  .158] SOME ISSUES OF BORDER TRADE IN VIETNAM IN THE PROCESS OF INTEGRATION Nguyen Minh Hieu. problems arising out of implementation need resolving.159] CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE VIETNAMESE ECONOMY WHEN ENTERING THE WTO Nguyen Thi Phi Nga. Those are new trends of market. otherwise.depth the theory. given the context of integration when wise policies and effective management are crucial. [05. [05. Border economy is the tip of the whole economy.Panel 5: Vietnamese economy Three services that Vietnam need to giving priority for development in the time ahead to 2020 are banking and security services. post graduated and university graduated education services and scientific and technology services (social and natural technology). reflecting advanced level of social productive forces in which works assignment and internationalization become popular. provided that a peaceful environment is ensured across the region. Ho Chi Minh City As important as economic development to the East. Dr. practice and solution for these problems. the development of the border economy to the West is in accordance with the rule of economic development in Vietnam. VNU Hanoi Entering 21st century. economic globalization becomes era decisive important issue to each national development. However.

Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. developing Vietnam economy in the same level with other ones in the world. lacking of experience not only in theory but also in practice in entering WTO with complex problems. Enterprises became an important part of society.called first time. Dr. New feature of current world society in late 20th century and early 21st century is appearance of enterprises and businesspersons. entering WTO is not only the era trend’s pressure but also a proactive goal of many countries in the world for each country’s development benefits. Global environment problems emerged since 1970.Panel 5: Vietnamese economy inextricable result of this process. corporate social responsibility) which rises from civil social requirements to enterprise’s economic activities.160] COOPERATIONS AND COOPERATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITIES: THE ROLE OF COOPERATIONS IN INTEGRATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF VIETNAM IN THE 21ST CENTURY Nguyen Thi Phuong Ngoc. strategy for overcome challenges. it is needed to have policy.mentioned comments. Reality has proved that international trade has brought benefits for world economy in general and each country in particular. With the aim to explore those above . WTO is an international organization which show offs most features of current globalization trend. VASS Globalization is a fact in Vietnamese life not only in urban area but also in rural one. the primary content of this article is to clarify Vietnam’s challenges and opportunities in economic aspect when entering WTO. In this new context. [05. the so . There are some ideas in concept of enterprise and society relations in “enterprise’s social responsibilities” (responsibilities sociale de l'entreprise. With country like Vietnam. Therefore. economy has significant effects in every aspect of social life. especially enterprises’ moral in recent years (financial 163   . new comer with short time in global economic integration process.

giving play to the utilities of properties and protecting the real right of the right holders. Therefore. press. it is a product of a deep and wide economic reform of China shifting from a centrally planned economy toward a market one and it has been considered as the pushing factor for the development of market economy in China. interviews. 2007. all of the owners and holders have the assets and have the rights on the property to be protected by legal framework. economic activities in general in Vietnam context of integration. In the market economy. maintaining the socialist market economic order. 164  . before that time. via this issue. The Property Rights Law of the People’s Republic of China. This Law aims to safeguarding the basic economic system of the state. and other sources including achieves. possibly speaking. National Economics University The market economy needs the strict protection of the legal rights on property of the owners and holders in order to utilize the role and increase the value of the assets for economic development. we want to mention about roles and positions of cooperation in particular. 2007.Dr. was hereby promulgated and came into effect on October 1. the concept of “Enterprise’s social responsibility” is put up in economic newspapers since scandals of food safety such as sauce containing cancel causing elements… However.161] REGULATIONS ON PROPERTY RIGHTS OF THE PROPERTY RIGHT LAW OF CHINA AND SUGGESTIONS FOR VIETNAM UNDER IN THE FACE OF INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INTEGRATION Nguyen Thuong Lang. Prof. adopted at the 5th Session of the 10th National People's Congress of the People’s Republic of China on March 16. clarifying property ownerships.Panel 5: Vietnamese economy crisis in American banking system) takes the way to problems of enterprise’s social responsibilities. In Vietnam. Assoc. ideas of “businessmen culture” and “cooperation culture” are mentioned. how is “corporate social responsibility” expressed in Vietnam? Basing on field trip study. [05.

Being an important economic hub. over the last years.Pay equal attention to the environment and social progress 165   .MOMENTUM FOR DEVELOPMENT IN MEKONG DELTA IN THE PERIOD OF INTEGRATION Nguyen Trong Minh.Develop a master economic development strategy for the Delta . still have the certain similarities. it is important that we promote international cooperation in order to attract capital and technologies and make best use of its potentials and accelerate the process of industrialization and modernization and improve living standards. MA Dong Thap College of Education Foreign economy is objective and inevitable in the context of globalization and integration. Local governments should pay attention to these issues as follows: . Foreign economy is seen as the momentum for and a strategic objective of sustainable in Vietnam. Thus. [05. although there are clear differences. Despite its potential. foreign economic activities in the region have contributed a great deal to the region’s development and helped altering the face of an agricultural economy in the delta. Cuu Long River Delta has its own competitive advantages in foreign economic activities.Panel 5: Vietnamese economy The process of economic reform in China and the process of economic innovation of Vietnam. In fact. It plays an important role especially for Vietnam’s open economy in the pursuit of new opportunities for the cause of industrialization and modernization. it is necessary to carefully understand from the China’s property law and think about its relevance to Vietnam’s situation.Any human resources strategy must be in line with the demand of integration . Therefore.162] FOREIGN ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES . the delta’s development remains unsustainable and riddled with conflicts between economic development and social progress.Fully aware of the need to grasp any integration opportunity .

However. opening.permanent member. In 2007. implementation of integration policy. Those were results of reform.163] THE VIETNAMESE INDUSTRY IN THE PROCESS OF INTEGRATION INTO THE GLOBAL ECONOMY Nguyen Xuan Dung. what is needed is appealing foreign economic activities so as to create a push . in the past years of renovation. In this process a trend of rapid expansion of industry and modernization of the economy can be observed. Therefore.164] IDEAS OF THE COMMUNIST PARTY AND THE STATE ON THE INTERNATONAL ECONOMIC INTEGRATION POLICY Pham Van Khanh. when Vietnam became a member of WTO. there were two events marking Vietnam’s new position in economic integration and foreign affairs relations: Vietnam was WTO member and UNSC non . international economic integration 166  . foreign economy is the momentum for overall progress such as industrialization of economic activities and increase in product quality and integration labor force. Dr. “Nhan Dan” Newspapers After more than 20 year of reform. [05. [05. Vietnam took great leap in economy development and foreign affairs promotion. in order to make industry able to contribute more to the process of turning Vietnam into an industrialized country by 2020. based on assessment of current situation of the industry. Vietnam has changed radically its structure while maintaining growth and stability. Dr.up for the region. this paper would recommend some measures to enhance the competitive power of the industrial sector. Social Sciences Publishing House Generally speaking.Panel 5: Vietnamese economy In short.

low quality labors still lack of education. non . job’s techniques and cannot be qualified for demand of economic development.Economic globalization. Is it possible for forecast the risk of disappeared of them in the market? How and what can we do for Vietnamese farmers in international economic integration for their equality. [05. Vietnam is coping with difficulties that need studying and solving. What policies are needed for building up. products and Vietnam human resources? FDI is increasing but worker demonstration in large scale is also increased. and development of working class in integration process and industrialization. geo . seafood products for export are unequal in quality with low food safety. being a WTO member. This initial research’s results are limited and needed to be analyzed. VNU Hanoi . Despite being trained. Vietnam agricultural. economy opening and integration are steps of the process of a country to join the global labor division. Dr. College of advancements as a 167   .165] GLOBAL ECONOMIC INTEGRATION WITH SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND INDEPENDENCE AND SELF . goods. Prof.Panel 5: Vietnamese economy and foreign affairs promotion policies. On the other hand.GORVENANCE Phan Huy Duong. How can we carry out training and education for human resources development meeting integration demands? What policies are needed for connecting between internal market and international market with advantages of economic internal power. modernization? New issues and difficulties after Vietnam becoming a member of WTO need researching and coordinating between offices and organizations.prestige trademarks.economic features. protection. Assoc. sustain food security and improve living conditions? Labors for exporting are of low quality while labors for importing are of high quality. It is a result of the productive forces’ development process with the science .

. + Protecting the environment is the best way.Panel 5: Vietnamese economy motivation. integration also shows its two faces: if a country stands outside of the globalization then it cannot develop.control in the integration of Vietnam. + Maintaining social life harmoniously. equality and environment protection. + Build a “saving economy”. avoiding waste and corruption. In order to attain the sustainable economic development and keeping independent and self . a strictly bidding mechanism and the frequently auditing system to correct spending activities. 168  . . on the other side. It is needed to have an effective mechanism to tighten the public spending.control in integration is fundamental and realistic.The policy to maintain independent and self . resolutely abolish the “application . Vietnam is targeting an effectively and sustainable fast economic development. these core issues should be solved: + In order to have a strong economy. Hence.approval” mechanism and wasting mechanism in the economy. and economic growth goes along with improving the standard of living.The economic development must stay sustainable. it is clearly to say that sustainable economic development is an important issue in the socialist oriented policy in Vietnam. Nowadays. globalization widens the gap between rich and poor countries. countries which follow the sustainable development way usually try to attain these factors: + Ensuring fast economic growth and maintaining it for a long period. However. there should be strong enterprises with products which can compete with the World’s products. + Attract the foreign investment actively along with using them effectively.

causing high environment pollution such as mining. human resources development and jobs creation. This article by analyzing statistical data shows that FDI plays active role in social investment fund supplement. number of channels in funding via financial market and oversea national currency exchange. FDI still makes chains of connection between supply chains and low added value. Therefore.Prof. there is some differ ideas on real roles of FDI to economic sustainable development.Thus.Dr. in new context of Vietnam development with remarkable foreign currency reservation. golf while promotes FDI in sectors which as advantages in dynamic comparison such as electricity. Vietnam needs to limit FDI in sectors which rarely export. export fostering. estate. FDI contributes to high economic growth rate (about 8%/year) in many years. Vietnam needs to change in policy for attracting and using of FDI in sectors that bring benefits to both investor and Vietnam. College of Economics.exploitation. in recent time. 169   . technology handover. beside those advantages. demands of development must paying concern to sustainable growth…. computer. However. home electric. natural over . especially causing critical environment pollution. However. heavy industries. VNU Hanoi Foreign direct investment (FDI) is considered as one of backbone in high growth in years of Vietnam. increasing state budget and making Vietnam a part of the world market. light industries and services.166] FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT ASSESSMENT IN THE NEW CONTEXT OF DEVELOPMENT IN VIETNAM Phung Xuan Nha. software. Article also analyze in depth.Panel 5: Vietnamese economy [05. Assoc.

However. Vietnam is gradually taking part in regional and world economy.167] STRATEGIES FOR ATTRACTING FDI TO VIETNAM Sikander Khan. China Vietnam has been following an open .social transition.Dr. Achievements of Vietnam economic sustainable development over the past 20 years are: Vietnam economy keeps growing in high rate and stability. economic growth is based on industrialization.168] SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE VIETNAMESE ECONOMY Tran Anh Phuong.Panel 5: Vietnamese economy [05. its initial economic growth is based on internal power. especially from China. evaluate real situation of Vietnam economic sustainable development. [05. modernization trends of economic .door policy regarding FDI since the early 1990s. the speech covered four main issues: Sustainable development is global urgent demand and indispensable trend. Vietnam has been a latecomer in Southeast Asia for attracting FDI. 170  . India and Thailand. Vietnam.newspaper In order to research. Dr. Vietnam Communist Party e . Prof. in its integration and development process plays active roles following these trends. Vietnam has been successful in attracting a large amount of FDI. Fudan University.2008) Challenges faced by Vietnam Suggestions for investment improvement measures to be taken by Vietnam in the context of fierce competition. which is promoted as a momentum of national industrialization and modernization. The paper examines the following: Overview of FDI into Vietnam Results of FDI implemented strategies (1988 .

Assoc. we believe in the future with correct and active measures for development. first. First. promoting international relations in general and international economic relations in particular in both depth and width dimension. the reality of its outlook is shown off.economy.169] POSITIVE FACTORS AND OPPORTUNITIES IN VIETNAM DEVELOPMENT LEAP Tran Dinh Thien.Panel 5: Vietnamese economy Some socio . VASS There are two big questions about future of Vietnamese economy. However “post WTO” is occurred in recently.mentioned questions. 171   . what are the development opportunities for Vietnam? Second. Vietnam economy still has some unsustainable phenomena. in the context of deeply and widely integration period. forming solid infrastructure foundation for sustainable socio . what policies does Vietnam need to take advantages and successfully development? In order to answer two above . Dr. [05. however.economic affects rooting from sustainable development in economic growth are: improvement of people’s living and qualification. we need to examine our opening economic strategic and great leap outlook. Vietnam Institute of Economics. jobs in line with advantages and social equality. strengthening national defense and security.

170] SOME ISSUES TO DEAL WITH BENEFITS OF FARMERS OF VIETNAM INTERNATIONAL ON ECONOMIC INTEGRATION Tran Duc Vui. such process has open immense opportunity for accelerating modernization and industrialization. business partners easily get trustfully information about legal status of each other. Dr. It indicates a process adjusted to the specific circumstances of each country. business registration services in Vietnam in carried out by local authorities with some shortages as follow: i) there is nowhere to clarify enterprise’s legal status. it is essential for sustainable development to have appropriate analysis. Being the 150th member of the WTO.171] STREAMLINED BUSINESS REGISTRATION AND SOME MEASURES TO IMPROVE THE SERVICE OF THE VIETNAMESE AUTHORITIES IN THE WTO PERIOD Tran Van Nam. such as. assessment and estimate of the impacts of integration to make best use of the positive ones and take effective measures to minimize the negative side. ii) there is not consistency in document. VNU Hanoi International economic integration is the process to unify the international economy and eliminating economic difference among national and regional economies. In Vietnam.Panel 5: Vietnamese economy [05. Vietnam is obliged to carry out its bilateral and multilateral commitments. of which farmers endure the direct and most profound one.Dr. College of Economics. Any enterprise needs these legal clarification services in order to promote its business activities. information and procedure throughout the 172  . Complex business registration and costly supplemental documents will limit enterprise’s integration and market broadening opportunities. Using this system. the social structure and the interests of different social classes. expanding agricultural market. [05. attracting capital.Prof. technology and management skills for agriculture. National Economics University Globalization and internationalization in business and international trade increasing puts essential demand of complete business registration. Integration also has huge impacts on the socio-economic life. At present time. Therefore. Assoc.

risk management in business leads to enterprise’s domestic activities with low competitive. The paper concludes with an overall assessment of Vietnamese experience in the market economy building and its consequences. thus. Communist Party strategy and tactics aims to classify Vietnam’s new development model. Core shifts in social and economic order are examined in the context of modern theoretical discourse. The “open door” policy that replaced former semi isolationism integration into the global market is considered as one of these factors important for foreign investment inflow. The analysis of regularities and peculiarities of the transition.172] MARKET REFORMS: A WAY TO SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC GROWTH IN VIETNAM Mazyrin Vladimir. In parallel with economic development integration and globalization trends in region and the world. experiences in consolidated business registration. This report show a study on foreign business legal basis. Therefore. public services in each country must be changed in order to meet the demand and changes of life. v) There is now connection between implementation authorities and others. iii) low transparence. Catch . iv) almost documents are processed by hand with long time. Institute of Far Eastern Studies. [05. Russian Institute of Science. high cost of carry out business registration and activity. attraction of experience and aid from the West and East Asian industrial countries. high cost and complexities. lessons. stresses slow and painful nature of command management system reformation resulting in few contradictions of the so called “market socialism”.Panel 5: Vietnamese economy country. All above 173   . the move towards decentralized mechanism of free market activities under the state control. Russian Federation This paper explores market transformation in Vietnam started from the late 1980s and aimed at achievement of sustainable economic growth. taking feasibility measures for quality and effective improvement of business registration for Vietnam authorities. Dr. Dr. The author interprets the factors of successful reforms in Vietnam’s economy. The author reveals basic features and contradictions of this process.up development of this country became sustainable in short and middle term prospect. That Vietnam is still in low position ranking of business convenience shows the giant gap between policies and real implementation of administrative reforms. Mazyrin confirms overall positive results of Vietnam’s market transformation and integration into global economy.

the Vietnamese used marine resources for their living and transport and trade with overseas. [05.Dr. There are about 4. The Vietnamese sea is very rich in natural resources (including living. From the Middle of the XX century up to now. Contiguous Zone and Exclusive Economic Zone area is about 1 million sq.173] VIETNAMESE SEAS AND MARINE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: PAST.Panel 5: Vietnamese economy mentioned facts make possible to recognize Vietnam as born “Asian dragon” though not yet flying.000 islands and the Hoang Sa and Truong Sa archipelagoes in the Vietnamese sea. tourism… 174  .living and remarkable resource) both in the water and on as well under the ground. marine transport. Assoc. From ancient periods. non .Prof.500 km in long and its Territorial Sea. VNU Hanoi The Vietnamese coastline is about 3.made socialism and East Asian style capitalism in Vietnam. km. The author argues that the capitalist mode of production spreads over the country while the corporatism embraces the state. the Vietnamese still continue to use and exploit the marine resources for development of the marine economic fields such as fishery. economy and social life. claimed low coastal lands for economic social development and defending the State’s security and sovereignty. oil and gas industry. PRESENT AND FUTURE Vu Van Phai. College of Sciences. This process reflects a creation of hybrid type system or convergence between the former Soviet .



177   . PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS Ahn Kyong Hwan. The case of Vietnam. After the fall of the Soviet Union and the socialist countries in East Europe. Korean investment is on the first position in foreign investment in Vietnam. problems and measures for Vietnamese women after wedding and living in Korea. these subjects continue to be studied.175] SOME THOUGHTS CONCERNING THE ROLE OF THE STATE AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH CIVIL SOCIETY Bui Dinh Thanh. Reexamining Marx main points of view about the state and civil society. At present time.Prof. Korea Since establishment of official foreign relation between Vietnam and Korea December 22 1992. [06. Assoc. Chosun University. This article is a modest contribution to that and includes two parts: Reexamining Marx main points of view about the state and civil society. Prof. the number of Vietnamese brides who married Korean husbands and moved to Korea is increasing. I.Panel 6: Vietnamese society  [06. This article shows a research on real situation of international wedding between Korean men and Vietnamese women. 27000 immigrated women and 2000 oversea students. The Vietnam communist Party has always attached much importance to the development of social sciences and encourages the Vietnamese scholars to study the above mentioned problems to promoting the Marxist theory. The role of the state in relation to civil society. there are 74000 Vietnamese living in Korea including 45000 workers working in enterprises. Vietnamese Academy of Social Sciences State and the society are among the topic of interest of social scientists all over the world. Especially.KOREA INTERNATIONAL WEDDINGS.174] VIETNAM .

On the concepts of the state and the civil society. it is the reform of the old society. he is the universal person. it’s very essence is always "the State of the people. Although it has passed through different socio . While Hegel starts from the idea of studying the person. very complex and tortuous. the view points of Marx are completely different from the ones of Hegel.Panel 6: Vietnamese society  Marx has presented his thinking about the state and civil society in his work entitled "Criticizing Hegel's philosophy of Law" (1843). II. the writer thinks that unifying the state and the civil society is a long process through many steps. In the second part of this article. there is the separation between the socio economic occupation and the political occupation of the person. the person exists with a double status: on one side. Marx starts from the concrete person. The case of Vietnam. he is a particular person with different professions. In fact. the person realizes his citizen status only in the time of the elections. Everyone knows Marx has sustained Hegels influence in his youth. 178  . The main difference between Marx and Hegel lies in the methodological approach. the building of the new society. but this influence isn’t one sided.political changes during more than sixty years of its existence. The role of the state in relation with the civil society. In fact. in the civil society. by the people. the real society.economic . But. First of all. the writer would like to apply Marx views in analyzing the role of the state in relation to the development of the civil society in a concrete case: Vietnam. instead of a formal one. and in the other side. a revolution’s fight with new content and form. the article stresses the main characteristics of the Vietnam state from the August Revolution in 1945 until now. in the Marx views. the citizen. In this analyze. the state and the civil society. So. for the people". In the civil society. one must unify or reunify those two states of the person so that democracy becomes real democracy.

the new situation of the country demands a full change of the thought. with the different strata of the Vietnamese people. practicing the "dialogue culture" to replace the "monologue culture". Strengthen the effectiveness of the State of law. in a commune of Bacninh province. After more than twenty years. VASS ** University of Provence Research on social organizations is an important field in social sciences. as it has been put down by the Party. So. furthering of the economy the administrative reforms. Renovate the style of leadership of the Party and the State. For this purpose. from 2006 to 2009. pay sharp attention to the people's voice and accept to be under control of the people. It is practically also a hot topic in political discussions due to its increasingly significant role in the development of a “civil society” in Vietnam nowadays.year research project on social networks in Vietnamese rural areas.. 179   . [06. Ho Chi Minh's thoughts must be applied in reality the life. firstly the economic thought. All the offices of the Party and the state must rely on the people. basing on the data from a four . This article focuses on examining voluntary associations. 6. 4. expanding the democracy in all domains of the social life.176] VOLUNTARY SOCIAL ORGANISATION: SOCIAL COHESION AND SOCIAL EXCHANGE IN RURAL AREAS OF NORTHERN VIETNAM Bui Quang Dung* Assoc.Sc. 3. The 6th Congress of the VCP has put down the just policy: to renovate the thought. Dang Thi Viet Phuong** * Institute of Sociology. the writer suggests some proposals: 1. in the behavior of Ho Chi Minh. especially the renovation on the political institutions system in accordance with the renovation of economy the system of. Dr. Increase the social management.Panel 6: Vietnamese society  This essence is strongly expressed in the speeches and writings. Strengthening the role of the state. 2. the waste and bribery. Intensification the fight against bureaucracy. 5. the founding father of the Vietnamese state.Prof.

[06. Institution of Research on South . Finally. Is it the revival of one tradition of Vietnamese society prior to 1954? To what aspect this event reflects the dynamics of socio . 2002 . Since 1994. In these papers. associations of comrades de school. Bui The Cuong 2005. hundred books and articles written by foreigner researches were published on different configurations of civil society in Vietnam. Nguyen Xuan Hai 2001.economical change process in Vietnam. Ta Hong Son 2001). Since 2000. Hoang Minh Vuong 200 1 . the State and Civil Society”. We study also the meanings of those associations in political and social life at the village .Australia) titled “Doi Moi’s Reforms.177] STUDYING THE EMERGENCE OF CIVIL SOCIETY IN VIETNAM: AN ANTHROPOLOGICAL APPROACH ON "EVERYDAY POLITICS" Culas Christian. the social structure of Vietnamese rural society can be revealed. clubs and other collective organizations in reference with civil society (for example: Bach Tan Sinh 2001. Dr.economic changes in Vietnamese rural areas at present? In fact.East Asia and University of Provence Emergence of different forms of collective action since Doi Moi reforms is one important issue to understand the socio .Panel 6: Vietnamese society  Data from certain international organizations show that Vietnam has the greatest number of voluntary associations in the region.economic reform in Vietnam. First academic researches about civil society about Vietnam start in 1994 with the intemational conference: Update Vietnam Annual at Australian National University (Canberra . Meanwhile social researchers stress on the fact that those various kinds of voluntary associations mostly emerged together with the socio . Authors examine the reasons why rural habitants participate simultaneously on so many social groups and associations (such as occupational associations. The first position can be described as "maximahst tendency" because not all mass organizations are involved in civil society process. associations. associations of the peers. etc).level. the second position reflects a "minimalist tendency” because many associative 180  . 2) civil society can’t not be present in Vietnam because there no [or not yet] a regulation lor association with autonomy. those voluntary associations are a component of the variousness of political life in rural society nowadays. from the patterns of social cohesion and exchange that we try to establish. there are two main intellectual positions: l) civil society is everywhere in Vietnam society because all mass organizations belonging to Vietnam Fatherland Front . Vietnamese researchers published some relevant cases study about NGO.

Panel 6: Vietnamese society 

structures like Cau lac bo, Cong ty van hoa, Phuong, etc., are really active and effective in the expression of civil society. The main objective of this paper is built a large range of elements to give an open definition of “civil society" or "civil societies" in Vietnam. These elements will be extracted from personal data collected in Vietnamese villages (Kinh and ethnic groups), and from the scientific literature in Vietnamese, English and French. Because it seem to me this important to keep close to heterogeneity of the real situations, I will focus on the social actors point of view and I will apply a reflexive anthropological approach based on grounder theory (Glaser and Strauss 1973). This approach uses specific complementary support between theory and fieldword.

Dang Canh Khanh, Prof. Dr. Institute of Youth and Teenagers Studies

In line with strongly changes in the world today, under the light of scientific and technology revolution, we are witnessing comprehensive changes in the structure of society. On the lines below, we will go in depth in some issues which showing researches of Vietnam social structure - the one that is changing and moving toward with national development, industrialization and modernization. Structure of society - a systematic approach. Issues on modern Vietnam social restructure and conciliation Role of subjective in social restructure and conciliation.


Panel 6: Vietnamese society 


Dang Nguyen Anh, Assoc. Prof, Dr. Vietnamese Academy of Social Sciences

Though immigrated people play active roles in economic development, they are suffering from getting social well fair services, especially when they are way from home, work and live in poor conditions, lack of knowledge and equipment for self - protection. They may be affected by HIV/AIDS. Once they are affected, they will suffer from their cousins’ discrimination every time they go back to visit their home or their community. Therefore, the risk of HIV/AIDS infection is high not only in immigrants but also in the left behind families. This is new social challenge in the period of industrialization, modernization and human resources development in Vietnam. Basing on sociology analysis and collected data, report shows five proposals to enhance the HIV/AIDS prevention in community, HIV/AIDS affected people’s families. The results will be scientific basis to meet the demands of knowledge broaden, changes in behaviors in society, and move toward to safety CLP model.

Do Thien Kinh, Dr. Institute of Sociology, VASS

In this article, author primary focuses on data and documents analysis and collection of Vietnamese living survey / investigation from 1993 to 2004 (VLSS 1993 - 1998 and VHLSS 2002 - 2004). This article is put in context of comparison with countries in region and in the world. The results show the possibilities of changes in attitude of current Vietnam inequality. The previous attitude showed that income/dispense distribution in Vietnam is relatively equal. That means inequality in Vietnam is not much in concern. Another attitude of this in Vietnam mentioned in this article is not as it was following the previous attitude (not relatively equal) but in rather higher in comparison to others countries in the region and world. Thus, this attitude is in contrast to previous one. At present time, in Vietnam, there is a trend of changing from urban and rural inequality to Kinh/Chinese group and other ethnic groups’ inequality. This inequality is

Panel 6: Vietnamese society 

increasing in comparison with urban and rural. That is another appearance in deep of previous urban and rural inequality. On the other hand, the significant inequality of urban and rural is increasing to mountainous areas where ethnic groups are living and delta areas where Kinh/Hoa group is living. This is the regional/area gap occurring and increasing from 1993 to 2004. Follow this attitude, the problem of difference in living standards/ inequality in rural areas and urban areas is becoming a problem of mountainous area. Concerns about mountainous areas are now focusing on ethnic groups.

Doan Minh Due, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Vinh University

Economic development in combination with the resolution of social problems is the orientation for the social development, as set out by the Communist Party. That socialist orientation is for the people, who are at the center of economic, cultural and social development, and for serving people’s living interests. In achieving the established objectives in the direction of national industrialization and modernization, these following measures must be implemented simultaneously: 1/ encouraging wealth creation in accordance with the legal regulations and effecting poverty reduction policies;2/ perfecting public policy to ensure access to essential public facilities, education, employment, health insurance, knowledge and sports; 3/ establish a fair and effective healthcare system, guaranteeing that healthcare is provided to everyone4/ developing the national strategy on promoting Vietnamese people physical ability, longevity and breeding x; 5/ effecting family planning and population policies7/ reforming management mechanism and public service supply mode, in particular, on quality and quantity basis, improving administrative capacity, renovating the operation of public entities and mobilizing social strength.


Panel 6: Vietnamese society 


Gerd Mutz, Prof. Dr. Munich University of Applied Sciences, Germany

There is considerable interest in the rule of law in Vietnam (State, Party) and the question is raised whether Civil Society in Vietnam has the sufficient power to strengthen the rule of law. In Vietnam, civil society is often seen as weak or non existent because the concept of Civil Society is often reduced on the appearance of Western style NGOs. It is neglected that there are strong cultural differences in the way people organize their interests. In contrast we argue that it makes more sense to examine civic behavior, habits and attitudes and also look for traditional, organic forms (of mostly community based) civic actions and informal or little formalized associations. From this point of view we argue that the number of Vietnamese NPOs may be small, but that there are definitely civic structures and practices in Vietnam which have the potential to support the strengthening of the rule of law. But nevertheless the social potentials of Vietnamese Civil Society are still limited and could be improved.

Hoang Chi Bao, Prof.Dr. VCP’s Central Committee of Theoretics

1. The renovation cause has been implemented in Vietnam for over 20 years. During that period, substantive social changes have happened in all aspects of social life. It is now time for reviewing and assessing those alterations, which is important for policy making and any amendments to our policy, legal regulations and state management.

Panel 6: Vietnamese society 

Such study should also go into contemporary changes which have been happening along with the reform process. On the one hand, they are direct results of social changes in general, especially cultural, economic and political changes. On the other hand, they affect cultural, economic and political changes. Therefore, any study on reforms and social progress in Vietnam can not miss this factor. 2. Social alterations are wide - ranging and complicated. It is necessary that we identify the main content of social alterations. The alterations are social aspects, which direct evidence is, first of all, are social issues that directly relate to everyday life and our interest and side - effects of economic and political movements. Means to affect social alterations are policies and institutions managed by the State. Subject of social alterations, in other words, beneficiary of both positive and negative social changes, are the community. Yet, the communities themselves, through their institution and policy, are also the author of social changes. Study of social changes is study of the interaction between the author and the subject of social changes. 3. Study of social changes in Vietnam over 20 years are focused on four issues as follows: - The formation of new thinking about social aspect and social policy - Alterations to economic structure result in those to social structure, which is typical of Vietnam. Major social groups have been formed so far as follows: 1) workers 2); farmers 3) scholars 4) business people 5) youth 6) women 7) military personnel 8) elderly 9) pensioners 10) religious followers 11) ethnic minorities 12) state officials 13) overseas Vietnamese, etc. - Alterations to social institution and relations - Alterations to living style and demand These alterations are typical and popular in Vietnam’s open market economy. They reflect economic, political and cultural alterations. The former may go in a way parallel with the latter, yet, may contradict the latter.

Panel 6: Vietnamese society 

Social aspect is complicated as it concerns human life and relations. Therefore, any measures must be synchronous in terms of education, thinking, institution and policy and environment, so as to create a favorable cultural, moral and legal environment for healthy social alterations.

Jack D. Harris, Prof. *, Nguyen Khanh Linh ** * Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, USA *Syracuse University, USA

This paper presents research findings about the construction and maintenance of Vietnamese masculinity and how male marital and extramarital experiences are subject to change in contemporary Vietnam. In Vietnam, extramarital relationships are common, and the concept of extramarital relationships has a wide range of actions and meanings, from a man going to a masseuse, to having a sweetheart or sweethearts, and even having a “second” wife. Vietnamese men are not likely to see most of these forms of extramarital relationship to be adulterous or an act of infidelity. Industrialization has increased the gap between the rich and the poor, the urban and the rural, thus creating a supply of poor young women from the countryside willing to work in cities and the demand of rich men who are looking for a leisure activity to spend their money. Yet, this research demonstrates that it is the sexual identity of Vietnamese masculinity that enables a market of sex where women are commoditized in different forms ranging from a masseuse to a small wife, and where men of all classes, ages, and education levels are involved as consumers. The relationship of sexuality to the construction of Vietnamese masculinity is rooted in tradition, expressed in the past as legal polygamy, and expressed in modernity as a menu of possible extramarital relationships. Extramarital relationships in Vietnam are more productively seen as a form of masculine privilege and a process of male identification and bonding than the result of a failed relationship between a husband and a wife. These relationships are sustained

Panel 6: Vietnamese society 

in the context of male friendship, business - relations, and what each of these male cohorts think and admire. These male relationships, so tellingly reinforced in these reference groups, are a historically essential component of Vietnamese culture and its regulations about sexuality. Vietnamese men are now facing significant role strain. The status they have claimed based on being the main provider is eroding with the increasing financial contribution that women make to the family income, and the new independence of women. On one hand, there has been some pressure on husbands from their wives to be a new “good” husband. On the other hand, husbands continue to embrace their male networks, tied to the cultural demands of masculinity, including the pressures to participate in extramarital relations. It is through understanding the construction and reconstruction of Vietnamese masculinity that scholars can understand and address several issues that are expressed in the sphere of gender, including domestic violence, men’s health, birth rates, and marital happiness and family stability.

Kaj Arhem, Prof. School of Global Studies/Anthropology, Sweden

Development in question: poverty reduction and indigenous peoples in Vietnam The paper reviews national development and poverty reduction strategies in Vietnam with regard to their effects on ethnic minority peoples. Empirical material from ethnic groups in Central Vietnam is presented. The paper suggests that current policies are ill suited to promote wellbeing among minority peoples and, rather, work against the needs, interests and concerns of these peoples. The paper critically deconstructs the dominant, “modernistic” notion of poverty guiding the national poverty - reduction strategy and argues for a reorientation of development policies on the basis of a more integral notion of wellbeing, sensitive to local needs and concerns.

Panel 6: Vietnamese society 


Kinjo Reiko Institute of Vietnamese Studies and Development Sciences, VNU Hanoi

While Vietnam lies in Southeast Asia, it has been strongly influenced by Chinese civilization for a long time. But, the society and culture in Vietnam did not identify with China. After the Confucianism transmission, there was a double model in Vietnam. The one is the male model embodied in Chinese Confucianism value, the other is the female model embodied in sense of values of the Southeast Asian gender equality. As well as this historic factor, a policy of the socialism, the war continued for 30 years, and the Đô’i Mới gave important impact for the position of women in the current Vietnam. Then, in the Vietnamese society which passed through various historic experiences such as above, how would "the family" transform? With the existing data such as the questionnaire survey I performed in 2004 - 2006, the population of general survey and so on, I consider it from the side of social system including the family law, the actual situation of the family, and social awareness about family and woman.

Lam Ngoc Nhu Truc, MA Ba Ria - Vung Tau University

The process of internationalization and modernization has brought impact and changes not only in economy but also in culture and society in Vietnam. Family - the basic components of society has some fluctuations, changes in many aspects: economic functions of the family, family forms, and the relationship among members, individuals and family… Those changes have led into the occurrence of complex problems, contradiction and risks of conflict between the traditional views and new points, clash between generations in Viet Nam society. Therefore, resolving conflicts

Panel 6: Vietnamese society 

and “building happy, progressive, equal, prosperous family... "(Resolution of the Communist Party of Viet Nam's second X) are needed.

Le Thanh Mai Waseda University, Japan

Child labor is a sensitive issue and the effective abolition of child labor is being seen as one of the most urgent challenges of our time. It is estimated that in the year 2002 there were approximately 211 million children aged 5 - 14 who were at work in an economic activity in the world. Out of these, with 127.3 million in total, Asia labors the largest number of child workers in this particular age group. And behind the home front doors throughout the Asia - Pacific region millions of children are vanishing. The home front that offers families sanctuary hides the children who are employed to cook and wash and polish for those families. In Vietnam since its government adopted the market - oriented economy, city dwellers’ life has been rapidly improved. The rapid economic development has attracted workers from different provinces including children with many kinds of jobs such as shoe polishing, lottery ticket selling, and street vendors and doing domestic chores. Although lives in rural areas have been improved, many households are still in poor conditions with unstable income. Many parents have to take their children out of schools and let them work to contribute to the family’s income. Along with economic and social development, more and more women engage in social activities, and thus many of them are in need of assistance in house and child care services. As a result, there are a greater number of children working as hired domestic workers. In fact, Vietnam still has not been able to find its position on whether there should be new proposals for action and intervention to eliminate CDWs adopting the child rights programming (CRP) based on the rights - based approaches and thus to protect the rights of these

Panel 6: Vietnamese society 

children, or it should appreciate the work that children do and support their efforts for better working conditions, “moving away from ‘simple’ solutions like banning children’s employment”. So far no study has addressed the controversial question as to whether the issue of CDWs in Vietnam ought to be eliminated or not. Therefore, the aim of the paper is (1) to deal with the question in order to establish a baseline of reliable knowledge and understanding as a guide to action, (2) to inform the government, local authorities, other concerned parties and community based organizations in Vietnam of the CDWs’ situation and conditions as well as their needs and aspirations; (3) to make recommendation to the central government and the local authorities so that they could develop relevant policies and effective strategies to combat the issue of child labor based on the CRP, which aims to focus on the realization of the four main principles in action for the rights of the child including non - discrimination, best interest of the child, rights to life, survival and development; and the right to be heard. According the CRP approach, the duty bearers including all the stakeholders and all sections of societies have the responsibility to respect, protect, and facilitate children’s rights. As a result, the recommendation also involves five groups of audience connected with the process: the Vietnamese government, the local authorities, the communities, the social organizations/groups, and the employers.


Lee Kyesun College of Social Sciences and Humanities, VNU Hanoi

Vietnam was in a position to make better preparations than other countries for a kindergarten education for workers. However, due to the war, economic difficulties and the lack of legal support, the policies were hardly effective. Nonetheless, the

Panel 6: Vietnamese society 

maintenance of kindergarten education more or less plays an important role in the enterprise’s development. In the context of national modernization and industrialization, kindergarten education inevitably confronts many difficulties. Not only the surveyed but also enterprise’ labor managers share the thought about the need for kindergarten education system built into an enterprise or an office, which we regretfully lack now. This matter is not paid due attention to by enterprises, especially foreign ones. All these cause many difficulties to female labor both in their material and spiritual life. Indeed, more attention need paying to education of and cares for children of female workers, both by the Government and the Party and by responsible authorities. Moreover, it is important that policies be made in the way that requires foreign enterprises to kickback their incomes to the society and to have a built - in system of kindergarten education in place upon establishment. Doing so is in the interest of a healthy society. Our study on “Kindergarten Education in enterprises: a comparison between Vietnam and Korea experience” will offer exciting important information as the two countries have both geographical similarities and different political system and development levels. The study adopts both practical and scientific approach.

Luu Bich Ngoc*, Myriam de Loenzie** * Institute for Population and Social Studies, National Economics University **Institute for Development Research, France

General context and methodology A long with the development and integration process, Vietnam is facing HIV/AIDS epidemic. In the context with the rapid increase of new HIV positive

Panel 6: Vietnamese society 

cases, the changes in transmission routes as well as a larger capacity to provide antiretroviral treatments, that is a need for accurate knowledge about HIV/AIDS prevention and continuum ca re. Vietnamese family with its specific functions plays a very important in HIV/AIDS prevention and ca re for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Members of the family nowadays must acquire comprehensive knowledge on HIV/AIDS. In frame of the research project: "Vietnamese family facing HIV/AIDS" (2006 - 2010), a quantitative case - control survey was carried out in Ha - long, Quang Ninh province, November 2006. The survey sample included 163 households affected hy HIV/AIDS and 163 non - affected household. 820 individuals (PLWHA and members in the households) were interviewed hy questionnaires which contained 22 questions measuring the knowledge on HIV/AIDS. A system of scores was established in order to evaluate the level of knowledge than the people acquired. Frequency and multi variate analyses were implemented based on the software SPSS 13.0. Results: The level of knowledge on HIV/AIDS transmission routes got a moderately good score (7.9/10 for PLWHA; 7.6/10 for then households' members; 7.5/10 for non - affected households’ members). Knowledge on HIV/AIDS prevention methods gót nearly the average level (respectively: 4.9 - 4.7 - 4.6/10 for each group). Knowledge ơn ca re for PLWHA was particularly weak. Among whom, PLWHA attained an average level (5.6 score/10). The knowledge level of their households' members was under average score (4.4/10). The members of the non - affected households had a low knowledge level (3.5/10). For each kind of knowledge, the difference between groups was statistically significant (p<o.05). The most popular information resource on HIV/AIDS was mass media. However, the information sources to which PLWHA accessed much more than their households' members and non-affected households' members were healthcare units, healthcare professionals or associations/ groups/clubs helping PLWHA and their families through counseling or training sessions. They also discussed about HIV/AIDS in the last 6 months before the survey with more people. In the family,

impacts and guaranteeing financial resources for the welfare system. Over the years. after 15 years of fighting the HIV/AIDS epidemic. the welfare system in Vietnam remains undeveloped and is riddled with difficulties and shortcomings. To these ends. the welfare system is further improving in these aspects: More diverse form of welfare provision. social insurance. their households' members and non affected households' members is still limited. social assistance and benefits have been adjusted to the circumstances of the market economy in transition.Panel 6: Vietnamese society  close relatives. comprehensive knowledge on HIV/AIDS among PLWHA. the legal and policy framework be 193   . In summary. Thanks to that.191] SOME ISSUES REGARDING SOCIAL SECURITY IN VIETNAM TODAY Mai Ngoc Cuong. Dr. The need for a full . the addition of other form of social support and privileges. our country has been going through profound socio . it is important that the society be equipped with full knowledge about the significance of the welfare system.fledged social securities system is more urgent as required by economic development and integration. Hanoi Economics University On the process of building the socialist oriented market economy.economic changes with continuous increase in social income and material and spiritual life. Those policies regarding health insurance. This fact has a huge influence on the control of HIV/AIDS epidemic as well as on the alleviation of HIV/AIDS related stigma in the whole population. [06. Major orientations for its development are expanding welfare provision coverage. policies have been made by the Party and the Government to deal with social needs in general and social securities in particular. Expanded welfare beneficiary. Despite all of these. especially parents played an important role in discussions about HIV/AIDS with PLWHA. Prof.

The most obvious expression is changes in the ‘linear’ structure of the society. Their capacities. The paper is one of efforts of the author to recommend solutions to the above urgent theoretical and practical issues on social stratification and social change in Vietnam today. This group of people includes people who resurface from all social groups. 194  . These are remarkable social. Dr. It is even more important that the improvement of welfare system go along with the improvement of other social policies with a view to ensure proper social benefits for the people.makers. scientists. [06. The establishment of a ‘super’ social group closely relates to the process of the formulation of legitimatized social stratification. These changes objectively reflect the process of a dialectic movement of the society. policy . State and society. classes and strata. Government.Panel 6: Vietnamese society  perfected while the implementing capacity be reinforced. trained further and appointed to key positions so that they can work productively and contribute as much as they can. They are also interested in functional. They need to be respected and educated. as well as leaders and managers from the central down to local levels. Ho Chi Minh National Political . The most noteworthy is the establishing of the structure of ‘legitimzied’ social stratification and along with it is the appearance of a “super advanced social group. talents and contribution need to be properly recognized by the Party. the development of a market based economy and international integration.Administrative Academy After 20 years of Doi Moi and opening up. advisory. class and social strata. political issues reflecting urgent problems which become the focus of continuous research of the Party. executive agencies and protecting forces including the people police.192] LEGITIMATIZED SOCIAL STRATIFICATION AND THE FORMATION OF PRIVILIGED SOCIAL STRATA DURING THE PERIOD OF RENOVATION AND INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INTEGRATION IN VIETNAM TODAY Nguyen Dinh Tan. Prof. there have been major changes in Vietnam’s social structure.

in the 2004 .2006 period. The popular pattern in the rural area nowadays is actually based on “the negotiations and compromise between parents and children to reach agreement”. during the 1976 . They also partially support the outcomes of other studies on the Red River Delta. in general. What is interesting is the fact that despite the weakening of the former pattern.05 by the Sociology Academy in cooperation with Linkoping University.reform periods.reforms period to the post . it is evident that changes are made to the marriage pattern throughout three periods. What more is concluded from the survey is the attribution of difference in pattern changes in three towns to cultural differences and social and economic influences. the latter pattern has not become the major pattern. namely. VASS This paper is based on quality survey on 900 samples collected by project “Rural families in Vietnam in transition” RDE . CENTRAL AND SOUTH VIETNAM Nguyen Duc Chien Institute of Sociology. 195   . Sweden. from three towns in Tien Giang province. Those experimental survey outcomes.193] CHANGES OF MARRIAGE PATTERNS IN VIETNAMESE RURAL AREAS IN THE PERIODS BEFORE AND AFTER RENOVATION: A COMPARISON OF THREE COMMUNES IN NORTH.1985 period and during the 1986 . before 1976. marriage generation. contribute to completing the picture of marriage pattern in transition in the three regions from the pre .Panel 6: Vietnamese society  [06. the “traditional” marriage pattern characterized by parental interference is losing popularity while the “modern” one characterized by the children taking initiative in courtship and their marriage decision is gaining popularity.2005 period. Generally speaking. Based on studying the relations between local variables.reform period. Thua Thien .Hue province and Yen Bai province. courtship and marriage decision in the three towns.reform period to the post . It tries to provide new experimental evidences about the impact of social issues on the transition of marriage pattern in rural Vietnam from the pre .

occupation. and the role of the government and war impacts. research works on female migrants from ethnic minorities 196  . [06. this paper indicates that it is the accumulated impacts of the modernization process. VASS Based on some recent experimental studies on adjustments to the partner pattern in Vietnam. family background and geographic distance. Until now.194] PATTERNS OF PARTNER CHOOSING IN VIETNAM: TRADITIONS AND CHANGE Nguyen Huu Minh. The union of personalities has now replaced arranged marriage for reasons of similar social background. the relations between the pattern and the process of modernization. TRA VINH TOWN) Nguyen Thi Hoa Southern Institute of Social Sciences A lot of research works have been conducted on migration and female migrants in Vietnam. the previous war that have pushed forward the transition of the partner pattern in Vietnam from a traditional pattern to a modern one. Institute of Family and Gender.195] MEKONG DELTA FEMALE HOUSEMAID MIGRANTS FROM THE MEKONG DELTA IN HO CHI MINH CITY (A CASE STUDY IN WARD 9.Panel 6: Vietnamese society  [06. Such transition is similar to marriage patterns in Asia. Assoc. the government policies. qualifications. Prof. Dr. including marriage decision and partner criteria. Partner criteria have also gone through changes under the influence of social and economic conditions with the emphasis on the characters and living style adjustable to the market economy. The couple is usually similar in personalities. which changes from arranged marriage to marriage on voluntary basis characterized by the individual’s discretion and parental consultation.

This research project is conducted in Ward 9 of Tra Vinh Town. The report “Mekong Delta female migrants as housemaids in Ho Chi Minh City” describes in brief issues related to gender and ethnic minority. creatively the materialistic dialectics of the world development to the social development. All these data are analyzed from the gender perspective.196] HO CHI MINH’S SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT PHILOSOPHY: AN IMPORTANT CONTRIBUTION TO THE MODERN SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT PHILOSOPHY Nguyen Van Huyen. for example: How did Khmer women take part in migration? Why did they move to Ho Chi Minh City? What are the reasons for their migration? What kinds of jobs are they doing specifically in Ho Chi Minh City? What can they contribute towards the family and community of origin through their jobs? How can they live in a completely new and complicated environment? How can they cope to risks and challenges in the City? What specific policy has the Government issued for this kind of laborers? etc… Information and data used in the report are mainly collected from in . Dr. The Research project “Mekong Delta female migrants as housemaids in Ho Chi Minh City” in the period from 1990 up to now will contribute to the migration literature in Vietnam. household and individual levels (including female laborers that have taken part in migration in our sample).Panel 6: Vietnamese society  however haven’t made up a considerable proportion of all research works on migration in Vietnam. [06. 197   . Prof.depth interviews and group discussions at community. His philosophy’s nature and content is quite in accordance with the social development in the modern world. scientific and human development philosophy. Ho Chi Minh built a right. where almost 100% of the population is Khmer.  VCP’s Central Council of Theoretics By applying rightly.

and take the mankind’s to real values.. presence and future to make a durable development. democratic. economy and society. inner force for promoting all political. The socialist goals are to build a strong nation with wealthy population and establish an equal. economic. presence and future. cultural and social aspects. an advanced economy. The method of building socialism is to combine the national independence and socialism. material and spirit. a culture with national characteristics..Science . Culture .Panel 6: Vietnamese society  The national independence and freedom is prerequisite condition for a country to build and bring into play the whole people’s strength for the development course of the country. nation and internations. inner and outer force. Basic factors for the social development are a strong jurisdiction state. civilized and happy society. Problems on growth and development.Education are internal strength of a social system. must be dealt in a dialectic and hamonial relationship. is the principle of combination between inner force and outer force. The right choice of the national way is the decisive factor for the success of the country’s building and developing course. The harmonial combination of tradition and modernity.. Only socialism can liberate the society and people. nature and people. People are both motility and goal of social development .. The combination of the above factors and relationships will make a durable and human social development.they are both a decisive force for building the society and a supreme goal of development. 198  .

URBAN HANOI VILLAGE Nguyen Van Suu. College of Social Sciences and Humanities. Using the lens of a sustainable livelihoods framework. although this transformation process consists of social differentiation and diversification of livelihood strategies among farmer households in the community. 199   .Panel 6: Vietnamese society  [06. I argue that the state’s appropriation of agricultural land use rights have created major social. which leads to conversions of a large area of agricultural land and this has forced thousands of farmer households to change their traditional livelihoods and even their lives. many farmers in my case study rely on their natural capital in the form of residential land use rights to not only escape poverty but also to shift to new strategies of livelihoods. political. this study analyzes and explains the questions of how. Vietnam has witnessed a rapid urbanization and industrialization. In coping with the new situation. VNU Hanoi Since Doi Moi. Although having temporarily attained higher living standards. in what ways and to what extent agricultural land conversions have been affecting farmer livelihoods in one peri urban Hanoi village.197] IMPACTS OF INDUSTRIALIZATION AND URBANIZATION ON FARMERS’ LIVELIHOODS IN VIETNAM: THE CASE OF A PERI . while the party state’s policy on training and job creation shows limited impacts. Dr. economic and cultural impacts on the farmers whose agricultural land have been appropriated for purposes of industrialization and urbanization. many farmers feel their livelihoods are not sustainable because they lack work.

200  . Southern Institute of Sustainable Development 1. Dr. value orientations and changes in the way of life of Vietnamese youth today. Approaching these concepts multi .region. It is located in the Mekong River sub .dimensionally. In the last part. Mekong Delta of 13 provinces and cities which has an area of 39. and has more sea borders with ASEAN countries. Assoc.Panel 6: Vietnamese society  [06.Prof. based on the results of recent surveys the author provides basic information and proposes the ways to analysize features of the social structure. Vietnam National University. 712 km2 with a population of nearly 17 million people. In the second parts. “youth culture” and “Way of Life”.199] SOME SOCIAL ISSUES EMERGING DURING THE PROCESS OF TRANSFORMING THE ECONOMIC STRUCTURE OF THE MEKONG DELTA REGION Pham Ngoc Dinh. [06. In the first part the author discusses on theoretical aspects and approaches of some key concepts of youth studies: “youth”.Dr. the author tries to suggest some functional principles for youth studies in Vietnam. and has organic relations with the other regions in the country. Concerning these concepts there have been many discussions.198] CULTURE AND WAYS OF LIFE OF VIETNAMESE YOUTH IN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBALIZATION AND INTERNATIONAL INTEGRATION Pham Hong Tung. Hanoi The paper consists of three parts. particularly with Ho Chi Minh City of the Southern Vietnamese plain. the author elaborates some suggestions for the interpretation of the change of culture and way of life of Vietnamese youth in the context of globalization and international integration.

paradoxes. canals in the area around. is also an area which was destroyed the war.term.electricity . having assembled land situation (4) The gap of income. II (industry and construction) and III (services). coexist and develop together. (2) High rate of surplus labor.forestry . However. (7) Social evils increasing diversity.breeding . and divesting crop plants and domestic animal with many models suitable to salt water. and entitled to the policies state long . The process of transferring the economic structure of the in Mekong Delta region reached some advantages and achieved great and important achievements in all areas of social life. There are many families that deserved well of nation. The moving structure process has increased fast in Mekong Delta from 2001 to present. 4.ethnic region. standard of living reduced. 201   .Agriculture . (6) Lifestyle cultures changing. there are some weaknesses. As a region with many potential resources and economic development comprehensively in 3 regions I (agriculture . with an intricate system of rivers. 2. building "roads . and urgent matters.schools stations". and joblessness. 3.fishery). This transfer is an increase of density for the industry Zone I and agricultural production structure by Fish . (3) Only a little land for farmers. (5) Issues "Living with flooding". Some social issues showed: (1) The serious pollution and regression of ecological environment.Panel 6: Vietnamese society  Mekong Delta is a region with nearly half the area being flooded from 3 to 4 months each year. many religions live together. As a multi .Forestry such as choosing aquiculture as the key to economic development in rural agriculture. brackish water and fresh water ecosystem.

4. Vietnam had fallen into the serious socio . program and project. As a result of the implementation of the above policies.. social development. the process of Vietnam’s social development in the direction of progress. The role of social policies has been highlighted: respecting the legitimate aspirations and benefits of all social strata. people’s heath . To get out of the crisis and to reach stabilization and development. has been improved. the Party and the State of Vietnam have proposed. the social dynamics of people’s strata has been enhanced. equity and international integration has been 202  . poverty reduction has been remarkable as compared to the United Nation’s Millennium Development Goals. for many reasons. and improved the comprehensive strategy of renovation in every field since 1986. continuously supplemented.200] AN OVERVIEW OF THE VIETNAMESE SOCIETY IN THE PROCESS OF RENOVATION FOR DEVELOPMENT AND INTERNATIONAL INTEGRATION Pham Xuan Nam. supporting the laborers to create jobs for themselves and others. Vietnamese Academy of Social Sciences On the basis of clarifying the definition of the three keywords such as: the society. apart from the achievements. job creation has been expanded. 3. 2. Before the renovation. improving education. mainly subjective mistakes in the socialist transformation and reconstruction based on an outdated model. social safety net has been set up. Dr. encouraging people to enrich themselves legally.Panel 6: Vietnamese society  [06. the author analyses the following issues: 1.. Human Development Index and Gender Development Index of Vietnam have steadily been increasing for many years. Prof. putting the human being in the centre of every development policy. while making active efforts for poverty reduction. education has been developed. and international integration in this paper. developing medical care. the national budget to solve social problems has been higher than the norm recommended by the Copenhagen World Summit Conference on Social Development.economic crisis.

This process has brought many good results to Dong Nai and the Southeast in the period of integration & developing. lad for producing. source of labor. to overcome the limitations. mention to the native influences that have originated from the process of integration – developing will contribute to have the experience for determination policy and solution. equity and deeper international integration. some social problems have become even more serious. This is a province with a developing industry which is based on the background industry before 1975. and it has been especially developing since 1995. polluted environment (land. In direction for developing. MA. [06. On the ground of the above analyses. water.201] SOCIAL IMPACTS OF INTEGRATION AND INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT IN DONG NAI SOUTHEASTERN VIETNAM Phan Dinh Dung.Panel 6: Vietnamese society  facing not a few weaknesses and limitations. it has forced Dong Naito facing some trouble matters such as: increasing population. assuring Vietnamese society a continuous development toward progress. 5. because of the influences of the world economic recession and the high domestic inflation. On the contrast. cultural life…. Dong Nai province will have increase the process of industrialization – modernization for reaching the goal of 2020 such as being industrial province preference to modern industrial zones. air…). 203   . Recently. According to the author. Dong Nai Junior College of Arts and Culture Dong Nai province has belonged to the Southeast of Vietnam and to the powerful developing region in the South of Vietnam. the author suggests some recommendations to promote the achievements.

in combination with income data that we have gathered from extensive survey research of our own on roving street vendors.Prof. New London. we are able to comment on the extent to which women's circular migration may be affecting traditional gender roles within the rural household.MA *Connectticut University. we look at the gender issues related to the decision for the woman to be the one within her family to become a circular migrant. By using national income and consumption data. These include family patens of child bearing. Peppard*.. Our paper attempts to address these issues as well. Instead. child rearing and the broader gender division of labor within the rural household. we look at the importance of Hanoi's informal sector in terms of how it allows many farm families to maintain their rural identities through patterns of circular migration. Jr. These women are no permanent migrants. They come to Hanoi as the result of a decision that many rural families have been forced to make: in order to make up for the inadequate incomes that flamers earn from agriculture alone. they engage in patens of circular migration. 204  . we provide empirical evidence of how important the income earned in Hanoi is to the families of these women. Conventional economic theory argues that rural people migrate to cities because of the greater chance of earning income there.202] CIRCULAR MIGRATION OF WOMEN IN VIETNAM: A STUDY OF ROVING STREET VENDORS IN HANOI Rolfjensen*. In looking at these issues. has a more difficult time explaining why many pauses of migration are not permanent and why it is often the case that women and not their husbands are the ones to migrate. one or more members of the household need to migrate to a city to earn extra income for the family. however. Vu Thi Minh Thang**. Donald M. nor are they in any strict sense of the word seasonal migrants.Panel 6: Vietnamese society  [06. First. America ** College of Social Sciences and Humanities.. Economic theory. going back and forth between Hanoi and their villages for varying periods of time over the course of the entire year. VNU Hanoi This paper focuses on rural women who have made the decision to migrate in order to work as roving street vendors in the informal sector of Hanoi's economy. Second.

In Dong Nai. the religion and culture. Southern Institute of Sustainable Development The majority Dong Nai is a province of the Southeast where many ethnic groups. religious cultural and social figures. economic and social conditions influenced the foundation and development of Chinese groups in Vietnam and Dong Nai. Chinese ethnic group was forced to immigrate to different areas before emigrating to Dong Nai. culture and society of those different groups. The Hoa ethnic group has a large number of Dong Nai population including many groups immigrated in different times. In Dong Nai. Basing on groups’ differences. the Chinese group from Hai Ninh needs to affirm ethnic group name Chinese not Hoa Nung. Chinese people have a strong attachment through the economy. the ethnic group process of Chinese from Hai Ninh has hallmark of assimilation and dissociation. Chinese ethnic group has a strong attachment through not only congregations but also political. has typified for the Southern Hoa ethnic group. there was “Nung autonomous land”.     205   .Panel 6: Vietnamese society  [06. each group of Chinese has cooperated in trading. in Hai Ninh.. Dong Nai. it can recognize both specific characteristics of ethnic group process of the Chinese ethnic group in Vietnam and emigration history of Chinese to different areas before emigrating to Dong Nai that manifest a complex ethnic groups and multilingual. have resided for a long time. to exist and develop in Dong Nai. Whenever. Dr. groups ever. Nowadays. the social network of Chinese groups is large both in country and overseas and the political. In fact. where the groups of Chinese ethnic immigrated earliest.203] THE HOA ETHNIC GROUP IN DONG NAI PROVINCE Tran Hong Lien. Vietnam and other oversea areas. During the settlement process. This article studies on the immigration process. together with Kinh ethnic group. under French Indochinese government.




Faculty of Law. 209   . [07. freedom and human rights. justice. legitimacy. altruism.204] CONSITUTIONALISM IN VIETNAM Bui Ngoc Son. MA. Dr. The theory has lost its standing in Vietnam since 1959 but it is expected that some of its elements may be accepted during the process of integration. One conclusion is that the theory penetrated into Vietnam before 1946 in many forms and under various conceptions and developed vigorously. democracy.VNU Hanoi This paper analyses the penetration and spread of constitutionalism in Vietnam before the introduction of the first Constitution on 1946. The popularity is due to its corporation of mankind progressive political and legal thoughts. This report also summarizes the process of building the rule of law in Vietnam and its achievements so far.205] SOCIALIST RULE OF LAW FOR THE PEOPLE UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE CPV: MAJOR ACHIEVEMENTS AND DEVELOPMENT ORIENTATION Dao Tri Uc. With 60-year experience of building the rule of law and the 20-year long reforms we have had a clearer vision the inevitable construction of the rule of law on the way to socialism.Panel 7: Vietnamese Laws [07. The birth of Hochiminh democratic constitutionalism thoughts forms the foundation for the rule of law. Conclusion will be made with lessons from the process and orientation for perfecting the rule of law in Vietnam. 1946 Constitution was a result of that period given the impact of MarxismLeninism on it. Institute of State and Law The construction of a rule of law – based state is becoming an inevitable and objective trend in the modern democratic world. such as equality.Sc. This report emphasis that the purpose of our state is for the people and is a symbol of the people’s right to decision making under the Party’s guidance. Prof. It also studies the theory’s influence on the Constitution and the theory’s future.

and Law on Organization of the National Assembly was enacted by major revision in 2001 and by modest revision in 2007. Limitations to legal amnesty are determined by social conditions and other conditions. humanitarian concept refers to the recognition of human being as a value and the affirmation of human value as a criteria for social relations and in a stricter sense. [07. 210  . mainly by giving them legal amnesty. Third. Dr.207] DEATHPENALTY AND THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE DEATH PENALTY AND THE HUMANISTIC PRINCIPLE OF CRIMINAL LAW Ho Sy Son.Panel 7: Vietnamese Laws [07. The role of the National Assembly as the highest governing body has also expanded in “coordination of powers” system. Fourth.206] THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY AND THE LEGISLATIVE PROCESS IN VIETNAM Endo Satoshi National Diet Library. penalty is a severe contradiction to humanitarian principle in criminal law. criminal prevention. Institute of State and Law This paper will analyse the humanitarian concept. The paper makes conclusions that. namely. first. Law on the Promulgation of Legal Documents of 1996 was enacted by major revision in 2002 and will be amended in May 2008. social equality. The second conclusion is that a major idea in the humanitarian principle as provided for in criminal law is tolerance for the offenders. humanitarian principle in criminal law. its establishment is an irreversible trend. the maintenance of penalty by some countries can only be explained by their economic infrastructure. Japan Legislative system and principle of the rule of law in “law-governed socialist State” has constructed steadily in Vietnam. Finally. 1992 Constitution was amended in 2001. of which their production force is determining. the respect and consideration in treating other people. penalty sentence and the status of penalty maintenance. abolishment and revocation in many places in the world. In these processes.

we deal 211   . [07. In a developing market economy. This report focuses on major issues such as: criminalization and de-criminalization in criminal law. including an accurate assessment nd identification of risks posed to the society. Prof. The paper also identifies orientation for reforming criminal law and the issue of criminalization and decriminalization of some economic crimes.Panel 7: Vietnamese Laws [07. On that basis. which not only deter certain offences but also encourage others. VNU Hanoi Hochiminh thoughts on the state and legal system. Thought. Its effectiveness depends on various factors. nationality and legality aspects in Hochiminh thoughts on the state and the law.208] SOME ISSUES OF CRIMINALISATION AND DE-CRIMINALIZATION OF ECONOMIC VIOLATIONS OF THE LAW IN THE CRIMINAL POLICY OF VIETNAM Ho Trong Ngu. it is only in the context of national reforms and international integration that we are fully capable of studying in depth and applying these thoughts. Assoc. These thoughts give us a profound theme for studying. These thoughts are considered the principles of a rule of law state.209] STUDYING AND APPLYING HOCHIMINH’S THOUGHTS ON THE STATE AND THE RULE OF LAW IN THE CURRENT CONTEXT OF INTEGRATION IN VIETNAM Hoang Thi Kim Que. Dr National Assembly’s National Defense and Security Committee Criminal law is an effective tool for the fighting against criminals. are an invaluable treasure for the process of national reform and the construction of a rule of law in Vietnam. as allowed by legislative activities. Dr. However. an essential part of Hochiminh. Prof. and criminal policies as provided for in the 1999 Penal Code and its problems. thus. it is important that criminal law makes clear categorization of criminal offences and ensures frequent monitoring and timely revision of these categories. the requirement for and limitations to reforms of criminal law in the context of the war against economic criminals in Vietnam nowadays. especially in economic integration. changes happen in every field of the economy. Therefore. Faculty of Laws. We will also recommend some issues of concerns as regards criminal policy towards economic crimes. in this paper we will focus on the universality.

individual and organizations. At certain moment the territorial disputes are brought to the forefront threatening regional security. MA. among which China claims almost all of the sea while the others claim part or parts of the sea. This event resulted in protests from Vietnamese students overseas and at home. [07. the sea is has been the subject of various claims of sovereignty by China. Philippine media all rose up in criticizing the government for taking part in co-exploitation project on Spratly islands with Vietnam and China. The dispute over the South China Sea has been tempered for years with ebbs and flows. the Philippines.Panel 7: Vietnamese Laws with some issues of applying Hochiminh thoughts on the law and morality in social supervision in Vietnam’s current context. containing potential conflicts and disputes and even amounts to a source of regional confrontation. [07. such as the latest event in December 2007 when China establish its administrative town Sansa which covers the two archipelagoes claimed by others. Indonesia and Brunei. Monitoring and criticism is pivotal to the construction of the rule of law and a civilised equal and make some assessment of monitoring and criticism practice in Vietnam. Vietnam. Institute of State and Law Social monitoring and criticism is for the purpose of influencing the monitored and criticised and is carried out by the people represented by certain group or certain class of people or more specifically.210] SOME ISSUES REGARDING SOCIAL SUPERVISION AND CRITICISM Hoang Thi Ngan. Since the Cold War. Like a domino effect. Those people are characterised by their independence of the monitored and criticised. Malaysia. Taiwan.211] IN SEARCH OF A SOLUTION FOR THE SOUTH-CHINA SEA DISPUTE Hoang Viet. yet. Law University of Hochiminh city South China Sea is pivotal to many Asian countries thanks to its rich resources and its role the second most used sea lane. 212  . Dr.

the author expresses his own idea about a solution to the South China Sea dispute. Assoc. Prof. it presents a difficulty in admitting that influence due to lack of transparency in the administration itself and in the enterprises. Dr. [07. Legal Sciences Institute. including the resort to the ICJ (International Court of Justice). This report will analyse such deterring impacts and make some recommendations for changes and orientation for a new thinking of working for enterprises’ benefits. Ministry of Justice It is the objective of all nations to provide favorable conditions for their enterprises and to eliminate cumbersome administrative procedures and legal regulations detrimental to market development and commercial activities.Panel 7: Vietnamese Laws The question is how to align the interests of all parties while avoiding any detriments to regional security. Added to that. Being a member of the WTO. Prof. Many ideas have been raised in the interest of regional peace. careful studies and analysis need carrying out. Prima facie. which causes doubts to its enforcement. Another idea is setting aside dispute and co-exploiting the sea. through its administrative procedures and economic measures. Can exert tremendous influence on the enterprises. Yet. Central Organization Committee Research into the inception and development of Vietnam legal culture in the history reveals the importance of village convention besides national laws in regulating social 213   .  State Organization Sciences Institute. However.213] NATIONAL LAW AND VILLAGE CONVENTION IN RURAL VIETNAM Le Minh Thong. [07. the official-like administration makes it further difficult to identify its negative impacts on enterprises’ activities. Vietnam is confronted with challenges to the competitiveness of enterprises and the economy. In conclusion. Dr. The government.212] ADMINISTRATIVE REFORMS AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF ENTERPRISES IN THE CONTEXT OF WTO MEMBERSHIP Le Hong Hanh. which obviously excludes the use of violence. not to say that there is no transparency at all. the measure is more practical and feasible.

namely Gender Equality Law and the Law on the Prevention of family violence in Nov. Assoc. village convention and rules were maintained and seen as a vital tool to preserve the link between the nation as a whole and every village.214] CONVENTION ON THE ELIMINATION OF ALL FORMS OF DISCRIMINATION AGAINST WOMEN (CEDAW) AND TWO NEW LAWS: GENDER EQUALITY LAW AND LAW ON PREVENTION OF FAMILY VIOLENCE Le Thi Quy. [07. although codes of law were developed and implemented. The paper analyses the context and main ideas of the “Convention on elimination of all forms of discrimination against women . the construction of relevant international conventions and domestic legal regulations are the fundamental. Based on existing regulations and incorporating CEDAW regulations. According to the paper. CEDAW principles have been incorporated into national policies and have since rendered big 214  . The paper aims at increasing awareness of the issue on the world level and domestic level. Village convention and rules give us a unique environment for both promoting and restricting national laws in order to preserve the characteristics of community way of life in an agricultural national like Vietnam. 2007 respectively. Dr. Presented in the paper is an analysis of their context and main ideas. the inevitability of gender discrimination and the cause of empowering women with human rights. Looking back into history of feudal governments since independence. including a comparison with Hong Duc Law in 15th century and Gia Long Law in 18th century as regarding gender issue. the women movement and international democratic movement have made important progress. In their activities. 2006 and Nov.CEDAW” and its significance to Vietnam. especially in developing places. Both domains of law seem to accompany the nation throughout the ebbs and downs in the development process.Panel 7: Vietnamese Laws relations in rural Vietnam. there exists a dialectic relationship between domestic law and international law on gender issue in the globalised world. College of Social Sciences and Humanities. the National Assembly (the Legislative) ratified two new laws in 2006 and 2007. VNU Hanoi Gender equality is essential not only to Vietnam but the world as well. Prof. Since late 20th century. which is gradually improving the livelihood of women around the world.

In the rapidly internationalizing modern world. and the (legal) practices which have taken root in that region. Furthermore many developing countries are being pressured by globalization to bring their domestic legal systems up to international standards. When reforming a legal system. particularly the “transplanting” of laws. and it is anticipated that Japan will bear a key responsibility in this field. 215   . much hope is being held for the participation in international cooperation of Japan’s legal education institutions. and therefore. Prof. and legal practitioners. as well as to establish the rule of law. For legal assistance. it is necessary to understand the circumstances of the recipient country or region from multiple perspectives. civil society and international organizations in bringing the laws into everyday life.215] LEGAL “TRANSPLANTATION” IN ASIA Masanori Aikyo. only when the level of infrastructure and technical innovation of that society. Japan After 1990. It is therefore essential to clarify the historical and cultural context of the law and politics of Asian nations as one of the preconditions of carrying out legal assistance. many socialist countries made the transition to a market economy. human rights and democracy.Panel 7: Vietnamese Laws successes such as a much higher GDI (Gender Development Index) than other countries of higher development level. can a truly suitable legal system be established. have been sufficiently investigated and put in order. Center for Asian Legal Exchange. It has been necessary for these countries to create legal systems suited to a fair market economy. The paper will display enforcement challenges of the two laws and the activeness of government. Nagoya University. international cooperation in the form of legal assistance for these countries is essential. [07. These undertakings are difficult for a country to undergo alone.

[07. explanation and definition of the nature of the term through legislation by the National Assembly. create and                                                                   4 See further: Ngo Duc Manh – National Assembly’s legislation for a rule of law state of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam – 60 years of establishment and development. (ii) new developments in National Assembly’s legislation. there needs to be an effective and transparent mechanism for resolving those disputes in order to protect the legitimate rights and interests of the parties in civil relations. 216  . VNU Hanoi In the context of a socialist-oriented market economy and international integration in Vietnam.4 What is noteworthy is the fact that overcoming theses challenges also benefits the National Assembly in promoting its role as an important factor in ensuring successful cause of nation building towards a rule of law state.Panel 7: Vietnamese Laws [07. civil relations are more and more diversified. there is a growing number of civil disputes which are increasingly complicated and with broader scope. its achievements and setbacks and recommendations as to how to improve legislative activities on the way towards full rule of law.217] SOME ISSUES REGARDING THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE VIETNAMESE CIVIL PROCEDURE LAW IN THE CONTEXT OF INTERNATIONAL INTEGRATION Nguyen Bich Thao Faculty of Laws. which gives us ample ground for analysis. National Politics Publisher. as a result. Dr.216] THE RULE OF LAW STATE AND LEGISLATION BY THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY Ngo Duc Manh. Foreign Relations Committee of National Assembly Amendments to 1992 Constitution officially states that “the State of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam follows the rule of law and is of the people and for the people”. Thus. This paper thus discuss three closely related issues which are (i) rule of law state and importance of legislation. 2000. pgs 164-186. and (iii) challenges to be overcome to further improve legislative performance. It is possible to say that this is the first time the term “rule of law” appears in Constitution.

continue to advesarialize toi khong biet tu nay civil procedure. substantive law and procedural law. Since the Renovation process started in 1986. marked by the promulgation of the Civil Procedure Code (2004). Based on theoretical and practical grounds.Sc. 217   . apply summary procedure for certain civil cases. it is very necessary to study and find out the solutions for improving the civil procedure law at present. determine more clearly the position. Vietnamese civil procedure law has been gradually improved. enhance role of the parties and their counsels. competence and responsibility of Judges. Theories about the rule of law have been accumulated throughout the process of mankind legal evolution. however. Vietnam is eager to absorb the theory and build up an actual rule of law state of socialist nature. including organizational. such as: broaden the jurisdiction of courts in dispute resolution. there was an imbalance in development between criminal law and civil law. task. is gaining universality. business and investment relations. traditions and customs. Therefore. The theory helps promote East-West cultural exchanges and thus. this article proposes some directions to improve Vietnamese civil procedure law. Different from Western countries.218] BUILDING A RULE OF LAW SOCIALIST STATE FOR THE PEOPLE UNDER THE CPV’S DIRECTION Nguyen Duy Quy. promote the development of civil. culture. Against its cultural background and social and economic level. etc. In Vietnamese legal history. Vietnam Academy of Social Sciences Rule of law and a law-based state are attractive to all nations at all times.Dr.Panel 7: Vietnamese Laws consolidate the faith in the Vietnamese judicial system of organizations and individuals at home and abroad. personnel and facilities solutions. the universality does not exclude the specific as there is no unified legal standard or model for all nations. there remain many shortcomings which do not meet the requirements of a market economy and international integration. Prof. the article also brings out comprehensive solutions to ensure the effective enforcement of the civil procedure law. However. Besides law improvement. respect the autonomy of the parties. [07. Vietnamese civil law and civil procedure law developed very slowly and weakly under the impact of various factors such as socio-economic development.

VNU Hanoi **Center for Pacific Asia Studies (CPAS). 218  . International Law Department. then go on with some issues with legislative thinking reforms to meet WTO requirements. Assoc. Dr. The paper reviews the progress in resolving border with a focus on developments since the 1990s. Those challenges are posed to legislative activities as well. Prof.220] WTO ACCESSION – OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES FOR REFORMING LEGISLATIVE THINKING Hoang Phuoc Hiep. (iii) legislative thinking reform to meet the requirement for improving human resources for legislative activities and nurturing source legal officials working on WTO law and economic integration. Ramses Amer**. Ministry of Justice While we are fully aware of opportunities for reforms brought about by the accession into WTO. [07. (ii) legislative thinking reforms must be in compliance with the requirement of WTO obligations.219] THE SETTLEMENT OF VIETNAM’S BORDER DISPUTES WITH NEIGHBOURING COUNTRIES A CONTRIBUTION TO REGIONAL PEACE AND SECURITY Nguyen Hong Thao*.Panel 7: Vietnamese Laws [07. Prof. A core aspect of the regional dimension is an assessment of if and how Vietnam has contributed to strengthen the conflict management approach of the Association of South-East Nations (ASEAN). *Faculty of Laws. Assoc. This report will analyse difficulties and opportunities. Such issues are (i) legislative thinking reform to meet the requirement for perfecting legal system to comply with WTO obligations. it is important that we also see through the challenges for our country of low development level whose administration is riddled with shortcomings and weakness. The processes leading to the existing agreements are assessed and the implication of the overall process and progress on regional peace and security is discussed. (iiii) legislative thinking reforms to meet the requirement for deterring economic and trade disputes with other WTO members. Stockholm University The main aim of this paper is to analyze Vietnam’s contribution to regional peace and stability through an examination of its policies to resolve border disputes by peaceful means. It also addresses the challenges posed by the remaining unsettled disputes.. Dr.

Ministry of Justice Information access has been a right and an urgent need of every citizen that must be ensured. In recent time. the need for information. in practice. access to legal information of the people still faces many difficulties and obstacles. Ensuring the right to information and legal access contributes to establish a solid foundation for a democratic society and a rule-of-law State in Vietnam. However. there must be a system to meet the need of the people. As a result. In the context of integration and development today. A mechanism must be established to meet the need for both demanding and providing information. policy and operation of State organs. 219   . is essential in all activities when the society operates according to the principles of a rule-of-law State. Assoc. Dr. working as a bridge to bring policies of the Party and laws of the State to every citizen.Prof. it is essential to improve legal dissemination and the education system as well as the information-providing system. The article is written using the latest information and documents about legal access in Vietnam. Legal dissemination and education plays a very important role in creating and improving the consciousness to learn about law and obey law. Up to now. especially information concerning law.221] REAL SITUATION AND DIRECTIONS TO IMPROVE ACCESS TO INFORMATION ON LAW OF THE PEOPLE IN THE CONTEXT OF BUILDING A RULE-OF-LAW STATE IN VIETNAM Nguyen Tat Vien. especially legal information is increasing together with the development of society. building and consolidating the style of living and working in compliance with the Constitution and law of the people. Thus. there have been great efforts in legal dissemination and education and the legal awareness of the people has been gradually improved. some international organizations have been coordinating with the Ministry of Justice of Vietnam to strengthen the ability of access to legal information of citizens through sub-projects. because information. Legal dissemination and education is the principal form of legal access. This is an opportunity for Vietnam and other countries to understand more about the means and forms of legal access from each other.Panel 7: Vietnamese Laws [07.

thus. the absorption must be in compliance with legal regulations. their activities.Panel 7: Vietnamese Laws [07. Government. customary law though officially unrecognized is exerting influence on the life of ethnic minoties community.223] CUSTOMARY LAW FROM A LEGAL POINT OF VIEW Nguyen Thi Viet Huong. authorities and consequently. including the recognition of customary rule and its limitation. functions. Second. we need to address difficulties in order to further improve the administration and firmly move on the way to industrialization and modernization heading toward socialism. it is objectively necessary to absorb and inherit customary law. Last. the absorption should be in the direction of “legalizing” customary rules and transferring them into the life of ethnic minority communities. [07.222] THE SOCIALIST REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM AFTER TWENTY YEARS OF REFORMATION Nguyen Thi Hoi. Supreme Court and People’s Supreme Procuracy. The mere fact proves the relevance of customary law to certain social relations and economic activities. In this report we will highlight the nature. customary rule has objective influence in its connection with written law. Dr. On the other hand. in particular changes to the National Assembly. On that basis. Hanoi University of Law This project studies fundamental changes to the organization and operations of the state of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam after twenty years of reforms. Our conclusions are that first. therefore. Institute of State and Law In Vietnam. the drafting of Ethnic Minority Law should be accelerated in which general principles about customary rules are incorporated. 220  . Reforms have been made to their organization. President. Dr. written law is the determining factor. Besides that. A number of achievements have been scored in legislative and executive activities and justice administration as well as in domestic and foreign affairs. in the relations customary law. the paper suggests building a mechanism for utilizing and revising customary rules most flexibly so that the legalized rule will be most adjustable. the role and the relations between customary law and written law.

Dr. 221   . In response to the new situation. under the leadership of the Communist Party. Furthermore. This paper contributes some humid opinion on the hallmarks of Vietnam’s legal studies over the last 60 years and challenges to the studies against the background of a changing world.224] PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION REFORM IN VIETNAM: ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES Nguyen Van Tham. but has been also facing difficulties. At the same time. Vietnam recognized that the old administrative mechanism was slowing down economic growth and the development of the country in general. failure and success of legal studies in Vietnam. It was only until the last three recent decades that the studies resumed and scored success. the Vietnam Government has been carrying out an administrative reform since the 90s of the last century.225] FROM A CENTRALISED GOVERNMENT TO A DEMOCRATIC ONE: A HERITAGE OF 60 YEAR OF LEGAL STUDIES IN VIETNAM Pham Duy Nghia.Panel 7: Vietnamese Laws [07. Dr. identifies the tasks that need to be implemented in order to contribute to the development and international process of the country. Prof. in the new development context. The administrative reform obtained important results. administrative reforms have been implemented in many other countries around the world. Assoc. During that 60 year long period. [07. VNU Hanoi The period since 1945 to 2005 witnessed the ups and downs. what did we learn from predecessors and what is the heritage left for our followers? Is the heritage sufficient enough to establish a sound foundation for future generations? There questions remain disturbing to contemporary and the future. This report analyzes the achievements and current challenges of administrative reform in Vietnam. Faculty of Law. the disadvantages of bureaucratic administration and the budget subsidies mechanism have been revealed more clearly. Sc. Prof. Ho Chi Minh National Political-Administrative Academy After a period of moving from a central plan economy towards a market oriented economy with State management.

This report discusses some thoughts about the continuity of executive and administrative power. Dr. Faculty of Law. economic and cultural life of the people. Dr. Institute of State and Law Over the last 60 years. This paper reviews two major marks in legal development in Vietnam and makes some assessment and prediction of the trend for legal development in Vietnam in the first 20 years of the 21st century. executive power is the earliest power. the entire state function. together with legislative and judiciary.226] CONTINUITY OF EXECUTIVE AND ADMINISTRATIVE POWER Pham Hong Thai. even halt. 222  . Prof. [07.227] LOOKING BACK AT THE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS OF VIETNAM’S LEGAL SYSTEM SINCE 1945 Pham Huu Nghi. Prof. VNU Hanoi Executive is one of the three branches of power of a modern state. it is vital that executive power is continuous as any discontinuation will seriously affect. Historically speaking. It has been proved that strong executive power and the master of social development processes in accordance with social rules will lead to success while a weak executive will inevitably lead to failure and social economic crisis. Assoc. the legal system has been the foundation for the establishment and reinforcement of the government as well as for the success of the war of resistance and the cause of protecting freedom and democracy and developing the social. Therefore.Panel 7: Vietnamese Laws [07. the legal system has also gone through ups and downs. Being an element of the superstructure. which is attached to establishment history of the state.

as an internal labor movement.228] CHALLENGES FOR THE LABOR CODE IN THE CONTEXT OF WTO ACCESSION Pham Thi Thuy Nga.229] IMPACTS OF THE DEATHPENALTY ON THE CRIMINAL RECORD Pham Van Tinh. Institute of State and Law This study is carried out from criminologist viewpoint and will only mention two issues namely criminal situation and the situation as regulated by penalty. issues with labor law in Vietnam in order to meet WTO labor requirement and standards. WTO accession brings about both opportunities and challenges for the labor market. MA. Besides. the most urgent are ensuring non-discrimination in salary and right to association. employee and the society so as to reconcile their interests. Dr. increasing dialogue among the employer. Of these issues. which can be overcome perfectly. enterprises will send more employees abroad. penalty should only be maintained under Chapter 11 and Chapter 24 of the 1999 Penal Code. Based on psychological. promoting labor monitoring so as to timely handle labor legal violations and prevent spontaneous strikes as what happened recently. Only with thorough understanding of the criminal situation and its appearance in each stage of development can we see through the role of penalty.Panel 7: Vietnamese Laws [07. Second. and finally. 223   . It is expected that the number of unemployed with increase as more enterprises shrink in scope or dissolve. improving education towards being recognized by countries in the region and the world. providing room for labor export and protecting exported labor. Under any circumstances the existence of criminals reflects the weakness of state management. biological and social analysis of criminal situation and the results of other studies. this study concludes that penalty is far from deterrent or preventive. All these present a problem for our labor code. In order to reconcile social thoughts and prevent incidents. Institute of State and Law Major issues mentioned in the paper are as follows: First. [07.

The paper places the discussion of Vietnam in a comparative perspective. Thaveeporn. The reform of the government was endorsed at the Seventh National Congress of the Vietnamese Communist Party in 1991 and with the promulgation of the 1992 constitution.Panel 7: Vietnamese Laws [07. and preparing Vietnam to integrate into the regional and international community. the central government issued the Public Administration Reform Master Program for the period from 2001 to 2010. The third focuses on the transformation of the government system as seen in the move towards various forms of decentralization. it focused on institutional reform. The first examines key government reform concepts including the rule of law and accountability. from central to local government.230] REINVENTING THE GOVERNMENT: PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION REFORM IN DOI MOI VIETNAM FROM A COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE Vasavakul. endorsing the role of popular associations and factors related to petitions and the denunciation of government officials. The final section focuses on government-society relations. civil service reform. The paper makes use of primary and secondary sources in English and Vietnamese. 224  . Southeast Asia Exchange The paper focuses on the reform of the system of government that has evolved in the era of doi moi as Vietnam moved from central planning to a market economy. ranging from the simplification of administrative procedures to the separation of economic and management functions and the separation of state management from public services delivery. with emphasis going to the nature and the redefinition of accountability. reform of the organizational structure of the public administration. Dr. One of the most comprehensive reform programs ever. considering it a necessary step to build a bureaucracy capable of developing the national economy. In 2001. In 1995. as well as reform of the civil service system. The second focuses on three key stages of reform. This paper is divided into four key parts. The legal framework that supports the reform of the government system also extended to including those promoting direct popular participation. highlighting similarities and differences between Vietnam and its Southeast Asian neighbors in their attempts to reform the government system. preserving the national cultural essence. and public finance reform. maintaining social equity. the Eighth Plenum of the Central Committee of the VCP (VII Congress) confirmed the reform of public administration.

proceeding of National Assembly’s sessions 5. National Assembly’s Office Reforms to legal thinking on the organization and operation of the National Assembly of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam in the conditions of international economic integration and construction of a rule of law state are as follows: 1. Reforming legal thinking on identifying the functions and responsibility of the National Assembly in the orientation of building a rule of law state of and for the people. a defining factor to the performance of the National Assembly.Standing Committee and the National Assembly share responsibility in the principle of the latter taking the lead. 4.Legislative procedures . . 2. Reforming legal thinking on the criteria of congressmen (member of the National Assembly). Reforming legal thinking on the organization of the National Assembly in the direction of enhancing the role and responsibility of its supporting offices. Reforming the performance of the National Assembly in terms of . 3. Dr. Prof.National Assembly (the Legislative) is the supreme legislative body operating within the framework of the Constitution and is empowered to consider and make decision on constitutionally provided issues.231] REFORMING THE LEGAL THINKING ABOUT THE ORGANISATION AND OPERATION OF THE VIETNAMESE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY IN THE CONTEXT OF INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND THE CONSTRUCTION OF A RULE OF LAW STATE Tran Ngoc Duong. General orientation for reforms in the future 225   . .Panel 7: Vietnamese Laws [07.

“Ho” is used in the North while “Hui” in the South and “bieu” or “phuong” in Central Vietnam. This report focuses on those issues: 1.Panel 7: Vietnamese Laws [07. inter alia. Assoc. Prof. The culture is characteristic by the preservation of village as an administrative unit and the sense of community among the agricultural community. 3. “phuong” all refer to one kind of property transaction popular in Vietnam.232] “HO”. The principle is enforced by specific regulations in national litigation law. MA. Status of current legal regulations on the practice. “BIEU”. Central Military Court The concepts of litigation level and proceedings are different but have close relations. Legal nature and significance of property transaction under “hui”. An evidence of such sense of community is the establishment of village association for mutual assistance. Legal regulations on the practice in the past. Vietnamese culture is original water rice agriculture culture. The upside and downside of that customs. in social life in Vietnam. The customs practice in Vietnam nowadays. [07. “bieu”. Dr. “HUI”. The principle of two litigation levels is the guide for any proceedings while proceedings are those procedures for applying the principle of two litigation levels. “hui”.233] TWO-LAYER PROCEEDINGS AND APPLICATION IN COURT ACTIVITIES Tran Van Do. 4. 5. Institute of State and Law “Ho”. The more accurate and 226  . “PHUONG” IN THE LEGAL SYSTEM OF VIETNAM: PAST AND FUTURE Tran Van Bien. 2.

Assoc. National Economic University International economic and technological exchanges on a global scale have since been promoted thanks to international economic integration.234] LAW AND PRACTICE OF THE PREVENTION AND FIGHT AGAINST INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY VIOLATIONS IN VIETNAM Tran Van Nam. It is even more important as Vietnam is obliged to follow the rule of WTO playground upon being its member. (3) criminalization of industrial property right in current criminal laws.Panel 7: Vietnamese Laws specific the laws are the more efficient and democratic the proceedings are in order to ensure fair trial and rights and freedom of the defendants. [07. (4) case law study concerning violation of industrial property rights under criminal proceedings. establish and perfect their intellectual property rights legal regulations to meet the demands for development and the requirement of international law. Vietnam included. IP violations are still quite common in Vietnam. Ho Chi Minh National Academiy Concept of Vietnamese civil law The civil law includes all the legal documents. 227   . more attention has been paid to the issues of intellectual property rights protection and anti-piracy. Faculty of Law. Since then. legal entities and others when they participate in the civil legal relations. which requires strong and more effective measures from state authorities. (2) existing IP legal regulations in Vietnam. which are (1) intellectual property and intellectual property rights. This report analyses the development of the principle in Vietnamese laws and the organization and perfection of Vietnamese courts in applying the principle. It is prerequisite that all countries. Dr. This paper focuses on four main issues. Institute of State and Law.235] VIETNAMESE CIVIL LAW FACING OF THE REQUIREMENTS OF INTERGRATION AND DEVELOPMENT Truong Thi Hong Ha. Prof. Dr. In fact. [07. among other things. adopted by the State’s compentent authorities in order to regulate rights and civil duties of individual.

The role of Vietnamese civil law in front of the requirements of integration and development. since 1986 to 1992: Constitution of Socialist Republic of Vietnamese 1992. First. namely state agencies (state domain). among citizens themselves and it especially is a basis to ensure human rights.. Four. which includes even civil marital. enterprises (private domain) and individuals and organization (civil society).. [07. Vietnamese civil law is a basic to define the levels of appropriateness between international and domestic laws in the define the civil relations. Vietnam Lawyers’ Association The right to receive information refers to the capability of individuals and organizations to receive information about state agencies through available public means. trade and labour relations. Vietnamese Civil law 2005.236] THE MECHANISM FOR ENSURING ACESS TO INFORMATION OF STATE AGENCIES IN VIETNAM AND ITS PERFECTION Vu Cong Giao. Vietnamese civil law creates the motivation for the economic – social development. sine 2001 to 2008: Constitution of Socialist Republic of Vietnamese 1992 (amendment in 2001). to maintain the stablity and development of civil relations in a broad meaning. The second period.Panel 7: Vietnamese Laws Process of establishment and development of Vietnamese civil law The first period. Any study about guaranteeing the right must refer to the interaction between these three actors. Five. Second. Third. In this report. Vietnamese civil law plays a central role in the Vietnamese legal system. Naturally speaking the right is the interaction between three main actors.. 228  . citizen’s right in the condition of integration into international economy. measurement of the relationship between the State and its citizen’s. Vietnamese civil law is the legal basic to create the citizen’s society. MA. Vietnamese Civil law 1995. Vietnamese civil law is an objective factor.. Ensuring the right is indeed referring to regulations and methods by which state agencies are required to publicize their activities and their decision on public media.

National Royal Laws (promulgated in Tran dynasty).Awareness of the importance of laws Hereby I clarify progressive opinions and awareness of states about the importance of laws.Prof.237] ANCIENT LAWS AND THEIR VALUES FOR THE PRESENT OF VIETNAM Vu Thi Phung. . the report studies the drafting of Information Access Law as an important tool to ensure right to information about state agencies. structures and fundamental contents of typical ancient laws compiled and promulgated in Vietnam from the 10th to the 19th century. Ancient laws in Vietnamese history In this part. Hoang Viet Laws (also called Gia Long Laws. I analyzed some values in these laws that need inheriting and promoting. Dr.Panel 7: Vietnamese Laws the author will analyze the relations between state agencies and the public in general (including individuals and enterprises) with regard to the latter access to public information. promulgation. as well as the guidance for applying and enforcing the laws in practice. The report goes around three main ideas. Assoc. In addition. 2. College of Social Sciences and Humanities. promulgated in Early Le dynasty). [07. In addition. namely: National Laws Book (promulgated in Ly dynasty). I present the construction processes. National Royal Laws (also called Hong Duc Laws.Experiences in laws compiling techniques. promulgated in Nguyen dynasty). which are (i) mechanism for ensuring access to information from state agencies (ii) mechanism for ensuring right to seeking information from state agencies (iii) complaints and settlement of violations related to right to information. VNU Hanoi 1. which was expressed through the compilation. 229   . namely: . The importance of Vietnam ancient laws to the contemporary era In this part. I also analyzed impacts and influences of these laws on Vietnamese society as well as the effectiveness of using these laws in managing the nation of Vietnamese states in history. the selection of editors.

methods for presenting legal norms..Panel 7: Vietnamese Laws Based on some regulations in ancient laws. I have also analyzed some shortcomings and limits in ancient laws that need eliminating and adjusting when applying into present. preserving moral norms and values.Values in contents In this part. 230  . such as: the principles for classification and systematization. such as: regulations for preventing mandarins from harassing and oppressing ordinary people.. the methods for consulting foreign laws to apply in Vietnamese practices. I focus on analyzing progressive values in ancient laws that need inheriting and consulting in service of constructing the legal system today./. In this article.. editors’ capacity of prediction and anticipation.. I analyzed some features in compiling techniques. women and ethnic minorities. .. protecting the rights of ordinary people.



239] RESEARCH ON CHANGES OF TRADITIONAL CULTURE THROUGH URBANIZATION OF VIETNAMESE VILLAGES: A CASE STUDY OF HOANG MAI (HA NOI) VILLAGE Dinh Khac Thuan. land ownership and possession rights. Kim Son district. which will follow this pattern. In the mean time. The report also puts forwards some remarks and lessons learned from this case study of a specific village that might be useful for rural construction and management at present.238] THU TRUNG HAMLET. Hanoi University of Education This report describes the entire process of reclamation leading to the establishment of Thu Trung hamlet (currently known as Thu Trung village.Prof. Ninh Binh province) in the early 19th century. IN THE FIRST HALF OF THE 19TH CENTURY Dao To Uyen. This urbanization process has changed village into streets. this paper refers to other issues such as postreclamation rural village planning. In the time ahead. and hamlet inhabitants’ cultural life including religions and beliefs. Hanoi. we try to restore the overview scenario of a hamlet founded as a result from the reclamation policy of “doanh điền” (营田 paddy field expansion) by Nguyễn State. Therefore. jobs… Following advance and 233   .Panel 8: Traditional Vietnamese countryside and agriculture [08. Kim Chinh commune. with a comparative analysis against the traditional village model of Vietnamese community. there are still thousands of villages. nguyên mộ (元募 primary employers) and thứ mộ (次募 secondary employers). On such basis. [08. an ancient village that located nearby city changed into Hoang Van Thu precinct of Hoang Mai district. how can we conserve and promote traditional cultural values in these villages? Hoang Mai (Ha Noi) village with its former name of Co Mai or Ke Mo. Dr. remains to lifestyle. Institute of Han-Nom Studies. ii) labour force and techniques used for. architecture. VASS There is number of villages which located in urban nearby is urbanized. leading to various followup changes from people. Assoc.Prof. in order to draw common and typical points over centuries of continuation. political arrangements. Assoc. KIM SON DISTRICT. as well as support policies by Nguyễn dynasty on reclamation. in regards to: i) the roles of chiêu mộ (招募 reclaimant callers). Dr. NINH BINH PROVINCE.

234  .1117) lived in the Ly dynasty. designed such as some examples of loss of Mai village’s “ruou cuc. oral histories and Sino-Nom writings which still let us not to examine in what He was born. a view from the above-mentioned dimensional historical sources. Institute of History. xoi lua” typical dishes. the author tries to shed some lights on traditional cultural activities which another relates to Him. [08. where He succeed to reach the peak of His religious belief and He passed away. from conservation and promotion of traditional village values in this period. dau mo. In fact. VASS Ma river delta is a large one in the northern part of the Centre (namely Thanh Hoa province today) which posses favorable natural conditions for people to earn their living and develop. VASS As a superior monk. especially in the Thien Su pagoda where Buddhist Tu Dao Hanh is worshipped. however. Quoc Oai district.240] DONG BUT VILLAGE AND THE VENERABLE TU DAO HANH Do Danh Huan Institute of History. in Sai Son commune. Ngoc Liep commune. these changes will be out of the right track in line with advantages of its traditional cultural value unless it is well planed. based on various historical sources and fieldworks collected in Dong But village. Hoang Mai case study can be considered as one fact. There are present-day many researches written in his homeland and biography. present-day Hanoi) as the place where He came to age. In this paper. a lesson to learn from integrating village into Hanoi. In fact. [08. Thay Pagoda (Thien Phuc Pagoda. present-day Hanoi). Quoc Oai district. His life is still described in such communal villages' legends as Lang Pagoda (Chieu Thien Pagoda in Han script.Panel 8: Traditional Vietnamese countryside and agriculture modern trends. Dr. A further study.241] A BRIEF OVERVIEW ON THE FORMATION OF VILLAGES IN THE MA RIVER DELTA Ha Manh Khoa. Buddhist Tu Dao Hanh (? . I argue to highlight that He was born in the Dong But village.

there were 1. the remaining villages were by military personnel and prisoners. it was indispensible that there should be a transfer of land into new cultivation area. in which 49% were founded by immigrants. Therefore. Quy Chu. there still remained abandoned areas in Ma River delta which attracted people from other places to dwell and build their new villages. The villages of such kind appeared in Thieu Hoa district around VIII century. 81 are proved to belong to Ma River Delta. Take only the Bronze Age. According the survey data in 1920. The foundation and development of the communes and villages in Ma River delta from the early age to pre August Revolution in 1945 has contributed to build up an area of strategic position and this has contributes considerable part in building and protecting the nation. especially Le dynasty. Apart from the above basic reasons. Formation for development need: The population growth caused the land to become limited. That area has remained its stability up to now and especially the villages namely Dong Son. the foundation of the villages in this area was based on other reasons such as: social. New Stone to Bronze Age have shown much about the track of human being in Ma River delta. There still remain some transferred origins of the villages which were founded by aristocracies and noblemen through mobilizing their people to reclaim abandoned land. and family conflicts.792 villages. Thieu Duong. there were more communes and villages founded by feudalism officials. Up to the early of XX. several court high ranking officials were provided with land for to establish their hamlets. 29% were founded through aristocrat land granted by their courts. That is the basic home of people in Ma River delta. 235   . From the ages of Ly – Tran dynasty. It is the development of metallurgy and metal shaping which have motivated the formation process of crowded population centers in the area. among 85 publicized ruins. etc. Aristocracy and noblemen: Under feudalism regimes. household. This could not meet the human needs of their life and activities.Panel 8: Traditional Vietnamese countryside and agriculture That formation is due to the following reasons: Natural formation: The archeological evidences from Old Stone Age.

Ancestor Worship. is the majority group. Confucian values were educated and practiced throughout East Asia in the past and Confucian cultural traditions have been well expressed in lineage villages. the author tries to find the maintenance and change of Confucian cultural traditions in a lineage village in Vietnam. The Vietnamese village is located in Dai Mo. I focus on presenting the panorama of traditional handicrafts of ethnic peoples in Vietnam. analyzing and explaining the roles and 236  . Since there has not been much research on Vietnamese lineage villages. neo-Confucian family rituals and values are very emphasized in the lineage villages. The author utilized Chang-Kee Lee's analysis framework in analyzing the characteristics of lineage villages as his framework is well defined for this study. Korean Kinship [08. VNU Hanoi In this paper. Key Words: Lineage Village. and plays a dominant role in village lives. He suggests two parameters for investigating lineage villages: consciousness of lineage. Prof. and organization of lineage. Confucian culture is integral to the East Asian tradition. In the East Asian tradition. the author emphasizes the diversity of Confucian traditions. Vietnamese Kinship. Ha Noi and is dominated by the family of Nguyen Quy (阮貴). Tu-Liem County. neo-Confucian family. Assoc. College of Social Sciences and Humanities. Institute of Korean Studies Vietnam belongs to East Asia in terms of cultural tradition.243] TRADITIONAL HANDICRAFT OF ETHNIC PEOPLE IN VIETNAM OVERVIEW AND EMERGING ISSUES Lam Ba Nam. In addition. based on classifying handicrafts. In this study. Through this study the the author refutes the arguments of many Vietnamese scholars who maintain that Vietnam does not have lineage villages. Prof. instead of monolithic image of Confucian traditions. A lineage village is a community where a specific lineage group lives for generations. For this study. but rather exploratory and heuristic.242] THE ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE AND THE COMMUNITY SPIRIT OF A FAMILY VILLAGE IN VIETNAM Han Do Hyun.Panel 8: Traditional Vietnamese countryside and agriculture [08.Dr. Confucianism. the findings of this study are not conclusive. the author selected one village from Vietnam.

Panel 8: Traditional Vietnamese countryside and agriculture positions of these handicrafts in the socio . having ½ of the agricultural production and the most part for exportation. Based on these analyses and evaluations. and culture of industrial trees). Southern Institute of Sustainable Development The author begins by providing a general description of southern of Vietnam including the Southeastern region and the Mekong Delta.Prof. I will present the demands for preservation. loan interest and low salaries. exportation. protection and promotion of handicraft legacies in association with the preservation of ethnic cultures in the process of integration. In addition.244] CHANGES OF THE PEASANT CLASS AND LANDLORD . budget funding. the feudal land possession system had 3 forms: public land owned by the government. public land owned by commune-village. + Land Relationship in feudal-colonial time Before the Revolution of August 1945. there was the added capitalist/colonialist land possession. as well as cultural characteristics and ethnic identities in accordance with the natural and social environments. industrialization and modernization in Vietnam today. + Land relations after the Revolution of August 1945 237   . Assoc. The Mekong Delta is the key cultural area of the whole country. French colonials paid the lowest salaries to the plantation “slaves”. The Southeastern region is the most developed and dynamic area in the whole country (industry.Dr. I have also analyzed and evaluated legacies of traditional handicrafts of ethnic peoples in Vietnam.economic . From French colonization (mid-19th century). development. mostly in form of the plantations of industrial trees owned by French colonial. Vietnamese landlords exploited the proletarians and poor peasants through land rent.PEASANT RELATIONSHIP IN THE SOUTH OF VIETNAM IN MODERN TIMES Lam Quang Huyen. [08.cultural life. and private land. Land rent was up to ½ of the production. as well as the roles of handicrafts in the traditional economic structure and the acculturation among ethnic peoples.

Policy on regulating election standard. redistribution of state rice-fields. a crowded one which played the key role in the agricultural production of the South Vietnam’s countryside. This aimed at the self.245] CENTRAL STATE POLICIES OF THE LE THANH TONG DYNASTY FOR ADMINISTRATION . The landlord class declined and disintegrated. Those policies were explained as follows: . Village Mayor). Dr.Panel 8: Traditional Vietnamese countryside and agriculture Vietnam Communist Party and the Government step-by-step implemented the cultivated land policy: reduction of land rent.. proletarians and poor peasants owning land became middle peasant class. After 1954. the peasants continued their fight to protect the fruits of cultivated land. Hanoi National University of Education In Le Dynasty. age. . in Dong Khoi Movement (19591960).governing power in the title of Village Chief. loan interest. However. testing performance and title responsibility of Village Chiefs. etc. In order to prevent faction relation in the managerial apparatus of communal level.APPARATUS AT COMMUNAL LEVEL Nguyen Canh Minh. Le Thanh Tong also adopted more regulations on forbidding Village Chief to not let their 238  . the South Vietnam’s Government got back the lands for the landlords from the peasants. Le Thanh Tong King established the titles of Village Chief and regulated the designated number of Village Chiefs according to the size of each commune so that each leader of each commune would be assigned tasks clearly. Prof. During the struggle against the French colonials. distribution of Vietnamese traitors’ owners or ownerless land. Phan Ngoc Huyen. and to own ½ of cultivated land area. the peasants got back the power at grassroots level and lands till the Liberation Day in 1975. The Le Thanh Tong Dynasty built synchronic regulations on family influence. Le Thanh Tong King (1460 -1497) built many positive policies with the aim to control the communal and hamlet government apparatus (mainly controlled by titles of head: Village Chief. knowledge – education level and conduct of elected person for Village Chief. Assoc. This was a wise policy of the Central State – Le Thanh Tong Dynasty with the aim to create an easier management system. [08. MA.Policy on regulating designation number of Village Chiefs for each kind of commune.

This is an original policy of Le Thanh Tong Dynasty. the state performed the testing policy to dismiss Village Chief who did not meet the real work demand. Thai Binh. apart from Village Chief title. Beside the positive aspect of the village administrative apparatus of the central state in Le Thanh Tong Dynasty. [08. This shows that Le Thanh Tong Dynasty has made many efforts in controlling and preventing village elder from disrupting effective village management. there were some specific limitations. Hung Yen and suburbs of Hanoi Capital). these policies would become highly valuable experiences that administrative reform process in localities (including communal level) of our country should consider. Village Mayor was also a representative of the village. Bac Giang. and appropriation of land in the village…would be strictly fined by the State.Building Village Major Titles in cooperation with Village Chiefs for management In order to manage effectively.246] THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE FAITH OF WORSHIPPING VILLAGE TUTELARY GODS AND THE EXISTENCE OF BEHAVIOUR. bribery. Those relations are shown in the following aspects: 239   . However. Hai Duong.Preventing village elders. . from harassing the village management apparatus Le Thanh Tong Dynasty promulgated many other regulations to prevent the harassment of the village management apparatus. . King Le Thanh Tong also named further Village Mayor title.Panel 8: Traditional Vietnamese countryside and agriculture relatives work in the same commune. CUSTOMS AND FORMS OF TRADITIONAL CULTURES IN VIETNAM’S NORTHERN DELTA RURAL AREAS Nguyen Quang Khai Religious Affairs Committee of Bacninh Province By interdisciplinary method and with the factual surveying results in the Northern midland delta areas (mainly in provinces such as Bac Ninh. the writer hopes to prove and explain the relationship between the faith of worshipping village tutelary gods and the existence of manners. All symbols of harassment of the village management apparatus such as: party relation to make wrong things. Besides that. At present reorganizing the Village Mayor proves the wisdom of Le Thanh Tong’s decision to establish the position of village mayor. Follow Village Chief. customs and forms of traditional cultures in the Vietnam Northern delta rural areas. helped the Village Chief in the area of work allocation.

splendid contrary clauses whose contents praising merits of the tutelary gods had large literature and historical value. A part of its were also put into the God stories when these stories were compiled. This custom was the affair of the village as the village tutelary god is worshipped.Panel 8: Traditional Vietnamese countryside and agriculture 1. in this paper. Similarly. Worshipping village tutelary gods has derived from customs of worshipping family or clan ancestors. due to the faith of worshipping the village tutelary gods. Funeral Oration Articles in the saint ceremonies were formed as articles of parallel constructions with closely poetic structures. breeding. 4. prosperous life. VASS Mainly aiming to such agricultural activities as cultivation. The villages’ forbidden in worshipping God has existed for a long time in common people and has been regulated in village conventions. All those represented the effect of one type of traditional literature of our country on the individual documents of each village. aquatic products as well as dike and river system. famous merits of the tutelary god. we’ve found many scrolled letters. 3. Themes. Dr. proverbs. as the faith of worshipping the village tutelary god. contents and structures of versions of god stories bearing the fairly clear hallmark of themes. talented men and capable women of the village. antique vestiges which were once passed down among common people. Institute of History. In communal houses or temples where worship tutelary gods takes place. the traditional culture aspects mentioned above will never disappear and the reciprocal relationship will also become more and more profound. [08. several idioms.247] AN OUTLINE OF AGRICULTURE AND HUMAN LIFE IN THE TRAN TIME IN THE THIRTEENTH . The above reciprocal relationship’s influence has made the cultural content of each aspect become profuse. Therefore. local sayings have appeared in many villages and made the knowledge fund of each Viet village become profuse.FOURTEENTH CENTURIES Nguyen Thi Phuong Chi. Contents of the Index articles of the village held to be read in the village festivals aim at praising: the charming sight. the author seeks to highlight that the Tran in 240  . contents and structures of myths. 2.

and many people were fallen into poverty. Head of locality such as Ly Lap Quang. 241   . Based on understanding of the human life in the Tran's society. etc. the State economy manifested in its fall down. Ho Hong. border front of Dai Viet in the past. was formed by a family coming to reclaim a certain area of land and developed into commune and village. Ho Cao. the author seeks to shed new light on the fact that the State has not yet taken into consideration the economic management in general and common land ownerships in particular. mobilized people from directions to reclaim land for founding their villages. in Nghe An. unfortunately there are not yet concrete statistics and studies of recorded output and cultivation techniques. according to newspapers. The social. According to the feudal governmental structure. In the second haft of fourteenth century. and its beard including around six meters. The patterns are as follow: The ancestors of a family such as Ho Hung Dat. people migrated from north to the abandoned places.248] COMMUNE AND VILLAGE FORMATION PROCESS IN NGHE AN Ninh Viet Giao. later on these plantations became villages. Python is as big as wood log. [08.Panel 8: Traditional Vietnamese countryside and agriculture particular and the Vietnamese monarchical dynasties in general tried to pay great intention to the above-mentioned tasks to serve various fields of agriculture. there was the one as big as pillar. wealth and poverty split happened deeply. There were abundant activities in the agricultural fields of the Tran dynasty. Under the impacts of the eco-social situation and political regime. The policy of plantation formation under Le Thanh Tong dynasty. Especially areca and betel were commonly cultivated inside the Imperial city and in communes and villages all over. There were 4 times a year in rice-culturing field. Assoc. Based on my researches. the picture of commune and village formation is more diversified. the people's life resulted in contrary phenomena. Among lobsters. trade and transport. etc. Prof The Vietnam Folk Arts Association The commune and village formation. Thus there appeared many rich men who started to possess lands and regretless donated to temples.

Chan Lap to reclaim for village formation such as Ve Chinh. [08. The following article will clarify this. VNU Hanoi Duong Lam ancient village is located on the hill to the west of Son Tay town in Hanoi. five-panel dress. we would like to give initial recommendations to 242  . Moc Hoan. there occurred the integration of regional cultural in Nghe An. It covers 9 villages. fourpanel dress. Doai Giap and Cam Lam still remains a variety of valuable religious architectures and traditional customs of the northern delta villages. in Hung Nguyen. Before the integration of cultural development between the East and the West. Conservation direction: Based on several researches. Cam Thinh. Dong Soai.249] TRADITIONAL COSTUMES IN THE VILLAGE OF DUONG LAM: VALUE AND CONSERVATION Phan Hai Linh. etc. The report focuses on two main aspects as follow: Traditional costume value in Duong Lam ancient village: This part presents the characteristics. Dr The College of Social Sciences and Humanities. size and status of the traditional costume (brassier.Panel 8: Traditional Vietnamese countryside and agriculture Using war prisoners of Champa.painted teeth) being conserved in Duong Lam. dissemination. The modification of villages and communes through administrative reform by the Government. Minh dynasties which are normally called Tong. In 2005. exhibitions held in Duong Lam since 2004. workshops. etc) and other accessories (ranging from handkerchief. The different ways of village formation from different groups of population have different cultural characteristics.. shirt jacket. Minh villages. The villages were formed inland from the floating villages Van and Noi. among others. dress. Lawsuits and land conflicts “Exiled village” the village of those who were exiled into Nghe area such as exiled village in Ky Nam (Ky Anh) Villages of Chinese people in Tong. in which five sub-villages namely Mong Phu. to dark. etc. Duong Lam became the first ancient village in Vietnam to be conserved as national heritage.

or Doi Moi. the latter stood as symbols of power and were regarded as religious and political centers. technical improvements. or changes of influence in markets and communication routes. During the feudal era. Indeed. 243   . After decades of being snubbed.250] HANDICRAFTS IN THE RED RIVER DELTA: HISTORY REPEATING ITSELF Fanchette Sylvie. Until the country’s independence. Festivals and rituals in honor of the patron saints of crafts or protective genies are being rehabilitated: this is a reminder of the vitality of villages’ intangible heritage. [08. Dr. craft villages had a marginal status compared to other forms of production. Although village dwellers of the Red River Delta give precedence to rice growing. Each era has been more or less favourable or detrimental to each specific craft. the origins of many of the crafts of South Vietnam can be traced back to the Red River Delta. and as business hubs for trade with the outside world. which for centuries had acted as a cohesive force between city and countryside. they began very early on to integrate industry and handicrafts in the rural economy.Panel 8: Traditional Vietnamese countryside and agriculture conserve and enhance the values of traditional costumes – the material pattern of culture which is rapidly vanishing in the rural area of Vietnam. regardless of the vicissitudes of the country’s economic history or tensions with the colonisers or dominant powers. such activities were practiced in specialized villages rather than in cities. a rich architectural and cultural heritage is being restored. and eventually their death and resurrection. Craftspeople have always been there. village craftsmanship has been revived by market liberalization. Since the Renewal. a sense of endless cycle seems to emerge: its narratives tell of the birth of the crafts. their dissemination and specialization. the nature of each ruling prince’s reign. The originators of a craft are frequently individuals whether mythical or historical figures. Crafts are mobile: artisans tend to migrate a lot and develop their techniques wherever they find a conducive market. As we contemplate the history of handicrafts in the Red River Delta over the course of several centuries. IRD French Institute for Development Vietnam is distinguished by the fact that its cities do not have a monopoly on industry. depending on such factors as the dynamism of the capital. the resurgence of individual businesses and the implementation of government policies promoting the development of non-agricultural rural activities.

Fashion changes and industrial development have sounded the death knell for many craft activities. this mainly includes a comparison between the census conducted by Pierre Gouron in the 1930s and various censuses carried out in the 2000s.The subregional and international context has had a significant impact on these crafts: since Doi Moi. competition with China is disastrous for such sectors as silk production. whose businesses are hard to vie with. Vietnam is managing to steer its path and continues to produce artisans.Crafts associated with religious worship are being revived. But for how long? The rate at which villagers are renewing and replacing craft activities or mechanizing them is indicative of these people’s potential for adapting to new situations. However.Panel 8: Traditional Vietnamese countryside and agriculture . . metal and bamboo containers.Political and customs measures may have killed off certain crafts while encouraging a process of reconversion for others. etc. competition from certain foreign goods has toughened. under the shadow of China. This stands in sharp contrast with the rest of East and South-East Asia. These practices were abolished during the collectivist era. this also points out the frailty of certain crafts which can be particularly vulnerable to economic and social conditions or suffer from geographic isolation. 244  . A number of trends emerge from a longitudinal study based on mapping of craft villages in Hà Tây and Bắc-Ninh Province. The type of cluster organisation which characterises Vietnamese handicrafts is a precapitalist system which has endured the advent of market economy. but also wiped off the handicraft map those villages in Hà Tây which had failed to reconvert to a different activity. The 1994 ban on firecracker production boosted the industrialisation of papermakers in Duong O. where large international corporations thrive on laissez-faire economics and cheap labor. . .

in the hukou system of Cham people under Minh Mang 245   . As a result. Ngu 1. Khe 1. The process of creating Han surnames of Cham people had been studied (according to Duong Tan Phat. However. Thanh 2. Dung1. Lu 1. However. Sao 2. (2) Raglai and Churu people are among Cham people living on wet rice. Ta 2. In this article. Phan Đien 22 40 58 According to the Land Directory in 1836. Uc 2. we present the correlation of Han surname and the situation of land profit through the Land directory in Nguyen Dynasty (Nguyen Dynasty. Uc 3. Ba 3. Sa 2.000 people in 2006). the encyclopedia “Dai Nam thuc luc Chinh bien – De Nhi ky” (the national historic record of Nguyen Dynasty. there are some concerns: (1) Some Cham people had Han surnames prior Minh Mang Dynasty. Dien 2. Dr. La 1. Ta 2. 1868) did not clearly mention the principle and function of creating a Han surname of Cham people. the correlation is shown in the table below: Cham Village Commune 1836 Commune 2008 Number of Han surnames Number of landowners Number of rice fields Số chủ trong họ Hán (18 Han surname) Da 2. It is said that lots of 2-3 present landowners have the same name. Mac 3. 1950). Luong 1. Institute of Asia-Africa Cultural and Linguistic Research. Ke 3. Lu 1. Han surnames are usually patriarchal surnames. Van 2. Ba 2. 1836). Diep 1.251] ONE LANDOWNER – ONE HAN SURNAME: THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A NEW HUKOU SYSTEM TO CONTROL LAND IN CHAM VILLAGES UNDER THE MINH MANG DYNASTY SHINE Toshihiko. Luong 3. However. 1992). there are only some Han surnames of Raglai people.Kim 3. Dao 1. Hac 2. Tho 2. and none of Churu people. each landowner had one or two rice fields in average and each Han surname had one or two landowners. the number of Han surnames in Cham people are numerous (over 30 families. Da 5. according to Le Kim Hoa. Nguyen 1 (22 Han surname) Dao 2. in which son and daughter are named under the father’s. Thanh 1. however. or are suspected to be siblings. Tokyo Foreign Language University As compared with the total population (approximately 130. the principle of creating a Han surname may be: A landowner – A Han surname. According to the directory. Lam 2. Dien 2. Ke 4. Tho 2. Diep 1. Kim 2. in Cham villages. Lam 2.Panel 8: Traditional Vietnamese countryside and agriculture [08. Huynh 1 Palei Hamu Dao Hiep Phan Hiep 18 36 46 Palei Ja Ninh Ha Hai Ninh. Van 2.

water supply. most of fields and land are belong to women. As the beneficiary of irrigation projects. second fertilizer. rewarding. Building Thua Thien Hue irrigation network responded and served not only agriculture but also many other fields: transport. the control of floods and irrigation plays an important role and indispensable element in the agricultural production.1945) Tran Van Quyen Phu Xuan University To a nation with a long tradition of wet rice agriculture of wet rice and a majority of inhabitants living on agriculture. As matriarchy is popular in Cham. The process of controlling floods and providing foods and irrigation through engineering projects also created the relationship between villages with each other and with the state.Panel 8: Traditional Vietnamese countryside and agriculture Dynasty. 246  . so irrigation is their first priority. Through centuries. The majority of inhabitants of Thua Thien Hue province as well as many other localities lives on agriculture. fourth seed”. the Han surnames of Cham people is two folded. Nahria… Although Cham people are matriarchal. Chamaleq. creating village’s prosperity. our forefather molded into a saying “first water. [08. farmers aware of their roles and responsibilities in agricultural engineering projects even though they belonged to the state or village. Such matriarchal people as Jarai. Ksor.252] CONTROL OF FLOODS AND IRRIGATION AT THE VILLAGES IN THUA THIEN HUE PROVINCE DURING THE NGUYEN PERIOD (1802 . which means that daughters are named under the mother’s and sons are named under the father’s. responsibility and duty towards activities involving fields. This is the main reason for the fact that Cham people use Han surnames but in the two-folded form. The danger of flooding made. Thua Thien Hue province irrigation system has been carefully constructed and developed in villages where its contribution is very prominent. they do not have “matriarchal surnames”. From the old day. being the formal capital of the country. people accumulated more and more experience on controlling floods to “lead water to their fields” to guarantee agricultural productivity. the village naturally played a key role in their construction. Enuol. rivers and canals. Most village chapters as well as unwritten poems had a host of terms on banning. Ede. This saying has been right from now on. dikes and bridges and locks. third hard work. for example. Raglai and Churu have “matriarchal surnames”. In their development process. punishing. Moreover. Thua Thien Hue villages were not only influenced by natural forces but they also influenced nature themselves.

especially. however. + Main results: Analyzing policies of investment: level and framework of investment in agriculture of French capital through two times of exploiting colony in the area of North Annam. + Conclusion: The dissertation shows the changes in agriculture economics during the time of French domination in the northern Annam. there is a differentiation between classes. production relationship. Showing changes in agriculture economics in the northern Annam in the following aspects: cultivated land owing.Panel 8: Traditional Vietnamese countryside and agriculture both in terms of material life and spiritual life. framework. The construction of irrigation works also made a strong impact on the ecological environment and on village view. providing the foundation for a class of farmers to rise up in insurrection. occupations and farmers’ life in the North Annam in the time of French domination. social contradictions become more and more critical. means of production. Describing factors that play the role of speeding up the changes in agriculture economics in this area. basing on comparing the levels of change in agricultural economics in this area through two times of exploiting the colony. specifically. 247   . The deep changes in agriculture economics has affected rural society. Dr Vinh University + Aims of dissertation: This dissertation aims to study changes in agricultural economics and rural society in northern Annam from 1884 to 1945 under the influence of French colonialism’s policies of exploiting colonial agriculture. Being aware of villager’s role as well as their great influence on flood control was meaningful not only in the past but also at the present time and in the future especially with Thua Thien Hue province’s annual floods. These changes can be seen in the following aspects: relationship between land and methods of cultivating has changed deeply with the beginning and extending of plantation economics. structure of social class. technique… Showing the changes of people.253] CHANGES OF AGRICULTURE AND AGRICULTURAN SOCIETY IN NORTH ANNAM IN THE TIME OF FRENCH DOMINATION Tran Vu Tai. [08. irrigation or irrigating. at a slow level and on a small scale. agriculture production has improved according to the trend toward the manufacture of goods.

[08. it is affirmed that until the 15th century. “giap” is present in every corner of the village’s life throughout the history. However. For each individual. This report is based on those documents to present a study about the establishment. Lessmentioned are those named under their main activities and functions.254] UNDERSTANDING ‘GIAP’ IN DONG NGAC VILLAGE Vo Thi Phuong Thuy Institute of History.255] RURAL ADMINISTRATION IN SOUTH VIETNAM UNDER FRENCH COLONIAL POLICIES Vo Xuan Dan. organization and operation of that organization in Dong Ngac village. Doai Nhat (first Doai). The village still treasures valuable Nom-scripted documents. such as Dong Nhat (first Dong). The role of the head and other members of the organization is also found through these materials. good and bad.Dr. Ngac Nhat.Panel 8: Traditional Vietnamese countryside and agriculture [08. such as “giap Nhac” (music). Ho Chi Minh City University of Foreign Languages and Information Technology Rural issues have been the key ones within the history of Vietnam’s social development. The organization plays an important role in individual life and the community as well. To the village. Dong Nhi (second Dong). “giap” is important mostly in festivals and rituals. Doai Nhi (second Doai). There is no information as to the inception of “giap” in Dong Ngac. Despite being an implied organization. some of rural issues of the Southern Region of 248  . the organization had played an important role in the village. Assoc. including those about “giap” – a form of civil society inside the village. The organization is assigned the task of preparing. Particularly. The careful study of rural issues in historical stages is to be the basis for resolution of current rural issues. VASS Dong Ngac is a typical Vietnamese village in the North plain. organizing and performing festivals and rituals. and in the individual’s relations with the community such as marriage and funeral. Often-mentioned are those units named under the alley combined with a number and geographical direction. in their ups and downs. Hoa Nhi. birth and death. the organization is present throughout their life.Prof. “giap Do te” (animal slaughter). Ngac Nhi. Hoa Nhat.

Hanoi National University of Education In Dak Nong. then the local ethnic minorities used the traditional technique. axes. riversides or streams.256] TRADITIONAL AGRICULTURAL ECONOMY IN DAK NONG Vu Thi Hoa. This was the agricultural using hoes. The archaeologists found not only tools for grinding stone but also 6 stone hoes). The Primitive farming-beginning agriculture turned up 6. Only in Dak Nong. there were 150 to 250 thousand local people living on shifting cultivation.Panel 8: Traditional Vietnamese countryside and agriculture Vietnam occurring in the stage which Vietnam was dominated by French Colonialists from the late 19th Century to the early 20th Century were typical such as: I/ Social Management. rotational cultivation. fallow. the ancient denizen had the same starting point. In comparison with the North and Eastern South. However. II/ Production Organization. Farming expanded quickly in the later period of Neolithic era-early Bronze Age not only in Dak Nong but also in the whole western highland. polyculture… with the tools such as: hoes. III/ Agricultural issues. V/ Objective Outstanding for the current farmers in the Southern Region of Vietnam during the Socialist Revolution Career… [08. agriculture turned up very early. knives. agricultural economy in Dak Nong is still kaingin-economy with old technique:“burn off land for cultivation”. puncturing sticks… Even those ethnic minorities who emigrated to Dak Nong took higher technique with them.000 years ago if we started at the Neolithic era with the technique in grinding stone in the relics Tam hamlet. In 1997. 29 stone hoes were found. The stone hoes found in the western highlands are numerous in quantity and plentiful of form. Up to the modern. 249   . IV/ Farmers under the impacts of the colonial policies in the Southern Region of Vietnam from the late 19th Century to the early 20th Century. In the later period of Neolithic era-early Bronze Age the ancient denizen was settled and they were farming near the lakes. Dr. (According to the archaeologists the relics Tam hamlet was the stone-manipulating workshop. according to the time the economic in Dak Nong and western highland had developed slowly.

Ke Gia. 2.HA NOI) Vu Trung Vietnam Institute of Culture and Arts Studies The trade village is an indispensable product of small farmer society. Trade village is the dynamic and creative expression of the farmers during the period of adapting to geographical. The changes in the mode of producing goods with products toward to the market.THAI BINH AND BAT TRANG POTTERY TRADE VILLAGE . The role of trade villages in traditional society . This process has affected the trade villages . Ke Sat (it absolutely belongs to Hanoi now since August 2008). If think of Thang Long-Hanoi as the centre of the Red River Delta.The vocabulary of village culture and trade village culture. It is far from the Hanoi centre about 10km to the west.HA TAY. DONG XAM SILVER CARVING TRADE VILLAGE . Quoc Oai district and next to very ancient place-names of Doai local such as: Ke Thia.The role of traditional handicraft in traditional villages. Dong Xam belongs to Nam local (Son Nam 250  .257] THE CULTURE OF TRADITIONAL TRADE VILLAGES (AS SEEN IN SON DONG WOOD TRADE VILLAGE . . Cultural specific characteristics of trade villages . have undergone many changes. I would like to mention a few matters: 1. and Bat Trang. communes. Viet villages in general or trade villages in particular. economical and social conditions.Cultural specific characteristics through the examination of 03 cases of trade villages.Panel 8: Traditional Vietnamese countryside and agriculture [08. Dong Xam. + Son Dong Village (Ha Tay) makes wood products such as statues for worship. . in the old days it belonged to Dan Phuong district. in this essay. the standard of people's living is being improved… so it brings about changes in the culture of traditional trade villages. Vietnam is now in the process of industrialization and modernization. Based on the field works of trade and the culture of trade village in 03 villages such as Son Dong.Several major characteristics of process on Viet village formation in general and trade villages in particular. + Dong Xam Village (Thai Binh) was specialized in carving silver.In terms of its nature is the urbanizing process of the countryside.

Dong Xam district (“tổng”). Kien Xuong district. + Bat Trang Village (Hanoi) is famous in pearl enamel pottery located in the centre of Red River Delta.Change in culture. A few matters regarding the culture of trade village in modern life . 251   .Preservation and sustainable development. Kien Xuong district. . Thai Binh province. 3.Panel 8: Traditional Vietnamese countryside and agriculture Ha region). currently it belongs to Hong Thai commune.


PANEL 9 Contemporary Vietnamese countryside and agriculture .


Consists of: rice-paddy. and cultivation. vegetables. fruit. the Bac Lieu agriculture has been reasonably changed. Switzerland As for policy orientation in general. first for getting Vietnam out of the mid1970s – mid-1980s acute foodstuffs shortage.Panel 9: Contemporary Vietnamese countryside and agriculture [09. The community of policy-makers and analysts has since then been very enthusiastic about household economy (kinh te ho gia dinh). And. [09.258] SOME ISSUES REGARDING BAC LIEU AGRICULTURE IN THE PERIOD OF RENOVATION Dao Thi Bich Hong Ho Chi Minh City University of Technique Bac Lieu is a coastal province. exploitation and processing. based on field research in a rural district in the Red River Delta (in Hung Yen province). animal husbandry. an issue that I will address in this paper. the shift from collective to household-based agricultural production has been well publicized. but it has some limitations and faces many difficulties. I document the process of uneven development: differentiation among households is studied in terms of livelihood system transformation and capitalization over a period of about fifteen 255   . we give comments on some advantages and disadvantages as well as some given issues on the rural agriculture and farmers in Bac Lieu in the background of industrialization and modernization and international and regional economic integration. and coast forest. and acute challenges.259] VIETNAMESE PEASANT ECONOMY: AN UNEVEN DEVELOPMENT Gironde Christophe Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies. a model that performed well in terms of agricultural production and economic diversification in rural areas. I review various explanations of widening disparities among households. located on the Ca Mau Penisula. Geneva. This report focuses on presenting some of changes about the agricultural and economic structures in Bac Lieu province and their influences on the socio. which leads to some problems that have been solved. as Vietnam encountered impressive poverty reduction. little attention was paid to disparity among households. In the second part.economic conditions in the province. and is the large natural area of land with the potentials of developing the perfect agriculture. In the basic of analysing the natural and social conditions it influences on the agricultural and economic development. In the innovation period. From the above. In the first part.

one of the emerging issues in the progress of economic growth in Mekong delta is that of labor transition and improvement of agricultural labor productivity. labor-saving techniques are applied. non-agriculture activities are speeded up. Challenging the common approach.e. through tax and land access regime among others. the agricultural systems tends to diversify to generate more income for households. I argue that the development of the better off and of the worst-off is interlinked. As a consequence. the lack of seasonal labor force for agricultural activities has occurred increasing farming labor wages. In recent years. It shows that an increasing proportion of households could maintain thanks only to offfarm and off-village occupations. Last. I also shift the focus from central government institutional reforms to local policy-making. production costs and unit price of some agri-products tend to move up. facilitate the labor market and mechanization in rural area. The third part analyses the mechanisms of differentiation. give the relevant measures to generate the job opportunities and to absorb rural labor. and argue that difference in the timing and conditions of reforms implementation (i. a huge amount of low-income farming labor has shifted from the rural areas to urban. MA. it needs to have several macro policies such as: educate and train the human source in rural area. contribute to reinforce the widening gap among households. 256  . a picture that greatly differs from the well-publicized model and the agricultural miracle. Institute of Agricultural Sciences for Southern Vietnam Since economic renovation. revealing that the process of uneven development started in the early period of reforms. households getting out of the collective and developing economic occupations for their own account) was crucial. I argue that local policy and institutions. use of labor has changed from labor-exchange relationship to laborhired one and form the specific groups of farmers to hire out in rural areas. [09. In the context of the speed-up of labor transition in rural area. I conclude that agricultural development and poverty reduction policy-making need to take into account the process of growing inequality that accompanied strong economic growth. which separates households and highlights their respective endowed capital and capacity. encourage the cooperation in terms of labor use in farming activities.260] LABOR TRANSITION OF FARMING HOUSEHOLDS IN THE MEKONG DELTA SINCE THE 1990s Ho Cao Viet.Panel 9: Contemporary Vietnamese countryside and agriculture years.

especially the conversion of agricultural fertility land for new industrial zone. entertainment centers. As estimated. together with challenges of the international integration process when Vietnam became the 150th member of the World Trade Organization (WTO). more than 500. This leads to the trends of “feminized agriculture. such as: changes in jobs. etc. Hai Duong province. Within the past seven years from 2001 to 2007. The process of agricultural land revocation made millions of farmers lacking of cultivated land. Within the phase of 200-2006. Besides positive factors.Dr. therefore. accounting for over 5% of current cultivated land. most of whom are male. Those are the challenges to farmers in general and Ai Quoc commune (Nam Sach district.5 million farmers had been affected due to land revocation. They. increasing the number of migrant people seeking jobs. the area of rice-field decreased by 125. In 2007. the article considers the relationship and impact of agricultural land conversion with changes in lives of rural families in Ai Quoc commune. according to statistic provided by the Ministry of Natural resources and Environment. College of Social Sciences and Humanities. aging rural” and “women household heads”.261] INDUSTRIALIZATION AND CHANGES IN THE LIVE OF VIETNAMESE RURAL FAMILIES (A CASE STUDY IN AI QUOC COMMUNE. and social security and welfare. VNU Hanoi The process of industrialization has created drastic changes in the lives of Vietnamese farmers at present. the lives of approximately 2. Assoc. This. in living standards.Prof. Particularly. Notably.000 hectares across the country. Hai Duong province) in particular.Panel 9: Contemporary Vietnamese countryside and agriculture [09. there exist some negative impacts made by the process of industrialization. The article focuses on analyzing changes in rural families in the current context. each hectare of cultivated land revoked might affect the work of more than 10 agricultural workers/farmers. the amount of agricultural land revoked and changed into urbanization and industrialization always increase from year to year. HAI DUONG PROVINCE) Hoang Ba Thinh.000 hectares of cultivated land had been revoked and changed into non-agricultural land. has dramatically affected lives of rural families. had to find their own way to earn money. Nam Sach district. 257   . NAM SACH DISTRICT.

scattered production which mainly depends on nature. food. It needs not only state support policies. advantages but also difficulties and challenges. but also close leadership of Provincial Party Committee.. weather condition. Development of agriculture – farmers – countryside requires a sound orientation and proper steps. and hunger elimination and poverty reduction are concerned issues in the period of socio-economic development in Cao Bang because 86% of population of the province lives in countryside and agricultural-forestry production is the main sector giving incomes for local people. which are necessary conditions. etc.262] HUMAN RESOURCE TRAINING FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE COUNTRYSIDE. and low effectiveness. however it is necessary to have qualification which is the sufficient condition for production. water. levels. MA. we need to appreciate education and vocational training for farmers because application of science and technology is effective only when farmers have high educational level and professional skill. in production. especially in the time of innovation when national economy in general and agricultureforestry in particular has reached basic changes in both product quality and structure under market and international integration trends. of which the biggest one is competitiveness of farm products. Cao Bang Union of Science and Technology Associations Agriculture – countryside development. Human resource issue is one of important driving forces for the development of agriculture – farmers – countryside. In general. Competition of farm products is synonymous with competition of science – technique and professional skill of farmers. co-ordination between departments. People’s Council and People’s Committee. plant and animal breeding. AGRICULTURE AND FARMERS IN CAO BANG PROVINCE IN THE PERIOD OF INTERNATIONAL INTEGRATION Hoang Thi Nhuan. low productivity and poor product quality. from provincial to district and communal levels. huge investments of economic sectors.Panel 9: Contemporary Vietnamese countryside and agriculture [09. population stabilization. resources for agricultural development include potentialities of land. Agriculture of Cao Bang is characterized by low educational level and poor professional skill. Hence. particularly in the period of integration of the country. and attempt of farmers etc. 258  .. fertilizer. WTO participation gives not only chances.

rural areas). businessmen and peasants’ insufficient.Panel 9: Contemporary Vietnamese countryside and agriculture [09. the authority. weak vocational education in the rural areas. there exist alarming shortcomings such as narrowing of farmland. it is necessary for the mass media to be brought into full play with its own typical strengths. Also. as a WTO member. however. non-systematic understanding of Vietnam’s responsibilities. and concludes that: In the 21st century. peasants. mass media in propagandaexplaining. challenges and proposal of solutions to speed up COAP in Vietnam: The fact shows that Vietnam ineffectively utilizes COAP. propagandizing. a number of factories. Diplomatic Institute of Vietnam Having given the definition of communication on agricultural promotion (COAP). These shortcomings must be soon overcome with a combination of various solutions. standards related to agriculture when joining the international “playground” and it is compulsory for Vietnam to promote its agricultural trademarks…etc. high pressure of rural emigration to the cities. In other word. Vietnam’s agriculture still plays an important role in the national food security strategies with 259   . Dr. peasants in many areas leading a hard life. organizing movements related to boosting three aspects of agriculture to integrate into the world. agricultural development after joining the WTO. books and newspapers that have not been brought into full play to effectively promote three aspects of agriculture (agriculture. The second part of the article mentions difficulties. communication on agricultural promotion will place rapid and profound impact on peasants in particular and the entire society in general. challenges as a WTO member. commitments. the country should pay due attention to communication (including COAP)-which has been a sub-strategy within the strategies for the national agriculture development. Assoc. At present. AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT AFTER JOINING THE WTO Le Thanh Binh.263] ENHANCEMENT OF COMMUNICATION ON AGRICULTURAL PROMOTION TO PUSH UP VIETNAM’S RURAL. the author analyzes basic reasons for enhancement of COAP to push up Vietnam’s rural. etc. expanding gap between the city and the countryside. the country is unable to integrate without clear understanding of regulations. opportunities. rules. The author proposes solutions to enhance COPA. inappropriately-situated industrial zones causing environmental pollution.Prof. The author places emphasis on the following: In Vietnam’s situation. closely combining between COPA with other popular means of communication. unsustainable agricultural export for not meeting the world standard.

The results were that before the land reform. training and fostering farmers’ skills in production. Traitors.7% land of traitor and landlords who gave up land to peasant . reallocated 77. farmers are enabled to surpass. farmers will be more active.Panel 9: Contemporary Vietnamese countryside and agriculture long-term goals such as modernizing every aspect of agricultural production including export of agricultural products. timely and properly driving into the pathway of integration and development. close to technical science. gradually improving. Temporarily allocated 84. In order to reach the above-mentioned objectives. was successful in Vietnam from 1945 to 1953 with its special land policy. the Democratic Republic of Vietnam had confiscated 81. up to 1953 there were 58. Vietnamese peasants need state support to build up and perfect things such as: Trademarks of agricultural products. communal land given to peasants. integration into 150 WTO members’ markets… Breaking in communication on agricultural promotion. “green. transport. enhancing the spiritual and material life of the people in the countryside. agricultural products processed in accordance to international standards. it is necessary to focus on communication on agricultural promotion. clean” agriculture in sustainable production development strategy. These views are divided two periods.3% land from the Frenchmen to poor cultivator. process and markets for agricultural products in accordance to WTO standard. One of them from 1945 to 1953 and one of other 1953-1956.8% communal land to peasant. business cultures in agricultural environment. [09. the Vietnam Communist Party issued the piecemeal agrarian reform. When communication on agricultural promotion is well implemented. sales. familiarizing to modern modes of. preservation. VNU Hanoi This report concentrates on analyzing some of the views of the Vietnam Communist Party on the Land Reform Process as seen from the Resolution of the Party Central Committee (1945-1956) (mainly through Vietnam Communist Party’s documents that were published). and get used to new knowledge and practices employed by advanced agricultural sectors. business.264] THE VIETNAM COMMUNIST PARTY’S VIEWS ON THE LAND REFORM PROCESS AS EXPRESSED IN THE RESOLUTION OF THE PARTY CENTRAL COMMITTEE (1945-1956) Le Thi Quynh Nga. 260  . MA.3% total land of Frenchmen. and more comprehensively as well as broadly understand production. In the first period. Generally. College of Social Sciences and Humanities.

The high cost of implementing land reform including the many leftist errors that occurred while implementing the policy ultimately limited the traditional national unity and did not make full use of landlord support in both polity and economy to build a new administration. Strongly reflect tropical characters. Reactionary and big landlord fled to occupied areas. the process of carrying out the land policy from 1945 to 1953. there were many landlord and their children who had taken part in the resistance against foreign aggression to seize independence for nation. Its purpose was to smash both landlord political and economic power. agro tourism. 261   . the land policy had pushed up rapidly with carrying out mass mobilization. small and medium landlord) had submitted and supported the new administration. vacation and high-technological UA). provide (supply) to demand of city. small-scale (semi-) commercial livestock farm. After the August revolution 1945. UA is making an important contribution to urban life. the bureaucratic feudal party of the landlord was overthrown. 4. ecological. Furthermore. Dr. small-scale (semi-) commercial horticulture farm. for export. there was the social factor. urban forestry production. from 1953-1956. included paying an agrarian income tax that severely hurt landlord's economy. multifunction economic parks and economic corridors. Receiving rare traditional unit of ancestor. The class struggle line was implemented. Having 9 UA forms (Self-supply. Many of them (especially. establishing new UA areas. institutional. 3. community gardening. the author has identified some features of Vietnam urban agriculture (UA) that follows: 1. large-scale agro-enterprises and multifunctional farms). developed UA around industrial. 5.There are 10 types of agriculture production systems (micro-farming in and around the house/homestead.Panel 9: Contemporary Vietnamese countryside and agriculture However. small-scale aquatic farm. green. protective. The special characteristics of society and the revolution were ignored.Territorial difference for 5 following areas: difference in geo-ecological regions.265] IDENTIFYING SOME FEATURES OF URBAN AGRICULTURE IN VIETNAM Le Van Truong. intra and inter UA. 2. Hong Duc University Using different research methods: comparative. public parks. analysis and synthetic. Aside from political and economic factor. open to old UA areas. [09. tourism parks.

SON LA PROVINCE Yanagisawa Masayuki. infrastructure.266] AGRICULTURAL TRANSITION FROM A SUBSISTENCE TO A MARKETORIENTED ECONOMY IN THE NORTHERN MOUNTAIN REGION OF VIETNAM: A CASE STUDY IN MOC CHAU DISTRICT. training labor for urban agriculture. The authors interpreted several satellite images since the 80s until the 2000s and conducted fieldwork to get narrative information on land use changes in the villages of Moc Chau district. which means that both overall factors across region and local conditions affected the actual land use changes. Both factors should be combined for understanding of land use changes. compete about price to integrate into the WTO and bring to negative for urban life. varied from region to region. Center for Integrated Area Studies. [09. Collective farming system was transferred to individual farming system and forest area decreased rapidly in the 80s. however. UA needs to compete about resources with other areas. For analysis. Invest capital. and forest area increased and non-agricultures sectors were developed in the 2000s. to what extent and how overall factors and local conditions influenced land use changes at the local level is the key question for this study. As a result. Kyoto University In terms of rural changes in agriculture and forestry in Northern mountain region of Vietnam. cash crops were largely introduced and income sources of farmers were started diversification in the 90s. technologies. Son La province. Changes in land use at the local level. non-governments and urban resident about urban and urban agriculture. integrate urban agriculture’s factors into strategic planning and policy making for the development of urban areas. At the same time. Prof. establish urban agriculture development strategies and policies. which was characterised by rapid expansion of cash-crop cultivated-area.Panel 9: Contemporary Vietnamese countryside and agriculture However. author put forward some orients and solutions for urban agricultural development in Vietnam: must be improve knowledge of government. although local-specific and shortterm factors such as policy and technological development were the direct driving forces of the changes at the local level. overall trend was affected by the cross-region and long-term factors such as population growth and intrusion of market-oriented economy in spite of the indirect and invisible impacts on the changes. Therefore. 262  . driving forces of the land use changes were classified according to cross-region and local-specific factors and/or long-term and short-term ones. there seems to be the same trends as follows.

and Ha Tinh province began in the middle of the 14th century. In order to concretely explore this relationship. an effective. I use the rubber plantations as a case study in how economic incentives. HONG LINH TOWN. they were even omitted in the storm of 263   . or Đong Nam Bo. I will attempt to analyze the social and political significant of the measures introduced to improve health. [09. and profitable way to modernize and sanitize the Indochinese countryside but in a manner in which Europeans could presumably retain a high degree of control. for colonial administrators.1940 ASO Michitake Wisconsin-Madison University During the colonial era in Vietnam. those critical of French colonial rule often pointed to the working conditions on rubber plantations. the issues of agriculture and human health were closely linked. I briefly conclude by exploring the politicized nature of discussions about health on rubber plantations during the 1930s. HARD TO RETURN: AGRICULTURE AND HEALTH IN EASTERN NAM BO. 1920 . Thus. as an indication of the brutality of colonial rule. Furthermore. the iron forging occupation in this zone has largely contributed to the process of the survival of the local residents as well as to the foundation and defence of the nation. Turning to the last decades of the 20th century. Hong Linh commune. While the connection between agriculture and health existed throughout Indochina. in particular the need to keep workers healthy.268] THE BLACKSMITH WORK AT TRUNG LUONG VILLAGE. while the majority of the traditional handicraft trade villages in Vietnam fell into oblivion. efficient. I will focus on the region of eastern Cochinchina. helped to drive reforms in the colonial health care system. In the process of existence and development.267] EASY TO GO.Panel 9: Contemporary Vietnamese countryside and agriculture [09. Yet. Plantations represented. and therefore production. HA TINH PROVINCE IN THE PROCESS OF INNOVATION IN ACCORDANCE WITH MARKET MECHANISM Ngo Duc Lap Hue University of Science Iron forging occupation in Trung Luong village. and encouraged changes in thinking about health more generally. by examining plantations in their rural setting. with their often appalling death rates.

and urbanization. tourism. However. Such transition of land use purpose has brought about not only positive reform but also urgent social issues to social life of the rural people.Panel 9: Contemporary Vietnamese countryside and agriculture the market economy. Such solutions can be mentioned as: appropriate and synchronous settlement of the correlation between the benefit of local people and investors. this article shall propose some solutions to risks in the hope of developing more and more modern Vietnam rural areas and contributing to the achievement of the goals for “A prosperous people. VNU Hanoi Today. contributing the national industrialization and modernization in general and the rural industrialization and modernization in particular. it is time to optimistically assess the achievements as well as limitations that have remained so that solutions can be found to make the iron forging occupation develop solidly. 264  . polluted rural living conditions including both natural and social environment.269] SOCIAL CHANGES IN RURAL AREAS OF VIETNAM AS THE RESULT OF AGRICULTURAL LAND USE PURPOSE TRANSITION (A SURVEY CONDUCTED IN NINH BINH) Ngo Thi Phuong. occupational training for employees whose land is recovered in reference to specific objectives and conformity with local structure. the land use purpose of a considerable area of agricultural land has been modified and converted from agricultural production land into land reserved for services. theft. loosen traditional solidarity. drug addiction. To deal with such social issues. increased social diseases. deteriorated traditional value of village & commune culture. and the arising contradictions between local people and the investors in the procedures of land use purpose. which threatens human life. protection of natural. a strong nation and a civilized and fair society”. industrialization and modernization in Vietnam agriculture and rural areas result in the basic transition of agricultural structure and rural economy. gambling. [09. land planning and preservation of agricultural land. rural industry promotion. social and cultural environment in rural areas in parallel to the transition of agricultural land use purpose. During such procedures. social evils such as drug abuse. University of Social Sciences and Humanities . Dr. This article is aimed at further analysis of urgent issues which contain hidden risks to the sustainable development of the country and rural areas such as: unemployment or job shortage. etc. iron forging occupation in Trung Luong has not only existed but also affirmed its preeminence to become the key economy of the locality.

270] FOUR MILESTONES OF VIETNAM’S AGRICULTURAL.7% in comparison with 2006. Prof.Panel 9: Contemporary Vietnamese countryside and agriculture [09.Prof. Hoang Xuan Nghia. of which rice increased 94. The year 2008. The supporting and ensuring conditions for production and businesses of the households have been improved. coffee increased 83. Dr. it is reported an increase around 27% compare to 2007 year. increased 21. tea increased 22..6% and aquaculture increased 33.Economic Development Studies (HISEDS) Vietnam’s agriculture has made remarkable breakthroughs in the period of renovation.0% an increase. General Statistics Office After 2 years of membership in the WTO. and (d) appropriate and effective support for farmers in conformity with WTO regulations. Agricultural product ensures national food and foodstuff security in any case.7%.Dr.4% and the year 2008 it is estimated 4. management. Hanoi Institute of Socio . use and agglomerating of land. Assoc. Dr.economic situation of rural areas has changed positively. rubber increased 73.271] AGRICULTURE AND THE COUNTRYSIDE IN VIETNAM AFTER 2 YEARS WTO MEMBERSHIP Nguyen Sinh Cuc. the author assumes that it is necessary to focus on breakthroughs in policy to be made in the following four directions: (a) planning.2%. However. agricultural production in Vietnam is continuing to improve and grow comprehensively. Assoc. RURAL AND FARMER POLICIES IN THE PRESENT TIME Nguyen Chi My. The rural infrastructure has received investment and new construction.6%. Production of grain reached 40 million tons during the year 2007 and 2008 it is estimated over 41 million tons.1%. in the context of current processes of industrialization – modernization and international economic integration. (b) structural shift towards high-technology. agriculture is facing sharp contradictions and great challenges in the course of development. forestry and fishery export value of the year 2007 reached 10. (c) ensuring the output market and the competitiveness of agricultural products. high-value agricultural production.9 billion US dollars. [09. The economic and labor structural changes in rural areas are rapid and heading in a positive 265   . To build a competitive and sustainable agriculture. GDP in agriculture in 2007 year increased 3. The social. Agricultural.

2000). government policies on agriculture. agriculture and rural areas of Vietnam now also face many difficulties. [09. Attention is paid to the role of the patrilineage in facilitating the formation of ego-based networks that extend beyond the ‘traditional’ male-dominated patrilineage membership. bringing about positive effects including better education (Putnam. This paper deals with the impact of social capital – based on reciprocity and trust – inherent in kinship relations upon children’s education at a commune in northern Central Vietnam at a time when the state’s ‘socialization’ educational policy in the Doi Moi era has caused considerable financial hardship to individual households. An example of this is the exchange of textbooks among children of related families thanks to social capital based on reciprocity and trust. Industry for agro product processing and input-output service is inadequate. KINSHIP RELATIONS AND EDUCATIONAL ENCOURAGEMENT SCHEMES IN A COMMUNE OF NORTHERN CENTRAL VIETNAM IN THE DOI MOI ERA Nguyen Tuan Anh*. The people’s physical and spiritual life is being improved. policies on land. 266  . labor productivity is low. agro product selling. cost of production is high. capital investment. Production size is still too small. especially. Unskilled worker is still common.272] SOCIAL CAPITAL. product quality is low. VNU Hanoi *The Netherlands Social capital has an important role in the creation of human capital. The rate of poor households in rural area is decreasing steadily. Rural labor has also been redundant.Panel 9: Contemporary Vietnamese countryside and agriculture direction. particularly in support of school children from needy households.. The paper examines specifically the role played by the patrilineage – an institution that predominated social and cultural life prior to the August 1945 Revolution and has made a strong comeback in the wake of Doi Moi – in educational matters as manifested in various financial and non-financial study encouragement schemes to help members and related kin. science and technology under commitment with WTO membership. Beside positive changes. market competition on domestic and foreign market is low. Cao Xuan Tu** *College of Social Sciences and Humanities. rural and farmer are a lot but not comprehensive. unemployment is increasing while industry and service sector have not created enough new jobs. Agricultural land area is decreasing rapidly. Meanwhile.

The same goes for recipients of the fund: nowadays both children of patrilineage’s sons and daughters are eligible for rewards – financial as well as moral – for their school achievements. For example. In Vietnam. This sector. In this report. and donors are free to contribute regardless of their gender or status in the patrilineage membership.273] RURAL INDUSTRIALIZATION THROUGH DEVELOPING CLUSTERS OF CRAFT VILLAGES CASE STUDIES ON CLUSTERS IN BAC NINH AND HA TAY PROVINCE Nguyen Xuan Hoan Vietnam Academy of Agricultural Sciences (VAAS) With the population of over 85 million. 75% of which living in the rural area and still depending on the agricultural production. We find this production model is new. Vietnam. during the past years. the urban industry has gained some developments but is still unable to employ all extra labor from the countryside. While kinship relations have intensified in the education domain in the Doi Moi era. Nevertheless. Some dynamic villages have changed and modernized production activities and become craft village clusters like model of cluster in Italia in the 1970s. therefore. Whereas. [09. is developing spontaneously mainly based on people’s activeness and investment capacity. we mention some information relevant to the rural industrialization in Vietnam. the patrilineage’s educational encouragement section is staffed by both men and women. dynamic and successful in the industrialization process in rural area.Panel 9: Contemporary Vietnamese countryside and agriculture It is worth mentioning that gender-based considerations are no longer relevant in patrilineage-related education encouragement activities as in the pre-1945 era. therefore. the rural industrialization still focuses on the development of multisector industrial park in semi-urban zones and along national roads. wants to speed up the process of industrialization and modernization in the rural area to increase incomes for farmers. All this reflects the blurring boundary of modern-day patrilineages together with the improvement of women’s position in the domain of education. leading to the situation of labor redundancy and the increasing immigration to cities for jobs. expand labor market and modernize the structure of agricultural economy. this does not represent a simple return to the patrilineage of the old days when only males were eligible to study and receive financial support from it. the industrialization in craft villages of the countryside are not paid proper priorities. our research results pertain to craft village clusters in the Red River Delta and 267   .

000 ton potato/year. new type of cooperatives. 268  .EXPERIENCES OF POTATO GROWING IN QUE VO DISTRICT BAC NINH PROVINCE Shitara Sumiko. The objective of this paper is to examine the role of “rural entrepreneurs” in the process of agricultural cluster formation. The field of agricultural development. MA. Relationship with local government is also an important factor for “rural entrepreneurs” to have a network with external area. For example. we can also see various models of farmers’ economic organization in rural areas. [09. hypotheses of “rural entrepreneurs” should be discussed in further studies. etc. We call the people who played an important role in the spread of growing potato as “rural entrepreneurs” and show the rural development model by analyzing their activities and the process of their network formation. However.Panel 9: Contemporary Vietnamese countryside and agriculture decisive factors to the success of these clusters. The Study result shows that potato growing began among a local farmers’ group and neighbors around them began potato business and became “rural entrepreneurs”. medium and small enterprises and family farms.274] THE ROLE OF “RURAL ENTREPRENEURS” IN RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE RED RIVER DELTA . They organized “Potato association” through sharing market information and cooperating on selling to each other. In this paper I describe and analyze their two main activities 1) Potato seeds business(selling potato seeds to farmers and providing farmers with seeds cold storage service) and 2) Collecting and selling potato business at each stage of the process. Experience of Que Vo can be understood as a typical formation example of agricultural cluster in rural Vietnam. Hitotsubashi University Viet Nam now attempts to achieve an economic strategy under many economic components. Growing potato became popular in Que Vo district Bac Ninh province from 1990s and 2000s and Que Vo becomes a famous potato growing area with quantity 35. The source is based on the research I conducted in Quế Võ district Bac Ninh province in 2005-2006. The results presented here can be valuable references for policy making to accelerate the process of rural industrialization especially in terms of area planning and supporting craft villages in Vietnam to solve the employment issues and transformation of economic structure in the countryside.

269   . The principal component analysis show three main factor explaining the structural change: Agricultural diversification.. Vinh Phuc. Hung Yen and Binh Phuoc. Prof. the structural change of Vietnam’s economy was progressed slowly.275] THE SCIENTIFIC BASE OF ECONOMIC STRUCTURAL CHANGES: PRESENT SITUATION AND DETERMINANT FACTORS IN VIETNAM Dao The Anh. Dr. The diversification of agriculture is increasing in this period for the domestic market oriented regions.Panel 9: Contemporary Vietnamese countryside and agriculture [09.. The specialization is increasing in export oriented regions. Le Quoc Doanh. A set of policy proposal for sustainable structural change was done by this research work. The provinces having rapid structural change in the period are Bac Ninh. but the situation is very diverse in different regions. The typology of structural change shows 5 main types of structural change by province. Dr. growth of agriculture and urbanization. Vietnam Academy of agricultural Sciences In the period of 1996-2002. Dao The Tuan.




We suggest four designing orientations.276] DEVELOPING A NEW MODEL FOR URBAN ADMINISTRATION Bui The Vinh. renovated thought skills together with certain regulations (05 regulations) are required. Ho Chi Minh National Political . It is hard complicated work to design a new model of management of urban authority. or a single organization but also the whole societies are interested in that. Two fundamental conditions to develop the new model of management of urban authority are renovated administration thinking and urban perceived thought. with particular characteristics against rural authority. The biggest issue in developing the new model of management of urban authority is new institution establishment.277] ESTABLISHING URBAN CULTURE AND URBAN MANAGEMENT CULTURE IN VIETNAM’S URBAN AREAS TODAY Bui Van Tuan Institute of Vietnamese Studies and Development Sciences. flexible and effective.Administrative Academy For long. Here. being the base for detailed and executed designs.Panel 10: Urban area and Urbanization [10. VNU Hanoi Urban culture and urban management culture is an issue of concern discussed by many researchers and managers. [10. Prof. a profound and basic break through to change Vietnam contemporary management mechanism. a part constituting legal norm documentation. so that the urban authority apparatus will be more compact. but introduces a new book. there could not develop a new model of management. which has been ratified by the supreme authorized agency and to be simultaneously implemented as a new project. Not only an individual. Vietnam wished to build up a new model of management of urban authority. without it. Author does not advocate some pilot applications. Dr. The root of a break through is renovative thought. Urban areas have a role of political. economic and 273   .

Constructing the urban culture is to set up the social spiritual basics and motive power of urban development in the orientation of industrialization and modernization. It is absolutely necessary to highly appreciate the construction of urban culture and the role of urban management culture. The final effect on urban culture and urban management culture is the quality of model of culture organization. for people. political. new requests for urban culture and urban management culture are very urgent and need studying in different areas in order to enhance the quality of urban culture and urban management culture. and working people who are the focus of development progress and really the purpose and motive power of urging the urban development. 274  . In other words. So Urban culture and urban management culture is specially concentrated. In conclusion. The state organization and management of culture is decisively significant to the national and urban development. strong country. So. That is the effect on selective style of human culture for human.Panel 10: Urban area and Urbanization cultural centers of a country. equal. Sustainable quality of urban cultural management and management culture aims to serve people. In order to implement the urban cultural construction. for nation and mankind advance. all activities of economic. improving the living standards of urban inhabitants. determining clearly the comprehension of urban culture and urban management culture takes an important role in both theory and reality. policy and style of leading and managing urban culture. in order to reach the purpose of “rich people. Therefore. management and management culture. we should pay attention to renewing the lead and management of urban authorities in ways of looking at the culture and guideline. state and intelligentsia take an important role. along with the process of global economic development and integration. cultural and social management are for culture. democratic and civilized society” in which Vietnam’s Communist party. we should set up a feature of culture in urban management .

the natural charming scenery with the tops of mountain reflected in the Da river. it is the denude-erode hills.278] DIRECTIVE PLAN FOR THE SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT OF HANOI CITY: A GEOMORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS Dang Van Bao. This is a good chance for the development of the city.for Hanoi capital in the area. suiting to the increase in thickness of Quaternary friable sediment formations. course VII. In general.sea terrains that have been interrupted forming the gentle mound . Dr. is advantage landform for developing space of urban and industrial areas. In the far . Nguyen Hieu.Prof. With a typical eco system of tropical forest and diverse cultural traditions of people living around Bavi mountain. This plan is composed by lateritic rock and weathered Pleistocene sediment. Bavi Mountain is a valuable gift from the nature for Red Delta River. but also a big trial. The unique of geology and geomorphology has created the differentiation of climate following the altitude.economic conditions. It requires a suitable plan and development directions based on the mining and rational use of the natural resources associating to environmental protection and sustainable development. of Vietnam has approved the resolution of extending the border line of Hanoi capital. it is necessary to analyse completely: the natural and social .. the socio .sea and see . VNU Hanoi The National Assembly.lagoon sediment with height of 4 . Forward to the South and Southeast. this article only analyzes the geomorphologic characteristics. the diversity of landscape. College of Sciences. In order to plan the urban space development. it is the river and river .hill plain landform.east to the northwest. it is very advantageous to develop the non . origin of landform but also the landforms in the relation to tectonic regiment and its composed materials. or replaced by alluvial warps 275   . the comparative advantage to adjacent areas and the world.Dr.Panel 10: Urban area and Urbanization [10. we analyze not only the morph .topology. it is the impressive Bavi Mountain which three tops over 1100m high which the people can contemplate from Hanoi during the nice days. In the North and Northwest. In the East and Southeast.smoke industry . However.. Assoc. With the real mean of this field. that is terrains composed by river . the terrain of Hanoi city is slant form from the North to the South and from the West to the East.6m and formed during the Flandrian marine transgression that has been changed by sedimentation.economic developing directions of party and state .the ecological tourism .

level change that formed a unique landscape for the Red river plain in general and for Hanoi capital area in particular. The regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe. in order to raise the living standard of the present generations but not to affect the development requirements of the future generations. Environmental and Natural Resources Fund . [10.. Tran Thi Tuyet Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development Research. 276  . It is related to the location of Co Loa and Thang Long citadels. private. It is where the people have settled for a long time with the trade of water . The activity of Red river in recent 3000 years has controlled by structure . that can conclude a sustainable urban in development process with full opinion is: when it is gained unity in a sustainable framework to consist of 3 angles: economy. Through experiences of some organizations when they have done research on urban sustainable development. all levels: locality.economic development process in the countries in the world. to aim progression of a civilization and modern society. society and environment.rice growing. public.Panel 10: Urban area and Urbanization of Red river. VASS Urban system development is as a indispensable law of social .government organizations: The Development Projects .Achentina. it creates an impress point in the project of Hanoi capital space. Dr.India. At present. The urban system plays a role as a development “bone . Its only way to avoid these challenges is to create a sustainable urban development. but people also have to pay a no less price because of its disadvantages. and management of development and implementation action with agreement of all social classes: state. 2000). 21st International Conference on Urban (Berlin. It benefits much from urbanization process. each country.279] THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE VIETNAM URBAN SYSTEM: SOME ISSUES REGARDING THE THEORETICAL BASE AND PRACTICE Dao Hoang Tuan..frame” system of each territory..tectonic condition and evolved in the general rule of flow relating to the sea . That framework must display unity between plans. as [2]: United Nation Human Settlement Center. city and country. projects. Non .

natural factors in urban territory.economic.280] BASIC FEATURES OF URBAN MIGRATION ACCORDING TO ANALYSIS OF THE CENSUS OF 1999.. This research based on the analysis of micro data of census and population changes survey. to realize that: Vietnam urbanization process is taking place with direction of “Affected urbanization” process. especially during industrialization and the transition of economic structure towards increased proportion of industry and service. urban migration has new movements and trends. the other urbans in urban system because short of work of forecast in urban sustainable development strategy (The vision on development). when people don’t have timely control with their actions in development process to break through more and less to “capacity” of urban territory. MIGRATION SURVEY OF 2004 AND THE SURVEY ON POPULATION CHANGES OF 2006 AND 2007 Do Thi Minh Duc. Prof. reaching the inner . Nguyen Viet Thinh. Dr. Hanoi National University of Education In Vietnam for the past recent years. mainly to the point of population geography and sociology view. Vietnam urban sustainable development in industrialization and modernization process is indispensable way to decide to nation’s the whole development. as: urban “expands” territory to rural area but their production and social infrastructures… still haven’t developed suitable with scale. the outer . nevertheless. Although the ratio of urban population in Vietnam is only 27. In the migration flow. interaction relations with area depended. the migration flow to urban always accounts for half of the total domestic migration figure. [10. 277   . which is an important source for urban population growth and alters the urban society.province migration (which also means short distance migration) still dominates. it is designed by their main meanings on development balance between social . far below than that of other countries in the region and all over the world. inner .4% (2007).Panel 10: Urban area and Urbanization Through the work of analyzing some documentaries. Prof. Urban sustainable development has become a necessary issue. type of urbanization.province flow. Dr.province migration flow is increasing density.

in other words.urban migration overwhelmed the urban . Moreover. migration flow focuses on several cities. Until the end of the nineties of 20th century.Urban migration with basic changes.1999). HCM city always accounts for from 37% (1994 .Panel 10: Urban area and Urbanization There are new trends in Rural .urban migration can be noticed: from rural area to small urban (town for instance) and from small urban to medium and large urban.urban migration of more than 60%. the rural .(1994 . Still. Up to 2007. 278  . Calculated for the 10 provinces/cities with the highest migration number.8% of the total migration population to urban. A clear trend of rural .planning.1999) to 44% of the total migration population to urban nationwide. precinct) in HN and HCM city mustered with migrants analysis show the changes in migration map together with changes in urban economy and urban . as they are better prepared. gender. Vietnam urban network still undeveloped. the Urban .urban flow in the whole country in general and each city/province in particular. marital status. HN accounts for 11% (1994 .1999) and only 8. most were small cities.4% (2006) and 72% (2007). in close link to urbanization and urban planning strategies. adaptability to the new settlement is more favorable.Urban migration flow.Urban flow has dominated in the figure of urban migration (both in national scale and in almost all cities/provinces) There are many provinces with a ratio of urban . As till that time. We also recommend solutions regarding migration flow into cities. this flow has overwhelmed. profession and employment status. impact of the new urban life is more objective. Following the Changes in selectivity over a period of time (through analyzing different time of survey) has revealed interesting points. increasing to 70. the these “top ten” cities account for 67. Migration to two biggest cities territory map analysis as well as areas (district. For the Urban .4% (2007) Selectivity in migration in general and migration to urban in particular is analyzed for age.

As a pioneer in the movement against poverty in the whole country. This is a story of disappearance and of renewal. Urban space is getting disciplined. the ‚purging’ of the footpaths of family businesses or private activities in the Old Quarter: each can be viewed as a document of change that can be deciphered like a written text.ASPECTS OF URBAN CHANGE Heinz SCHÜTTE. the arrival of capitalist market forms (and the evolution of corresponding social relations).282] THE POVERTY LINE AND THE NATURE OF URBAN POVERTY IN HO CHI MINH CITY Le Van Thanh. The new villas on West Lake and their bourgeois owners representing new (syncretistic) values.2003). Ho Chi Minh City Institute of Economic Research Eliminating hunger and reducing poverty is one of main policies of the Government in order to solve emerging social problems of Viet Nam in the industrialization and modernization process. After revolution. and its inhabitants are subjected to a new control logic. The observer perceives its consequences when strolling through Hanoi’s streets and talking to the inhabitants. University of Bremen. Ho Chi Minh City has large scale population with a part of poor citizens. that is.modernity to modernity of a globalized age. we now observe what amounts to a change from pre . 279   . Dr.Panel 10: Urban area and Urbanization [10. The city is changing from a place of work and everyday social life into a center of consumption. Germany Ever since Doi Moi. wars and a centralized economy.2010). This paper attempts to demonstrate that the process of transformation is not random or chaotic but that it follows a logic that can be historically categorized. Hanoi has been undergoing a dramatic upheaval.281] HANOI IN TRANSITION . [10. MA. HCMC set a new poverty line (6 million/person/year for both urban and rural part of the city) in the next period (2004 . continuing its achievements in the first period (1992 .

Cost of Price Index increases. [10. standard of poverty is income per year about 10 million VND.2010: The poverty line of 6 million VNĐ (500. Other subsistence expenses for education. Food price can increases 10% per year (in some late years. the defining poverty of international community is income 1USD/ day (1995) is not useful in real situation in Ho Chi Minh City. The paper consists of 6 sections. no honey”. especially in 2007 and 6 month early 2008. but also represent the true poverty of residents. especially in period 2007 2010? Following the studies in Ho Chi Minh City. education for children and communicating social condition. treatment. can household in Ho Chi Minh City escape from poverty actually.Panel 10: Urban area and Urbanization The poverty line is not only the most basic and important foundation to determine households brought in eliminating hunger and alleviating poverty program. According that main goal. we can find that level of poverty with income under 6 million/ person/year is not reasonable for the entire period of 2006 . no bees. traffic spends 40% consumptive structure (about 3 million VND) In short. It is only enough for “no pains.100 Kcal/ person/day) at 2006 prices.000 VNĐ/ person/month) is only enough to feed people (2. with the income of 6 million VND/ person/ year. Every year. level of 6 million for feed must grow about 7 . medicine. In the first section. no money.8 million in 2010. So. to equal real value. to have enough for someone with basic needs. helps leaders and scientists have a basic view about real urban poverty. the difference 280  . the author discusses the meaning of the term “periurban”. no work. it trends further).283] NEW URBAN FRONTIERS: PERIURBANIZATION AND (RE)TERRITORIALIZATION IN SOUTHEAST ASIA Michael Leaf UBC Institute of Asian Research This paper discusses the periurbanization and (re)territorialization in Southeast Asia in general and in Ho Chi Minh City. The new poverty line must progress about principle. Thus. Vietnam in particular. no gains. having enough clothes. making sure some needs: assuming minimum needs about nutrition (enough food and quality). having no dilapidated house.

by 2020 was approved. The third section focuses on characteristics of the periurban mentioned above in the context of Ho Chi Minh City. However. Hanoi Vietnam is an agricultural country in the process of rapid industrialization and urbanization taking place in the provinces and cities of eight socioeconomic regions. The urban population extent of Ha Nam has increased from 56 thousand people in 1995 to 80 thousand people in 2005. the author addresses specific traits of periurban as Southeast Asia’s urban frontier such as the flux and change of its landscape. The current urban system of the province comprises a provincial town and six district townships. reviews industrial parks and export processing zones and remarkable projects realized by foreign investors. [10. The fifth section of the paper focuses on the industrial development in the periurban of Ho Chi Minh City. This paper provides a spatial and temporal overview of urban development in Ha Nam. and the impact of doimoi reformation on the development of this area. Vietnam National University. the mixture of the urban and the rural. and the complication of administrative management. analyses specific characteristics of the periurban. the rapid expansion of transportation and communication. urban areas in Ha Nam are still small and have many pressing problems to 281   . VIETNAM Nguyen Dinh Minh.284] URBAN DEVELOPMENT IN HA NAM PROVINCE. The general plan of Phu Ly town. The author provides data of investigation of the city. a province in the southwest part of the Red River delta with many favorable conditions for socioeconomic development based on field and desk studies. Dr. as well as the application of this term in various tendencies of urban research. the provincial capital. Since its reestablishment in early 1997 to date. In the fourth section. the author expresses his idea about the residental development in Ho Chi Minh City’s perirurban and introduces some important projects of housing development in this area. In the second section.Panel 10: Urban area and Urbanization between periurban and suburban. The last section discusses the periurban of Ho Chi Minh City as a governance frontier with its specific characteristics such as the system of rural and urban districts. Some wards in Phu Ly have been planned in detail. Ha Nam has obtained many remarkable achievements in urban development. etc. and the consequences of the rapid development.

Sai Gon University Urbanization is an essential factor of every nation in a process of economic. since Frame occupied Sai Gon in 1859). [10. To this end. urban services.door policy and renewal (1986). urban environmental planning and management activities in Ha Nam in the years to come should be improved with the aid of GIS technology. It has about 8. but nowadays it is the most dynamic region of economic development in Viet Nam. There are many features consisting of economic. but it also recuperates complicated active and negative changes in society and economic development of Ho Chi Minh City. 282  .colonialism during two centuries (especially.5 million inhabitants but gives away one third of its budget and accounts for 30 percent of the country’s exports.Panel 10: Urban area and Urbanization be solved such as lack of detailed planning. when Americans conducted the Vietnamese war 1954 1975). scientists. The quick urbanization creates economic development. private sector and community participation. thanks to favourable geographical position and good commercial conditions. There was also a compulsory urbanization in Sai Gon. The urbanization of Ho Chi Minh City is carried out at a fast speed and it makes a lot of effects on development of Viet Nam and especially.HO CHI MINH CITY FROM 1860 TO 2008 AND THE EFFECTS ON ITS ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT Nguyen Duc Hoa. It was affected by wars conducted by French colonialism and American neo . the urbanization of Sai Gon appeared and developed rapidly (especially. Ho Chi Minh City is a very young city (about 300 years). social. commercial development as to point of culture and history view. and environmental pollution. local agencies. political.285] THE URBANIZATION PROCESS OF SAIGON . cultural complex in the process of urbanization in Saigon . MA. central. the southern region. the process of urbanization in Ho Chi Minh City picked up again after Viet Nam carried out open . For a long time.Ho Chi Minh City. Environmentally sustainable development in urban Ha Nam plays a positive role in the general development of the whole province and the Hanoi capital region. After 1975. poverty.

service centers as the city core. These urban planning once caused disorder. its experiences on management of urban problems. are VIETNAM urban systems merely one peripheral link in global urban network development in US style? This is the city model with commercial . many countries in Asia found their onwn development direction and not wholly reproduced the Western modern city model. Architect Vietnam Association of Architecture In the context of integration and globalization still be imposed by the West. for getting urban development in the future. urbanisation in many fast developing economies are developing in another way compared to the West. damaged the environment and quality of life in cities. the appearance of blocks and cubic traffic spot. the writer’s aim is to offer a long process of urbanization in Saigon . urbanisation in Vietnam can develop sustainably with radical post . but at the same time destroy many traditional urban structures. It is an effective tool in fostering economic activities as well as meeting the increasing market demand and interest of private finance. [10. created social inequality. From lesions and experience of those cities’ urbanisation model.286] URBAN AREAS OF VIETNAM GLOBALISATION OR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Nguyen Huu Thai. Is there one only method that developing city in the global city network if we want to integrate into the world? Recently in Asia.Panel 10: Urban area and Urbanization In this paper.modern features and characteristics. as a matter of fact. 283   .Ho Chi Minh City with its achievements and weaknesses. After the World War II. They also enhance economic development.

made children go away to seek other forms of fun that can make them fall into social evils. 284  . and national defence security guarantees a firm and healthy urban development in socialist orientation. [10. where the government takes the responsibility to plan. especially severely in low-income areas.287] URBAN DEVELOPMENT AND URBANIZATION IN NORTHERN COASTAL CITIES AND PROVINCES OF VIETNAM Nguyen Khac Phong Haiphong Association of Historical Sciences Urban development and urbanization in northern coastal cities and provinces of Vietnam are major issues in the period of integration and development of Vietnam. during urbanization process. The struggle of protecting cultural and historic traditions. Transformation and urbanization in northern coastal areas consist of two trends: the natural trend following the laws of development. design. Aiming to define characteristics of urban development and urbanization in northern coastal cities and provinces of Vietnam. In contrary with the common way of infrastructure provision. Community spaces.288] COMMUNITY SPACES IN LOW-INCOME AREAS – A CASE STUDY OF THUONG DINH. The situation had a bad impact to people’s health. The reasons were lack of land stock and poor government management. forced and unlawful development. in this paper we discuss the following issues: Urbanization is an indispensable trend of Vietnam in the process of modernization and industrialization. An action research on assessment of community spaces and improvement of a playground was carried out in a poor ward of Hanoi City.Panel 10: Urban area and Urbanization [10. the ecological environment. have been shrinking. and the trend of turbulent. HANOI Nguyen Thi Hien Centre for Regional Research and Developmet Urbanisation has recently become an emerging issue in Vietnam.

majority of them were middle age women. The residents suggested a local female contractor who was a construction expert and good neighbor. A Community Management Committee was established for supervising the upgrading work and suggesting a management model. in most of cases. Attention should be paid on place making in urban poverty reduction policies and programs. The urban poor live in bad housing and infrastructure conditions and are in need of more green and open spaces. Women play the most important role in community activities as they are linked to their family interest. ensure better quality at less costs. Local authority and community collaboration is the best way of place making. company profit tax and her management cost. This model can be replicated in larger urban areas. It helped project better respond to people’s needs. are merely beneficiaries. provide employment for community members. cleaning work now is carried out by the children. Besides. where the later charged only for direct costs but not for the value added tax. responsibility and pride. organise and supervise whole construction process. In this approach. community people contributed design ideas and cash to playground upgrading with high responsibility. A contract was signed between the ward authorities and the contractor. drug users become hesitant to come. chance for the better-off to help the poor. 285   . under the leadership of an young volunteer. a cost estimation and negotiated price with the contractor. mobilize initiatives and additional resources. reduce the burden for government while increased the community capacity. A student-architect voluntarily provided first design draft to serve as a basis for community discussions. The main reasons learned are 1. The work done was evaluated by people as of very good quality and cost saving. a community participatory approach was applied. A Ward staff helped make technical drawings. people have started to plant trees and flowers. 2. processing construction materials has moved away. 3. the project provided employment for ten local poor people. Sport activities are carried out from early morning until the dark. The situation now has much improved.Panel 10: Urban area and Urbanization provide budget. To work with women in community projects would ensure the success. people have stopped throwing domestic waste. while the people. Many innovative were applied. No additional payment was claimed for increased work volume. improve two-way communication.

and to some extents.289] THE INFLUENCE OF URBANIZATION ON CULTURAL CHANGES OF ETHNIC MINORITIES IN THAI NGUYEN PROVINCE (RESEARCH ON THE SAN DIU ETHNIC PEOPLE) Nguyen Thi Que Loan. living standard of ethnic minorities in general and ethnic minorities in Thai Nguyen in particular have been improved. dwelling. creates standards for rural people to follow. and at the same time. MA. food. reports concentrate on urbanization impact (both objective and negative) on the cultural changes of ethnic people in Thai Nguyen. However. as an indispensable rule. during development process. Developing market economy with socialist orientation. Analysing responds (absorbing and denying. costumes and lifestyles. Within the scope of this seminar. prioritize resources to develop ethnic and mountainous region. Putting forward recommendations on socioeconomic development and cultural character preservation within the reseached region.Panel 10: Urban area and Urbanization [10. information promotion and increase in international projects have led to the intensive urbanization in Northern mountainous region in general and Thai Nguyen province in particular. actively and passively) of the peole in urbanisation. governs several aspects of socioeconomic life in the region. carrying research of urbanization influence on cultural changes of ethnic people in Thai Nguyen contributes to forming a foundation for the sustainable cultural development of ethnic tribes in Vietnam in general and in Thai Nguyen in particular. Thai Nguyen University Since the Doi Moi implementation in 1986. Thus. 286  . having its downside. Urbanization. always strongly appeals to rural area. especially on ethnic tribal culture causing the erosion of traditional cultural values. urbanization always has two sides: a representative of progress and civilization. They also focus on the analysing of vulnerable factors such as: languages. The research mainly based on experimentation of San Diu tribe in Thai Nguyen province.

Prof. To improve living quality and living environment of the people in urban poor residential areas. Urban sector has contributed approximately 65 per cent to 70 per cent of the total national GDP. in order to contribute to build Vietnamese urban areas to develop rapidly and sustainably. mechanisms.economy. and the local residents themselves. urban network has been extending and developing. the private economic sector. environment is polluted. These areas have not been paid attention by the city government or had no investment for upgrading. Urban poor residential areas usually have a quite high proportion of low . Today the country has 729 urban centres. However.290] IMPROVEMENT OF THE LIVING ENVIRONMENT FOR POOR URBAN RESIDENTIAL AREAS IN THE URBANIZATION PROCESS OF VIETNAM Nguyen To Lang. urban space and urban form have been changed significantly with important progress. Hanoi Architectural University In recent years. Vietnam has a quite high urbanization speed.income households. 287   . Solutions to improve living conditions for residential areas of the urban poor should cover from policies. Faculty of Urban Management. Urbanization process is getting better.Assoc. many poor urban residential areas have existed in cities and towns. many arisen diseases affect residents’ health and the sustainable development of cities. urban infrastructure. together with the development of socio . living conditions and urban infrastructure have been seriously insufficient. and proposes some solutions to improve living environment for the urban poor in their residential areas. This paper presents the overview of urbanization development in Vietnam. besides the areas of rapid and modern development. planning implementation methods to the finance for project implementation. roles and responsibilities in the field of urban improvement of all social sectors are getting bigger and bigger.gate and special economic areas which contribute to the urban development of the frontier and coastal regions. criteria and existing situations of urban poor residential areas. Dr. and many border . The participation should come from governments at all levels.Panel 10: Urban area and Urbanization [10. communities.

Lo Cuong froms an agricultural village with 100% of households and the number of workers to do agricultural life.2007 the city has revoked the entire 100% area of agricultural land of villages (169 soil samples) to conduct the construction of factories .705 demographic of villages to no longer be involved in material production and processing. with salaries averaging 700. this group is to hire 100 more workers in the villages .Hai Phong .Quang Ninh. Lo Cuong village is one of nine villages of Tu Minh commune. but the role of the influence it does not stop at the range in the province but also the regional Red River Delta. Hanoi National University of Education The city is the urban provincial level. located in the western city of Hai Duong and also in the process of transformation of the city. affecting change not just in the coastal urban areas but especially in the two agricultural communes of Tu Minh and Viet Hoa. Group service to serve people living in villages.291] THE CHANGING ECONOMICS OF VILLAGES BELONGING TO LO CUONG TU MINH COMMUNE IN THE PROCESS OF URBANIZATION OF HAI DUONG CITY FROM 2003 .2% of the work of villages. 288  .2% of households and 16.3 million dong/sao of land to convert career and economics. accounting for 53% of total households and workers of villages.6% of the work of villages.2006 the process of urbanization took place very strongly here. especially the triangle of economic growth to the north of Ha Noi . The group serves do my job has also attracted 103 households with 225 workers. In villages with 433 households with 995 workers had the conversion process as follows: Group households switch to do my job production. From 1997 . accounting for 18. the city has supported the people in the villages is 9. After land. accounting for 24% of households and 22.Panel 10: Urban area and Urbanization [10. to the people of this whole villages were finding the way to go in separate development of the economy when no longer have land for production. This has led to 995 state workers and more than 1. In addition. MA.2007 Ninh Van Phuong. this group has 79 households and 160 workers. with 230 households and attracted 530 workers to work.000 dong/person. But from 2003 .

in the villages there is a 21 Hồ family with 80 workers in agricultural production.the whole cultural villages.environment 4. Since then.2007 from a village completely agricultural moved more than 80% of households and the number of laborers working as farm. size and kinds of inhabitant. The development of the urban combining with the factors such as the urban size. kinds of service and trading. The process of urbanization has impacted deeply on the bio . The requirement of urban development relating to the bio . infrastructure. population. 3.etc..environment protection and stable development are the necessary factors. [10. 289   . The impact of urbanization on bio . but the nature of agriculture in this stage is no longer the same as in the previous phase.environment in Sapa district compared with the other areas. It is from 2003 . Sports and Tourism Development process of trade economic has created an urban in Sapa district of Lao Cai province. infrastructure. The real bio . The history of establishment and development of an urban area in Sapa district relating to the factors such as: the function of the urban area. Drag it is followed by the transformation of society . This result is the product of the process of urbanization in the economic sector of the city of Hai Duong and the impact it has directly and positively to the economy of villages Lo Cuong.Panel 10: Urban area and Urbanization In addition. this is a typical city for tourism in the highland.environment of the region. the remaining 10% of the workers and the number of households making agriculture but nature has completely changed. The science report concentrates on some solution as following: 1. 2. the writing propose some solution with a view to protecting the bio environment and stable urban development in Sa Pa district of Lao Cai province.292] URBANIZATION IN THE CONTEXT OF ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SA PA DISTRICT OF LAO CAI PROVINCE Phung Nam Trung Lao Cai Department of Culture. etc.

The question that shall be answered is whether the redefinition of public space in Hanoi can be considered an expression of a local public sphere. On the macro level it will deal with the public’s utilisation of Ly Thai To square at the banks of Hoan Kiem Lake.293] REDEFINING PUBLIC SPACE IN HANOI Sandra Kürten. while public parks and squares are increasingly used for recreational and leisure activities. Prof. along with political and economic liberalisation. It provides an arena for communication and political activities. 290  . University of Passau.. Rüdiger Korff. Vietnam. The presentation will give an overview on the role of public spaces for the livability of a city. The result is a continuous process of redefinition.Panel 10: Urban area and Urbanization [10. Germany The research project focuses on the analysis of the transformation of public space in Hanoi. it is the project’s aim to contribute to the discussion of the correlation between public sphere as a sociological/political category and the morphology as well as the practices of public space.Dr. a strong relationship between public sphere and civil society. does exist. MA. the location of the Ho Chi Minh Mausoleum. On the micro level the example of the traditional flower village Ngoc Ha will be given.society relations in non . Thong Nhat Park at Bay Mau lake and Ba Dinh Square. Since the introduction of the Vietnamese economic reform program Doi Moi in 1986. The transformation of these spaces is accompanied by a process of negotiation on their meaning. as Eisenstadt and Schluchter (2001) point out.european countries seems to be more appropriate via the concept of public sphere than the one of civil society. Embedded in the discipline of urban sociology. Furthermore. a physical transformation of public space as well as a shift in its symbolic meaning can be observed. Streets and sidewalks are occupied by Hanoi’ s residents to open private businesses.society relations in the city. For Vietnam the concept of a public sphere poses an adequate approach to the analysis of state . According to Arendt (1958) and Sennett (1990) public space offers the material location for the development of an urban public sphere which is a crucial element of urbanism. According to Eisenstadt and Schluchter (2001) an analysis of state . Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. To them the public sphere is culturally and institutionally differentiated from both the official and the private sphere.

291   . the smart ticketing technology was introduced with one Vietnamese company as the contractor. In ECOTRANS. I will discuss one program of introducing smart ticketing technology into bus transport system of Hanoi.use of expired cards. with several other foreign partners who contributed their budget to specific components of the projects.held card readers to their bus conductors.294] HOW DOES TECHNOLOGY MATTER IN PROJECTS? A CASE STUDY OF “SMART TICKETING” TECHNOLOGY IN AN URBAN PUBLIC TRANSPORT PROJECT IN HANOI Terado Hirotsugu University of Tokyo In this presentation. Finally. namely ASIATRANS and ECOTRANS. that is. However. This controversy evoked several meanings attached to the smart ticketing technology. and the institutional environment of the projects which evoked these meanings. which brought about wide .Panel 10: Urban area and Urbanization [10. Based on the sociology of technology.2008 respectively. ASIATRANS and ECOTRANS projects were conducted from 2002 . the program was collapsed and was tried again in successive ECOTRANS project. I will focus upon the diverse meanings attached to this technology by relevant social actors. The owner of the projects was Hanoi People’s Committee. The reason the bus company rejected the plan of the project could be attributed to the meaning of smart ticketing technology. the controversy was emerged regarding the buying card themselves. as well as a tool which creates burdens to the company. The smart ticketing program was first proposed by Belgian partner in ASIATRANS and the tender procedure for buying equipments for this was market for the future by European companies. as a political tool to grasp power to manage the bus transport sector. Although the cooperation with this company had many advantages for the project. which was outside the project budget. and as a tool to expand e . as a tool to complement insufficient technical capabilities of Vietnamese staffs.2005. and 2005 . within the grant program by European Union. Smart ticketing program was one of these components. which were put forward in the two successive projects. the introduction was not implemented as planned because of the refusal of the bus company to assign hand .

At this point. 292  . economic. those meanings are not infinitely created. by adopting a well known theoretical approach adopted from Lefebvre (1991) that focuses on the production of urban space that I find. and social aspects of the two societies during this period. Nevertheless. But the research for the book on Chinese urbanization entitled “China’s Urban Space. The paper attempts to answer this question through several dimensions. and as has been said in the sociology of technology. Prof.Panel 10: Urban area and Urbanization As is seen from this case study. specific technology can be attached diverse meanings by social actors. the sociology of technology will be one useful analytical perspective to urban development projects. the question will be in which occasions are they evoked in what forms. historical. Then. Secondly. University of British Columbia This paper investigates how the process of introducing elements of the market economy since the 1980’s has affected the urbanization process in these two countries.295] INTERROGATING THE PRODUCTION OF URBAN SPACE IN CHINA AND VIETNAM: TOWARDS A POLITICAL ECONOMY OF DEVELOPMENT UNDER SOCIALISM WITH CHINESE AND VIETNAMESE CHARACTERISTICS Terence Gary Mc Gee. Much of the research for the paper was conducted in Vietnam in the decade of the 1990’s and in China between 2000 and 2006. Basically the paper seeks to compare the similarities and differences in the urbanization process in the two socialist societies in the period since 1980. First by the analysis of the geographic. demographic. Development under Market Socialism” (2007) has enabled me to position my understanding of the Vietnamese urban transition in the comparative context of another socialist state experiencing urbanization. In my earlier research on Vietnam I had used my long experience in the study of Southeast Asian urbanization which has been my major research focus for the last fifty years as the lens that I used to view and interpret the Vietnamese urbanization process. [10. but rather they are evoked within specific institutional environment.

University of Passau. political and economic aspects by looking at the way the main actors (e. Germany Small urban centres are seen has having a potentially important role for regional development.296] THE ROLE OF SMALL TOWNS IN VIETNAM Tim Kaiser. I conclude the paper with a quotation form Victor Nee that I believe captures the essence of what is occurring in Vietnam and China. Superficially it is tempting to see this convergence as the results of the increased integration of both Vietnam and China into the global economy particularly in the way that “global spaces” have been inserted into the urban fabric of their cities and the growth of mega . The final section concludes that while there were significant differences in the 1980s in the way urban space was produced in the two countries in the period since the early 1990’s and particularly since 2000 the patterns and processes of urbanization in the two societies are exhibiting some elements of convergence. An understanding of the interactions that take place between small towns and their rural surroundings and between small towns and wider systems of exchange.urban regions. national and domestic ones. Thirdly I explore the main aspects of the urbanization process in the two countries emphasizing demographic.attributes also applying to the intermingling of urban and rural 293   . But the main finding of my research is that the local impulses at all levels from national to the city still are the major driving forces of urbanization in the two countries. government etc) drive the production of urban space. To understand the complexities of these linkages.Panel 10: Urban area and Urbanization Particularly appropriate for socialist societies that are introducing market mechanisms even though the theoretical approach was first applied to market societies. is seen as being crucial for the assessment of the role of small towns. Hannah Von Bloh Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.g. These are characterized by disparities regarding the distribution of resources and differences in lifestyles . such as regional. integration of rural areas and lessening migration pressure on crowded big cities and industrial areas. we propose an integrated research approach based on the concept of “interfaces”. “Rather than conceive of market transitions as a linear process to capitalism we may analyze the departures from socialism as likely to produce hybrid market economies that reflect the institutional centricity of their parent institutional form” [10.

297] THE EVERYDAY ECONOMY: RETHINGKING INFORMALITY IN VIETNAM Timothy M. this paper presents some preliminary findings of research conducted in Yen Chau townlet. In addition. I construct a composite ethnography of the everyday economy. piecing together details from a host of sources. Gorman Student and Development Consultant Judging the term "informal economy" inadequate to a meaningful discussion of the myriad small . Son La province.Panel 10: Urban area and Urbanization life in small towns. then turn to a more specific study of how the "informal sector. I then examine the five key aspects of the everyday economy. the notion of "everyday economics" is a call to examine the phenomenon of informality in a new and more illuminating light. These include the centrality of the everyday economy to the economy as a whole. To develop the notion of everyday economics.scale trades which form the backbone of the economy in urban Vietnam. I first look at the ways that Vietnam has been studied in general. the household as the primary site of production and marketing in the everyday economy. has been described and analysed in the literature on Vietnam. providing an illustrative account of the key features of quotidian economic practice." Rooted in the concept of "everyday politics" popularized by Benedict Kerkvliet. Then. the use and contestation of urban 294  . [10. Drawing on the literature review and the ethnography." specifically street vending. I offer an alternative conceptualization: "everyday economics. the active role of the state as a player in the everyday economy.

Like other Southeast Asia countries. Urban Research and Development Center Mankind urban development has undergone two period of significant urbanization.Prof. from Luong Ha region to Nile River and formed ancient towns.298] URBANIZATION. The latter was the result of the industrial revolution in Europe in the middle of 18th century. Vietnam is in the process of urbanization. At the end of 20th century. Southeast Asia countries began to develop economy and now are in robust urbanization. the 3rd urbanization adopts the mankind internationality. Dr. The first period of international urbanization was the formation of Luong Ha urban. Assoc.Panel 10: Urban area and Urbanization [10. According to many scientists. VIETNAM’S WAY OF INTEGRATION PATHWAY OF VIETNAM Ton Nu Quynh Tran. after a long time under the domination of different colonies. then spread to almost all Europe and the US. Urban development and changes took place at an ever since rapid and vigorous speed.C The former lasted for nearly a thousand years. The smooth or concerned process will assess our knowledge as well as integration ability 295   . a series of industrial cities appeared first in Britain. Vietnam urbanization commencing from the end of 20th century is regarded as a step into the regional and global development. taking place in the 4th century B.

VNU Ho Chi Minh City The current process of urbanization displays a lot of disorder. The paper also focuses on some feasible solutions to overcome these weaknesses.299] CAUSES FOR WEAKNESSES IN THE MANAGEMENT AND USE OF LAND IN HO CHI MINH CITY AND SOME FEASIBLE SOLUTIONS Tran Thi Thu Luong. The urbanization in this city is expanding rapidly. Assoc. Dr. irrationality and spontaneity in land management and land use in urban areas which put Vietnamese urbanists in tricky situations with difficulties as well as with strict warning about sustained development in harsh competition resulting from globalization. Center for Urban and Development Studies Urbanization took place in Ho Chi Minh City since the early 1990s' after Renovation policies (1986) were implemented. Under the economic transition and urbanization process. This type of mechanism imposes strictly negative influence on urban planning. In fact. the paper focuses on the analyzing of setbacks in urban land management mechanism as the main causes for the above . The peaceful rural areas have changed and became new urban areas. Social structure have changed and become more complicated. [10.Prof. HO CHI MINHCITY) Truong Hoang Truong.mentioned weaknesses including: . MA.300] RURAL AREAS IN HOCHIMINH CITY IN THE PROCESS OF MODERNIZATION AND GLOBALIZATION (CASE STUDY OF BINH CHANH DISTRICT. 296  . agricultural sector in suburban areas is changing to non agricultural sectors. laws and land price have not been well managed.Land management mechanism from governmental bodies. College of Social Sciences and Humanities. From practical cases of land management and land use in urban areas within Ho Chi Minh City.Lack of an effective mechanism with harmonious cooperation between management bodies and land users. .Panel 10: Urban area and Urbanization [10.

Formerly. Urbanization is an established and expanded process of urban space. Case study of Binh Chanh district helps us understand how the rural areas in HCMC changed and adapted to the new situation. So.Panel 10: Urban area and Urbanization Modernization and globalization bring to rural areas of HCMC a new picture. to urbanize stably. according to many present viewpoints. And at the same thing. especially the urbanite in an urbanizing area. in which. liberation and reresidence. How to limit the negative aspects of this process in such areas ? [10. projects which comprise a nation total. one of the areas is affected strongly by this process was chosen for studies. urbanization is a process that converts an area which has no urban attributes to one which has social urban attribute. Prof. we need good organization to carry out urbanite’s participation in urban living aspects. it is an expanse of culture and the ways of urban living. Ho Chi Minh National Political . Assoc. Dr. This thesis refers to civic role in urban construction and management at Danang city since it has become an administrative organization under the Central Committee. it essentially happens according to plans.Administrative Academy Urbanization is a basic process that transforms all rural living aspects to social urban living. urbanization was spontaneous mostly. in general. successful urbanization. Urbanization. or widely. territorial area and locality.301] STRENGTHERN THE ROLE OF THE PEOPLE IN URBAN CONSTRUCTION AND MANAGEMENT THROUGH EXPERIENCES FROM DANANG CITY Truong Minh Duc. This is a polyhedral process. especially in land management. the positive aspects and negative aspects. Binh Chanh district. two most popular sides is urbanization in technological infrastructure and urbanization in ways of urban living. is an increasing process of urban population and area. Urbanization involved directly in all aspects of urbanite living. But now. On the other hand. In this report. This process needs to be researched thoroughly. This thesis has three parts: Urbanization process at Danang 297   . scheme.

Urban space and infrastructure of Danang continue expanding and modernising. processing zone are also important to the change of occupational structure in the locality. Other factors such as the science and technology in the agriculture sector and the attraction of labor from urban areas. They must have the ability to adapt to the new role of commodity production in accordance with the new demand of society. In other words. Central Committee for Popularization and Education The change of production function in agriculture from the subsistence farming into commodity production has led to the functional changes of the farmers' community.302] THE IMPACT OF URBANIZATION ON THE COMMUNAL UNITY IN RURAL AREAS AT PRESENT (THE CASE OF HAI DUONG PROVINCE) Vu Hao Quang. Danang Committee and Danang people in renewed work at present. urban improvement at Danang from 1997 to 2007.Panel 10: Urban area and Urbanization Achievement of civic role’s development to realize the schemes. The reason for change of occupational structure in the rural area is due to the functional change of goods by farmers and it results from the urbanization consisting of many factors. The event that Vietnam join The World Trade Organization WTO has made great impact on the urbanization process as well as brought the basic interests for Vietnam in general and farmers in Hai Duong in particular such as: production facilities have more 298  .agricultural occupations. Danang tries to develop advantaged position and potential in determination to make Danang become a civilized.Prof. This is a pride of The Communist Party.Dr. With many marvelous successes at the beginning.The High Land and the whole country. Danang city is in urbanized process with a very fast speed. One of the factors leading to the change of structure of the farmers is the fact that the State revokes the land and they must turn to the non . management. construction of infrastructure. Labor itself is a commodity that our farmers were not acquainted under the previous regime. modern. Assoc. local industrial zone. Some experience. so its face changes day after day. [10. they must produce saleable commodities for the market. motivate city of The Middle . Institute of Public Opinion Research.

The community unity is expended due to the space and social networks that are not only the relations among relatives. and neighbors but also on the economic or business partners. labor market.Prof. The change of occupational change as well as series of such factors as lands. Studies on sexual activities are often based on the hypothesis that those who are affected more by new values created by modernization tend to have more premarital sexual activities. The employees are unskilled. occupation and authority.Dr.Panel 10: Urban area and Urbanization advantages. science and technology are applied widely in the agricultural production. New pattern for the unity in the rural area is establishing and developing in accordance with the process of industrialization and modernization. marriage. During the process of modernization. as a result. Institute of Sociology. the spontaneity or nature in social organization takes place dramatically. and family. However.303] PREMARITAL SEX: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF YOUTH IN HANOI. sex. SHANGHAI. and researchers of the Institute of Sociology and Institute of Family and Gender Studies. challenges for farmers are many such as: there is not enough land for cultivation and development. in which the unity in the rural areas plays an important role in regulating the relations between the State and Community. a group of researchers from Johns Hopkin University (United States). plan for the socio . It is even decreasing. In 2004. conducted a 299   . AND TAIPEI Vu Manh Loi. A part from activeness. handicraft products have small amount and the quality is not high and is not competitive compared with industrial production in developed countries as well as in the region. leading to a longer exposure to premarital sex. Taipei. [10. Vietnam Academy of Social Sciences. Assoc. they do not have experience in commodity economy.economic development in rural areas by Communist Party and the State that impact rural society. VASS Process of modernization has led to dramatic changes in perceptions and behaviors concerning love. they base decisions on sentiment and group mentality. agriculture and agricultural products are exported more. sociologists from Shanghai. age at first marriage increases but age at first sex does not seem to increase. social environment. has resulted in the new social structure.

followed by youth in Shanghai (18% for men and 12% for women). Hanoi youth have the lowest premarital first sex (only 8% for men and 3% for women). but at the same time there are other modernization factors that do not show significant influence as suggested by the hypothesis. Taiwanese youth have the highest proportion of premarital first sex (37% for men and 29% for women). Shanghai. In this study. but on the other hand it also has positive impacts on constraining sexual activities of youth. and 4913 from Taipei were interviewed. There are factors that appear to support the hypothesis about the influence of modernization on premarital sex. There is no simple pattern as one may think at first. young men have higher proportions having premarital sex than young women. This suggests a number of implications for policy making as well as for further studies. This paper presents preliminary results of the comparative study on premarital sex of youth in the three cities. Modernization is not only simply increasing the likelihood of having premarital sex. 6363 youth from Hanoi. This is a rare international comparative study on this topic that involve Vietnamese youth. and Taipei with the topic of influences of modernization on urban youth. 300  . 6299 from Shanghai.Panel 10: Urban area and Urbanization comparative survey of youth in three cities of Hanoi. In general. Multivariate analysis shows that influences of modernization on premarital sex are very complex and diverse in its forms.



we categories positional words into 3 groups. “do”. (2) positional words (III) of the two can state object which is out of speaker’s view. (B) of the object in speaker’s direct knowledge.(4) Whereas Vietnamese uses positional words (II) to mention object which is out of speaker’s view but the speaker still knows it. “kia”) and Japanese‘s (e. Vietnamese can not. examining examples: (A) of the object which is in speaker’s view.g. Below are major conclusions: (1) In case stating the object which is in speaker’s view. PhD Candidate University of Tokyo Both Vietnamese and Japanese have 3 types of positional words: (I) word stating object near speaker. (3) positional words (II) are used in Japanese to refer to object near to listener but Vietnamese’s do not calculate the distance between the object and listener. ”sore”. Moreover. we discuss morphology features of Vietnamese positional words (e.304] LANGUAGE RESEARCH COLLATING ON POSITIONAL WORDS OF VIETNAMESE AND JAPANESE Adachi Mayumi. First. Japanese use positional words (III) 303   . (II) word stating object near listener. While Japanese positional words (III) can state the object which speaker can not see. (C) object decision depending on context.Panel 11: Linguistics and Vietnamese language [11.: “kore”. This article aims to compare functions of Vietnamese and Japanese positional words. then the two languages both use positional words (I).: “day”.g. positional words (I) of the two can be used to talk about the previously mentioned objects in conversation. “are”) Then. (III) word stating object far from speaker.

Dr.Lenin). Prof. Language treatment can be a choice of each one for language that be used for communication through words and it is regulated by objective and subjective factors in which the subjective factor is most potential.Reflection of Vietnamese Cultural Treatment. Ho Chi Minh City’s University of Foreign Languages and Informatics General function of language is “the most essential means of Communication of human being” (V.A revolutionary activist and well . A know . language treatment is considered as tantamount to language planning in language policy of the State or a society organization.Panel 11: Linguistics and Vietnamese language [11. As a component of culture treatment. in nation aspect.known world culture man greatly appreciated the opinion “Language is like a tool to struggle and develop society”. With Ho Chi Minh’s very plentiful active life.I. 304  .how of using that weapon best for reaching specific goals as well as achievements is language treatment in Ho Chi Minh’s thought. Ho Chi Minh . This opinion is realized through his language treatment. language always be a very sharp weapon that would help Him not only accomplish his mission which is entrusted by motherland and nation but also attain specific goals in each in its period of His revolutionary stage. This paper is based on linguistic data quoted from His writings and His speeches published in other works that would be regarded as an obviously theoretical point of Ho Chi Minh Language Treatment .305] HO CHI MINH ‘S TREATMENT OF LANGUAGE: REFLECTIONS OF VIETNAMESE CULTURAL TREATMENT Bui Khanh The.

The paper describes and discusses these synthetic subsets of Nouns. College of Social Sciences and Humanities.grammatical subset. [11. generic meanings and are of great use in pragmatics. 305   . Verbs and Adjectives) contain complicated structures. we have a good sense of direction in promoting the strengths of women in the modern society.306] THE THE SUBSETS OF "SYNTHETIC" AMONG VIETNAMESE CONTENT WORDS Dinh Van Duc. semantic and pragmatic. Accordingly. Prof Vinh University This article mentions the cultural . The differences are mostly expressed in the way to recognize women.Dr. Verbs and Adjectives in three aspects: structural. namely their vocation and their responsibility to bring up the children as compared with that of men.Panel 11: Linguistics and Vietnamese language [11. ideology. culture. we are able to further promote our strengths and make good our shortcomings. facilitating them to better themselves and have an equal right to men. which is commonly referred briefly as 'synthetic' subset. With an appropriate understanding of these differences. The paper is the first of its kind to explore such a phenomenon in both structural and functional approaches. Verbs and Adjectives) as a lexicon . VNU Hanoi This paper specifically deals with a typical subset that ONLY occurs in Vietnamese content words (namely Nouns. The differences are also expressed in traditional manner and customs. These subsets (of Nouns. Prof.GENDER CHARACTERISTICS OF VIETNAMESE PROVERBS Do Thi Kim Lien. the traditional written text which reflects viewpoint.307] THE CULTURAL .sexual differences in Vietnamese proverbs. traditional custom of our ancestor.

As it is shortened in pronunciation the front vowel becomes centralized. The phonological interpretation that the nasalisation in a syllable belongs to the final consonant is popular in French spelling. The author also points out the reasons for the existence of present final "nh" and "ng". this paper attempts to refer to those ended in 'ng. and the combination more tense than in normal syllables.18th . Hanoi Among the nasalized syllables in Vietnamese. This paper explains the variation of vowels and final consonants in the syllables in question with views of pure phonetics and different forms of spelling through time. Structural pressure: a final consonant preceded by any unrounded back vowel is mostly a /G/. in syllables with final "nh" or "ng". Vietnam National University. There are three reasons for this: a. Words contains this syllable type in certain dialects are pronounced with a final /G/. their vowel is observed to be shorter. for example "o" > " ão". their final consonant longer. 306  .308] ON SOME NASALISED SYLLABLES IN VIETNAMESE AND THEIR REPRESENTATION BY SPELLING Doan Thien Thuat. Nasalisation in a syllable that contains a front vowel is never transcripted by the tilde but “nh” at the end. and with its spelling as 'ng" c. Dr.century spelling. Prof. so that the feature of labialisation is transferred over to the end of the syllable.and . Basing on principle of the constancy of syllable length in each of the tone type. Due to the fact that it is too short a time for a vowel to be fully produced with all its features. It is an interesting to note that the nasalisation in the above mentioned syllables is expressed by a tilde rather than a final consonant. and by a rounded back vowel is made labialized. This spelling is kept as "nh" until nowadays. In the 19th century the tilde was replaced by final "ng". nh' only.Panel 11: Linguistics and Vietnamese language [11. and the back vowel becomes unrounded. whereas the final /G/ preceded by a front vowel appears to be palatalised. "ô" > aỗ. It is the vestige of ancient form of the word b. The variation of the back vowels is reflected in the 17th .

In this research. lexical statistics have been made and the phonetic similarities and differences of 18 ethnic languages which belong to Austronesian and Austroasiatic families. Ede language can be classified into two dialects. lexical comparison. we come to conclude that language of ethnic minorities Bih (spoken in Krong Ana and Chu Kun) districts as well as in Buon Ma Thuot city.phonetic similarities and differences of cognate words have been shown between Bih and Ede. Cham. Morever. the place of Bih in Chamic group will be argued. 307   . Various ideas have been made to discuss its place in Chamic languages. Dialect 2 which is spoken by Mdhur and Bih groups. From results of this research in Bih language associated with morphological characteristics. even some Austronesian languages in islands in Southeast Asian region were compared. Based upon phonetic analysis. Vietnam 1. It is completely possible to classify these two dialects into many subdialects on the basis of lexical similarities as well as phonetic ones of syllables’ initials and rhimes. Binh is a language which belongs to Austronesian family in Vietnam. an Austronesian group which settle in mainland Southeast Asian region. and poly syllabic language.309] THE PLACE OF THE BIH LANGUAGE IN CHAMIC LANGUAGES Doan Van Phuc. especially those in Bih with the ones spoken in Ede’s dialects in order to point out their phonetic changes. Of the most important things is to indicate phonetic innovations from the proto language to Chamic languages in contemporary time. In this paper.Prof.Panel 11: Linguistics and Vietnamese language [11. representing trend of monosyllabisation more thoroughly. This continues to preserve the morphological features of isolated. To do this. phonetic comparison also has been made between Bih basic lexicons with the equivalences in Chamic languages. 2. 3. Dak Lak province) is one of Ede’s dialects. namely: Dialect 1 which is spoken by majorities of Ede branches characterized in isolated and monosyllabic language. as well as the phonological innovations. 4. Giarai. Raglai languages.Dr. the morpho . Institute of Linguistics. Assoc. Chru.

lexical meaning. the diminutive word in Taiwan Southern Min (TSM) is [a]. …) and then it was further expanded to cover some small size plants (con rau: cây nhỏ mới mọc thường để cấy trồng. Tran Thi Thu Ha Graduate Institute of Linguistics. The affix can be reduced to [ Ν] or [Ν] just like its counterpart in some TSM dialects. So to be able to refer to “a small ox. some diminutive words marked by con also picked up some attitudinal meanings such as liking. disliking etc. Along a similar line of development. and step by step it reduced its diminutive meaning until the “diminutive” meaning got to be so general as to become a “noun . gây giống). It originated from “囝” [kian] which means “son. Prof. and finally it becomes a noun .” Phonetically. “牛 a” does not mean “小牛” (small ox) but “an ox” in general.fu Tsao. in modern TSM.marker” having the same function as “子”(in 桌子) in Mandarin Chinese.” one has to say “牛 a kian. cá con. “con” just has the first two stages. a cycle may comprise the following stages: compound stage affixation stage nasal ending stage nasalization stage nasal ending dropping stage denasalization stage.310] A STUDY OF DIMINUTIVE MARKERS IN SOME CHINESE DIALECTS AND VIETNAMESE IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE GRAMMARTICALIZATION CYCLE Feng . For example.Panel 11: Linguistics and Vietnamese language [11.marker. Syntactically. when people say “Nhìn con heo con kia dễ 308  . Dr. Quang Kim Ngoc. From the above meanings. On the basis of these diminutive words. “con” continued to expand its use as a diminutive word to refer to small . Phonetically.sized things. the diminutive words mostly change from the lexical meaning to non . On the basis of the grammaticalization cycle involving the diminutive words in Chinese dialects. For example. daughter”.. then its use was generalized to cover the young of an animal (heo con. các con…). The original meaning of ‘con’ is “children” (con cái. Along the way. in southern and middle Vietnam. he expounds the syntactic and phonetic changes which may happen in a grammaticalization cycle. National Tsing Hua University Tsao (2006) presents a study on grammaticalization cycle using diminutive words with a nasal ending or nasalization in some Chinese dialects as examples. the relatives. in this paper we will attempt to study the diminutive word “con” in Vietnamese. bò con.

has brought to the readers many works which are time tested. the narrator and the characters in the story can reveal their understandings about the waiting fate of women intentionally or inadvertently. Vietnamese meanings made rapid development after 1945. [11. mostly.Panel 11: Linguistics and Vietnamese language thương chưa kìa”. Assoc.fairy . Dr. Prof.311] THE NARRATIVE DISCOURSE IN THE “SOUL OF THE VIRGIN” . The Soul of the Virgin is one of her magnum opus. familiar but peculiar.tale teller”. “a modern .THE POINT OF VIEW AND THE PERSON Hoang Di Dinh. She has an attractive way of narration and keen style of writing. VNU Hanoi With Vietnamese being a national language. we only concern about the factors that relate to the usage of person. fictional but realistic. Based on the theory about the point of view in narratology. this paper used the method of pragmatics analysis (according to the linguistic and nonlinguistic elements) to approach the narrative discourse in The Soul of the Virgin. Therefore. Prof. the noun marker (prefix) is reduced from [k Ν] to [ Ν] or [Ν].312] ON TWO PAIRS OF TRENDS IN DEVELOPMENT OF SEMANTICS IN THE VIETNAMESE LANGUAGE AFTER 1945 Le Quang Thiem. College of Social Sciences and Humanities. [11. and put forward a characteristic of the narrative discourse in The Soul of the Virgin is that “multiple point of view which is strongly influenced by the replacement of the Person”. Guangdong University of foreign studies He writer Vo Thi Hao. we would demonstrate preliminarily and perhaps speculatively—that the notion of grammaticalization cycle with some modification can also be employed in the description of the changes that took place in the evolution of the diminutive marker “con” in Vietnamese. In the scope of this thesis. which is marked with two pairs of trends simultaneously operating 309   . Through concrete examples of Vietnamese “con”.

However. while precision and symbolization continue to pour into Vietnamese lexical semantics in the new era. Generalization had traditionally been a dominant feature of word meanings in Vietnamese. The precision is evident in thousands of scientific terminologies that have flourished at unprecedented speed since 1945. custom and belief. and the other is precision and symbolization in lexical meanings. This semantic feature is supplemented with a series of polysyllabic combinations a large proportion of which are filled with specification meanings. this paper examines syntactic. part of the lexicon only carries scientific content. a prototypical isolating language with part of the lexicon appearing like stems/roots in other typical languages. In tandem. Danang University Inviting is a very popular speech act used in daily communication. These trends function as an outstanding characteristic of nomenclature means that add to the generalization and specification in Vietnamese after 1945. Along with the trends above is the intensive development in terms of precision and symbolization. especially the social position of the interlocutors. Dr. helps to strengthen relationships and makes life more interesting. 310  . symbolic and iconic meanings are added vigorously. [11. Inviting shows the concern to other people. learning and translating this kind of speech act. The in . but also of related social and cultural content therein. College of Foreign Languages. From a contrasting analytical view.Panel 11: Linguistics and Vietnamese language ever since: one is generalization along with specification and precision. semantic features of spoken invitations and the influence of power distance on the inviting strategies in English and Vietnamese to enhance the effectiveness of teaching. figurative. Prior to that.depth investigation and analysis of those four trends in 2 dialectical pairing relations will not only provide us with better understanding of meaning development after 1945. the way to invite is influenced by the inviter’s culture.313] AN INVESTIGATION INTO SPOKEN INVITATIONS AND THEIR USE UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF POWER DISTANCE IN ENGLISH AND VIETNAMESE Luu Quy Khuong.

314] THE VIETNAMESE WAY OF PERCEIVING THE WORLD (BASED ON LINGUISTIC DATA OF ANIMAL PUZZLES) Ly Toan Thang. such as: the relations between language and cognition (perception. Based on compiling the “Russian .Vietnamese topic 311   . Moscow National University. we will show only linguistic data of Vietnamese animal puzzles. however. “thinking” about things and situations of the world (it will be a case study comparing the Vietnamese language with another language to highlight the characteristics of Vietnamese cognition and culture). mapped on the semantic structure of his language. Prof.… Classifying and describing about 400 puzzles of animals and about 400 puzzles of plants. attention. there are only big bilingual dictionaries or one . as well as the way that Vietnamese compare him with an another thing/entity for orienting and helping the interpreters in finding the answer to solve the puzzle./. the hypothesis “Linguistic Relativity” of Sapir .topic dictionaries. thinking.Vietnamese dictionary. the notions of the “world .Africa Institute.Panel 11: Linguistics and Vietnamese language [11.Dr. …). memory.. we can see that it is truly a Vietnamese way of “viewing”.picture” . the “world view” and the “inner form” of Humboldt and his students.315] TOPIC DICTIONARY – A NEW APPROACH IN BILINGUAL DICTIONARY COMPILATION Syunnerberg Maxim Asia . VASS One of the main issues that cognitive linguistics focus on is the way that a native community perceives and conceptualizes things and situations of objective world. This subject relates closely with important theories and conceptions of general linguistics and cognitive linguistics. In this report. Nguyen Thi Thanh Huyen Vietnam Institute of Lexicography and Encyclopedia.Whorf. Russia Since the first Russian . in order to point out the way that Vietnamese people choose some attributes/properties of the given animal in setting a puzzle. [11.

such topic dictionaries can be regarded as textbooks.316] THE PERTURBATORY EFFECT OF CONSONANTAL ASPIRATION ON VIETNAMESE TONES Michael Carne Australia National University Aspiration has been shown to effect the fundamental frequency (F0) of following vowels. examples of work deal. appropriate group of words. In this paper..Panel 11: Linguistics and Vietnamese language dictionary” experience. Voiceless aspirated consonants are found in some instances to produce higher F0 than unaspirated equivalents. in this aspect. For instance. The reasons for the effect are discussed in terms of aerodynamic factors and varying degrees of vocal fold tension. somewhat reflects the encyclopedia and perceiving dictionary. while in others the opposite is found. 312  .. and gallops are in acceleration order. Small topics are not in alphabetical order. each topic for one chapter. this structure is applicable to other types of dictionaries. the effect of aspiration on tonal F0 in Vietnamese will be investigated using the minimal pairs /te/ and /the/. Author gives out recommendations on new methods towards principles on expressing vocabulary material.. but in logic principle. modern Russian and Vietnamese vocabulary are divided into 15 topics. Topic dictionary. Many small topics in similar dictionary can have illustrations. That is to say. Moreover. Furthermore. Each chapter consists of small topic. military levels are arranged in progression. locutions expressing some laws. [11. In the dictionary. Topic dictionaries represent basic vocabulary of the topic in a more compact and catchy way. unlike dictionaries which arranging in traditional alphabetical order. for example: idioms. It was found that consonantal aspiration had a perturbatory effect on the F0 of the following vowel. and enables knowledge practice in a more suitable way. Such approach helps simplify necessary terms finding. The Dictionary’s logic structure permits Russian or Vietnamese readers both have convenient usage. that F0 was higher at onset following /the/ than for /te/. Thus.

blo. nh. bl"ng. the dictionary records ml2. o. g/gh.. 100]. ch. d. there has been in the missionary establishments in Cochinchina. v. blang. ch. Temple University. ". y. The Dictionary was donated by Father Joseph Morrone to US Navy Lt. ble. “For more than two centuries. ml. The author of the dictionary is anonymous. bl%. blá. i/y. one observes the following letters: — initial consonants: b. m. bl+n.317] THE SOUNDS OF THE COCHINCHINESE DIALECT RECORDED IN THE LEXICON COCHINSINENSE LATINUM DONATED TO LT. s. bl%i. n. #. and was reprinted in the work of Peter Du Ponceau published by the American Philosophical Society in 1838. On the bl . JOHN WHITE IN SAIGON 1819 Ngo Thanh Nhan. l*p bló. c/k. upon a brief scan of the dictionary. t. John White on his first landing in Saigon in 1819. n. x. c. bl. !. e. With these limitation. differing in the details. m. bl. 313   . ml. — vowels: a. The entries were printed without vowel marks. u. l. ê.i. The Dictionary has 3. There is evidence that final nasals were recorded as tildes on “o” and “u” but not printed. $. there are several copies. nh. the dictionary records bla. bl&u. ua/uô. and — 6 tones were not printed but were printed separately on a European musical manuscript. if he is able to make any. bl/n. ô. without the Chinese [read Hán Nôm] characters. h. kh. though the ground work is the same” [p. $a/$#. bl. ng/ngh.Panel 11: Linguistics and Vietnamese language [11. blài. i/y. t. bl(t. ph. bl1ng.. — final consonants: p. In this manner. blàn. gi. bl .000 entries in 187 pages. r. qu. which every new missionary copies on his arrival at the mission. blai.. â. blái. ia/iê/ya/iê. USA This is a preliminary study of the Cochinchinese dialect of the 18th Century from a Cochinchinese-Latin Dictionary in use among the Roman Catholic missions in Cochinchina. The “!” was printed as “d”. Dr. tr. a Cochinchinese and Latin Vocabulary. ng.i. bl&m. bl0t. th. bl't.… On the ml . blót. or tone marks. and adds to it his own observations. bláo bl).. o/u.

through MP. denying. advice.behaviors.Panel 11: Linguistics and Vietnamese language The paper will attempt to reconstruct the Cochinchinese phonemes of the 18th Century from the Dictionary.. Prof. reasoning in incomplete condition Modus tollens. Also. the speaker accepts a typical reasoning. reasoning in logic clause can be applied in cause and result compound sentence in Vietnam grammar. This is reasoning in complete condition: Modus ponens. remark. then demonstrating the pragmatic implication embodied in the 2nd speech.. VNU Ho Chi Minh City “Thi” is a conjunction in the conjunction pair “neu…thi”. [11. through various examples. Cause and result compound sentence’s structure reflects the structure of logic judgment “a =>b”. College of Social Sciences and Humanities. Author examines pairs of conversation whose the 2nd speech uses the word “thi”. Gradually. We also mention here locutions with “thi”. affirming. assessment. they became locutions. series of “neu.…thi” compound sentences (“neu” could be omitted) Then.indirect linguistic deed .. listeners still recognize what type the linguistic behavior is. This sentence is one type of cause and result compound sentence. considering incomplete condition be the complete one. Author demonstrates the indirect linguistic behavior in a series of speech: swears commitments. there are replies expressing some linguistic behavior becoming specific linguistic patterns. Dr... advising. bridging reasoning Hypothetical Syllogism. In communication. Though locutions do not have specific content.318] GRAMMATICAL LOGIC OF THE WORD “THI” Nguyen Duc Dan. interdiction. presenting the condition and result compound sentence. 314  . Therefore. MT. These are implications which present rejecting. Author presents a 3 . explaining. threatening..reasoning. warning. request and refusal. In natural language in general and Vietnamese in particular. MV.step general method to identify implication . assertion.

metaphor is only considered as a means of developing the new meanings of a word. enriching the linguistic and cultural knowledge of language users. Assoc. improving the proverbs teaching at schools. playing as a basis for proverbs research. Traditionally.Panel 11: Linguistics and Vietnamese language [11. and the way of compiling Vietnamese proverb dictionaries. which is why the national-cultural characteristics of language and thinking expressed by the Vietnamese people in their proverbs lies in exactly in the situation-image comparison together with the identification of these two affairs The question of studying cognitive metaphor expressed in Vietnamese proverbs will promote the new orientation in linguistics. a cognitive tool for making ideation of different abstract categories in getting to know about the world. And the question of proverbs has been only considered from the aspect of formal structure and its meanings. This essay aims at proving the fact that cognitive metaphor used in proverbs is only a special type of metaphor. It not only keeps cultural sediments “but also” the outstanding expression” of native national thinking characteristics while getting to know about the objective world. Prof. Its nature is to replace the direct thinking/expressing an abstract affair with a comparative image based on a more concrete known affair. creating a great help to study the meaning and the way how to use proverbs in communication. 315   . or using words in a stylistic way.319] THE CHARACTERISTICS OF VIETNAMESE THINKING THROUGH COGNITIVE IDIOMATIC METAPHORS Nguyen Duc Ton. It also shows clearly the unique way of the Vietnamese people in their thinking and speaking expressed in Vietnamese proverbs. In Vietnam there are not many projects researching metaphor as a means of thinking. VASS Proverbs are an important part in the vocabulary of a language. This essay is the only initial study of national-cultural characteristics through cognitive metaphor. based on the association identifying two these affairs due to their structural isomorphism. Institute of Linguistics. Cognitive linguistics is becoming fashionable in Vietnamese studies at present. Dr.

VNU Hanoi There exist two different views among Vietnamese researchers on the syntactic structure of Vietnamese sentences resulting from the differentiation of the nature of two structures: Subject . they have to face a lot of situations. But how many people of them would have thought of teaching them Vietnamese? How do Vietnamese brides think about teaching children their mother .320] RESEARCH ON TAIWAN VIETNAMESE BRIDES’ LANGUAGE ATTITUDE TOWARD TEACHING THEIR CHILDREN VIETNAMESE .Predicate. College of Social Sciences and Humanities. and the Theme . Assoc. the number of Vietnamese brides is the largest.Rheme structure belongs to the pragmatic aspect (information or discourse) of sentences.Rheme. National Cheng Kung University. YUNLIN COUNTY. There are lots of things that they want to teach their children to become the owners of Taiwan in the future as other native children. According to the first view.PREDICATE OR THEME . I would like to have a preliminary understanding of the Vietnamese brides in Taiwan.FIELDWORK IN JINMEN COUNTY. According to the 316  .tongue and some discussions about this problem. Taiwan According to the Ministry of the Interior statistics.Prof. the number of new immigrant families has increased rapidly and has become a large and important part in Taiwan society. Among those.Predicate and Theme . their attitude toward teaching children mother . Married in a foreign country.tongue? Why is that? And how we can do to help them? So in this article. TAIWAN Nguyen Hoang Yen Department of Chinese Literature.RHEME? Nguyen Hong Con.Dr. On teaching children they need to overcome many kinds of contradictions. the syntactic structure of Vietnamese sentences is Subject .Panel 11: Linguistics and Vietnamese language [11. [11.321] SYNTACTIC STRUCTURE OF VIETNAMESE SENTENCES: SUBJECT .

Rheme as a sentence syntactic structure in organizing and conveying communicative meanings. in contrast. So that. the present paper will argue from a structural functional approach that there is a need to distinguish in the Vietnamese language two types of syntactic structures pertaining to two units differing in terms of structures and functions: Subject . Theme . Institute for Vietnam Encyclopedia and Lexicography. living in the Northern mountainous area (such as Son La. The second part will offer a new approach to the issues in question which recognizes the role of Subject .Predicate structure of Indo . Dien Bien. a syntactic unit which has the main function to convey a communication and is linked to the communicative function of language. a syntactic unit which has the main function to represent the state of affairs and is linked to the representational function of language. This is the first time the features of Khang phonetics are pointed out specifically in many aspects. which has morpho . Different from these two views. It helps to conserve Khang language and culture. The first part will present a review of the two existing views on the syntactic structure of the Vietnamese sentences followed by a discussion of their constraints on the Vietnamese syntactic analysis. Lai Chau and Lao Cai).VASS Khang is a minority population group.Predicate is the structure of the clause. the syntactic structure of Vietnamese sentences is not Subject Predicate but Theme . The paper has two main parts. Dr.Rheme.e.Panel 11: Linguistics and Vietnamese language second view. These two structures complement rather than exclude each other in the Vietnamese syntactic system.Predicate as a clause structure in coding its representational meaning and the role of Theme . Moreover.Rheme is the sentence structure. the study of Khang language is both scientifically and humanely meaningful.322] THE PHONICS OF THE KHANG LANGUAGE Nguyen Huu Hoanh.european languages. i. Most of Khang people are learning Thai language.syntactic characteristics quite different from the Subject . the syntactic analysis of Vietnamese sentences will satisfy both the typological and the universal adequacy. Khang language is one of the languages which are in the danger of vanishing. This report describes Khang phonetics in a synchronic way. the feature of 317   . Khang language has not been studied much. In line with this approach. [11.

[11. Xinh Mun. Because of this property.phonology in relation to the feature of segmental system are interesting information which allows linguists to clarify the formation of cadence among other languages in the region. O Du.323] VIETNAMESE COUNTERFACTUAL CONDITIONALS Nguyen Khanh Ha. Counterfactuality is a case of forced incompatibility between spaces: a space M1 is incompatible with another space M2 if some relation explicitly specified in M2 is not satisfied for the corresponding elements in M2. The "close" property of the state affair in the parent space can be regarded as the most important one creating the property of "counterfactual" or "contrary to fact" of conditional spaces of Nếu A thì B counterfactual conditionals.known fact that they are the conditionals whose protases are often interpreted as "contrary to fact" by the speakers who verbalize them. it is the case where a space is set up and is incompatible with its parent. the hypothetical causality relation between two clause 318  . we can conclude that: As compared with Mon . Khang is the only language in the Khmu group which has plentiful cadence system (5 sounds). It is a well .Panel 11: Linguistics and Vietnamese language phonology. but rather the cognitive semantic question of how counterfactual spaces are set up and structured. In his theory of Mental Spaces Fauconnier (1985) offered that we do not directly tackle the logical problems of truth conditions for counterfactuals. In return. The number of sounds and the feature of phonic . the cadence system. Dr. For of counterfactual conditionals. the structure of Khang phonology is much easier. On studying features of Khang language phonic and phonology.Khmer language in Vietnam and other languages which is classified in the same group with Khang language such as Kho Mu. the vowel sound and the end sound system. VNU Hanoi Counterfactual conditionals have been the classical object researched by logicians. linguists and psychologists for centuries. Fauconnier's theory is applied to analyse semantic characteristics of Vietnamese counterfactual conditionals in the form of Nếu A thì B. first sound system. Institute of Vietnamese Studies and Development Science.

Buồng thêu and Buồng thao. namely Buồng đào. Researching extensively the phonetic compound characters of the Vietnamese. a number of findings and explanations of the words and phrases used in various records of the story have been identified. Dr.Sc. in the Nom documents representing the Vietnamese language. a principle never mentioned in the Luc Thu theory of Hua Than of the Han Dynasty. there exist many Nom characters formed by combining two phonetic constituents. The Institute of Han . Prof. It can be considered that these characters are formed by the compound phonetic principle.phonetic compound principle (combining a semantic character with a phonetic character) and the compound ideographic principle (combining two semantic characters). [11. Prof. [11. In the 319   . In addition. in the author's continued research of the language of Kieu. we will encounter types of evidence that are much more diverse and complex than those known to researchers. In recent years.Panel 11: Linguistics and Vietnamese language of counterfactual conditionals links two real . Line 527 is related to 3 variants. BUỒNG THÊU.325] BUỒNG ĐÀ affairs in a less explicit and more subjective manner than that in other conditionals such as predictive conditionals. or {古 cổ +弄 lộng} *[kloΝ] > Sống.Nom Studies.324] THE COMPOUND PHONETIC PRINCIPLE IN NOM CHARACTERS Nguyen Quang Hong. the ancestors of the Vietnamese have coined many compound Nom characters using the semantic . This paper investigates and proposes elucidation of lines 526.VASS From the familiar Chinese characters. such as {另lánh + 令“lệnh} > tránh (lánh). Providing these types of evidence and conducting grammatological analyses on them in relation to historical linguistics are what we would like to present in this paper. 527 and 528 in Kieu. OR BUỒNG THAO? Nguyen Tai Can.

** Hanoi University Our report aims to point out some linguistic characteristics of conversational Vietnamese language and discuss the teaching of Vietnamese as a foreign language from the view point of cross . VASS.A. even related to articles on languages under the Education Law.326] CONVERSATIONAL VIETNAMESE LANGUAGE AND TEACHING CONVERSATIONAL VIETNAMESE LANGUAGE FOR FOREIGNERS (FROM THE VIEW POINT OF CROSS . *Thang Long University. **Nguyen Thi Thu Huong. Vietnam Globalization is affecting all aspects of Vietnam’s society including languages.. Prof. The linguistic characteristics of conversational Vietnamese language are basically discovered through the main areas of studies as follows: Addressing in Vietnamese conversation The rules of speaking as habits to start a conversation in Vietnamese conversational communication Conversational topic in Vietnamese conversational communication The psychological aspect of Vietnamese conversational communication Vietnamese maxim in conversational communication Conversational maxim and hedging in Vietnamese conversational communication [11.cultural contrastive pragmatics approach. The phrase 320  .CULTURAL CONTRASTIVE PRAGMATICS APPROACH) *Nguyen Van Chien. Institute of Linguistics.327] GLOBALISATION AND LANGUAGE EDUCATION IN VIETNAM Nguyen Van Khang. [11.Panel 11: Linguistics and Vietnamese language arguments. M. Dr. Both language in daily use and language used in the educational context have presented a number of problems.Dr. the author is inclined towards supporting Hoang Xuan Han's suggestion in accepting Buồng thao in this line.

In the very first year. the Institute. 3/The relation between Vietnamese.Panel 11: Linguistics and Vietnamese language “language education” used here has two meanings being the language subject and language as a means of instruction to teaching and learning. many articles about Vietnam can be sought on the Internet. We try to attract students’ attention to unique characteristics of Vietnam. students learn standard Vietnamese grammar and build Vietnamese vocabulary. history and culture have been studied and taught at The Asian African Research Institute under the National Collective University of Lomonosov in Moscow over fifty years. In the final year. 2/ The relation between Vietnamese language legalized as the language “officially used at schools and other educational institutions” and English as the world Lingua franca. Hanoi capital and Hoan Kiem Lake. ecological issues and tourism. they could introduce themselves. Students listen to the recorded cassette. In the first two years. there are major language related issues in education which are teaching and learning language and language of instruction. Russian Federation Vietnamese language. Vietnam geography and so on. ethnic minorities’ languages and foreign languages taught in ethnic minorities. learn by heart poems and sing Vietnamese folk . Accordingly. Nowadays. [11. we teach pronunciation.African Research Institute. This article focuses on two major today contents: 1/ Vietnamese language and Vietnamese language education at school.songs. their family. We trained hundreds of Vietnamese experts in different major: philology. 321   . history and economy. Moscow State University.328] COMMENT ON VIETNAMESE TEACHING Nushel Valentina Grigorievna The Asian . They have the opportunity to read articles about Vietnamese tradition and practice. about its historical heritage. We are very glad to see achievement of Vietnamese student in many aspects.

Those are the memory of their childhood in Vietnam.329] LINGUISTIC TYPOLOGY OF MOTION EVENTS IN VIETNAMESE Pham Hien. international organizations.known as “children of the Fairy and the Dragon” and the beautiful country. in which artisans taught children to make lanterns. They practice translating Vietnamese into Russia and vice versa. show. and political.framed languages such as Spanish (Talmy. monks and many other toys. We have Vietnamese teachers to teach twice a week. Forth year students must have the ability to well listen to and directly interpret political . 2000) and others to investigate motion constructions. Vietnamese differs from news. MA Vietnam Institute of Lexicography and Encyclopedia.autumn activities organized by the Vietnam Museum of Ethnology. We try to not only teach them Vietnamese but also tell them stories about Vietnamese people . express… Moreover. 2000). It is very difficult to explain the difference between synonyms. social and economic issues. lantern parade. On the other hand. They explain many things to our students. From the third year. to an analysis of Vietnamese data. present. Regarding difficulties. although Vietnamese is interesting and profound. 1985. However.Panel 11: Linguistics and Vietnamese language Let take this year as an example. including lion dance. but patterns with Spanish. which pair form and meaning. [11. perform. Vietnamese tends to encode a complex motion event into multiple verbal components forming serial verb constructions. Vietnamese differs from English. students have to read articles about government and state visits. but patterns with English because it uses a rich range of motion verbs (mainly manner-of-motion verbs coupled with another word which expresses ‘path’). it is its profundity that makes us crazy. for instance. VASS By applying the frame of linguistic typology of motion events developed by Talmy (1985. in the light 322  . which attracts all the students. we are lack of audio video facilities for students. We found many articles and color photos about Mid . we see that Vietnamese exhibit characteristics that have been associated with both satellite . They must also be proficient in translation.framed languages such as English and verb .

most of ellipsis can be recovered partly or wholly by contrasting present dependant clause with compatible interlocutor. the regular patterns of motion event expressions are consistent with the characterization of Vietnamese as belonging to the class of equipollently . Vietnam Institute of Lexicography and Encyclopedia. in other dependant Subject .Prof. On the linguistics aspect. Dr.330] THE ENLARGEMENT OF HANOI AND THE HANOI DIALECT Pham Van Hao.331] PRAGMATIC AND WHOLE ELLIPSIS IN VIETNAMESE TEXT Pham Van Tinh. synonym have compatible norm of structure is the premise for inferring the putative/assumed structure. 323   . As a whole. VASS 1. Will Hanoi language be complicated? A lot of people. Dr. this report analyses and comment about Hanoi language in the new circumstance. It will be included the whole of Hatay province. VASS Hanoi is being expanded. Assoc. include some members of the National Assembly are worrying about this problem. the Melinh district (Vinh Phuc) and 4 communes of Hoabinh. Halliday and Hasan call these signals exophoric ‘Textual/normal ellipsis is the repetition relation. [11. These are the explicit signals for researchers to base on. Repetition.supposition in ellipsis structure is exophoric ……that is the context which can give necessary information to understand the meaning’ [Halliday & Hasan 1976].Panel 11: Linguistics and Vietnamese language references to ground elements and relatively rich descriptions of the physical settings in which movement takes place. 2004). Hanoi people will be included Kinh and ethnic minority people. However.framed languages (Slobin. It will develop following the new trend. which is appropriate with its role in the new period. Institute of Linguistics. it is difficult to trace the signal although listeners or readers can fully understand or even hardly realize the abnormality. Assoc.Prof. Sometimes pre . [11.Predicate ellipsises. In most of the ellipsis we have mentioned.

A normal conversation has addresser and addressee (speaker and listener). It is difficult to recover whole ellipsis. 3. 324  .Predicate ellipsis based on exophoric This is a kind of ellipsis in which context plays an important role because there are utterances in document that readers can hardly find out the direct addresses as in others. The said silence is whole ellipsis.Panel 11: Linguistics and Vietnamese language Our presentation will focus on 2 special ellipses. which is a whole ellipsis with conversation meaning. for example: (Bàn ba: ø Nam tái. In situational deixis. Short utterance itself can not have self value. coherence is the frame for the existence of dependent clause because it is hard to indentify transitional signals. multi direction so it needs careful exploration to give exact ground/basis. 2. Subject . There are whole ellipses based on context (exophoric) and leaving out the whole sentence (silence). 4. Silence . in a sense. However. we can find many ‘leaving out utterance’ situation in which speaker keeps silence or a short document is interrupted. Nonetheless. Silence (whole ellipsis) is one kind of notable expressions when it is considered as hidden semantic message with various meaning and wholly context dependence.pragmatic ellipsis In communication. The effect/ control of present context allows functional words to cover the syntax and semantic function. encoding the meaning needs a number of factors involving in communication by series of utterance. it is abnormal in normal conversation. From the research/presentation we can conclude that dependant Subject . ø Há miệng to mà hát…) but it appears and exits based on contextual reference. they are special in terms of context and degree of ellipsis. Without these transitional utterances. coherence has various expression. silence functions as implicit message whose meaning/value is defined by previous utterance (if silence is at the end of the utterance) or following utterance (if silence is at the middle).Predicate ellipsis in Vietnamese has different content and function. ø Hết sức hát. Khong bia. (For example: Anh cứ hát. Obviously. silence should be considered as one turn ellipsis of communicator. Tất cả 100 ngàn). ø Khong quay. In fact. Turn can be one or more than one utterances but the meaning lies in the answer with the meaning yes or no. Moreover. from this difference we can check the informative function of Vietnamese words especially functional words. reader can not encode the real meaning of silence. addresser can temporally interrupt the conversation with a transitional silence.

This paper aims at (1) investigating the core meanings of the word ‘mặt’ and its related meanings. in the areas of phonetics as well as semantics. Saint Paul University. The human face. from the appearance to the character.both functional and lexical. Danang University In many different cultures. (2) pointing out the co . the human face is commonly considered one of the most characteristic symbols. from the attitude to the fate and position of man. these were destroyed: under the later Le dynasty there was little tolerance for unorthodox thinking. In spite of wars. etc . and is.philosophy. when expressing the meanings relating to the human face. discovering the cultural values behind these phenomena. when expressed. and (3) through such investigation and observation. Several European nations had interaction with Vietnam in the 16th and 17th century. different.structural features of the word ‘mặt’ with other words . is hampered by the lack of available sources earlier than the 19th century. and the accepted wisdom .LINGUISTIC ASPECTS Phan Van Hoa. water and fire.had to be expressed in Chinese. contains many meanings. Vietnam has kept very little of any literature or other written documents that may have been produced in Nom before the Tay Son period. On the other 325   . Prof. [11. including idioms and proverbs. Canada Historical research on the development of the Vietnamese language. For political reasons.Panel 11: Linguistics and Vietnamese language [11. Their approach to archival material was. usually creates very living and colorful images.332] AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE MEANINGS OF THE VIETNAMESE WORD “MẶT” WHICH EXPRESSES DIFFERENT NOTIONS OF “FACE” IN CULTURAL . College of Foreign Languages. the word ‘mặt’ as from a simple noun to a complex noun phrase. Due to this case as it may be. University of Ottawa. many documents have been kept and are readily available in archives. Dr. revolutions.333] RELIGIOUS ARCHIVES AS A PRIMARY SOURCE FOR HISTORICAL LINGUISTICS Roland Jacques. politics.

IN COMPARISON WITH AN NAM DICH NGU Shimizu Masaaki. so that they are generally underused. their overall contribution to historical linguistics is of great value and. irreplaceable. the author both referred and corrected the way to transcribe Vietnamese words using Chinese characters in An Nam Dich Ngu (ANDN). therefore. of course.not totally successful . Prejudices have led some researchers to underestimate them.Prof. save for odd words or phrases. Differences of those works are analyzed from the point of view of historical phonetics to convert to some features on the way to transcribe in ANQDN. Japan When An Nam Quoc Dich Ngu (ANQDN) in Tu Di Quang Ky was compiled. while helpful to reconstruct historical facts.. The talk will give examples of archival material. a constant emphasis on semantic and phonetic correctness. After comparing and surveying the objects. moreover. In their writings there is. [11.syllable. Osaka University. found in Lisbon. yet they benefit almost always from the input of native Vietnamese speakers. The purpose of these two sets of authors was to convince. navigation and suchlike. to reach into the minds and hearts of listeners. pieces relating to commerce. these are spelled for the convenience of the European end user and have no pretence of accuracy. Though the results might be uneven . Their authors are mostly Western missionaries or clergy. In many cases religious archives are different. that has not yet been put to good use. offer very limited value to the Vietnamese linguist. we conclude as follows: (1) The author of ANQDN tended to avoid transcribed Vietnamese words with the structure more complex than Chinese characters at that time such as words with initial consonant complex or with pre .Panel 11: Linguistics and Vietnamese language hand. Rome and Paris. events and mores. Assoc.334] SOME REMARKS ON THE TRANSCRIBING METHOD OF VIETNAMESE WORDS USING CHINESE CHARACTERS IN AN NAM QUOC DICH NGU IN TU DI QUANG KY . and that may help developing and integrating research and study in this field. 326  .

Besides. This paper addresses the question how code . the author of ANQDN was not affected by the way to use Chinese characters when Vietnamese words were transcribed in Vietnam (meaning Demotic script) but based on Chinese characters of that time to transcribe Vietnamese words.switching. age etc. Australian National University The influence of a donor language on a receiving one has always been permanent and become increasingly frequent in most Diasporas.switching is used to express and negotiate identity in the Viet diasporas. College of Asia and the Pacific Studies. whose final consonant is not stop sound. Further. the paper shows how specific language choices may be may tied to diasporic norms to perform preexisting identity categories of interlocutors in various geographical areas. to claim category memberships for both addressers and addressees in their languaging process. is a way to construct characteristic of a given ethnic category and at the same time. 327   . [11. whose final consonant is stop sound. we know that the author of ANQDN is affected by the traditional way to read Chinese characters (medieval Chinese characters) less than the author of ANDN. a term used in many different meanings in the literature of bilingual discourses.SWITCHING AS A MEANS OF STAKING THE CLAIMS OF IDENTITIES: A CASE STUDY OF THE MEDIA IN THE VIET DIASPORA IN AUSTRALIA Thai Duy Bao. Dr. Code . it is a study of how identities are constructed through discourses and vary across interactions rather than such social addresses of speakers as ethnicity. sex. (3) By analyzing the way to transcribe Vietnamese words. with qualitative analyses on the media in Viet diasporas. particularly the way to use Chinese characters together with entering tone to transcribe Vietnamese words.335] CODE .Panel 11: Linguistics and Vietnamese language (2) Contrary to the ANDN compiling motto.

such as Chinese culture and Confucian tenets. [11. personnel and training. it is thought that only Vietnam can give a solution to that serious problem. Currently.Panel 11: Linguistics and Vietnamese language [11. Within its diverse ethnic population are cultures and languages which have never been studied or recorded. and can be replaced by typing Han scripts. Osaka University. In order to strengthen the close and friendly relationship of the two countries. In 2005 we did a pilot survey on the languages and dialects of Thatdeng District in Sekong Province. we propose the restoring of Han ideogram education all over Vietnam. Japan As Japanese society rapidly becomes aging. The East Asian region is considered to be the region of Han ideogram culture. accessing to Han ideogram. We would firstly use Han scripts and then Han ideogram if possible. it is important that these cultures and languages are documented before they are lost to the world forever. We hope that a cultural and economic community like the European Union will be created in the East Asia. Although we are limited by lack of funds. technology and communication. Our Institute has the mandate to explore and record the various languages spoken in Laos.337] RESTORING HAN IDEOGRAM EDUCATION IN VIETNAM Tomita Kenji. Countries in this region have developed their cultures with the Han ideogram. As the globe continues to shrink with advances in transportation. we have made a start. integrating the countries’ common culture via Han ideogram or Han scripts. The evidence is that there are common culture characteristics between the two countries. This paper focuses on the rich variety found among the Katu language spoken there. Laos Laos is a country rich in languages and intangible culture. the handwritten Han script is not so popular. The Vietnamese word “hinh chu nhat” 328  . 336] LANGUAGE VARIATION AMONG THE KATU IN THE LAO PDR Thongphet Kinsada Institute of Linguistics. Prof. I am the director of the Institute for Linguistic Research.

This is also the characteristic that attracts the concern of various research circles Compared to that in the entire country. when the first newspaper in “quoc ngu” came into being. This is also helpful in preserving and inheriting the technical and cultural heritage by Han original word which is cultural like Latin and ancient Greek. we believe that Vietnam and North Korea should cooperate to restore Han ideogram education. Its activities are putting forth current issues of internationalisation and preservation of the identity of the Vietnamese language. Ho Chi Minh City (henceforth HCMC) has been regarded as the cradle of journalism. do not originate from the yes/no opposition. orient public opinion. in our opinion. Assoc.Dr. 338] THE LINGUISTIC CHARACTERISTICS OF JOURNALISM VIEWED FROM THE ACTIVITIES OF JOURNALISM IN HO CHI MINH CITY Trinh Sam. It is also ideal that the East Asian people cooperate to educate their children.Panel 11: Linguistics and Vietnamese language (rectangle) when expressing in the form of Han ideogram is called “nhat”. and put pressure on the local 329   . Han ideogram should not be missed out. Vietnamese people not only have profound knowledge of their language. It is known that some Japanese people believe their inheritor may be Vietnamese but not Japanese. the look of journalism in HCMC has peculiar traits which. By learning Han ideogram. journalism in HCM has dramatically developed in both quantity and quality. Journalism in Vietnam after innovation has paid attention to it. Together with great growth in many aspects. One of the prominent features of modern journalism is the interaction between journalism and the public. This is a way to raise the prestige of a newspaper. In order to make that ideal education come true. as well as to spread the traditional and technical culture. but find it easier to learn other East Asian languages such as Chinese and Japanese. Ho Chi Minh City’s University of Education Long since 1865. but take shape from a wide range of emphases. This means that the imaging of Han ideogram “nhat” is still recalled in the spirit of modern Vietnamese. [11. but the realities of journalism in HCMC have created the great resonance.Prof. In order not to be left behind from the region.

Journalism in HCMC pays close attention to the form as well as the use of images. acquisition. or Latinize them. resulting in its attraction to the reader.Panel 11: Linguistics and Vietnamese language administration. journalism in HCMC uses more direct citations. the foundation is still T (theme) . This feature has a positive meaning. The following features are remarkable: a) The use of Sino .I (interpretation). Their average length on the data of journalism in HCMC is 30 syllables (Nguyen Duc Dan. word size and font. Most of the newspapers including that of the Communist Party write foreign proper names in their original form (if they belong to the Latin orthography). Some methods close to those used in international journalism are: not allowing the reading of pages of an article backwards. and not repeating the textual headings on the cover and inside pages fully.Vietnamese with high frequency b) New words formed from old combinations c) The use of word and phrases of dialects d) The imitation of formation from a foreign language e) The imitation of meaning from a foreign language The sentences in journalism have a tendency to be shorter and shorter. change of the inherent structure. In terms of textual organization. borrowing.originates from this feature. but it is restructured into very diversified variants. 2007) Compared to that in the whole country. and adaptation of exotic words and phrases.either positive or negative . A series of important impacts . color. and methods of documenting. among which the following patterns are the commonest: HEADLINE LEAD NUCLEUS SATELLITES NULEUS LEAD DEVELOPMENT 330  . The lexicon in journalism is a system very sensitive to expansion.R (theme) .

with direct witness of and regular involvement in researching and teaching Vietnamese language in the Soviet Union (later called the Federation of Russia). Maspero. a research by scientist Le Quy Don in eighteenth century. We were mostly attracted by the interesting history of Vietnamese scripts which proved that various issues on Vietnamese phonetics were nicely explained by Western evangelists since the first half of seventeenth century. A. named M. Institute of Asian and African Studies. A.V.Panel 11: Linguistics and Vietnamese language [11.the . Haudricourt (French) and many other scientists.339] RESEARCH ON VIETNAMESE LANGUAGE IN RUSSIA Remarchuc Vladislav. we could access to the Western science. Prof. Moscow State University. namely “the view for non syllable segmental phonetics and the construction of Vietnamese syllables” and the view of “morpheme and syllable are basic elements of morpheme and syntax” respectively. The more we explored the history of Vietnamese language. While Vietnamese scripts are the most important component parts of modern Vietnamese culture. Russian Federation When I was studying at Vietnamese department of the National Collective University of Moscow. in 1959.known scientists as L. We were greatly impressed with item “am tu’ in encyclopedia “Van dai loai ngu”. Our Vietnamese colleagues helped us to place a footstep in exploring the tradition of ancient Chinese “Yin and Yang” philosophy. namely the scientific work of such well .art scientific advancements. I was greatly satisfied with and felt a little bit pity when looking back the long path of nearly fifty years that we. G. Thanks to the research of Vietnamese language.Lomonoxov. There are controversial topics in phonology and grammar. Han scripts 331   . We used to be postgraduate students. we had caught state . as well as witnessed the existence of interesting theory in isolating language and the formation of a new terminology system. guided by the same teachers. Cadière.of . the more we understood that in Vietnam helpful and reasonable things are never lost and neglected. the Vietnamese scholars in Russia and our colleagues in Vietnam. At crowded seminars and scientific conferences at universities in both Russia and Vietnam. had gone through.

The number of idioms that have praising implications of personal attributes of physical appearance including those of outside . it is found that 21 subjects have implications of praising and 51 subjects have critical implications. personality. out of them. “Trang nhu ngo can/as white as snow”. Generally speaking. Dr. health and the same is 61. among those idioms that have praising implications. Prof. If these idioms are divided by subjects such as personal characteristics. Comments: 3. VNU Hanoi 1. The idioms were selected for this study by the criterion that they have either praising implication or critical implication: 779 idioms have been selected. [11. than that of those which have praising implications of personal attributes of physical appearance. Nguyen Thi Dung College of Social Sciences and Humanities.. Our research is to focus on idioms that have not only representational meanings but also critical implication and praising implication from delivers to targeted persons.2 The number of idioms that have a praising implication of quality. (The statistic may be different depending on the detail of analysis). behavior and attitude is greater. 340] THE IMPLICATIONS OF CRITICISM AND PRAISE OF PEOPLE IN VIETNAMESE IDIOMS Vu Duc Nghieu.personality such as wealthy. 332  . 137 have implications of praising and the rest has critical implications.1 The number of idioms and subjects that have critical implications is much greater than that of those which have implications of praising. behavior and attitude and the like is 76. attributes and behaviors.Panel 11: Linguistics and Vietnamese language and Demotic scripts are still considered as valuable cultural heritage and are deeply researched. personality. 3. but not dominantly. Assoc. and few of them have specific meanings such as “Mat phuong may ngai/ (a woman) with beautiful eyes and eyebrows”. their representational meanings are abstractive and conditioning such as “Dep Nhu tien/ as beautiful as an angel”. So the number of idioms that have praising implications of personal quality. 3. 2.

anesthesia Untidy. 12. (agreeing with all) Incapable. jealous Claim. useless Greedy Haughty Stingy Vulgar. 25.3 Idioms with critical implications The number of idioms with critical implications (of quality. 14. we will see a picture of Vietnamese people’s preferences of criticism as follow: 1. 6. personality. 23. 21. behavior and judgment Unreasonable Stupid and foolish Health through personal physical appearance Lazy Yes . 10. unfaithful Silly in action. sloppy. 4. 22. malinger. behavior and attitude) is dominant (595 idioms) in comparison with those which have critical implications of personal physical appearance including critical implications of health (47 idioms). Crafty Ungrateful. 5. unreasonable demanding Parasitic Daring. 9. 7. 19. 3. knowledge. 16. 18. Deceitful. 2. If we select subjects that have at least 10 idioms and put them in the order. venturesome 39 37 36 29 22 19 18 17 14 14 14 14 14 14 13 13 12 12 12 12 11 11 11 11 11 333   .Panel 11: Linguistics and Vietnamese language 3.all. crude Very bad Irresponsible. 11. 17. Wicked Material Hypocritical Greedy for power and benefits Spendthrift Envious. 8. 15. 24. 20. 13.

speakers usually resort to different pragmatic strategies to minimize the degrees of face threat. Due to its potentially face threatening nature. and behaviors. Institute of Linguistics. 3. are all metaphorical ones. The meaning manifestations of idioms with critical implications are very delicate. Yet. quality. languages differ in their conventions on the degrees of face threat of each speech act and the power of each linguistic device and a socio .Prof. 341] LANGUAGE AND CULTURE: SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES AMONG THE COMPLAINTS USED BY VIETNAMESE SPEAKERS AND CHINESE LEARNERS OF VIETNAMESE Vu Thi Thanh Huong. what type of these idioms they usually use requires another research. their conception of life. 4. However.pragmatic strategy in redressing the face loss./.Dr.Panel 11: Linguistics and Vietnamese language 3.threatening act.5. VASS Complaint is a speech act which is commonly used in almost all languages in the world and is often considered by researchers as a face . Within idioms which are descriptive of characteristic.idioms. when making a complaint. morality. Vietnamese people give more priorities to discovering. The rest of idioms. 672 idioms. through one part of their vocabulary .sauce” takes up a very small portion (107 proverbs) among those which have praising and critical implications. Assoc. For example: Qua cau rut van (destroy the drawbridge after crossing) Theo dom an tan (live at other people’s expense [opportunism]) Uong nuoc ca can (drink up anything). This is why when 334  . pointing out and criticizing the bad than priorities to do so with the good. figurative and sharp. or about their world outlook. comparative idioms such as “khinh khinh nhu chinh mam thoi/ as disdainful as heavily stale fish . [11. The above discussion is expected to partly shows Vietnamese people’s linguistic expressions of perceptions about aesthetic.4 In terms of formal structure.

The results show that notwithstanding obvious similarities. 342] CHANGES IN THE VIETNAMESE LANGUAGE DURING THE PERIOD OF INTERNATIONAL INTEGRATION Vuong Toan. In spite of the lack of an official legal document on regulation.Panel 11: Linguistics and Vietnamese language foreigners speak Vietnamese. if they do not have a solid background of Vietnamese norms of communication. On the other hand. opportunities always go along with economy.g. By comparing the complaints used by Vietnamese speakers and Chinese learners of Vietnamese in similar situations in Discourse Completion Tasks (DTC). [11. the paper will pinpoint the potential errors made by Chinese learners in making complaints in Vietnamese.cultural communications.cultural life in Vietnam and abroad 335   . particularly in the ASEAN region as close friends. technological transferences or applications must overcome the linguistic barriers to be resolved. the position of the Vietnamese has been tacitly recognized as a national language. reflecting the underlying psycho . e. Dr. With an open .Prof. thus helping reduce conflicts in cross . the complaint behavior of Vietnamese speakers and Chinese learners of Vietnamese differ in certain interesting ways. the paper will highlight the similarities and differences in the semantic formula and linguistic expressions used to make complaints by Vietnamese speakers and Chinese learners of Vietnamese. Vietnam entered into global integration and exchanges at the very beginning of national renovation. misunderstanding and breakdown of communication may occur. VASS 1. cultural or commercial exchanges. Assoc. it has welcomed all the countries in the world. 2. collaboration or cooperation. Institute of Social Sciences Information. With Vietnam is new position in international arena. We are witnessing a change of linguistic functioning of the Vietnamese. the position of its language become more widespread at the same time because any urgent need.cultural characteristics of each culture. A wide horizon is welcoming us ahead. it means that this language takes a new role and position in socio . By comparing the complaints made by Chinese learners of Vietnamese with the preferred complaints made by Vietnamese speakers in similar situations.

In some certain circumstances. And in the context. and some borrowings are truly standardized so late by a timely governmental decision. 336  . in particular linguistic researchers. the Vietnamese is able to “catch up” with the most widespread languages in the world. it is clear that the Vietnamese have definite changes at every linguistic level with its more widespread position in national socio . As a result.makers should be very conscious of the things that they can and must do immediately for a better future of the Vietnamese language. every language develops across its changes. within socio . as our country goes really in international integration. In conclusion.Panel 11: Linguistics and Vietnamese language in the period of international exchanges and integration. And in new exchanging conditions. Regretfully. Those two socio . speaking and writing) which are not easily standardized in a short time.cultural exchanges during its development.cultural life and in international arena. Therefore.makers and planning . some linguistic changes. 3. the Vietnamese has had remarkable changes in functioning role and also in inner linguistic system. decision . we recognize also new neologisms at properly linguistic levels. Therefore. user of the Vietnamese language.linguistic aspects are really in interactions. there are both times and places where the facultative variants (in reading. especially phonetic neologisms and its writing do not catch up with current situation.



Vietnam National University. in fact. suggest that rather than being an exemplar of Vietnamese identity and self . As recent studies further integrate marginalized territories and populations into the world historical narrative. the imperial citadel of Hue was almost completely destroyed.determination the work was most likely commissioned by the colonial authorities and distributed in France as propaganda first.Panel 12: Vietnamese literature and art [12.era films reveal the original grounds and interiors of Hue and many are available for viewing. French archival documents. The official Vietnamese film history claims. While it was part of French Indochina. 1896 TO 1926 Dean Wilson. Today. the government of Vietnam published an official history of the national cinema in 2003 that begins with a chapter on the colonial era. Hanoi During the 1968 Tet Offensive. and Vietnamese spectators at that time were subjected to the conventions of French cinema. Toward improving knowledge of this kind. Vietnam was one of many locations where the French colonial government commissioned thematic film content for propaganda.343] FILM CONTROLS IN COLONIAL VIETNAM. The text inspires many questions and serves as a point of entry. Although the recorded history of early cinema often overlooks film culture details in colonial territories. a discursive structure where none previously existed. for example. as millions of tourists flock to WTO .magnificent palace. however. Dr. My research supplements the official historical record.member nation Vietnam to view the tombs of 19th century monarchs and the remnants of the once . as others have done. film historians are compelled to ask: How and when did motion pictures arrive in this place? How and when did local people start to make their own films? What films did they make? What did local people see on screen? To a large extent the early film history in former colonies is poorly understood because locating colonial records was unfeasible in the past. that in 1926 the first films produced and directed by a Vietnamese person succeeded with local audiences in movie theaters. archival prints and documents represent an alternative history that demands exploration. (IND GGI 64381) It can now be viewed. on the Garment Patches archives website. few know that colonial . with archival documentation.. The essay below contains highlights of my research on the colonial film culture in Vietnam 339   .

monarchs of the Nguyen Dynasty. and their inhabitants correspond to contemporary Vietnam and appear in colonial documents and films. many questions require further inquiry. (Woodside 120) Not until 1887 were the five major territories of French Indochina consolidated and General Government offices established in Hanoi. the material evidence becomes an historical object. Several texts in Vietnamese. Annam. reinterpreted through the discourse of 20th century revolutionary politics.era film production and reception that took place within currently recognized borders is a legitimate method of configuring a national cinema narrative when applied to postcolonial geography. It should be clear from the outset. however. Three of the territories. One group of documents concerns efforts to control the motion picture phenomenon in the colonial territory. Little 340  . Throughout the 19th century. with information on the colonial period. compiling available references according to its own ideological norms.A Rough Sketch). Although my research presents new information in both areas.So Thao (History of Vietnamese Revolutionary Cinema . but it also introduces the more general context of public exhibition. Once it is assembled chronologically. Colonial . and for the purpose of this essay I will limit my observations to aspects of control. The archival material falls generally into two categories that illustrate some of the questions arising from research. The name itself is a vestige of an ancient Chinese tributary system that applied to the people of the northern Red River valley when they were subjected to Chinese domination. had changed the name of their state several times before the French began the colonial occupation in stages. The other group of documents contains the film titles and prints that were produced in what is now Vietnam. This category includes official policies and actions which were often reactions to events. Tonkin.Panel 12: Vietnamese literature and art beginning with the introduction of the medium in 1896 and ending with this paradoxical start of indigenous production in 1926. and Cochin china. established in 1802 on the central coast after centuries of conquest and civil war. These were French constructs that combined political and economic domination with ethnographic research. The method of extracting records of colonial . and the Vietnamese government initiated this task in the 1950s. English. beginning in 1857. French and Japanese. restate facts that first appeared in colonial and Vietnamese journals before being assembled in 1983’s Lich Su Dien anh Cach Mang Viet Nam .era filmmakers produced a body of work coinciding with the movie business there but functioning outside of its more widely known history. that a country called Vietnam was not on the map until after WWII.

Vietnamese poetry has a thousand year history which established a firm tradition. When combined with documents on the local distribution and reception of movies in the territory. Such concepts as soul and aesthetic convention are universal. AND FORMS IN TRADITIONAL VIETNAMESE POETRY (AS SEEN THROUGH SOME KEYWORDS) Doan Le Giang. College of Social Sciences and Humanities. It is hard to understand the national tradition through some keywords. The study of the tradition of Vietnamese poetry can be helpful to understand the soul of Vietnamese people and their aesthetic convention. I would like to give some suggestions as follow: The specific emotions in Vietnamese traditional poetry are “tinh ngia” (sentimental attachment and feeling of duty). but Chinese and Japanese people already did it. it is possible to find the keywords expressing emotions. and the research of Peter Bloom on the interwar film policies of colonial France have contributed additional insights. Prof. an autonomous discourse of colonial cinema in Vietnam emerges. tunes. in Japanese are “mono no aware”. I suggest that this discourse and its constituent parts resist interpretation until further research articulates their contours more reliably. in comparison with poetry of other countries in East Asian region such as China and Japan. [12.. while in Chinese poetry are “phong cot” (firmness) and “nhan thich” (feeling of leisure). My own research. and also national. so I think Vietnamese people also can do it. obtained from archives in France and Vietnam. Assoc. and personal. VNU Ho Chi Minh City Vietnam is called as a “country of poetry”. STYLES. 341   . with more than 20 pages of new information on the colonial period. In other words. TUNES.Panel 12: Vietnamese literature and art more was done to extend the scope of those few pages until the Lich Su Dien Anh Viet Nam Quyen 1 (History of Vietnamese Cinema Volume One) arrived in 2003. Panivong Norindr’s entry in the Encyclopedia of Early Cinema edited by Richard Abel (2007). From that approach. comprises a catalogue reasons of 243 films and a detailed commentary on the 2003 official government history of Vietnamese cinema. modes and forms of Vietnamese traditional poetry.344] EMOTIONS. More recently.

Dr.2” measure and their varieties.AWARENESS: A HUMANISTIC BEAUTY IN TRAN ERA POETRY Doan Thi Thu Van. and the most important: for understanding himself.reflection at mankind level with philosophical meaning. Although originating from Buddhism view.word verse”(that ngon) of Classical (co phong) and Regulated Verse (luat thi).reflection can be found in the poetry of the Tran Dynasty. expressing feeling). other new and more exact keywords could be derived from them. The specific styles/modes in Vietnamese traditional poetry are “dien tinh” (performing. Tran Thai Tong always showed the concern about the changes in human’s condition. However.345] SELF . The conception “Man’s body is like a flash of lighting which exists and disappears in a moment” was contemplated and realized by a lot of images. “Hat noi”. That is the self .reflection at individual level with human life meaning. That is the self . “tuc su” (inspired by the event). [12. it had a humane sense in reminding 342  . Which attempted to retlect the beauty. Sometimes he also looked inward himself to examine his own actions in order to know what he had done and what he had not done yet in his life for evaluating himself fairly and objectively.3” and its varieties.2” measure and “3 . in Japanese poetry are “5 . in culmination) My suggestions might not be acceptable for many people. more than anyone else. while in Chinese poetry are “five . while in Chinese poetry are “tuc canh” (inspired by the landscape). “Song that luc bat”. in Japanese poetry are Tanka and Haiku.Prof. Ho Chi Minh University of Podagogy A person of frequent self . The specific forms in Vietnamese traditional poetry are “Luc bat”.Panel 12: Vietnamese literature and art The specific tunes in Vietnamese traditional poetry are “2 .7” measure and its varieties. At mankind level. Sometimes he looked inward himself to think about the meaning and the existence of incarnation. in Japanese poetry are “ham tinh” (describing the emotion in high peak..word verse”(ngu ngon). “seven . I still believe that the keywords mentioned above could express some parts of truth and. Assoc. while in Chinese poetry are “2 . the preciousness and the nobleness of human beings as well as the limits and the tragedies of human life.

the emotion of human life with social sense which originated from the self . at the end of Tran’s dynasty. Tran Minh Tong’s poem “The rain at night” could not be ignored. Besides. Institute of Asian and African Studies. On the other hand. Recluse Tue Trung. The act of the king who courageously confessed about his fault 30 years before and imprisoned himself in a regret which tormented him forever elevated him to a respectable height. but in just the moment discovering the miraculous piece of music in one’s heart.346] IMPRESSIONISTIC FEATURES IN KHAI HUNG’S SHORT STORIES Antoshchenko Muckova Eva. poet Tran Nguyen Dan with his “self shame” permanently harassed his mind showed a true intellectual’s good sense and heart for the life. Analyzing of some Thach Lam’s short stories from a new point of view shows that the most of them were written in an impressionistic manner. and this is the starting point for creating an impression of sadness towards the life.sacrifice and devotion. Moscow State University.Panel 12: Vietnamese literature and art people to look back to have a meaningful living and to avoid wasting their lives with ephemeral things. The humane beauty remarkably contributed to confirm a great personality of man in “Dong A” age as well as an immortal impression of an unrepeated period of poetry. [12. the only personal sensations have a great importance for him. the author defended a thesis entitled “A study on Thach Lam’s short stories” at the Faculty of Literature of the Institute for Social and Humanitarian Sciences (Hanoi State University). Tran Thanh Tong. The emotion of human life with philosophical sense which originated from the self reflection of a thirsty mind in searching for the truth of life led man to a deep feeling of loneliness as well as indispensable tragedies of human existence. typifying for reflecting consciousness. Thach Lam originally does not except a plot. man simultaneously felt an endlessly deep loneliness. Tran Nhan Tong used to say about their experiences in verifying the truth of life. MA. That’s why he accepted and solved it with a clear and unruffled mind. At individual level.reflection of a mind directing forward the people brought to the man in poetry a beauty of self . in spite of the notion that only this life is firm and lasting. in the poetic tendency of worrying about life and people. considered it unimportant. 343   . Russian Federation In the year of 2000.

Alike Thach Lam. His personages conceive the surrounding world and behave delicate with other persons’ souls. mostly through their feelings. and political situation have direct influence on the composition and literary receipt. with less action. and are lack of action (Dọc đường gió bụi. nation psychology. Human psychology is the biggest mystery. Khai Hung’s short stories are full of emotions. Each nation forms the own way of thinking such as Chinese and Indian in the East or Germany thought is different from French one. kindhearted souls. about his own personality. But whether a literary work with maximum action in it necessarily has the most artistic value? Khai Hung first of all pays attention to manifestations of human psychology. Due to those feelings. Khai Hung’s personages are not the example of strict patterns. Nation thought directly contributes to form art thought. the author observes their destinies. democratic and humane tradition of French. which is worth of special investigation. Khai Hung’s style is based on his individual emotions evolved from human impressions faced to all spiritual life manifestations. and Light Age in the West. and new poetry appeared after 150 years from Le 344  . analyses deeply small details.known that the thought of Nguyen Du and Ho Xuan Huong appeared after 300 years. Điên. [12. makes the reader sympathize with those destinies. The era. and those very feelings define a special quality of his literary works – clear and vague. and he considers his individual impressions are the most important. Tiếng dương cầm. try to reach the inner life.Panel 12: Vietnamese literature and art There is also a new opinion on the literary works of another author from Tu Luc Van Doan group – Khai Hung. That’s why. his short stories are full of innermost feelings and monologues of personages. Đào Mơ). which is stable and unchanged. and they make the reader start thinking about himself. The era is generally characterized by the development of the world and mankind and likes great milestones affecting many nations such as Renaissant Middle Age. It is well . VNU Hanoi Literary works are ruled over by two basic phases: composition and literary receipt. emotions of human being. lasting and faltering at the same time.347] THE PROBLEM OF STYLISTIC RECEPTION IN CULTURE AND LITERATURE Ha Minh Duc. Prof. It is closer and more direct for nation psychology such as the heroic tradition of Vietnamese people. some critics suppose that his short stories are written more finely than his novels. College of Social Sciences and Humanities. Khai Hung rejects the stories’ plot. Khai Hung’s short stories are enriched with consonant. impressions.

Works that leant towards minor themes away from the present situation and sloppy ones were criticized and eliminated. song nhu anh.. homogeneous writers like Ngo Tat To.348] APPROACHING THE CULTURES OF THE ETHNIC MINORITIES BY COMPARING THEIR FOLK . each ethnic group within the fifty . and have long term value.Panel 12: Vietnamese literature and art Thanh Tong dynasty.1992). VNU Hanoi In the history of Vietnamese intellectual and cultural progression. the age situation strongly affects composition and literary receipt. Writers must have talent. having artistic polish. and revolution. reflecting nature of the age under the own and creative filling of artists.. even eliminated during war decades. Literary works should have true value.TALES Ha Thi Thu Huong. actively absorb values of the age with creation. College of Social Sciences and Humanities.. On the other hand. serve for the present situation. Vu Trong Phung who gave diversified expression ways suffered difficulties for many centuries. and have distant vision [12. Literature in the early tens years of the century is the mustering among many sources including reality..four ethnic communities has incessantly reinforced and enriched inter ethnic relations through the synthesis of traditional cultural values and the selective adoption of other groups’ novel cultural values. For the realistic literature. Dr. makes the work not to be floated with time and early forgotten. which served for the present situation in time and acted as propaganda. Ho song va chien dau. were focused on. In order to be able to identify the transformation of culture from tradition to modernity within the context of globalizes exchanges and from the 345   . During development process of nation psychology. Two patriotic wars developed the wartime psychology and literary works. Nguoi me cam sung. Nam Cao were easy to be accepted. many works which were written to propagandize political tasks of the age effectively is gradually forgotten when the political situation pass over such as Hon dat. Having high caliber thought. Romantic literature was disregarded.. New poetry was recognized in the true sense after 60 years (1932 . romance. Vu Trong Phung is considered as the most excellent in prose up to now. Vietnamese literature in the 20th century suffered from much impact of the age situation.. Tu luc van đoan was valued as proper as the appearing time after nearly 6 decades.

and folk literature coexist in a mutually . The distinct values of each culture will be clearly pronounced in the process of cultural exchanges and interactions. exchanges. reform. Through folktales. Folk culture. folk culture. Dr. Attention should be paid to the difference between the terms globalization. customs.has existed and functioned at the same time as the process of ethnic identity formation in Vietnam. ranging from daily activities.depth and comprehensive investigation and research on different aspects of ethnic cultures need recognition because ethnic culture.or the entire nation’s .folded in terms of both empowering and deprivation. and life experiences to ordinary awareness. A case in point is the folktales of ethnic groups portraying varying dimensions of cultural life.reinforced manner.349] VIETNAMESE INTERLECTUALS AND ARTISTS Ho Si Vinh. Folk literature has reflected and also preserved and crystallized the cultural values of Vietnam’s many ethnic groups. evolution. will bring about unexpected discoveries on traditional cultural values reflecting each ethnic group’s essence. Prof. especially in the form of folk literature . religions. acculturation. we may identify the origin of different cultural forms containing regional and local characteristics as well as a particular group’s . [12. financial and information democratization. which has brought about opportunities for technological. Its main representative is economic.states. and development of Vietnamese culture between ethnic groups and the Kinh (Viet) through folktales should be conducted on a large scale. in . It is two . the preservation and development of its national cultural essence and of ethnic cultures are of great significance as Vietnam participates in a dialogue with other cultures or civilizations within the region or beyond. globalize and localization. 346  . As a result. To carry out research on the contacts.cultural distinctiveness. The use of folktales to decode popular culture from its origins. Journal of Culture and Art Globalization is a rule of the era. and to trace relationships between the ethnic groups’ various cultural forms. all of which represent both the material and spiritual life of the ethnic element of folk culture .Panel 12: Vietnamese literature and art perspective of nation .

their disadvantages come from their own personality and particularly.million population. Provided that other cultural identities are respected. The dedication and mental ability. Yet. will add to the strength of the nation. China. National identity is respected in its integration into the community of national identities. Vietnamese scholars and artists hold a great responsibility in the cause of nation building and development. both by those living in Vietnam and abroad. North Korea and Vietnam In that context. scholars and artists are the patriotic and sensitive to reforms. Uncle Ho also said that “The talented are important in nation building. avoid any deviation from practical life Improve their revolutionary qualities. Major contents of cultural globalization in the 20th and 21st century are: • • • • “soft power” of literature and other arts exchanges and similarities between the West and the East in their thinking artistic progress thanks to technological progresses the emergence of a new art stream by overseas people of Russia. special emphasis is given to discovering. individualism as expressed in their obstinacy. Generally speaking. which is seen as a task for all managers. there would be no prosperity” is the saying by Le Quy Don in the old time and the slogan by our Part and Government these days. 347   . using and protecting talented people. “Without mental ability. In the context of international integration and globalization. The talented and moral are always available in our 20 . a premise for integration. our own will be respected.Panel 12: Vietnamese literature and art Cultural globalization refers to the exchanges and complement in culture. Scholars and artists are an important force in that human force. Uncle Ho often advised artists and scientist to • • • Study and improve their thinking and professional abilities Move closer to the public.

Come together with those versions of translation.they are researchers and translators .translated many times in short Vietnam ologists. cultural. “Prison diary” by Ho Chi Minh was translated into 25 languages with 40 versions including 5 versions to English. In this field. 4 versions to Japanese. for a long time. 10 versions from Vietnamese . representative of Vietnamese literature of two periods: Truyen Kieu .Nguyen Du (18 century) and Prison Diary (20 century). there are big numbers of translators… Studying deeper about translators of those version of translation. 348  . The report initially mentioned the milestones of translation and introduced literary achievements to other languages. we learn quite many interesting things: the motive of approaching to those masterpiece are different. is the road from heart to heart of nations.Nom back to ancient Chinese Character. there are many friends from foreign countries participating with a great enthusiasm . social. political achievements of the Country.HOCHIMINH Hoang Thuy Toan. economic. At the moment we have known that Truyen Kieu was translated into 10 languages. 13 versions to French. making a deeper step into the same theme.NGUYEN DU AND TRANSLATORS OF PRISON DIARY . many generations of Vietnamese spend great effort for the work of translation with the aim to introduce the Vietnamese literary achievements to foreign friends. Names of Vietnamese and foreign translators ware also mentioned. including 10 versions to English. Mongolia. In the today report. Together with the introduction and promotion of the image of Vietnamese people and country.mentioned issue with the title “Vietnamese Literature comes to universal friends”. we had a chance to introduce a report on the overview of the above .350] TRANSLATION OF VIETNAMESE LITERATURE TRANSLATORS OF KIEU . MA Viet Nam Association of Writers Translation is a bridge between cultures. In the first international meeting of Vietnamese literature translators. the view as well as asses about those two masterpieces are different. we would like to start with a study on translators (at first foreign translators) of two masterpieces. Lao.Panel 12: Vietnamese literature and art [12. and was re . together with us. Czech and Japan. the understanding. which organized in Hanoi on December 2002.

all administrative documents were written in chu Nom. unprecedented way. 349   . From the 10th century and into the 20th.was born around 1780 at the end of the second Le Dynasty.literature. In the pen of Ho Xuan Huong. or longings after love. humidity.000 years of Vietnamese cultural history is recorded in this unique system. reaffirm the belief and proud of our culture . This heritage is now nearly lost.351] “HO XUAN HUONG IN AMERICA: NOM LITERARY CULTURE AND ITS WORLD REACH” John Balaban. history. not Chinese. Her fame in Vietnam as a poet and cultural figure continues to this day. almost all her poems were double entendres with hidden sexual meanings. or apparently about such common things as a fan. North Carolina State University. fires. Most of its texts are in physical peril. law.her given name can be translated as “Spring Essence” . creation of the original version in the translation version… From those studies. Prof. some fruit. Vietnamese scholars invented chu Nom as an ideographic script to represent Vietnamese speech. i.Panel 12: Vietnamese literature and art translation progress. and government policy was written in Nom script. Because Nom represents Vietnamese speech. [12. she followed Chinese classical styles in her poetry. philosophy. later. religion. medicine. Nguyen Du (1765 .Son emperors (1788 . although a high . In a Confucian tradition that banished the nude from art.. Ho Xuan Huong . Approximately 1.1442) and. destroyed by wars. understand more about the grand father heritage. or even a river snail. in Vietnamese. writing about sex was unheard of.e. Nguyen Du’s younger contemporary. and bookworms. we find a poetry that speaks to the human condition in a daring.ranking one. Nom poetry in the hands of great masters like Nguyen Trai (1380 . a period of calamity and social disintegration.1802).1820) may be seen as the greatest expression of Vietnamese humanism. USA Around the time of Vietnamese independence from China in 939 CE. her poems were anything but conventional: Whether mountain landscapes. but preferred to write in Nom. A concubine. we affirm more the value of those two masterpieces. And while her prosody followed classical Chinese forms. much of Vietnamese literature. weaving. Most Vietnamese cannot read Nom. During the 14 years of the Tay .

In comparison to the West and North America. It was the first time that Nom has been printed in True Type. Kho tang ca dao nguoi Viet [Treasure of Folk Verses of the Viet]. Ho Xuan Huong. the Foundation has taken the lead in the electronic. In 2000.” has called us to the digital preservation of a great world heritage that resides in Nom writing. Kho tang tuc ngu nguoi Viet [Treasure of Proverbs of the Viet]. she wrote poems which ridiculed the authority of the decaying Buddhist church. and Confucian society. [12. Folk literature has created its long lasting values that people in contemporary society still receive with their interests and passions. Dr. digital preservation of a nonprofit agency devoted to digital preservation and study of 1000 years of writing in chu Nom. Since then. 350  . Those are collections such as Kho tang truyen co tich Viet Nam [Treasure of Vietnamese Folk Tales]. modern Vietnamese quoc . because of her stunning poetic cleverness. In a sense. College of Social Sciences and Humanities. and so on.352] FOLK LITERATURE IN CONTEMPORARY VIETNAMESE SOCIETY Le Chi Que. Those are reasons that in contemporary society folk literature is still well preserved in the memory of elderly people. Her poems were copied by hand for almost 100 years before they finally saw a woodblock printing in 1909. It received a startling reception. often called “the Queen of Nom poetry. The book was published in English. especially village culture are long lasting. the feudal state. and in the original Nom. President Ho Chi Minh calls these works as precious stones that we are to make more beautiful and brighter. if this were not enough to incur disfavor in a time when impropriety was punished by the sword. Yet. The preparation of that book led to the founding of The Vietnamese Nom Preservation Foundation (http://nomfoundation. Vietnam’s folk literature has its longer life because the industrialization and urbanization process occurs later and the commune and village relationships. she and her poems survived. Copper Canyon Press published my translations of this poet in Spring Essence: The Poetry of Ho Xuan Huong.ngu. Prof. VNU Hanoi 1. 2.Panel 12: Vietnamese literature and art And. the folk literature works that were published centuries ago have been reedited and republished many times in contemporary society. Thus.

in Vietnamese contemporary society. it still exists in the real life. there are artists who perform folk songs or epics: Ha Thi Cau who sings Hat Sam songs in Ninh Binh province. there are new collections of the folk literature that have been collected and published such as Van hoc dan gian Soc Trang [Folk Literature of Soc Trang] (2002). pictures. at the end of the 20th to the beginning of the 21st century. The other living traditions such as legends are acted in annual folk festivals. and Y Đieng performs Ede epics. the collecting methods. 3. or museums. Kho tang Su thi Tay Nguyen [Treasure of Central Highlands’ Epics] (published from 2002 to 2007). but is revitalized and exists in various forms. and so on. 351   . but also on sound and graphic features of performances in the holistic culture and anthropology. and so on that reflect today’ social multi .dimensional life. On the basis of the traditional oral literature.Panel 12: Vietnamese literature and art Owing to this. In the years of the 21st century. there are cradles mothers who lull with traditional lullaby lyrics. there emerge some contemporary genres of the folk literature such as proverbs. and teaching of folk literature have been renovated. the folk literature is preserved in books. That means that they do not only rely on texts. Van hoc dan gian Bac Lieu [Folk Literature of Bac Lieu] (2005).While in the West and North America. Therefore. folk literature does not fall into oblivion or disappear. especially in countryside and mountainous areas. Due to the particular characteristics of folk literature and the development of advanced technology in contemporary society. Also. Đieu Kau performs Mnong epics. 5. Trinh Thi Ram sings hat dam songs in Hà Nam province. poets. folk verses. in Vietnam. Folk literature has existed or has emerged in the works by contemporary writers. publications. humorous stories. films. 4. screenplay writers.

folklore from all over the world have had close relationship and have affected each other. beautiful words. collection.354] TRADITONAL CULTURAL VALUES IN HEROIC FIGURES IN BANAR FOLKS TALES Nguyen Giao*MA. Vietnamese culture has been shown clearly. “Belling the Cat” criticizes the bad leaders who always ask for privileges and refuse hard works. VASS After a brief presentation of general concept on epic. 352  . there are many primary texts retold so many times.Panel 12: Vietnamese literature and art [12. Hanoi National University of Education Up to now.some elements related to the subject of searching for wife in recently publicized Bana epics. Le Thi Thuy Ly**MA * Ministry of Defense ** Institute for Cultural Research. Assoc. ancient epics and an introduction on the characteristics of Tay Nguyen (Central Highlands) epics in general and Bana people’s epics in particular within the project “Investigation. such as the characters’ names. primary epics. In this process. publication and preservation of Tay Nguyen epics” which is implemented by Vietnamese Academy of Social Sciences. The Vietnamese received “Belling the Cat” from Aesop and adjusted some things. the authors concentrated interpret . translation. By using colorful. the story structure and words… By that.353] COMPARING AESOP ‘S FABLE “BELLING THE CAT” BY AESOP AND ITS VIETNAMESE TRANSLATION Le Huy Bac. Dr. never believes in bad leaders’ tongue.from the aspects of culture and ethnography . Prof. they make the others scarifice for their happiness. [12. Comparing the fable “Belling the Cat” between the text by Aesop and the text by the Vietnamese will show which the Vietnamese borrowed and which the Vietnamese created. added and readjusted to suit each nation’s aesthetic standards. A good lesson in this case.

the main figure often went to other localities to search for his companion for life instead of marrying a girl in his native village. such talent competitions for selecting son . The organization of competitions aimed justly at finding a military alliance through the marriage. this is closely related to the psychology of thinking highly of sunrise orientation . because the Bana people practice the regime of dual .an ancient belief of Bana people. For them. In our opinion. in many cases. In the background of endless military clashes between different villages in the periods of epics. and the purpose of competitions was not to select the future leader of the girl’s . However. it is the orientation of light and auspiciousness. The marriage of the couple became the basic for the formation of an alliance between the village of the girl and the village of the man. was often ended by the victory of the hero in the talent competitions and then the wedding with the daughter of head or even with the female head of a tribe. the search for a powerful alliance was constantly a great concern of Bana people’s tribes. Nature of the talent competition and a beautiful woman as an ward The itinerary of searching for wife. the structure of Bana people’s village in ancient times in general had no conditions to do so.Panel 12: Vietnamese literature and art 1.the areas of obscurity and the world of dend people (the village of phantoms).law or selecting husbands were often organized for the purpose of finding a young man with a predominating capability for leading and protecting the girl’s tribe. We consider that the motive for the hero’s leaving from his tribe to search for wife in Bana epics has its realistic reason: to absolutely avoid the consanguineous marriage. 353   . which is contrary to the sunset orientation .family marriage. 3. In the matriarchal regime. 2. On the event of a hero’s searching for a wife in a far lard In Bana epics. because it is considered that the winners were often representatives of a strong tribe. Moving orientation of the itineraries The hero’s itinerary of searching for wife follows a unique orientation: from the west to east. the husband does not live only in his wife’s house.

354  .355] THE SPIRITUAL WORLD IN NGUYEN DU ‘S WORKS . shrines and tombs. in particular. whose culture is both similar to and different from Vietnam’s. etc).written poems (250 pieces): world of dead people represented by Kieu stories: (festivals. 2. Assoc.Prof. [12. Ho Chi Minh City’s University of Education Nguyen Du’s works profoundly reflect Vietnam traditional cultural characteristics even though he wrote more than anyone about China and Chinese people. ghosts. in the following works: Bao cao đe cap đen khai niem tam linh va the gioi tam linh trong sang tac cua Nguyen Du. 3. What Nguyen Du succeeded to reflect most clearly in his works and what readers by no means fail to recognize is the spiritual life of Vietnamese people. Han . temples.A EXAMPLE OF VIETNAM CULTURE Le Thu Yen. human fate.356] THE IMPACTS OF CULTURAL TRADITIONS ON THE BEGINNINGS AND ENDINGS OF A THAI MINORITY EPIC POEM AND A VIETNAMESE EPIC POEM Le Truong Phat. Prof. etc.sense dreams. tombs. which tells us that his works are well connected to Vietnam culture. vow.Dr. This paper touches upon the concept “spirit” and spiritual way of life in Nguyen Du works. praying. Dr Hanoi National University of Education Epic poem is an art form unique in Southeast Asia.sense Van chieu hon: (afterlife. “Van chieu hon”. fate. wherein “Truyen Kieu” looms the spirit of the dread’s world and his Han written poems more than often talk of temples. dialogue with dead people. which calls on human souls. shrines. etc). dreaming. is indulged in the atmosphere of the world of the dead.Panel 12: Vietnamese literature and art [12. ma cu the la trong cac tac pham: 1. destiny. six . These spiritual matters are indeed popular in Vietnam culture. Assoc. fortune telling. praying. cemetery. Deity. sixth .

[12. Mie University. in terms of their historical significance and their format. the description of daily life of people in war time like “Dai bac ru dem”(Night Canon Lullaby) which describes citizens who cannot sleep because of the noise of canon fire. An explanation of the similarities and differences by resorting to differences in cultural traditions and those between oral and written literature. carrying his guitar and accompanied by Khanh Ly. Assoc. Major contents in the article is as follows: Similarities in terms of theme.war songs: first. respectively. Similarities and differences between the two works in their ending motifs. He was a big success in the early 1960’s with his marvelous “Diem xua” (Beauty of the Past) or “Bien nho” (Nostalgic Sea) sung by the lady singer Khanh Ly. he started writing anti . Prof. Studies have been carried out on the values of the two works and many achievements have been gained.2001) is one of the most famous Vietnamese song writers.war songs. 355   . After the middle 1960’s when the Vietnam War become more and more serious.war meetings organized by students. for certain reasons. However there is yet any comparison between the two works by Thai people and Kinh people. Japan Trinh Cong Son (1939 . it took a long time before any study started. This article avails itself of the opportunity to be the pioneer in the direction. Similarities and differences in their beginning motif.class epic poems in the Thai Vietnam literature while Truyen Kieu or the Tale of Kieu kiss one of the most outstanding work in the Vietnam middle age literature. plot.Panel 12: Vietnamese literature and art “Tien dan nguoi yeu” (xong chụ xon xao) or “Saying goodbye to darling” is among the first . Centre of International Exchanges. social nature of the main characters between the two works. Dr. He created three types of anti . They performed many anti . or “Mot buoi sang mua xuan”(On a Spring Morning).war songs. He began his carrier as a musician in the late 1950’s writing beautiful love songs.357] ANTI . which describes a boy who steps on a mine. For Tien dan nguoi yeu. He went to anti .WAR SONGS OF VIETNAM: TRINH CONG SON’S CREATION AND ITS UNIVERSALITY Yoshii Michiko.

not only for the Vietnam War. The child who stepped on a mine. all Vietnamese governments prohibited them. Trinh Cong Son’s work before 1975 was prohibited in Vietnam. even the soldiers of North Vietnam. As long as mankind continues his vice. It was played on Saigon Radio on the evening of April 30. I describe “Tinh ca cua nguoi mat tri”(Love Song of a Mad Woman). We can see here the universality of these songs crossing political events and time. Thus. Over time. 356  . frontiers or time. because they were considered “art of decadence” under the former government. After the War. 1975. the date the war ended. when the “Doi moi” period arrived. These anti . but the people in the conflict listened to them.war songs for every war of mankind. And for oversea Vietnamese. His anti .war songs were globally admired. Although the Vietnamese community in Japan is rather small. Trinh Cong Son’s anti . these songs will continue to be sung across time and frontiers. his songs do not have a good reputation any more. The third type of song is an appeal for peace and reunification. war.war song “Ngu di con”(Sleep My Boy) was sung in Japanese by a famous folk singer and became a big hit song of midnight radio listeners. his songs were accepted by all Vietnamese people. these themes show us the love of human beings which surpass political opinion. which cries about many boy friends all killed in different battles.war songs are universal. and “Ngu di con”(Sleep My Boy). the woman who become mad because of the death of her boy friend and the mother who sings a lullaby for her son of 20 years. these songs were popular there also. These are anti . because the musician was “a communist” who stayed in Vietnam. They were a success in the USA and France where big Vietnamese communities listened to them. And in Vietnam. a lullaby of a mother for her 20 years old son who dies in the war. many Vietnamese people began to listen to them again. That is why we can conclude that Trinh Cong Son’s anti . overseas Vietnamese singers continued to sing them without presenting the composer’s name. During the Vietnam War. However. An exempla is “Noi vong tay lon”(The Big Dance Circle) which appeals for unity of the North and the South. Trinh Cong Son had the biggest success with his songs translated into Japanese.war songs were universally popular across frontiers.Panel 12: Vietnamese literature and art The second type is about the crying of people.

first half of XVIII (1977). TOAN VIET THI LUC (Le Qui Don). TANG THUONG NGAU LUC (Nguyen An and Pham Dinh Ho). PHUNG KHAC KHOAN was classmate with NGUYEN DƯ. PHUNG of family annals at PHUNG XA. Bui Van Nguyen wrote LICH SU VAN HOC VIET NAM book 2 (1962) and VAN HOC VIET NAM X century . SON TAY. THUC NGOC TRAN VAN GIAP had written TIM HIEU KHO SACH HAN NOM book 1 (1970) and LUOC TRUYEN CAC TAC GIA VIET NAM (1971). In my opinion.358] RE . KIEN VAN TIEU LUC. specifically is KY LUC TIEN TO SU TICH and MAI LINH HAU THANH MAU CHI TRUYEN… To 20th century Duong Quang Ham wrote VIET NAM VAN HOC SU YEU (1941).blooded younger brother of NGUYEN BINH KHIEM. CONG DU TIEP KY (Vu Phuong De). DINH GIA KHANH wrote VAN HOC CO VIET NAM (1964) and VAN HOC VIET NAM X century . Since their tine scholar researchers of the 20th and the 21th century have replicated the legend. THACH THAT. old books from 18th century to the earty years of the 19th century such as: DAI VIET SU LOAI TIEP LUC (Vu Kham Lan). 357   . TUC CONG DU TIEP KY (Tran Tro). etc… wrote PHUNG KHAC KHOAN was the half . VNU Ho Chi Minh City For a long time in Vietnam. what they said was not right.Panel 12: Vietnamese literature and art [12. Assoc. This article contributes to clarify four issues. NGUYEN DU AND PHUNG KHAC KHOAN Nguyen Cong Ly. PHUNG KHAC KHOAN had revised TRUYEN KY MAN LUC (NGUYEN DƯ). My answers to these questions are not same as what some old people have written. LICH TRIEU HIEN CHUONG LOAI CHI .Prof.Dr College of Social Sciences and Humanities.first half of XVIII (1989). NGUYEN DƯ was the student of NGUYEN BINH KHIEM. CONG DU TIEP KY TUC BIEN (Tran Tien?).EXAMINATION OF THE RELATIONS AMONG NGUYEN BINH KHIEM. HOANG VIET THI TUYEN (Bui Huy Bich). That is the opinion of some old people according to the legend handed down from generation to generation.VAN TICH CHI (Phan Huy Chu).

with poetic and prose form. pictures of reality and views of westernized intellectuals on France in the late nineteenth century and the early twentieth century. Because of the fact that most of these authors have good connections with French. Nam ay o Phap ( In France previous time) by Le Van Ngon(?). Travel stories about France are waitten by Vietnam authors. Dr. It can not be denied that journeys to France and communications with the French helped these intellectuals objectively appraise France during that time. Travel hiterature includes chronicles.. Travel stored relate to sociology.1900). Tren duong Nam Phap (On the way from Vietnam to France) by Tung Huong. folklores. Phap du hanh nhat ky (Diary on the journey to France). Prof. traveled to France. Vietnam Institute of Literature. Thuat truyen du lich Paris (Relating the tour in Paris) by Pham Quynh (1892 . With regards to West and East relation. thought and evaluate has original points.. notes. famous temples. these intellectuals are aware of poor conditions of their country.359] VIETNAMESE DIARIES STORY ABOUT FRANCE AND THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VIETNAM AND FRANCE IN THE LATE NINETEENTH CENTURY AND THE EARLY TWENTIETH CENTURY Nguyen Huu Son. they realized the need to modernize their country. 2. archaeology. The contert of travel stories deals with of insiders and contemporaries.. of course. recollections on journeys. the ways they saw. VASS 1. Their 358  . Hoc sinh An Nam o ben Phap (Vietnamese students in France) by Thon Dao(?). architectural achievements. tourist places. These are views of great intellectuals living in the same time and same circumstances. First. culture studies. these travel stories are history works. etc. history places. Assoc. On the case of holiday…I participate a wedding in. Typical writings of this genre includes Chu quoc thai hoi by Truong Minh Ky (1855 . It broadens relationships inside and outside in terms of culture and civilization. researches. Muoi thang o Phap (In France for ten months) by Van Anh. social structure of France. ecological points. Nhat ky di Tay (Diary about going to West). reports. Seeing the development in terms of modern Western technique. who.Panel 12: Vietnamese literature and art [12.1945). Mot ngay voi hoc sanh ta Lyon (One day with Vietnamese students in Lyon). 3. ethnology.

College of Social Sciences and Humanities. there has been a limited attention paid to Literature of overseas Vietnamese by researchers of letters. Up to now. lack of objectiveness and consensus. Travel stories on France in the late nineteenth century and the early twentieth century help to get evaluations on the relation between Vietnam and France more clearly and draw experiences for future. Assoc. The article focuses on two targets: the first is to relocate the position and importance of literature of overseas Vietnamese in Vietnam’s literacy history as an indispensable element and at the same time to emphasize the need to place it in a greater sphere of Vietnamese history and culture. the second is to re . the majority are on its contemporary. early modern and modern time. which are positive.e.evaluate the significance of one of the first literacy works by overseas Vietnamese in Ly . Eastern and Western techniques. reasonable and suited to progress rules of society and trends of international integration. It has been the spiritual product of Vietnamese communities in foreign country. or “Van hoc Hai ngoai”.Prof.Dr.VNU Hanoi Literature of the Vietnamese who live overseas. which was not unanimously assessed by researchers on Vietnam’s literacy history. with a few concerns with its other periods like medieval.360] OVERSEAS VIETNAMESE LITERATURE AND THE RE-EVALUTION OF “NAM ONG MONG LUC” IN VIETNAM LITERACY HISTORY Nguyen Pham Hung.Tran dynasty.Panel 12: Vietnamese literature and art knowledge on France urged them to make comparisons between East and West. is a special phenomenon in the history of Vietnam’s literature. and is closely attached to Vietnamese history and culture. i. [12. Nam Ong mong luc of Ho Nguyen Trung. That was why the assessment of literature value in particular as well as Vietnamese cultural history seemed to be rather unilateral. 359   . Moreover.

. Yet it is true to say that the premise for theater inception was the translation of French . namely.VNU Hanoi “Modern theater” refers to Vietnam theater born in 1921 under the influence of French performing arts. However. which is: Why not? This paper takes up the question and tries to give the best answer to the seminar. in 2005. into Vietnamese. who had his work printed on Indochina magazine. Foreign plots. which is the biggest contribution of Vietnam modern theater following national independence in 1945 and 1975. Nguyen Van Vinh was the first translator. namely of the French. which came to Vietnam together with other European performing arts in the first half of the 20th century. modernization and professionalisation was made to two steps. production and on . We also sent directors and artists to study overseas or in Vietnam. by Vietnamese people. It was following the effect of Berne Convention that foreign dramas were banned from performing illegally. Performing foreign drama is an important part of Vietnam modern theater. They have received the answer from some theater. former Soviet Union and other countries. the Theater Publisher was brave enough to produce the plot for 100 world masterpieces and put forward the question of their performance on the stage. College of Social Sciences and Humanities.Prof. which tell of their own issues of interest. The period from then until early 21st century witnessed historical ebbs and flows.written plots by famous artists such as Moldier.stage performance. Among those pioneers. It was only until the early 20th century that Vietnamese people knew how to write a drama in their own Vietnamese language.Dr. there was a long period when the theater was deprived of audience.Panel 12: Vietnamese literature and art [12. have been produced and successfully performed on the modern stage.361] DIRECTING AND PERFORMING 100 MASTERPIECES OF WORLD THEATRE IN VIETNAM THEATRE IN EARLY 21ST CENTURY: WHY NOT? Nguyen Thi Minh Thai. Particularly speaking. All these mark the official inception of Vietnamese theater. Assoc. In that context. It was also until then that these written plot was produced by Vietnamese director and performed by Vietnamese artist so as to be watched by Vietnamese audience at a Vietnamese theater. It should be noted that the question is pivotal to the survival 360  .

acting.362] RECOVERING AND PRESERVING VIETNAMESE CLASSICAL OPERA (TUONG) THROUGH THE EXPLOITATION OF SINO . voluminous writings. MA Institute of Han .Nom Studies. information content. nowadays. with the accusing the feudal system in 1945. masters of Tuong are losing in oblivion and actors are unable to read the scripts.Nom and 361   .Panel 12: Vietnamese literature and art of Vietnam modern theater should we want to integrate with the world theater in our own way. Meanwhile. The history of this art has two periods. Binh Dinh et cetera hold again only some plays of Tuong co such as Son hau. “Tuong co” has not much of land to grow. has gone deep into folk activities in recent centuries and become an important part of the culture heritage of Vietnam in general and the history of Tuong of Vietnam in particular. [12. therefore. the same music but written in Vietnamese script (the national language of Vietnam which is created from Latin characters). because of the limitation of script. Following the “Tuong co”. Regret that. Tam Quoc etc. whereas many other valuable plays such as Luong quoc tra hon. (through documents in Sino . composing “Tuong co” script was forbidden. “Tuong co” took shape from various form of folk play acting. The national theatre of Tuong holds no play or extract of “Tuong co”. VASS “Tuong” has been recognized as a specific form of traditional stage of Vietnam. “Tuong co” with its long developing history.NOM TUONG SCENARIOS Nguyen To Lan.Nom script. “Tuong hien dai” was born with the same play . has never been restored. families of artists of Tuong or their relatives et cetera This article based on general research on the status of storing script of “Tuong co” of Vietnam from Nguyen dynasty to the moment. “Tuong co” was written in Sino . rich information content. professional and amateur Tuong companies.acting. there are many ancient scripts preserved in both local and overseas establishments. Although the destiny of “Tuong co” in the long journey of the culture had not few vicissitudes. It has been improving and completing it self and it has distinct play . as a result the possibility to preserve and restore these plays is fewer. Dinh Luu Tu etc. Some local theatres of Tuong such as the theatres in Hue.

in which real or fictitious events.363] FURTHER DISCUSSION ON THE FEATURES OF THE EPIC GENRE IN VIET NAM Nguyen Viet Hung. collected and pusblished many epics. But.364] INTEGRATION AND THE ARTS IN DEVELOPMENT IN HUE AND VIETNAM Nguyen Vinh Phoi. usually the achievements of some heros. It is difficult to claim that all of the works are the epics or not.Panel 12: Vietnamese literature and art research data at Tuong storing establishment). Report shows Hue art rhythm of integration and development in particular and of Vietnamese in general with following issues: The policy of art rhythm of integration and development in new context 362  . on the other hand to become an important part in developing cultural tourism which will attract both local and overseas tourists. [12. In this report. MA. Assoc Prof. a kind of narrative poem. the Vietnames folkloristics have discovered. Vietnam is the integration place of East and West civilizations. it is necessary to affirm the certain valid of Vietnames epics. During recent years. content of the most valuable scripts) and from there bring out a project to preserve and restore plays of “Tuong co”. This also present some solutions through exploiting ancient scripts of “Tuong co” to bring it closer to model audiences. Although my opinions about the epic in Viet Nam are not in the best accordance with the traditional concepts of what an epic is. usually called an heroic poem. Hue University of Art From the past to present. This will point out some statements about “Tuong co” script reserves (status of the scripts. Iliad and Odyssey. The epic was narrated in a grand style. to make “Tuong co” become one of the most necessary spiritual activities of Vietnamese nowadays. [12. the main point is that the Vietnames epics have some separate characteristics. Hanoi National University of Education The traditional concepts of the epic were based on two Ancient works.

Hue has two UNESCO classification material relic and it is also state approved festival city . World development is putting demands on environment protection. art. Accept world current art quintessence basing on foundation of Vietnam traditional characters with excellent beautiful value is moving toward with human life and humanity. If so. particular in economic aspect for supporting development of present art. sculpture. Art aims to provide human peace and happiness. In the world at present. Value of present art in Vietnamese and World’s tradition. Rhythm integration and development Hue art and Vietnamese art 363   .Panel 12: Vietnamese literature and art Mutisectional integration. it aims to human Truth Honest . it will wither. traditional trade villages. International sculpture and art camping in Hue and in Vietnam. Hue and other provinces promote community art via festivals. art of arrangement. Fortunately. Number of festivals in Hue: Hue Festival.Beauty value. Folk art and art socialization community Pure art in integration with folk art in serving civil community Art integration and development in region and world keep conservation and promotion of region and area ethnic features. Apart from material or immaterial aspect of art. UN Buddha’s birthday 2008. development of technology putting pressure on community art modernization. There is no art culture that limits immigration of others for its immortality. street art exhibitions. Hue art rhythm of integration and development in particular and of Vietnamese in general must be in line with development procedure in integration period of time.

Therefore.Sc.365] WHAT DO EPIC POEMS TELL US? Phan Dang Nhat. only when individuals are confirmed. (Roberto Assailing) [12. Prof. Dr. particularly.366] ABOUT THE TIME NAMED “DOI MOI” (RENOVATION) Phong Le. integration. It employs a unique method for reflection. This is a basis to 364  . VASS 1. Institute of Cultural Studies.Panel 12: Vietnamese literature and art [12. which find their way into contemporary epic poems in a unconscious manner. Second change: It is made with a shift of community to individualism with a new concept: Only strong individuals can build a strong community. and peaceful co existence without discrimination of political systems or individual points of view… But symbiosis also means we have to learn how to co . the confrontation between socialism and capitalism is shifted to détente.. by symbols. 2. On the basis of the above points. such as the perception of a period beyond human memory and perceptions by semen artists. any attempt to study epic poems must start with interpretation of the symbols or national culture and identity in conjunction with human civilization. can the confirmation of the new community be made effective. since many of those theological perceptions are being proved to be real while “what echoes in another reality must be considered a reality itself”.exist with “the evils” before having any ideas about transformation or destruction of it are dealt with. Epic poetry belongs to liberal arts which reflects historical and social features not in the way of chronological recurs like other history records. Institute of Literature. the paper recommend that epic poems be expanded to topics out of the social and historical realms. Prof. VASS First change: It was made when the world was divided in half. which are part of national identity. 3. Epic poems contain events and phenomena outside the historical and social realm.

Prof. Dr. Soviet school with the role of Becton. Thus. India and in particular. there is still instability and tranquility in the community’s life.modernism. mostly with Western modernism and post .367] VIETNAM CONTEMPORARY LITERARY THEORY AND INTERNATIONAL INTERGRATION Phuong Luu. it remains a development imbued with a lot of worries because there is still an unrecognizable boundary between individual development and individualism. and from “the blocks” (in an unchanged world) to integrate themselves in a thawing world so as able to reach the targets being followed by entire human . However.Panel 12: Vietnamese literature and art help build new developments of a literary and spiritual life. Other oriental classical schools of literary theory such as China. history proves that literary theory can by no means develop without integration. However. Third change: It is the expansion of exchanges and confluences originated from different civilizations. all these school of literary theory is barely mentioned in Vietnam. Hanoi National University of Education Contemporary Vietnam literary theory indicates Vietnam’s literary theory in integration with the world over the last 20 years of reforms. For example. Western 365   . However. and so it is compulsory for them to open their doors for the annexation of the western civilizations from the latter half of the 19th century till the first half of the 20th century.. are still modern in a figurative meaning to Vietnam. during the 30 years of reforms in China. Integration must go along with consciousness to master the heritage of Vietnam literary theory since the 10th century to the 20th century. change social activities and human appearances. attention must be paid to the systematic and historical methodology in approaching the world’s literary theories. it is important that modern schools of theory be absorbed with full awareness of methodology.kind and get out of an isolated local world in the last decade of the 20th century. Its ten year experience so far gives us lessons on how to absorb modern literary theories in the best interest of cultural traditions and our circumstances. Lot man is also highly appreciated by the West. First. 3) In the new context. [12.

the Court and of the King himself. we must be fully aware of the structure and history of the subject.Panel 12: Vietnamese literature and art modernism employs not only the textual formality and structure approach but also the social approach.Dr.structuralism. The school further evolves into post modernism. [12. reader approach and writer approach. it is essential that we review the achievements and set out the direction such as translation. Aak (Korea) 366  . the modern world and the ancient world. Association of Vietnamese Folklore Literature and Art According to historical records. 4) In the sea of various schools of theory from both the East and the West. This paper intends to introduce in brief the Vietnam’s Court music on two lines: 1. Second.Sc. while structuralism evolves into genetic post . Only by doing so can we avail ourselves of a wide range of options to absorb. 2. we can say that the court music was created and then gradually developed through the ruling time of all different Vietnamese dynasties. including teaching materials in university. Prof. Historical background The Dinh dynasty The earlier Le dynasty: The case of Long Dinh king The Ly dynasty: The folk music style and the liking for Champa music The Tran dynasty: Continuity of folk music style and first elements of Nha Nhac The Ho dynasty: At first time the Nha Nhac was realized in Vietnam The Le dynasty: The Nha Nhac was completed imported and played an important role in several activities of the Palace. The Yah Yueh or Nha Nhac in Vietnam The commonality and the diversity of Vietnam’s Nha Nhac in comparison with Yah Yueh (China). Gagaku (Japan).368] AN INTRODUCTION TO VIETNAM’S COURT MUSIC To Ngoc Thanh. introduction and application of these theories in a specific project.

Modern Poetics has been applied widely in reseaching on literature in Vietnam.. influenced by Western and Russian poetics Vietnamese critics begin to care about poetics. Now a day.369] MODERN POETICS IN MODERN LITERARY RESEARCH IN VIETNAM IN THE 20TH CENTURY Tran Dinh Su... Likhachev. method of creating genres. Hoang Trinh. Vietnamese poetics developed strongly. Girmunski. Artistic plot.. Hanoi National University of Education If we see poetics being knowledge about criteria of literary language.. In the year 1980s-1990s. style.. Artistic space. Hoang Trinh used semiotics in poetry criticism. such as Tomashevski. Eykhenbaum. Phan Ngoc used structure poetics on studying Kieu Story and Tang poetry. such as Nguyen Xuan Kinh.. He suggests the models: Artistic conception about human beings. Shklovski. Prof. Artistic word and studies those in influencing and changing follow literature history.. It ran over the sociological criticism which dominated many last decades. La Khac Hoa. Artistic time. Basing on that.1887). Poetics in “Kieu Story” (1981-2002). poetics appeared in some critical works but not become the theory.. Before the August Revolution 1945. Bakhtin. it appeared in Vietnam by the first folktales and works writing in Han language.Panel 12: Vietnamese literature and art [12. Tran Dinh Su was influenced by poetics critics of Rusian formalism. Poetics in Vietnamese middle literature (1998). there are a lot of critics using modern poetics in studying literature. He wrote Poetics in To Huu’s poetry (1885 . he builds the theory of modern poetics.. Among the pioneers are Phan Ngoc. Le Luu Oanh.Dr. Khravchenco. 367   . Tran Dinh Su. At the end of the 1970s. Phan Huy Dung. Do Duc Hieu.

The study of Hue painted enamels has been made over the past twenty years. Dr. I would like to give further information to contribute to interpreting some problems on Hue painted enamels which are drawing everybody’s concern. According to their locations. Guangdong is closer to Vietnam. birds and literary works on wall panels between upper and lower roofs of palaces. The Nguyen dynasty changed the term falang into phap lam to avoid mentioning the tabooed names of some important persons of the Nguyen family. In comparison to Beijing. and not compartment cloisonné industry of Beijing. but until now researchers have not agreed with each other about a lot of questions such as: which type does Hue painted enamels belong to? Is it called “phap lam” or “falang”? Even some people are in two minds about whether Hue painted enamels was made in Hue or not Through newly updated materials and reality observations in study strips in Europe and China over the past period.370] NEW UNDERSTANDING OF HUE PAINTED ENAMELS OF THE NGUYEN PERIOD Tran Duc Anh Son. Hue painted enamels are architectural objects with copper core body coated with a many layers of different colored enamels.. Hue painted enamels are works of high quality with regard to form (varied).1945) in HUE PAINTED ENAMELS (Phap lam Hue) stand out. Painted enamel industry of the Nguyen came directly from enamel industry of Guangdong. flowers and vegetation. these enamels were used in decorations to adorn roof tops. Due to their high resistance to external forces of heat and rain and passage of time. Phan Chau Trinh University Among the cultural heritage of the Nguyen dynasty (1802 . Hue painted enameled objects is their household utility and interior decoration items or adornments on tombs and palaces are precious inheritance of the Nguyen in Hue to future generations. They also appeared in decorative panels depicting scenery. co lour (vivid) and decoration (rich and lively).Panel 12: Vietnamese literature and art [12. From an artistic point of view. forms and utility. or on gates in royal palaces and tombs in Hue. Nguyen painted enamels can be divided into two types: 368  . and ridges of royal palaces.

it can be affirmed that the Nguyen dynasty was more creative in the application of painted enamels in daily life than the Chinese. the craftsmen making painted enamels under the Nguyen used painted enamels as architectural materials in the construction of royal palaces and tombs in Hue. Painted enamels for daily use. In fact. Today the Chinese industry is still flourishing. then had them inscribed with Nguyen Kings’ reign marks.1888). thus lessening a 369   . colures. They made full use of high resistance quality of painted enameled material to mechanical and physic . While the Chinese. Therefore. decline and disappearance of Hue painted enamels lasted just over 60 years (1827 .chemical impact to make decorative motifs adorned the exterior of structures which were built in a land with severe weather and climatic conditions. while the history of existence and development of techniques of making Chinese painted enamels extend over 700 years. for rituals or for fine souvenirs. they were BESPOKE PAINTED ENAMELS. in all aspects from shapes to enamels. development. So the techniques of making painted enamels of China. incorporated into structures of the Hue monuments complex under the Nguyen. the Nguyen dynasty also commissioned painted enamels in Guangdong. The history of coming into being.Panel 12: Vietnamese literature and art Painted enamels decorated on structures: They are works of painted enamels used as exterior decorations. the Japanese as well as Westerners. These works are abundant in both shape and decorative designs and can be classified into four small groups. After many years of researching painted enamels. dating from the 13th century together with the invading Mongolian Yuan forces. decoration style and firing are better than those of Hue under the Nguyen. existence. over 200 years of existence the decorative motifs in painted enamels on the structures in Hue still retain their bright colures. especially after observing directly Canton painted enamels presently being displayed and preserved in some European museums and after comparing them with the painted enamels under the Nguyen currently being preserved in Hue Royal Antiquities Museum. only consider phap lang/shipouyaki/email painted enamels as a kind of material to produce items for daily use. Ai Tu and Dong Hoi. This practice has caused future generations to think that these painted enamels were also produced in the imperial workshops. I have come to the conclusion that while decreeing the making of painted enamels in the workshops in Hue. for ritual ceremonies and for interior decoration: This type forms the largest number in the collection of painted enamels in the Hue Royal Antiquities Museum. However.

. On the other hand. from a religious angle. Institute of Literature.371] THE STORY OF “QUAN AM THI KINH” STORY UNDER BUDDHIST AND PHILOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES Tran Hai Yen.text study shall be applied by the article to research the formation. Quan Am Thi Kinh is closely linked to the ritual of worshipping Quan Am (Guan Yin) . Prof. This is an achievement of Hue painted enamels in comparison with other types of painted enamels.a universal phenomenon in the Buddhist culture region. a verse story in Nom language (Chinese transcribed Vietnamese) and Cheo story (Cheo . and variation of the “Quan Am Thi Kinh” story as well as the reciprocal affect between the texts related to this story. Nguyen Tuong. [12. Taiwan The folk belief of Vietnam is very developed. VASS “Quan Am Thi Kinh” is a story that exists in various forms of writing: folklore.. statue (religious ritual). Through these documents. monk doctor Ong tru xa tinh… There are many stories and legends. spiritual form and the interaction of cultural components. Dao Tuan. Dr. 370  . transmission. [12. literary and art elements will show more clearly the process of localization of a religious. placing Quan Am Thi Kinh in the heart of affect from religious. Methods of cross . Ngoc Hoa princess. Cheng Kung National University. which are recorded in the novels written in Chiness characters and local chorography or the stories of the gods of districts and communes. Hung Dao Vuong.Panel 12: Vietnamese literature and art sense of melancholy and tranquility inherent among the relics in Hue while still retaining an air of splendor in a weather beaten ancient capital city. in which there is many gods and saints relevant to the medical such as Cao Son Dai Vuong. Therefore.traditional opera).372] LEGANTARY MEDICAL DOCTORS IN VIETNAMESE FOLK TALES Tran Ich Nguyen.

another reason is visitors participating in “Go Thap” festival for their religious. we found that in this relic area. 3. From comprehensive point of view of Go Thap festival. researchers have found Oc Eo civilization remains. Doc Binh Kieu . belief in 371   . Buddha. MA. Dong Thap University of Education “Go Thap” festival is one of great festivals in Dong Thap province in particular and West of Vietnam Southern Area in general. showing religious phenomena. number of visitors in Go Thap is significant increasing. [12. At this site. Co Tu temple. This festival is held twice anually (16th of March and 15th. spiritual cultural demands of people living in the area in particular and other visitors in general. relationship between Thien Ho Duong legend and Go Thap festival. Apart from the reason of Dong Thap provincial authority investment in tourism. cultural relics in Go Thap area such as Go Thap Muoi. religious. 2. 16th of November in lunar calendar). Go Minh Su. Long An province. author explain about cultural. This make “Go Thap” festival becoming a unique cultural activity for people living in West of Vietnam Southern Area.Panel 12: Vietnamese literature and art we can learn about the process of Vietnamese famous physicians deification and clarify the complex relationship between them and it is hoped that we can find special cultural features surrounding the legendary doctors. Ba Chua Xu pagodas. Research on cultural exchange. Features. In recent years.. relevant stories and legends. In the early steps. Vietnamese traditional culture. festival.373] THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE “THIEN HO DUONG” LEGEND AND THE “GO THAP” FESTIVAL Tran Minh Huong. there is a cultural combination of Oc Eo.Thien Ho Duong’s tomb and temple. spiritual phenomena of current people living in West of Vietnam Southern Area and giving proposals of holding festival to meet religious. Report show the following issues: 1. Go Thap festival is the one that shows the cultural exchange among them. which is similar to other discovery in other provinces such as An Giang province. There are number of historical.

The paper presents a sketch of the modern orbit Vietnam is moving on and a fair and objective explanation of the stumbling path. his translation of “Evolution and Ethics” is one of his first work (1898) and was the first work that came to Vietnamese 372  .Dr. Assoc. First.Vietnamese war. since the late 19th century.West cultural exchanges in early 20th century.375] THE IMPACT BY THE 19th CENTURY CHINESE TRANSLATION OF THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION AND ETHICS 天 演 論 ON VIETNAM CONFUCIAN LITERATURE IN THE EARLY 20th CENTURY (SOME THEORETICAL ISSUES CONCERNING ON EAST . The paper also gives a preliminary view of the tasks on writers should they strive to meet the requirement of literary modernization.West contact. Vietnam literature has gradually moved from the region to join the world orbit with European literature at the axis. College of Social Sciences and Humanities. of Yang Fu’s many translation works of Western school of thoughts.WEST CULTURAL EXCHANGES IN EARLY 20th CENTURY) Tran Nho Thin. its pauses and its gaps.VNU Hanoi This paper is a presentation of the ideology and lexical impacts on Vietnamese Confucian literature by the Chinese translation by Yang Fu. University of Social Sciences and Humanities. [12. named 天 演 論 (1989) of the English version named Evolution and Ethics by Thomas H. Assoc. Reasons for the choice of this translation version are as follows. The movement was by no means smooth and easy and is affected by various actors. particularly the French . Huxley. Prof. By doing so..Prof. the paper presents a survey on East . VNU Hanoi Stimulated by the East .Panel 12: Vietnamese literature and art [12.374] THE UNEVEN PATH TOWARDS MODERNIZATION TAKEN BY VIETNAM LITERATURE SINCE LATE 19th CENTURY Tran Ngoc Vuong.

They explained the downfall of Champa kingdom using the theory of evolution. Vinh đao cuong thuong (a poetic tribute to man’s ethics) is based on Confucian philosophy. such as holocaust. Vinh bon mua (a poetic tribute to four seasons). Even those writers who traveled to Japan communicated to Western thoughts through the Chinese version of the book. race protection. classically normative and normally used in Confucian literature and Tang poetry such as: Vinh Nam can (a poetic tribute to five watches). Vinh tứ thứ (a poetic tribute to four interests) and Vinh tu khoai (a poetic tribute to four pleasures) are to express the interests and pleasures of intelligentsia gentlemen.376] THE DEMOCRATIZATION AND LOCALIZATION OF TANG – STYLE NOM POETRY Tran Quang Dung. competition..1909.control in order to gain independence and avoid a holocaust. No thorough but initial study has been made by Vietnamese researchers on these works’ impacts on the writing of patriotic and reformist Confucian followers. [12. Hong Duc University The inheritance of Tho Nom Đuong Luat in terms of themes. Vinh muoi hai thang (a poetic tribute to twelve months) which are based on ancient Oriental philosophy. Herbert Spencer Study of Sociology. whose terms were used by them in their writing. Second. citing it as the necessity to adjust their old Confucian thought which used to look down on actions and calling for self . Dr. They based on the translated books to build up their thoughts and make their own writings calling for national independence and freedom. Montesquieu Spirit of Laws in 1904 . The article aims to highlight the influence of the theory of evolution as communicated to Vietnamese patriotic writers through the Chinese version of the book.Panel 12: Vietnamese literature and art Confucian followers Other works such as translation of Adam Smith Wealth of Nations was made in 1902. etc. 373   . Vinh nhan vat lich su (a poetic tribute to historic heroes) is to show respect to the ancient and to impeach later generations etc. Edward Jenks A History of Politics in 1904. topics from Đuong Luat Han are shown through the choice and use of themes and subjects which are conventional. Yet they remained unaware as to how to establish and structure a modern society.

Third.. there was a tendency to abandon the way of thinking of Tang poetry. Institute of Literature. which are written in satire and criticism. Dr. During that time. the theme of common women with emotional tragedies. Fourth.1985 period). Second. the addition to and extension of the limited range of the routine and conventional themes of Đuong Luat Han.. Prof. For a long time of around 40 years (the 1945 . festivals were postponed because of the war. bringing a new way of thinking in poetry.. themes about ‘products’ of social regime etc. Assoc. opening up a unique aesthetic field. there was a harmonious combination between positive aspects of Confucian ideology and the genius of the nation. Fifth. Such themes and topics are Vietnamese history. Terms explanation: Tho Nom Duong Luat a type of poetry which is written in ancient Vietnamese transcript and rigidly follows the strict rules of Tang dynasty poetry about rhyme. This proves the ability to cover social life of Tho Nom Đuong Luat. those legends managed to be passed down orally and resumed to be performed at the festivals when the latter resumed. and is also one of the important contributions of Tho Nom Duong Luat to national literature. there appeared satire in poetry which revealed personal inner feelings of the poets. in which legends were 374  . the use and creation of themes and topics which directly arose from the reality of life imbued with national characters. Đuong Luat Han: a type of poetry which is written in Chinese transcript and rigidly follows the strict rules of Tang dynasty poetry about rhyme.377] LEGEND IN CONTEMPORARY LIFE: THE RESTORATION OF TRADITIONS FROM THE INTERRUPTION ( A CASE STUDY OF LEGENDS AND CULTS OF THE FOUR MOTHER SAINTS (TU VI THANH NUONG) Tran Thi An. At this point there appears an interaction between the legends and the new era. number of lines and words etc.Panel 12: Vietnamese literature and art The inheritance and adjustment of Tho Nom Duong Luat in terms of themes and topics in correlation with Đuong Luat Han in the way of popularization and nationalization is shown through the following aspects: First. VASS Folkloric legends in Vietnam are closely linked to legends compiled and performed in popular festivals. the contemporary spirit. number of lines and words etc. [12.

This article will go on with a case study regarding legends and worship practice of the Four Mother Saint. which originates from China and spread through Tonkin to Annam and partly to Cochinchina. super . For many different reasons. more or less outside the limit of the chronologically present time. namely Con shirne in Quynh Luu. The survey is based on materials such as China history.378] CONTEMPORARY SENSE AND ITS INFLUENCES ON THE CHRONOSCOPE IN FICTION IN THE FIRST HALF OF THE 20 th CENTURY Tran Van Toan. MA. Quang Ninh. the particular . the paper gives readers a vision into the rule of establishment for a contemporary legend. a priory rules. the chronoscope in medieval literature is characterized by the universal. These features of medieval prose’s chronoscope are corresponsive with the static feudal society. Hanoi National University of Education In the essay “Forms of Time and of the Chronoscope in the Novel: Notes towards a Historical Poetics”. all particular. The Vietnamese society in the first half 20th century experienced many dramatic changes in the background of the culture. (1937 . This feature makes medieval fiction and narrative verse always direct the readers to recognize another reality which is universal and permanent. [12. As a result. fashion and changed the perception of time as something exactly and concretely measurable. All that makes up the face of contemporary legends. 375   . The newspaper supplied the reader’s information about daily. Bakhtin proposes the term “chronoscope” both as a narrative device and as a means to explore the correlation between art and life. realistic of poetic spaces are erased. Nghe An and Trung Coc shrine in Yen Hung. readers will learn more about spiritual needs in the contemporary life. beyond the directly described reality in the work.temporality. secular. In other words.historical time in the literary work is treated as the material to demonstrate the permanent. and studies by other researchers on the same topic carried on other shrines.1938). The emergence of modern urban spaces created the dynamic rhythm of life. On the basis of the comprehensive study. By doing so. stories around temples and shrines and fieldtrip studies on two notable shrines.Panel 12: Vietnamese literature and art supplemented by new evidence of a new life and new beliefs.

The chronoscope model based on the sense of contemporary is an important criterion which help us discover the “realistic” (ta thuc . the spatial . These factors made a vision based on traditional universal. In the next stage. The new sense of contemporary once became the elements which attracted the readers gave rise to a new model of chronoscope with these features: the contemporaneity of narrative time and plot. times divided into concrete levels (day . the unique chronoscope applied to all the characters and events is disrupted and brings about the chronoscope which has the particularities of each region. This is a remarkable contribution of the first half of 20th century’s fiction in the development of the genre. Time with its particular . the daily life. permanent categories out of date.the romanticism and the realism . the fiction divided into two branches .hour .historical feature therefore is dissolved into the whole poetic world. 376  . a new sense of contemporary emerged which is interested in the current affairs.Panel 12: Vietnamese literature and art contemporary life. Also on this basis. Instead of this.minute) from which daily time is emerged.the term proposed by the writers and the critics at that time) in the first half of 20th century’s fiction.but the particular historical chronoscope has become the least common denominator of the modern fiction.temporal intersection by which time is specialized and materialized.



Nether land Company set up commercial firms here to serve raw silk transactions. which were very popular then. MA Tokyo National University In the 17th century.380] CHRONICLE “THE SHORT HISTORY OF THE [GREAT] VIET” THE HISTORY OF TWO DYNASTIES OF THE FIRST LATE LY DYNASTY (1010 .Japan archeological group began to excavate near Hien pagoda. a Viet . In Feb 2000.1225) Alexey B. Polyakov.1127) AND THE SECOND LATE LY DYNASTY (1127 . Here.379] ARCHEOLOGICAL EXCAVATION FINDINGS IN PHO HIEN. This article reports the Archeological excavations findings to find out about the role of port markets within the region. The first volume described the history of Vietnam from ancient times to 1010 and it could be called as “The external writings”. The 379   . Dr.kilns were found. Centre of Vietnam Studies. Pho Hien (Hien district). belonging to Hung Yen province. East India . Chinese and Vietnam china’s and potteries of 17th century as well as traces relating to pottery . Institute of Asian and African Studies.that the volumes of the collection were not homogeneous in nature.Panel 13: Source materials [13. In introduction to that book author gave detailed analyses of the texts. Later on author continued his work on The Short History of the [Great] Viet. Russia The translation of the chronicle “The Short History of the [Great] Viet” from Old Chinese into Russian and interpretations of the chronicles’ texts were done by author of the present Paper in the seventies of the last century. [13. Moskva University. In 1637. Text logical analyses allowed to come to the main conclusion . The analyses results were represented in this Paper. HUNG YEN PROVINCE Abe Yuriko. In 1980 author published in Moscow Краткая история Вьета (Вьет шы лыок) 越 史 略. was a port city located across the Red river.

The paper addresses cultural and institutional factors in Vietnam affecting social science data sharing. It looks at potential options. Thus it was revealed that there occurred a concealed change of dynasties in Vietnam at the beginning of the 12th century. 380  . this paper explores ways in which social science data .especially socio . [13. and made accessible. Irvine Working from the context of social science research. including the World Bank’s Accelerated Data Program. Based on these findings it was possible to conclude that the second volume of the chronicles described the history of the First Late Ly Dynasty and the third one described the Second Late Ly Dynasty. In this Paper I would like to discuss the problem of authorship and dating of the chronicles and endeavor to substantiate the hypothesis that this historical source represent the most ancient Vietnamese chronicle of this kind that came to our time.ECONOMIC DATA Daniel C.can be archived according to the latest international standards.381] SHARING SOCIO . which works with national statistical agencies to build sustainable statistical capacity & thus helps in data sharing. The chronicles The Short History of the [Great] Viet is anonymous and there are no any comments by their authors or historians. Tsang University of California. The comparative analyses of The Short History of the [Great] Viet and some other Vietnamese and Chinese chronicles allowed to reinstate some important events in the history of Vietnam. It is impossible that the second and the third volumes were written by the same author.Panel 13: Source materials second and the third volumes could be called as “The main writings” and just those two volumes were different in nature: the second volume was written in the spirit of Buddhism when the third one was written in Confucian manner.economic data .

though Hanoi had additional means of transport such as bus.pousse in Hanoi 's popular means of transport.pousse.powered 3 wheel vehicle). The means of transport of Hanoi during that period.pousse drivers and also the monopoly on possesion of the vehicle in Hanoi . the French colonial regime focused attention on building a land transport system to Hanoi equal to the importance of the "political and administrative centre of Tonkin. Later. . besides a few of cars owned by the French army. .pousse in Hanoi gradually reduced and finally the vehicles were replaced by cyclo . were issued and gradually developed.1924 . the capital of the French Indochina".1950: the number of pousse .pause continued to exist in the period of 1886 to 1950 with many ups and downs but had become a very typical type of vehicle of Hanoi .Position of the pousse . According to the information of the National Achieve 1.1886 . National Archives Centre No. The city authority (Mairie de Ville) also issued regulation to limit the number of vehicles creating fierce competition amomg the pousse .382] “POUSE .Panel 13: Source materials [13. with 2 lines of trees on the pavement for pedestrians. consisted mainly "posse . the pause . The transport system are designed and constructed in chessboard .periods with the following typical characteristics: . parking fashion. the existence of the pousse pousse can be divided into 3 sub .1935: the number of the vehicles increased with the development of new luxury types of pousse .1924: this period is an experimental one of the city authority for the management of the pousse . motorcycle.1 Along with the aim of turning Hanoi into "the most important railway centre of Tonkin and of Indochina”. costume of the vehicle driver. tax rate.pousse.POUSSE” IN HANOI ‘S TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM Dao Thi Dien. regulations and policies over the operation & design of the vehicle. with the road surface paved with asphalt. etc.posses" (man . It is in this sub period that the city had issued management procedures.powered 2 wheel vehicles) owned by the local people. right from June 1883.pousse in Hanoi 's system of transport 381   . Dr.1935 . cycle (man . These became key issues of this period. Conclusion: .

During this first sixteen centuries.Panel 13: Source materials . between the tenth and mid . Vietnam always held an important position in the international trading networks in the Eastern Sea. and between the mid . regional and international impacts and so on.Eastern Asia with such regions as South . 382  . College of Social Sciences and Humanities. VNU Hanoi Despite a good number of researches focusing on the Eastern Sea commercial system in the ancient and medieval periods. it has been concluded that from the dawn of the first millennium to the late sixteenth century. The participation of Vietnam in this commercial hub. [13. Dr. the Eastern Sea had been one of the most dynamic maritime regions in the East.pousse 's impact on the poor population of Hanoi during the French colony.fifteenth centuries. Thanks to new source materials as well as new research findings. this paper seeks to highlight the position of Vietnam in the Eastern Sea commercial system in three major phases: before the tenth century. the position of Vietnam in this dynamic commercial hub has not been allocated systematically. has experienced different levels owing to various causes such as historical vicissitudes. Various interregional and international trading networks which linked the world of North . however. and West Asia has turned the Eastern Sea into a restless commercial and intermediary region in the international commerce.383] ON THE POSITION OF VIETNAM IN THE EASTERN SEA COMMERCIAL SYSTEM IN THE ANCIENT AND MEDIEVAL PERIODS Hoang Anh Tuan.East Asia.fifteenth and late sixteenth centuries. South Asia. when different European trading enterprises began to penetrate the Far East. On the basis of new information and recapitulation of new research findings.The pousse .

philosophy and literature which include anthologies. legends. education. Han . religions. biography. Luong Thi Hanh Association of Nom Heritage Preservation. and learning in Vietnam and beyond. Le Van Cuong. literature. village law. and contemporary typesetting print of various scripts: Han. handwritten print. History. To promote the preserveation of the traditional Vietnamese cultural heritage. Nom.and . inscriptions.Panel 13: Source materials [13. This is a rare opportunity to promote intellectual and professional cooperation among those who would be interested in the field of preservation. history. The scope of the digitalization project covers a few hundred selected Han Nom texts of four categories: Classics. poetry. genealogy. and family law. The subject disciplines of the digital library can be grouped in four group: classics. the Vietnamese Nom Preservation Foundation has collaborated with the National Library of Vietnam to create a user . history. The Han Nom collection in the Special Collections Reading Room at the National Library covers works in woodblock print. library science and information technology to assure the successful information retrieval of the project. drama. Ngo Trung Viet. Nom stories. teaching. To Trong Duc. Sinology. oriental medical science. children’s primers.friendly Han Nom special collection digitalization project which covers Han Nom studies. gazetteers. digitalization and information technology to create the first international Han Nom digital library in Vietnam. civil service examinations. USA In recent years.384] THE HAN NOM SPECIAL COLLECTION DIGITIZATION John Balaban. 383   . imperial law. preserving and developing Vietnamese culture of a thousand years along with the progress in our society.Nom as well as occasional Han or Nom with quoc ngu (the modern national script) transliteration. Philosophy and Literature to fulfill the scholarly needs of users. There is a pressing need to develop a Han Nom digital library to provide convenient access Han Nom special collections to scholarly research. linguistics. scientific technology has been used in restoring. imperial law.

in my view there are similarities between Chiem Thanh language and Malacca language used in the time of the Ming dynasty.385] CHIEM THANH DICTIONARY . the first remaining Han . China During their contact with Chiem Thanh Kingdom. of which now remained Chiem Thanh dictionary.CHAM DICTIONARY IN THE WORLD Luu Chi Cuong. After studying the remaining materials. one brought from China to Britain by a European under the Qing dynasty. This project also studies the historical and cultural relations between Cham people and Malays. the Kings gave special emphasis to training interpreters working on target languages of neighboring countries.Panel 13: Source materials [13. 384  .THE FIRST HAN .1644). there recorded some vocabulary of Lam Ap. Fellow Faculty of Oriental Linguistics and Culture.Cham dictionary. As per China historical materials. The dictionary is a valuable material about Champa culture and language. From my own studies. Beijing University. in particular. there are now two versions of the Chiem Thanh Dictionary. Chinese people recorded the farmer’s language. the other recently found to be in China. officials in charge of welcoming representatives from Chiem Thanh compiled some books on Cham language. In the Ming Dynasty (1368 . Under the circumstances.

explained documents related to porcelain. we clarified that at Batavia entrecote. 1887-1931 385   . Colenbrander. Follow this prediction.A. de Haan. J. studies and explanation of diary’s information from 1648 to 1682. 386] “DAGH . there was a trading network of pottery and porcelain from Asian ports via Chinese ships to this port. J. carried out research on historical documents basing on statistic data. analyzed and evaluated. uitgegeven door H.Register Batavia” 5. Yamawaki Teijiro has announced his research with the primary content of total export products from 1661 to 1682.. F.Register Batavia). Kyushu Sangyo University. pottery which was imported to Batavia via Chinese ships and then exported to other areas. compared to archeological results of researches on Asia investigations.was the primary products accounting for 58% of imported products in “Dagh . de Hullu.found in various places in Asia . Therefore. We have read. the results are as follow: In field of import to Batavia. This research will show the investigation. W. This process is in line with other new historical documents’ discovery. 31 vols. Heeres. Japan The objective of this essay is to describe documents. The Hague. Batavia port is the place that you can buy Asian pottery and porcelain.found in south East Asia remains areas such as Indonesia and Vietnam was run via Chinese ships..DATA OF HOLAND EAST SEAL RELATING TO HIZEN’S CHINESE BOATING BUSINESS Sakuraba Miki Center of Kakieimon Pottery Research. Results showed that the typical Araiso (Hoang Ki) bow . Thus.the products which were imported to Batavia by Chinese ships and then exported to other Asian areas.REGISTER BATAVIA” ANALYSIS .Panel 13: Source materials [13. Fruin Mees. archeologist predicted that the route where great number of Hizen porcelain and pottery products is transported . the original of pottery business which focused on Hizen porcelain .Register Batavia” (Dagh . which related to Hizen’s Chinese boating business basing on “Dagh .E. Quang Dong and Vietnam was in Batavia. That means porcelain and pottery which Hizen pottery is in 1st place original from various places such as Phuc Kien. In archeological researches. J. we have tested and compared to remains distribution areas with notes in VOC’s documents. symbols in remains in Asian areas                                                                   5 Dagh-Register gehouden int Casteel Batavia van’t passerende daer ter als over geheel Nederlands-India“. van der Chijs. T.

My Van.cultivated farmers. Chuyen My trade village. In 792. Land register appeared in 4th reign of Gia Long Land register files are important documentations that value for doing research about land structure. In field of export form Batavia. Using methods of quantitative statistics. HANOI) IN THE EARLY NINETEENTH CENTURY FROM LAND REGISTER DOCUMENTS Tong Van Loi. holds a big rate. Nguyen Duong Lieu Ínstitute of Vietnamese Studies and Development Sciences. weaving development of all kinds of properties in Chuyen My 386  . including 7 hamlets Dong Vinh. 387] LAND PROPERTY SITUATION IN CHUYEN MY VILLAGES (PHU XUYEN. Results of this research clarified real Chinese ships business’s situation in Indonesia the place of Holland East Stamp’s historical documents. there is 502 ha agriculture area. property levels. basing on our attitude. Trung. land private property is much more overwhelming than public fields of commune. From land register. Boi Khe. However. In national archives central still keeps land registers of Dong Bong. VNUH From centre of Hanoi about 35km. Ngo. Boi Khe. the village community. this research clarified about 90 destination areas including three maximum export areas namely Amboyna. Ngo Ha. [13. belongs to Phu Xuyen district. 83 ha nature area of this place. As a first step. this report has learned some comments about private land assembly phenomenon.found in other south East Asia remains areas including Vietnam where it can be clarified by historical documents and other areas in south East Asia. this research provides valuable reference information on relations of Chinese ships in Hizen pottery business route .Panel 13: Source materials and structure and type noted in this document. reports concentrate on analyzing land figures. rural areas and agricultural in Vietnam history (1805). comparing public and private land rate of each hamlet with other locals. Thuong. Padang. Ha Noi city. we collected evidence for finding the routes of Chinese ships’ transportation business. land qualities. Small property of Chuyen My almost is self . is a famous inlaying pearl. Trung. Chuyen My hamlets. Acheh.

Having studied. This article mentions monography books compiled and issued in South Vietnam from 1954 to 1975. In recent years. Eighteen of the thirty six monography books was compiled by individuals and reprinted after 1975. there are 70 pieces.1975.The quatity of monography books in the South Vietnam of the period of 1954 1975 is larger than the period of 1900 .1975 compiled by many valuable monography books. 387   .Most of monography authors are remarkable writers and researchers such as Thai Van Kiem. . to argue monography books so that it is difficult to enhance their quality .1940) have plentiful contents and logical structures.After 1975.1975) Nguyen Thanh Loi History Association of Ho Chi Minh city Monography books play an important role in the developing economy. authors’ ability.Panel 13: Source materials [13. including 4 principle matters such as nature. 388] MONOGRAPHY BOOKS IN THE SOUTH VIETNAM (1954 . and assessed the books. economy and culture. Nguyen Dinh Tu. have compiled a large numbers of valuable monography books and developed the methods of monography books. structures and authors. the following issues come to mind: . . culture and society at both the national and local levels.1954 and 1975 .The unique genre is general monography that reflects the society’s need. Quach Tan. contents. genres. conditions (expenditure. scholars have begun to compile monography books to an extent that theirs content and quality can be assessed.2005. documents…). Huynh Minh who are deeply attached to country. . history. It is very necessary to learn the process of monography books compilation.Besides national history books. analyzed. especially in the period from 1954 . including publishing situations. .Most Monography books except ones compiled for political purposes by the French researchers (1900 . administrative managers and educating local tradition for popular readers.Few people pay attention to study. local monography books are effective documents for researchers. authors who are expert in different fields have inherited documents in 1954 . .

Gia Lam District.389] GENEALOGICAL RECORDS AS A RESOURCE FOR STUDYING DEGRAPHICAL HISTORY: THE CASE OF NGUYEN QUAN GIAP (NGUYEN . Office for Science Project “Forming and Development Process of northern Region” Genealogical records are families’ precious heritage and at the same time serve as good sources of information for historical and cultural studies. from collecting to processing. Such approach to genealogical records has become traditional and still hold sway until now. so on and so forth. pointing out difficulties and challenges that face researchers of the field. In Vietnam. Hanoi she can help bridge the gap. the proportion of male adults. they have drawn much attention from researchers and been extensively exploited. etc. culture. the city of Hanoi. there have been few thorough studies.THE MANDARIN) IN BAT TRANG VILLAGES. religious beliefs. The most important part of the report offers the specific and step .economy or to study about a particular insurrection. Since the 1960s. GIA LAM. explorations and settlements.step procedure of using genealogical records. MA. computing and analyzing the data so as to attain the findings of population indices. socio . The report provides a brief look into the study of demographical history in Vietnam. especially the study of demographical history studies. It is for this reason the researcher hopes that with her report titled Genealogical Records as a Resource for Studying Demographical History: the Case of the Nguyen quan giap (Nguyen . the effort has been made only to the extent of collecting. it appears. who reside in Bat Trang Village. translating and disseminating family records as rare materials for scientists to research various disciplines and areas of history. It can be said that genealogical records have had a secondary role to play as a resource for research. that fully pooled the family chronicles as a primary source of data for investigating the national history of population.Panel 13: Source materials [13. On such a ground the author suggest a hypothesis that genealogical records could be the most effective tool to help demographical historians in Vietnam to overcome these challenges. a historical event. HANOI Nguyen Thi Binh. Gia Lam. Yet.the mandarin) in Bat Trang Village. 388  . a personal . The case used for studying as the illustration throughout the report is the Nguyen quan giap (Nguyen the mandarin). traditions.

Hochiminh city Institute for Development Research Prehistoric archaeology has often accompanied the study of natural environment . they are also two sub .regions is relative and the “boundary” connecting south east and south west region is Long An. studying the human ecology presents the interaction between people and biological population. Though the “boundary” is relative.regions. this division of sub . 390] THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT AND ASPECTS OF SOUTHERN VIETNAMESE ARCHAEOLOGY Nguyen Thi Hau. Vam Co valley with topography as ecological system of mountain near highland’s edge. archaeologists have to base on the ecological environment. Studying the archaeology of the southern region. ecological topography. That is.The South East region consists of Dong Nai. 389   .archaeological culture.regions.Panel 13: Source materials [13. these two ecological sub . Thus. It is necessary to recognize as a “cultural complex” based on the variety of topography ecological system. the adaptability of people to their living environment. Naturally.the background of sites. and area of littoral undersea forest. Be river. they are also two sub . with all the above achievements in Southern Vietnamese archaeology. . Sai Gon.The South West region is mainly the new Cuu Long river delta which is being formed. The impress remained is not only the adaptability of people to the natural environment but the influence on and transformation of natural environment for human interest. Dr. with water quadrangle of Long Xuyen .regions. old delta. in human ecological concept. thereby it shows that the natural environment and its change (if any) is very important because of its direct effects on the living of ancient inhabitant community.regions developing continuously from the ancient age to today: . The southern region has two natural ecological sub . connected with the environment.Dong Thap Muoi extending to area of submerged coastal forest of Ca Mau peninsula. are not able to be combined. archaeologists have initially been studied the remains .

these elements create an enforcement of persuasion and enduring vitality. then emphasizing humanity values in life of VN Catholic people. village convention also demonstrates moral. Vietnamese people are expected to make useful contribution to society. have been integrating into national tradition and culture. Some features of village convention and Red river Delta Catholic village. Therefore. MA. village convention still includes rules which deliberately or in deliberately cause archaic customs. 390  . MA Religion studies Institute Village convention is a unique cultural product related to Vietnam villages in general and the Red River Delta in particular. cultural. Catholic village convention reflects worship system of people in Catholic village. leading to conflicts in daily life. in fact. Catholic rituals through village convention Catholic rituals practice through village convention Traditional culture of Catholic people. Nguyen Ngoc Quynh. In this article. affecting community culture. we see some similarities with that of Viet village convention. and spiritual elements. Village convention consists of rules regulating several aspects of village activities as well as socioeconomic activities… Beside legal element. Nowadays. we would like to display Catholic rituals through village convention. The differences are Catholic rituals and ceremonies.391] VILLAGE CONVENTION WITH CATHOLIC PROTOCOL IN THE RED RIVER DELTA Nguyen Que Huong. Through research on the village convention of Red river Delta Catholic villages.Panel 13: Source materials [13. Being mixed. However. worship activities in each Catholic village is to satisfy spiritual needs of the community and also. besides good practices. to meet Catholic institutions’ socioeconomic needs through village festival. Catholic people.

… which do not exist in real life. it is impossible for a headed man to run away. the Vietnamese migrants created a new culture: culture of migrants. So with Ai Bai Quan. we did not have a panorama on Tuong scenes.392] THE COLLECTION OF VIETNAMESE TRADITIONAL SOUTHERN OPERAS IN THE UNITED KINGDOM LIBRARY Nguyen Thi Thanh Xuan Institute of Social Siences.up: in Chau Ly Ngoc. The imaginary art reached the peak when character Khuong Linh Ta was created. Tuong scenarios which came into being among the folks of South Vietnam are the first lines making the so called Southern literature by the researchers. Yen. [13.Panel 13: Source materials During the process of developing modern rural nowadays. this act plays the role of a torch extremely burning the utmost tragedy. Luckily. Besides folk songs. Ben Nghe. Ho Chi Minh city Stepping in Dong Nai. Soon 391   . etc. At first we see that on our ancestors’ opinion. Hat Bo (arts of traditional and local operas). Beforehand we only enjoyed each play or read a couple of scenes individually. In practice. Prior to both the operas by Dao Duy Tu and poetic story Song Tinh by Nguyen Huu Dao. the British library donated to us a collection of 38 scenes of ancient Tuong in Sino . enhancing the convince of the scenes to the audience who had always been closed to the Chinese culture. Borrowing the Chinese geographic places helped the scenes be guaranteed by the big Chinese culture. The transcription and study of these scenes assist us to have a panorama on Tuong scenes and understand interesting things. parishioners need to inherit and promote positive humanity values of village convention. Also on the imagination. purely an imaginary product. we see even the absurd things possibly called made . Tuong is an imaginary art. therefore. bringing his head. This activity is not true. causing a sudden artistic effect. Han.Vietnamese. stories. also actively fight against the superannuation hindering the Catholic village development. With the imagination of Te. the scene writers created immense space for their stories to help their characters to act. Thanh Son Hau. Although we have known such a literature. southern people developed original cultural activities such as Tuong. However. we have felt still confused due to the lack of literary materials. Ly Ngoc embracing the prince was chased by Loi Thien soldiers.

College of Social Sciences and Humanities. IV… on below main aspects: Material volume (the quantity of fonts. Soon institutionalize archives publication and introduction by legal normative documents with strong enforcement. Meanwhile. archives) Age of materials Composition and main content stored in national archive centers Major searching tools Primary values of the archives stored for meeting various social demands. archives (complementing and editing the materials) Setting up convenient material searching tools. 392  . VNU Hanoi The article presents the following subjects: Briefly introduce archives collected and stored in national archive centers such as National archive center I. he had suffered for seven years (!). they accept the absurdity as a rule! Nobody was too concerned about if it was real or unreal. Several measures of promoting archives publication and introduction in order to uphold their values. Assoc. but it was necessarily interesting and attractive. however. This part aims to clarify the following issues: Overview of publicized and introduced archives. Shortcomings and drawbacks of publicizing and introducing archives that need overcoming. II. the child of Ly Ngoc became a seven . [13.Panel 13: Source materials Loving the king child without milk to suck and embracing the prince on horse.year prodigy! The writer. Prof. the actors and the audience clearly saw these absurd things. Improving fonts.393] INTRODUCTION AND PUBLICATION OF ARCHIVES SERVING SOCIAL LIFE Nguyen Van Ham. The process of publicizing and introducing the archives. Social values of publicized and introduced archives during the past period. running and fighting in a hundred battles.

“chu quoc ngu La Tinh” (Vietnamese official language transcribed to Latin letters) in administrative text system and later in Vietnamese written language. Although it was a tool of our invaders and was used to rule our country.1945) is considered a tool that the French colony used to rule our people during the period of more than 80 years.1945) Nguyen Van Ket. function. Some images of Vietnam in the 16th . 393   . missionaries and merchants from the 16th to early 19th centuries.19th centuries Italy Paolo Santangelo This research aims at singling out the most evident images of Vietnam in the representation and information given by Italian travellers. and reflects also expectations of Italian intellectual circles on this far country. [13.394] IMPORTANT CHANGES AND OBJECTIVE CONSEQUENCES OF THE FORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF VIETNAMESE ADMINITRATIVE TEXT SYSTEM DURING THE FRENCH COLONIAL TIME (1789 . State Records Management and Archives Department of Viet Nam The administrative text system that Vietnamese used during French colonial time (1789 . MA. jurisdiction enforcement and so on). the administrative text system during French colonial time made a great impact on our society (of course this impact is out of the French government’s expectation) and has led to many important consequences: Administration system and legal institution. format. Of the formation and development of Vietnamese administrative text system (in the form. Of the development of Vietnamese language .Panel 13: Source materials Materials decoding to provide the public with simple and convenient access. Their contribution to the knowledge of Vietnam in the west was rather important. This system presented and remained as an entity that could not be denied and omitted in our administrative system and historical development of our people.

after the Investigations Test Digs in 2007. VNU Ho Chi Minh city 2) Cultural Museum of University of Social Sciences & Humanities . From the object collections and the results of specimen analysis. Their contribution to the knowledge of Vietnam in the west was rather important.Chinese characters . [13. Dr.Vietnamese in the process of completing our Vietnames modern language. College of Social Siences and Humanities. as well as to our history of development and the improvement of our official language .particularly in administrative text system and generally in the Vietnamese written language.Go Cay Tung. Prof.VIET NAM) AFTER THE THIRD TEST DIG Pham Duc Manh.“chu quoc ngu La Tinh” .HCM City In this paper. and reflects also expectations of Italian intellectual circles on this far country. missionaries and merchants from the 16th to early 19th centuries. Roma University This research aims at singling out the most evident images of Vietnam in the representation and information given by Italian travellers. Assoc. we put forward the following basic conclusions: 394  .396] THE PRIMITIVE CULTURAL VESTIGES AT GO CAY TUNG SITE (AN GIANG .395] SOME IMAGES OF VIETNAM IN THE 16th . Prof. [13... Recognizing the consequences of the formation and development of administrative text system during French colonial time will contribute a lot to the completion of our administrative history.19th CENTURIES ITALY Paolo Santangelo.Panel 13: Source materials Of the interference between French . Do Ngoc Chien2 1) Department of History. the authors presents new information on the characteristic cultural sediments for the earliest stages of the complex site .1.

Go Cay Tung is one of the "Pre . pattern décor and Han . Dong Nai province) This is one of valuable and sacred archaeological relics . among which are relic community built in royal tomb design of relatively large . Prof. forming rich homeland in this southern strip of land.the Ancient History period in the southern part of Vietnam. The fieldwork survey takes place in three hamlets: Nhat Hoa. The architecture not only bears traditional features.Panel 13: Source materials Go Cay Tung is one of the few sites we know at present that contains valuable primitive “cultural sediments” in the Mekong Delta. in correlation or not in correlation with worship basis such as temple .scale. VIETNAM) Pham Duc Manh. Some relics still preserve original architecture. but also a mixture of Viet .artistic information of “founders” in the construction of “Big Pho” into the most Southern land “Noisy and gaudy port city” at that time. Notably. of predecessors in the process of land reclamation. settlement.“Oc Eo Culture” . Hochiminh Universities of Humanities and Social Sciences In this article.cultural . Results analysis C14 strengthened for the early date (the First Millennium BC). 395   .pagoda shrine of the common people.397] GRAVE COMMUNITIES IN CU LAO PHO (BIEN HOA. Bien Hoa city. Tam Hoa with the remained relics of around 40 graves of different scales.China culture in different historical stages. Assoc. [13. Nhi Hoa. Dr. DONG NAI. with the date of Later Neolithic or Early Metal Age. authors briefly report about fieldtrip outcomes on Grave relics findings in Pho Island (now is Hiep Hoa district.Oc Eo” cultural spaces and has contributed to form brilliant material cultural values . containing many valuable historic .a memoir of mighty history of nation.Nom vestige. Nguyen Cong Chuyen Historical Cultural Museum. Collection of stone objects. especially “beaked adze” and round section hoe (the rare types in Vietnam) close to the specific stone tools in island Southeast Asia..

Quang Ninh waters. [13.Panel 13: Source materials After 300 years of formation and development. Buddha worship and persons who have served national community worship in expectation of protection and help.Quoc Tu Giam (the first university of Vietnam).1527). especially during nowadays “Doi moi” process. Pho Island is considered a city of “highest temple density in the South”. 80 Han Stone inscriptions dated from Thuan Thien (1428 . accounting for approximately 50% .398] STONE INSCRIPTIONS IN EARLY LE DYNASTY: SOME ISSUES OF CONTENTS AND FORMS Pham Thi Thuy Vinh. There are quite a large number of royal tombstones in Early Le dynasty stone inscriptions. then some scattered in Mac dynasty. Early Le dynasty stone inscriptions also reflect worship activities of Viet people. Institute of Han . have been studied. who founded the Latter Le dynasty and other successive Kings: Le Thai Tong. 396  . Le Thanh Tong. Box .like tombstones only appeared in early Le period. Le Hien Tong…. it is very pressing to study and preserve to save the. Dr. These are valuable materials of the state’s care as to the reclaiming land towards seas. in which Stone inscriptions dated Hong Duc are the majority. Of the remained early Le dynasty stone inscriptions. Early Le dynasty stone inscriptions record biography and achievements of King Le Thai To. Under Hong Duc dynasty of King Le Thanh Tong.graves relics in particular amongst cultural relics here from downgrading. VASS This is the first time that All stone inscriptions in early Le Dynasty within 100 years span (from 1428 . where are now Tuan Chau .1433) to Thong Nguyen (1522 . there are many documentations relating to lands. Considerably.1527) have been gathered to study of documentation form and content. also one of the places which have Thus.together with their families and some mandarins in close relationship with early Le dynasty. Besides. which are Gods worship. it was the first time stones with inscribed names of Doctors from the first examination of Restored Le dynasty were placed in Van Mieu .Nom Studies.

the present paper deals with the method of quantitative analysis and method of spatialization of the relations quantitatively described. LAO CAI PROVINCE Pham Van Cu*. Philippe Charette**. the tentative to comprehensively associate the three issues: peasant. Québec. Yao. Canada *** Department of Geography. In such a circumstance. The integration of these aspects requires their linkage in a certain concrete spatial dimension and the linkage request.economic characteristics and the solid waste in rural side. This is an area full of changes and disadvantaged. The aspects peasant. Nguyen Thi Loan*. Tay and Zay.Panel 13: Source materials Early Le dynasty stone inscriptions strongly reflect the state mandarin. While the second case studied implemented in Sa Pa district. Canada In a context of the fast growing economy reaching annual GDP growth of 8%. the quantitative information and data.399] QUANTITATIVE ANALYIS AND SPATOAL APPROACH RESEARCH: EXAMPLE OF DUY TIEN. [13. in it turn. Through two examples. The first case study carried out in Duy Tien district. VNU Hanoi **Scientific Fellow. three satellite images acquired in 1993. there were few village community stone inscriptions. which marks a clear difference with stone inscriptions of later periods. the authors have used Principal Component Analysis (PCA) aluate the investigated relations. this a complex category and the research of all these three aspects together is facing big methodological challenges. Vu Kim Chi*. UQAM. 1999 and 2006 are used to detect the land 397   . Ha Nam province is to clarify the relation between socio . agriculture and rurality are often studied separately. Sarah Turner*** *College of Sciences. Đinh Thi Dieu Ly*. HANAM PROVINCE AND SAPA. However. In both examples. Nguyen Thi Hai Yen*. agriculture and rurality (tam nong) in policy making is at the centre of attention of policy makers and scientists. For Sa Pa case. rural areas in Vietnam are still the habitat of more than 70% of Vietnamese population. Lao Cai province aims to understand the relation between land use change pattern and the ethnic minority groups H’Mong. Pham Van Toan*. McGill University.

and Hanoi’s Department of Natural Resources. history. culture. in . College of Social Sciences and Humanities. This report provides an overall review of documents on land surveys.400] HANOI’S SOURSE OF CADASTRES IN MODERN HISTORY: COLLECTION AND VALUES Phan Phuong Thao. landscape.000) with immense valuable and detailed information about specific houses. commune and village [13. the report reveals the value of the title deeds that could be tapped for research into land and house ownership. 398  .Panel 13: Source materials cover changes. streets in the inner city as well as every lot of land in the suburbs of Hanoi in the 1940s. which are being archived in the two stores.depth descriptions are drawn on the Hanoian title deeds which are preserved in Hanoi’s Department of Natural Resources. buildings. Dr. On such a basis.depth analysis. So far these documents have been almost untouched by researchers although the number of records is impressively huge (more than 30. The questionnaire survey has been carried out for both cases and integrated with the statistic data collected at three spatial scales: district.Hanoi. Environment and Land and House Management. Environment and Land and House Management. relics and the urbanization of the modern city of Thang Long . VNU Hanoi The collection of cadastres of modern Hanoi is currently being stored in both National Archives Centre 1. Through its in . The archive can be said to be a profound resource of information. The State Records and Archive Department of Vietnam.

from the perspective of the colonial power.level norms. It is precisely through these types of sources that we are able to retrace the political careers of these officials and also to sketch an understanding of their functions and the manner(s) in which they exercised them. École Française d’Extrême . after their entry into official positions. Conversely. In this way. nonetheless.. or even their appointments to local posts.401] THE VIETNAMESE HIGHLAND POLITICAL LEADERS DURINGTHE COLONIAL DOMINATION: THE USAGE OF INDIVIDUALLS ADMINITRATIVE FILES AS A WAY TO STUDY PUBLIC CAREERS Le Failler Philippe. it is more or less accepted that the heads of districts in the upland region of Tonkin. The category of the regular scholar official does not apply.Orient It is common practice to produce works about the social background of a particular leader and to study that leader’s professional trajectory through quantitative research. Dr.Panel 13: Source materials [13. While it is incontestable that the mode of their nomination to positions of authority did not follow commune . 399   . due to their ties to ethnic minority groups and their connection to powerful ruling clans. never entered into the ranks of the regular state bureaucracy. In the case of these officials. their various ranks at different stages of their careers. we consider that their nomination to power constituted a political choice. as they held hereditary titles these local rulers remained attached to their respective territories. the chiefs of uplands regions remained agents of public policy. assimilated by colonial administrators into a normalized structure by which the administration kept detailed dossiers on individual officials. We will take as an example the professional careers of some local authority figures in the Song Da river basin at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries. Moreover. we can easily retrace the careers of mandarins (scholar officials) as they studied for exams.

The Vietnam Center engages in many other projects as well. and the other nations affected by the wars. we also distribute privately funded scholarships to students in Vietnam and Cambodia. the project has grown into the largest of its kind in the United States.Panel 13: Source materials [13.Vietnam related materials. films. Vietnam. The Center hosts a summer Study Abroad in Southeast Asia every year so that Texas Tech students can learn firsthand about the peoples and cultures in this region of the world. Texas. The Center hosts annual conferences that examine an array of topics while the Archive collects and preserves historical collections and materials. Dr. we make the audio recordings and resulting transcripts from our interviews available to the public via the Virtual Vietnam Archive. The Vietnam Center and Archive started in 1989 with the goals of preserving the history of the relationship between the United States and Vietnam and promoting the study of our experiences.402] THE VIETNAM CENTER AND ARCHIVE TEXAS TECH UNIVERSITY Stephen Maxner. This includes documents. The Virtual Vietnam Archive currently contains 3 million pages of material and is one of the largest online archives in the nation. maps. and much more. oral history interviews. slides. the Vietnam Archive digitizes the materials it receives and makes them freely available through the Internet and the Virtual Vietnam Archive. Additionally. allowing students to attend university. audio recordings. Like the many other archive materials we have in our holdings. The larger mission of the Vietnam Center is to contribute to reconciliation between the United States. The Vietnam Archive also has a very dynamic oral history project that has interviewed veterans and participants from throughout the United States and in ten countries to include VIetnam. Texas Tech University. 400  . USA This presentation will focus on the Vietnam Center and Archive at Texas Tech University in Lubbock. While there. The Vietnam Archive contains approximately 20 million pages of material and is second in size only to the National Archives with regard to United States . Since then. photos. The Vietnam Center. Our oral history staff has interviewed more than 500 participants and they conduct new interviews every week.

The discovery and successful studying of Chu Dau Pottery has brought great meaning to history on the aspect of culture & economy. from inside wrecked vessels. Chu Dau pottery vestige and 15 centers of ancient pottery at Hai Duong area had been discovered and excavated for studying. brought clarified curriculum to these collection and enhance their value. A lot of products colored pictures that still look brand new . Chu Dau Pottery is a forceful evidence of a pinnacle handicraft industry. The strong point of Chu Dau pottery is its design warmly shows the nation's soul. an aspect of economy & culture in Vietnam current age.XVI century objectively and convincingly.PROGESS OF DISCOVERY. STUDY AND RESTORATION Tang Ba Hoanh Hai Duong Province Historical Association Thanks to a scientific studying program on 1983. The insects. Thanks to the Chu Dau pottery vestige which were found at production area.403] CHU DAU POTTERY . During the study. owners of Chu Dau pottery had also been found such as: Dang Si. Also from this pottery vestige. Dang Phuc. foliages are described from actuality to surrealist under indigo blue enamel or tri . so it is difficult to describe this civilized age without physical evidence. we can know about a part of foreign trade status in Vietnam at XV . and also complementing for shortcoming of historical documentation in respect to this aspect.colors. The end of the 15th century was the most prosperous age of Vietnam feudalism.Panel 13: Source materials [13. The studying result shows that our ancestors had been active exporter of Vietnamese handicraft fine arts products. but there are not so many vestiges of this age still existing today. represents natural & resident living at Red river Delta. museums within the nation and in outsider nations. especially 401   . especially Bui Thi Hy and Dang Huyen Thong having many symbolic products with absolute dates which is a possible specimen to witness to objects at the same age. we can define origin of pottery collection which were taken out of excavated holes. Production skills had approached a high level. which has not been surpassed even today can not be come over nowadays. The thousands of relics have been taken out of underground during the years are valuable material for pottery studying of our nation's prosperous age.

THE PLACE KEEPING HISTORICAL MATERIALS SOURCE OF VIETNAM MODERN HISTORY Trieu Van Hien. which have been carefully stored and classified by their materials and specifics. It's a pity as national history had recorded not so many things about foreign trade at XV century.404] STORE HOUSE AT NATIONAL MUSEUM ON VIETNAMESE REVOLUTION . study and promotion. The museum of Vietnamese Revolution is the first national museum in the field of social history. exhibiting. Tran Thi Nhi National Museum of Vietnamese Revolution The museum of Vietnamese Revolution located at 25 Tong Dan Str. the thing that not all the archaeological studying work can obtain. Not stopping at archaeological studying purpose. 1959.Panel 13: Source materials pottery products in the 15th century. It is a beautiful areaof the cultural cluster. Hanoi. the items in the store house of the National Museum on Vietnamese Revolution have been being effectively utilized for displaying. nearby the Sword Lake the center of Hanoi and surrounded by 3 old streets: Tran Quang Khai. This is the national tangible cultural heritage of Vietnam. The museum building was constructed in 1917 by French and formally as a Custom Sevices of the city before 1954.. Hoan Kiem district. but it had been lively in actuality.000 objects on display. MA. The store house of the museum currently holds more than 83. many of those are specially valuable and rare and even unique objects. Trang Tien and Tong Dan. documents. Throughout 50 years of establishing and developing. pictures and reference books and magazines. The result of studying work not only has scientific value but also has great reality value. officially opened to visitors since January 6. There are various and abundant types and materials collected objects with profound contents reflecting all aspects of the modern Vietnam history since 1858. Vietnam. [13. studying and publishing as well as for the 402  . Chu Dau pottery has been regenerated and has been contributing its part to the development of current and future economy. We can say that the studying work of Chu Dau pottery has achieved basic requirements of collection.

. He not only contributed in the national liberation and the construction of Vietnam. there are people.The achievements and active contributions in the materials.Dr. The report will not talk a lot about the misunderstanding. scientifically content of the main problems. country and Ho Chi Minh ’s life. Assoc. admire Ho Chi Minh They are the friends in struggles. but he also was an international revolutionary soldier. Therefore many historians. . discussion in the suitable forms.Prof. cultural. education and dissemination of scientific knowledge to the mass community in Vietnam and overseas. well . close comrades of Ho Chi Minh and Vietnam.Panel 13: Source materials communication. who intend to distort. Assoc. political. who misunderstand the Vietnamese nation. slander for sabotage the proletarian revolution.. 403   .know man of the world’s culture. almost true scientists have a good will and support the struggles of Vietnamese nation. especially after the August 1945 Revolution in Vietnam. Hanoi National University of Education Ho Chi Minh is the world’s well .. career.Dr. [13. However. the bad and unfair intention. but will concentrate on the studies’ results of unprejudiced scientists.Evaluate these contributions and raise a problem of further study. and lower Ho Chi Minh’s contribution toward the Vietnamese nation and the world.405] CONTRIBUTIONS OF FOREIGN SCIENTISTS IN THE STUDY OF HOCHIMINH’S LIFE AND CAREER Trinh Dinh Tung.know man in the XX century. unprejudiced and scientifically. Their studies about Ho Chi Minh’s life and career are fair. The main content will be as follows: . militarist scientists has been studying about Ho Chi Minh. Nguyen Dinh Le. points of view. Except some peoples.Briefing on study of Ho Chi Minh’s life and career in abroad (foreigners and overseas Vietnamese).Prof.

China. Institute for Information and Social Sciences It is a long process from the separate studies on Vietnam to the formation of a research system on Vietnam which experts called Vietnamese studies. scientifically evaluation has an important meaning to gather and organize the Ho Chi Minh’s researchers abroad and also assist them have a better understanding. It will improve the study about Hochiminh. especially to take advantage of available information resources and to easily share information resources.Prof. Overseas Vietnamese researcher community is expanding and becoming more and more crowded. and most recently from Japan and Korea. librarians must set up a common topic gathering information collected from various material sources (both domestic and overseas. [13. different individuals and organizations) under the name of Vietnam and Vietnamese studies. If before 1954. former Soviet. Research centers on Vietnam are also much diversified as seen from announced scientific works. to not only inherit or avoid coincident. which is capable of providing domestic and overseas researchers with an overview scenario. The primary processing method is to build up a database (both in folders and in extenso) towards a digital library built up where there are sufficient conditions.406] TO EFFECTIVELY PROCESS AND EXPLORE INFORMATION RESOURCES OF VIETNAMESE STUDIES Vuong Toan. That is also a process of defining the status and position of the word “ Vietnam” in international arena.. the majority are French. Domestic and overseas information users need an IT address. Scientific libraries in VN need to consider this a big subject whose content consists of specific headings. Assoc. 404  . In order to create favorable conditions for exploiting information of the subject. There are no other measures but to implement the most common professional standards in order to integrate and develop in line with global library system.Dr. then now there are researchers from the US.Panel 13: Source materials The problem of study. but also to outline the future of Vietnamese studies nationally and internationally.

  405   .Panel 13: Source materials We hereby would like to share ideas with an expert as to his thoughts about the VN studies research center (and I may add the source center of sufficient and updated materials) must be built in VN not in any other places in the world.




etc. increase in manpower) and instruments (sharing responsibilities of costs and. the author proposes a brief outlook on the most striking quantitative performances of the Vietnamese education sector over the past 20 years. corruption. gross enrolment rates. duration of studies. transparency 409   . The second part of this paper addresses the current challenges of the educational system. competitiveness. Besides. the World Trade Organization accession.g. However. lately it seems that certain segment of the population have more benefited from the educational boost than others. a careful look into the data available suggests that certain gaps in some areas remain important and sometimes even widening (e. privatization and inequalities.). and where the commercial value of the diplomas seems to count more than the educational values today. e. Moreover. Dr. but uncertainties remain numerous today in the qualitative dimension of its results and in the requirement for some transparency in the implementation of its means. social inequalities. duration of studies and access for some social categories. The Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies This article analyzes 20 years of Doi Moi reforms in the education sector.economic transformations and liberalization policies. diversification of supply and demand). These questions persist within a system where quality remains a scarcity. Some of the educational assets achieved by the country during the Doi Moi period are quantitative in their objectives (enrolment. Any discussion must reconsider the questions of quality. etc. In the first part of the article.g. The key emerging question here is who has access to what education. ratio male/female per class.Panel 14: Education and training of human resources [14. income has become a more important social discriminator recently and a key determinant in the access to the different education layers. such as the question of quality.407] TWENTY YEARS OF DOI MOI REFORMS IN THE EDUCATION SECTOR: BETWEEN SUCCESSES AND UNCERTAINTIES Alexandre Domeier Freire. despite undisputable excellent achievements (e.g. raises further questions on the ability of the educational system to meet the challenges of quality. The Doi Moi policies have deeply rearranged the Vietnamese educational system by modifying the responsibilities as well as the relations and the behaviour of the various actors of the sector. and corruption. The acceleration of the socio .) compare to international standards. which remain major challenges nowadays.

Panel 14: Education and training of human resources and equity and on the consequences of the adjustments. The paper holds that many current approaches to Human Resource Development are unsuited to preparing leaders within a shifting environment and suggests a number of recommendations for increasing their relevance and effectiveness. Hong Kong SAR China This paper uses a web analogy to detail a strategy used design. individual and group responsibility and participation. The philosophy suggests that learning must be context . mentoring and an ethical focus.placed and focus on building enduring networks. The main threat related to the current changes is the emergence of a two . which the education system undertook to answer it. flexible delivery. Far from claiming to answer all these crucial questions. Will the educational assets of the Doi Moi period survive? It’s the main question addressed in this article. Programme design combines established and emerging knowledge. [14. implement and embed school leadership learning networks as a way to improve leader training and development. Prof. strategies must adapt to fluid school realities and disentangle traditional learning hierarchies and institutional boundaries. this article proposes to reconsider the assets of the Doi Moi as regards to education before describing some of the current issues. 410  .tiered system. or an educational system with layers of different levels of quality. It draws on both theoretical and empirical perspectives. Chinese University of Hong Kong. The paper introduces the underpinning philosophy and structure of a collection of training and development programmes designed specifically for school leaders. not simply on the transmission of established knowledge. For this to happen. 408] CONSTRUCTING SUSTAINABLE LEADER LEARNING NETWORKS Allan Walker.based and context . Given the impact of school leaders on school achievement the paper holds that knowledgeable.. ethical and connected leaders are a key ingredient in any improvement effort. action learning.

Using the example of a Corporate University (CU) Bernhard Kueppers will present to you how companies in Europe and the USA organize and integrate life . Prof. Dinh Thi Bich Loan** *Faculty of Education. Among the resources for industrialization the human 411   .long learning. Vietnam also goes its distinctive way in the aspects of goal. putting it as the background of the whole production in society. The industrialization of Singapore. Academics and executives must update their knowledge exceedingly. Nowadays thanks to cooperation and exchange. integrating traditional and modern.Dr. [14. based on electron . VNU Hanoi **Vietnam Institute of Education Sciences In the World’ history industrialization is the process of making industry dominated in economic structure. and Korea is different from other countries in 18th and 19th centuries. Since 2007 the MLP Corporate University is CLIP (Corporate Learning Improvement Process) accredited by the EFMD (European Foundation for Management Development).mechanic areas of production.410] HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT FOR INDUSTRIALIZATION AND MODERNIZATION OF VIETNAM Dang Ba Lam*. putting the human into the centre. especially in the context of globalization many countries go another way of industrialization.Panel 14: Education and training of human resources [14. The traditional industrialization began in light industry and finished in heavy one when the production can self equipped by Instrumental machines. process and resources of industrialization The goal of industrialization in Vietnam is the harmonic development of production and society. Rupert Huth. Taiwan.409] THE NESCESSCITY OF LIFE-LONG LEARNING FOR ACADEMICS AND EXCUTIVES Bernhard Kueppers. Academic board of MLP Corporate University Vietnam’s rapid economical development demands for increased investment in education throughout all levels. developing machine production.

the surplus of popular labor forces but shortage of skilled.Panel 14: Education and training of human resources capital. the paper addresses the weakness and shortcomings that Ministry of Education is facing namely: The development of a national education system is uneven and not in line with rule of pyramid shape. the requirement of the building a equitable. At present Vietnamese E&T has the strengths such as a developed network of E&T institutions. Assoc. The human resources development (HRD) for the industrialization is the requirement not only of economic but also social and human development. In stead it is in a strange form: big head. To overcome this situation in HRD the direction for the future development should be: Paying attention to the human development from early childhood to oldest age in the aspects of physical and mental health. Institute of Research. HRD is the responsibility of both family and society. and generally the quality and effectiveness of training is low. the intellectual resource is the most important. For HRD education and training (E&T) play the most important role. work skills and attitude. social forces contribute a lot in HRD. But E&T also has serious weaknesses: Quality of man power in the aspects of physical fitness. big bottom and narow in middle.411] REFORM STRUCTURE OF NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM AIMING AT MEETING THE HUMAN RESOURCES NEEDS IN GLOBALIZATION CONTEXT Dang Danh Anh. Up 412  . Training human resource should match the requirement of the labor market by trade. the qualification of labor forces is enhancing. moral and profession. specialized ones. inside and outside of the country.Technology Consultation After generally presenting education achievements in years of “Doi Moi”. locality.Prof. democratic and civilized society.Dr. mind and intellectual. [14. The size of man power training is developing quickly. the structure of training does not match the demand of the society. social relationship is low. Training and Science .

3% and 11. capacity for global competition of Vietnam economy was low and gradually decreased (in 1998. Vietnam was ranked as 89/104. very high ( (in United States was 76% in 2000).3% respectively.79 score.20076. Singapore with 5. from 1986-1987 to 2006-2007 413   .mentioned weaknesses.score scale. society”. colleges was sevenfold of those of vocational schools.secondary school pupils was unreasonable: ratio of pupils graduated from primary schools to secondary schools was 79. In order to remedy the above . Further more.8 score ranked as 2/104). less . The paper also addresses a series of othe weaknesses that had been assessed by the World Economic Forum (WEF) in 2005 such as: low quality of education (accordign to 7 . first of which is a reform of education system. Such a wrong policy of pupil allocation resulted in serious unbalanced status of enrolment.                                                                   6 Source: MOET and Vocational Department. human resources structure in last 30 years (paper was illustrated with detailed data). Vietnam was ranked 39/59 and in 2007 ranked 68/131 among states). schools link with families. hence reform of education contents and methods and educational organization and management.4 score. ratio of pupils graduated from primary and secondary schools to vocational and professional schools was very low: 9.Panel 14: Education and training of human resources to 2006 .64%). number of teachers in vocational schools was account for 1/105 of total teachers in secondary schools. number of vocational schools was approximately 1/100 of secondary schools. high colleges was double number of vocational schools and lectures of universities. education does not meet with demand of labour and job market that creates falsed abundant and shortage situation. the number of universities.73 score). education combined with practice. Meanwhile. In many past years. the paper clearly indicates that the current national education system is rigid. the allocation of post . colleges was hight (46. not in line with “learning by doing.integrated with smaller systems. Therefore. training. ratio of pupils graduated from secondary schools to universities. with 2. low quality of human resources (3. Meanwhile. it is necessary to conduct a comprehensive reform.8%. close. while China’s 5.

3.5.412] EDUCATION CONTRIBUTION TO HDI OF VIETNAM DURING SOCIOECONOMIC INNOVATION PROCESS FROM 1990 TO 2005 Dang Quoc Bao. Currently. It is also a index stating population quality of all community. education is a factor to create moral result and material structure of a nation. 2. Vietnam is striving to set up annual HDR for the whole country and province.2. HDI of Vietnam has been updated sufficiently into Human Development Report by United Nations Development Program. a valuable documentation to plan economic and educational policy. HDI index is a typical measure to reflect development of each nation. Consolidation of Vietnam development through HDI. Recommendation of educational development in current context. Nowaday. knowledge (education) and GDP (economy) of population community.Panel 14: Education and training of human resources [14.human resources. Presently.4. Vietnam has declared its self . 3. VNU Hanoi 1. 414  . HDR of UNDP. Education factor in HDI plays a key role because education is both a target and a motive power in development progress. HDI covers three following fields: Longevity (health). 3. The report presents issues as follows: 3. in which HDR of 1999 awarded by United Nations. creates human capital. 3.set up HDR two times: HDR of 1999 and HDR of 2004.1.Dr.3. Falcuty of Education. HDR of Vietnam in 1999 and 2004. Analysis of education index and other development indexes of Vietnam in comparison with the international. organization capital and social capital of the community. Assoc. which will be considered to be a useful means in socioeconomic management. From 1990 up to now. Education takes form and develops personality . 3.

90% of the workforce in agriculture. there are 500.owned enterprises. technical 415   .799 students. There are approximately 150. the State took back about 72. 40% of the total products of farmers are exported to more than 100 countries. Human resources from intellectuals and public servants According to statistics. doctors. This shows a low quality of rural human resources. Assoc. forestry and aquaculture cooperatives and 217 craft villages. associate professors.897.156 million.000 Vietnamese laborers working overseas in more than 40 countries and territories in over 30 business lines. Human resources from workers The number of workers in Vietnam today is nearly 5 million. Agricultural land has shrunk. in Vietnam. From 2000 to 2007.000 workers who have graduated colleges or universities. there were 375. including 61. and 2. Institute of Science Studies for Talents and Human Resources 1. which is equal to 73% of the population. there are about 1. technology and education sector.Panel 14: Education and training of human resources [14. Vietnam has a population of 84. Throughout the country.700 farms. making a part of rural workforce redundant and unemployed. there are approximately 113. Current situation of Vietnamese human resources Human resources from farmers Up to now.413] CURRENT SITUATION AND SOLUTIONS TO DEVELOPING VIETNAMESE HUMAN RESOURCES Duc Vuong. 7.7 million workers working in the private sector. Among them. From 2001 to 2006. officials working in science. accounting for 60%. forestry and aquaculture. At present.240 agriculture.Prof. Skilled workers make a small proportion in the whole worker force. The rural area of our country has seen positive changes compared to the previous period. human resources in rural areas have not been exploited and trained. there are about 2 million workers working in state . occupying 6% of the population.3%. which is equal to 3.433 million farmers. which is equal to 40% of the country’s worker force. as well as administrative officials in rural area remain untrained.000 exported workers working in 40 countries and territories. However.000 hectares of agricultural land annually to develop industry.

first we must mention birth quality. Building abundant human resources for our country will make a decisive contribution to the fulfillment of the above goal.5 million. workers and intellectuals (including public servants) in Vietnam. vocational teachers. Solutions to develop Vietnamese human resources The goal of national development set by the Communist Party of Vietnam and the State is to make our country basically become a modern industrialized country by 2020. on the contrary.economic development for the period 2011 2020. thirdly. The estimated total of intellectuals and public servants in Vietnam now is about 3. but have not been paid proper attention nor been planned and exploited and have been trained just in halves. the quality of human resources is not high. In sum. lecturers. In recent years of renovation. 2) Improving human quality and living standard. It is said that 80% of public servants working in state agencies do not meet the standard for a public servant in terms of professional ability. foreign language and computer skills. legal services. A country with little natural resources like Vietnam must take human resources as substitutive resources. they are still separate and lack of cooperation to fulfil their common target of building and protecting the nation. These shortcomings directly affect economic development. 2. workers and intellectuals do not associate and supplement for each other closely. it is still far inferior to the world economy. human resources from farmers.Panel 14: Education and training of human resources secondary teachers. the country’s economy has been growing at a rate of 7. Birth quality in Vietnam now is low. there are many shortcomings in human resources from farmers. Vietnamese human resources are rather abundant. When talking about human quality.5 to 8% per year. Vietnam’s economy was ranked 91 out of 178 surveyed countries. customs and treasury and overseas Vietnamese intellectuals. The issue in question is to build a strategy for socio . secondly. Solutions to developing Vietnamese human resources are: 1) clearly understanding that human resources are the most precious resource of Vietnam in the national renovation and development. as a result. however. it is estimated that there is 1 baby with congenital 416  . According to reports of the World Bank (WB) and the International Finance Corporation (IFC) released on September 26. 2007. Current situation of Vietnamese human resources can be summarized in several points: firstly. 63% of au university graduates are unemployed. leading to a contradiction between quantity and quality. public servants. officials working in press and publishing industry. their job quality is not high. tax.

entrepreneurs. intellectuals. workers. there are many developing countries becoming medium . training.income countries. intellectuals. workers. 417   . 3) Building a strategy for human resources. the average the education level of the population is quite low (grade 6 or 7 per capita). which is closely connected with the strategy for socio economic development. so that everybody understands the importance of human resource development in Vietnam and all over the world. industrialization. entrepreneurs and people working in the service sector. to draw experience so that the State can make new policies and amend old policies which are no longer suitable. 10) Annually summarizing theory and practice of Vietnamese human resources in order to assess good points and weak points. 6) Continually improving education level of the people. transparent and sound policies on utilizing intellectuals. making a vigorous change in exploiting. Now. Thus. nevertheless.Panel 14: Education and training of human resources malformation per 10 newborn babies. especially talents. 8) Making strong reforms in monetary and financial policies. building “a studying society”. the goal of making Vietnam a modern industrialized country by 2020 will not be achieved unless we are successful in building human resources for the country. an urgent task now is to invest to improve education level of the population. training and utilizing human resources from farmers. etc. among them.term problems of human resources. In fact. there are very few ones keeping on progress to become industrialized countries. because most of them do not have effective policies to develop human resources. Living standard concerns fostering a man both materially and spiritually and ensuring that he will have a healthy body and mind. 5) Building a plan to coordinate human resources from farmers. In conclusion. modernization and international economic integration? 4) Using effective measures to deal with both urgent and long . cultivating and utilizing human resources properly. 9) Improving information about human resources in a public and democratic way. developing infrastructure and carrying out education modernization. 7) Making clear. as well as a plan for exploiting.

[14. Dr. Education in HCM City also has that characteristic. HCM City has still been considered as “the most dynamic education environment of Vietnam” (although this term is being discussed). From the very beginning.Panel 14: Education and training of human resources [14.415] THE SCIENCE OF RETURNING HOME: AN ANTHROPOLOGICAL CASE STUDY OF YOUNG VIETNAMESE SCIENTISTS RETURNING HOME FROM PHD STUDIES ABROAD Eren Zink Department of Cultural Anthropology. Sweden Science in Viet Nam is a product of a rich history of higher education and exchange of ideas that stretches back in time some 1400 years. Vietnam has become a member of WTO. education is also a good field for foreign investment. HCM City has always possessed all factors of geo . explains and analyses the issue to answer some questions about the movement of economy. This has been true for the Confucian meritocracy established more than a 418  . Many kinds of private high schools have appeared with a lot of activities that help to resolve the lack of public high schools in Vietnam. Ho Chi Minh City Institute of Development Since the past.politics and geo culture with a dynamic economy . Private high schools are developing quickly. So far. there are many new kinds of international schools….society. Apart from private schools. The thesis describes. higher education was a complex and powerful institution for achieving visions of a better Vietnamese future. as well as educational quality need to be evaluated. society and culture of HCM City in the globalizing era. HCM City has always been creative to fulfill objective demands. Titles of schools.414] PRIVATE EDUCATION IN HO CHI MINH CITY IN THE GLOBALIZED ERA Duong Kieu Linh. Uppsala University. purposes of activities. economic nature.

upon their return to Viet Nam. This research finds that young scientists go abroad for PhD training in natural applied sciences to get what they call the “new knowledge. However. [14. brings new opportunities to change the long established relationships in the scientific institutions. as well as the particular traditions and training that young scientists experience as graduate students.416] THE PROBLEM OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING HUMAN RESOURCES OF VIETNAM THROUGH INDUSTRIAL TRAINING AND TECHNICAL INTERNSHIP Higuma Masumi IMM Representative office. One result is that young scientists are looking for new ways to circumvent the limitations of the established scientific system. In this system the young and unconnected have little access to the means for actually doing science. It examines the experiences of a group of scientists that have returned home to Viet Nam after PhD training abroad. enter scientific institutions near the bottom of a strongly hierarchical system. more specifically in sending Vietnamese trainees to attend industrial training and technical internship programs. and it is also true for Vietnam’s contemporary government and its ambitions to become a powerful competetitor in the global knowledge economy. scientists carry out their work within the context of particular scientific structures and cultures that can vary between and within countries. Similarly. the introduction of a new kind of scientific habitus. senior scientists are looking for ways to harness the potential and promise of their junior colleagues’ new knowledge for their own professional goals. Hence. The cultures and structures of science in Viet Nam are a result of rich national histories. The “new knowledge” is a scientific habitus that is credited with being more creative than current practice in Vietnam. Japan This report is concerned with some problems in educating and training young Vietnamese during the past 15 years. This paper is based upon research carried out on Vietnamese grantees of the International Foundation for Science during 2007. From the 419   . and is believed by many to be the key to achieving innovation and national development.Panel 14: Education and training of human resources millenium ago. these new scientists. There are both positive and negative causes and they have occurred on both Vietnamese and Japanese sides. Meanwhile.” and to bring it back to Vietnam.

so far. it will take a new look at these policies from the Vietnamese perspective. In this new educational context. it is undeniable that they are. at the same time. What are now thought to be difficulties will become opportunities if Vietnamese universities have an open mind about cross .BORDER HIGHER EDUCATION POLICIES OF AUSTRALIA AND SINGAPORE AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS TO VIETNAMESE HIGHER EDUCATION Ho Vu Khue Ngoc. to be successful.border higher education policies of Australia and Singapore.border higher 420  . bringing new opportunities to Vietnamese students and institutions. a country needs to understand cross . Australia and Singapore have. this is not the case of the Vietnamese higher education system. this paper will firstly examine cross . Starting from this reality. Vietnam. Unfortunately. It is hoped that benefits of cross . It is argued in the paper that Vietnamese universities can benefit a lot from cooperation with Australian and Singaporean partners in recruiting and training students.border higher education. universities in Vietnam have not done much to welcome their foreign partners in general and Australian or Singaporean ones in particular. and helping to build up national capacity. However.417] ADAPTATIONS OF CROSS .border higher education policies of others and adapt those which are appropriate to its situation and objectives. PhD Candidate Da Nang University There exists a nowadays severe competition among institutions worldwide to attract international students for both academic and economic benefits. Vietnamese universities are not active in establishing cooperation programs and students usually have problems transferring to a foreign university if they are currently enrolled at a university in Vietnam. This attitude is dangerous because it can pull Vietnamese higher education backward. proved to be the most successful recruiters of college and university students.Panel 14: Education and training of human resources point of view of the trainee receiver (the Japanese side). Although it is obvious that these two countries are working for profit. and secondly. the report offers some suggestions on how to direct the training of workers in the process of industrialization in Vietnam [14.

And cooperation is generally divided into two areas.hard . which contains multiple actors and many areas first and afterwards. [14. what accomplishments we got.type. We can approach the international cooperation in many ways.route level. and so forth).Panel 14: Education and training of human resources education will be exploited to the maximum and its problems kept to a minimum. mainly composed of human resources development(how to teach. Others direct their attention to the grass . Speaking more concretely. including bridge construction and facility construction. Prof. we explain two projects. 421   . After evaluating two examples as well as others . that is .finally I would like to propose the future orientation of cooperation concerning human resources development between Japan and Vietnam. namely the ESD . explain how the partnership was built. and so on. helping to build a strong knowledge .I will deliver the macroscopically total conditions of cooperation. Chiba University.. For example.oriented one sponsored by ACCU in cooperation with Vietnam National University and the special needs education sponsored by JICA in cooperation with Hanoi Teachers College. and soft . Japan The aim of this presentation is to analyze the historical background and achievements of the international cooperation between Japan and Vietnam from a variety of viewpoints. Then after assessing the sample examples. and adopting the concrete samples. I would like to pose the future visions and propositions of our cooperation in more detail. some analysts focus on the governmental level.based economy in Vietnam. describe and analyze our experiences.418] THE FUTURE OF THE INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION BETWEEN JAPAN AND VIETNAM: FROM THE EXPERIENCES OF UNIVERSITY (TENTATIVE) Ikuo Isozaki.type.

419] GLOBAL DEVELOPMENTS REGARDING EDUCATIONAL MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATIONS Jan Arend Brands. and the enhancement of international integration of Vietnam’s H. The development of Vietnam’s H. this is partly because the rapid development in the number of H. Thang Long University The report analyzes the characteristics of the new era for Vietnam and highlights some trends of higher education (H. Dr. which were reflected in the Government’s Resolution No.tiered system H. the weaknesses and serious inadequacies of H. On the other hand.E. institutions. The most essential trends include the massification of H. Free man management consultants.) development during this time. On one hand..E.CP on “Fundamental and comprehensive H. the enhancement of research capacity in H.. the governance system is slow to change. the enhancement of autonomy and accountability of.E.2020”. in 422  .14/2005/NQ .. Global experiences of the past are presented.E. Experiences and trends are used to reflect about the situation in Vietnam [14.E. reform in Vietnam for the period of 2006 . Dr Sc.Panel 14: Education and training of human resources [14. the increase of a diverse and multi . Prof.E. Institutions leads to the fact that the unsolved problems of faculty quantity and quality tend to be more serious.E. Netherland Organizations that have as major task training and consultancy for school managers (and other educational managers) go through different stages in their existence.E. in recent years has reflected some of these orientations. Future trends are predicted.E.420] TREND OF HIGHER EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT IN VIET NAM IN THE ERA OF INTEGRATION AND DEVELOPMENT Lam Quang Thiep. the development of the private sector. system. which hinders the implementation of the positive orientations of Resolution 14. The unprecedented factors of the international and national contexts. though it is still inadequate in general. the innovation of teaching process and methods in the direction of improving students’ activeness.

We also need to be fully aware that globalization in economy is completely different from that in culture 423   . [14. Globalization brings to Vietnam several advantages. It helps Vietnam locate its educational system in the whole education picture of the world and understand its position. The second one which helps admission to WTO is a complete move from the centralized economy and subsidized mechanism to a market economy. The third one is the impacts of information technology development. Prof.Panel 14: Education and training of human resources particular and education in general require a profound reform of the national education system. In Vietnam. strengths and weaknesses. The first one is the collapse of the socialist alliance in East Europe. These three factors have contributed differently to the unification of the world. but a natural opportunity. Therefore. especially in the era of globalization. fostering globalization process.fashioned educational system to an international standard one. Then the educational system itself does not produce people with local viewpoint but professionals with global thinking competence.Dr. University of Pedagogy Vietnam was admitted to the World Trade Organization (WTO) and it is undeniable that its economy has moved to market mechanism. changes of the educational system in market economy. Globalization in education at the time is not only negative. We particularly play an active role in protecting distinct values of the national education which has formed and preserved for thousands of years. What we need to learn sometimes is not what developed countries are now doing but what they used to do before to develop their old . However. globalization is associated with three factors. which must be designed carefully and urgently to be started in the second decade of the century. Institute for Educational Research.421] GLOBALIZATION: SOME EDUCATIONAL ISSUES IN VIETNAM Le Ngoc Tra. democratic spirit. and the ability to work in international environment. globalization in Vietnam is not a compulsory process. has initiated a number of critical issues. cooperative capability.

In addition. there are further some proposals and recommendations.Panel 14: Education and training of human resources and education. books. we are able to determine the main contents of the report. It is necessary to firstly and mainly buil a human resource for the the industry. Sketching a picture of education development in some countries. mainly America. 424  . Through documentation research and survey in many countries. literature and economic development. many developed and developing countries have attached much importance to the education development. How to receive from and improve ourselves during the wave of globalization is a challenge for education in Vietnam. one of the ultimate actions is to have a sound policy to facilitate English learning in school. which have meet the technological. Many significant achievements gained have had positive influence on many aspects of countries especially countries that have been newly independent and become “Dragon” and new industrial countries. contribute to the human knowledge. Russia. German. which are suitable with our country’s objectives. Dr. scientific. Assoc. Lessons and experience can be received to make Vietnam education quickly developed and sustainable. Australia and Thailand with policies performed through programs. The article is made on basis of the source of materials and figures gathered from sightseeing. integrate into the globalization and benefit from it. Japan. If we would like to play an active role in choosing experiences from other countries. but it can not be “flattened” in culture and education. [14.422] MANY EXPERIENCE LESSONS HAVE BEEN TAKEN OUT FOR VIETNAM FROM THE CURRENT EDUCATION REFORMS OF SOME COUNTRIES Nghiem Dinh Vy. The world can be “flattened” in economy and technology. Central Department of Propaganda and Training Since the 2nd World War.Prof. The duty is initially directed to current educational leaders and managers. methods of learning and teaching organization and archived results. we have witnessed many education changes suitable with the political and social system. 1. Many education reforms have been carried out. China. from which. 2. actual surveys and scientific processing.

founded in the early years after the August Revolution. under various types (public. talented. development of the education during the resistance against French colonialists has practical meaning for the improvement and reformation education of Viet Nam at present.… The result of that education had contributed to development a culture resistance. universities). guerilla base zones had an important part in the success during the resistance against the French colonialists of the Vietnamese people. including many intellectuals. That is a people’s democratic education. by the people and for the people.Dr. MA College of Social Sciences and Humanities. private.. established a progressive education of the people.behaved. by the special interest. a part created the powerful rear.public). with an increasing amount and quality.1954 Ngo Dang Tri.Prof. a factor often decisive victory of the war. a good vision of Ho Chi Minh and judicious policy of the Party and the Vietnamese State. Assoc.Panel 14: Education and training of human resources [14.occupied zones. it was maintained. VNU Hanoi Vietnamese education in the Period 1945 . Do Thi Thanh Loan.1954. build. secondary schools. including many school level (elementary. both trained in the country and abroad. there the education in the extensive occupied zones. The experience drawn from successes and limitations in the construction. and developed through the difficult stages of the Vietnamese resistance in the years 1946 . talented leaders to serve the resistance and prepare for the cause of Vietnamese revolution in the periods after. especially to create human resources well . Then. 425   .1954 occurred in two areas: the occupied zones and the enemy .423] VIETNAMESE EDUCATION IN THE PERIOD 1945 . semi .

and finally giving the recommendations. (3) reforming the contents and the approaches of the service delivery which are closely connected with doing the related researches. The research of “Reforming the career counseling service delivery to the Army’s youth who have fulfilled the military service” has contributed not only the theory but also the practice to making the above task reliable. The first one is to analyze and evaluate the real situation of our country’s employment and labour force.term task of our Party. The strong and the weak points are also found to make the reasons for reforming. (4) improving staff training management mechanism to meet the standardized competencies. compiling the materials and investing the essential equipments. The solutions are (1) strengthening propaganda and education to heighten people’s awareness of career counseling role. Ministry of Defence Vocational training and making employment for the Army’s youth who have fulfilled the military service are the urgent and long . MA Armored Department.Panel 14: Education and training of human resources [14. The second part proposes five comprehensive solutions on the reform of the career counseling service that are in accordance with the army’s and the country’s real context. (2) increasing the state’s and the army’s management role. 426  . the results of the career counseling activities and the organization of the career counseling service delivery to the army youths in the army’s vocational training schools and employment service centers.424] REFORMING THE CAREER COUNSELLING SERVICE DELIVERY TO ARMY YOUTH WHO HAVE FULFILLED THEIR MILITARY SERVICE Ngo Xuan Lieu. The research consists of two parts. (5) innovating the inspection and the evaluation. State and Army.

425] ASSESSMENT OF THE RESULTS OF STUDY IN UNIVERSITY EDUCATION AND HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT Nguyen Duc Chinh. leaders must giving their political determination of supporting lecturers. practicing for a better work when they are still schooling. to university education for human resources development who meet today demands of economic development. VNU Hanoi Evaluation based on reality does not exclude traditional one but the supplementation for perfection supporting lectures and students in cementing knowledge and life with better awareness with task that students do after graduating. which need long time and sources to pursue. programs. Changes in evaluation and assessment must begin with clarification of concrete study goals. Students will be attracted in broaden their knowledge. Of course. students in changing the way of giving lectures.Panel 14: Education and training of human resources [14. for real student continuous breakthrough. lecturers must give appropriate priority for this real evaluation and assessment. documents… This is difficult tasks. universities. Teaching process. then development of staffs. we need time and money. Lectures will be more creative in finding interesting exercises for supporting students in doing these tasks. policy makers. However. Prof. Faculty of Education. but now is the time to start! 427   . In order to carry out this real evaluation in whole university. avoiding goals . in order to design a student evaluation document (including real evaluation lessons).directed evaluation and assessment. can be livelier. way of studying. thus.

. The effectiveness of technical and vocational education system is still low. The report also analyses and points out the causes underlying the above weaknesses. Therefore. which should be overcome in the new context of development. international integration. the report provides an overall picture of technical and vocational education system situation in Vietnam during the past periods with the following comments: During the past 10 years. industrialization and modernization to workforce development and the challenges of technical and vocational education system during the new period. The training quality. which is currently at average level. imbalances still exists given the development of Higher Education and the demand of the workforce for the cause of industrialization and modernization of the country. However. it will present a threat for our vocational training in international competition and integration. Vietnam National Institute of Education The Technical and Vocational Education system plays an important role of providing around 70% of the technical workforce for the country. it has always attracted attention from and has been developed by the Government. the author recommends that there be a major comprehensive reform in workforce training 428  . However this system still witnesses many problems and weaknesses.426] VIETNAM’S TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION ON THE WAY TOWARDS FURTHER DEVELOPMENT AND INTERNATIONAL INTERATION Nguyen Minh Duong. On the solutions: given the above technical and vocational education system status. technical and vocational education system has been quickly developed. and if it is not rapidly improved. intellectual economy. meets the minimum requirements of today’s workforce. it will meet with major challenges of national industrialization and modernization and international integration. On the new context: the report highlights the impacts of such factors as market economy. The network of Technical and Vocational Education system has not been appropriate in terms of trades. On the current situation: Through its statistics. However. levels and geographical areas.Sc.Panel 14: Education and training of human resources [14.Dr. Prof.

e. Dr. Some solutions to enhance training quality and effectiveness. it is necessary to renew a group of issues relating to scope of education policy and teaching theory including emerging conceptions on the contents and knowledge of teaching subjects and programmes in 21st century. In order to reform the programme.integrated biology and science on the life. Next step.427] REFORMING BIOLOGY INSTRUCTION IN VIETNAM SECONDARY SCHOOL: PROBLEM AND SOLUTION Nguyen Nhu At. Seconds. “levels of living organs” and “bio . Lastly report the three recommendations to Central Committee of Party.depth educational reform (to be taken place) premises: Firstly. A renovation in management and allocation of educational budget. Development of two . Thai Nguyen College of Education Basing on analysis of programmes and textbooks of the biology subject of secondary schools in France. it is necessary to renew the textbook of biology subject in line with international tendency and combination of applying as leading principle two standpoints i.gender evolution”. Federation of Russia (where educational reform has been just undertaken) and United States. 429   .Panel 14: Education and training of human resources system in general.level biology programme in secondary school in line with orientation of general . State and Ministry of Education and Training. and technical and vocational education system in particular which includes: A reform in the national education structure and in TVET management. new international tendency on education of biology subject is drawn out. text book of biology subject that is included in framework of overall and in . a report on description and assessment of advantages and insufficiency (not suitable with international tendencies) of the current textbook of biology subject in secondary schools (a product of innovation) will be prepared. [14.

with impact of market and knowledge economies and high technology in over the world. with “powerful human resources countries”. 430  .an advantage for competitiveness in the early years of globalization . High competitive human resources decide the development of the socio . Awareness the role of education. Vietnam only recognizes the lack of high qualified human resources when it truly enters globalization. implementing diverse solutions for enhancing education quality will help Vietnam’s Higher Education stand and compete with higher education in other countries in very near future.met universities. It requires Vietnam’s Higher Education to renovate quickly on the bases on its self and on learning experiences from other countries.economy and a position of a nation in the globalization society. VNU Hanoi Globalization is getting in depth .Panel 14: Education and training of human resources [14. Assoc. Faculty of Education.QUALITY HUMAN RESOURCES IN VIETNAM AND THE MISSION OF GRADUATE EDUCATION Nguyen Thi My Loc.leads to ignoring investment in higher education and the development of society needs self .428] NEEDS OF HIGH . Vietnam’s Higher Education has a great and heavy mission: producing high tech experts. many countries in the world have invested in it to produce the high competitive humane sources for strengthening competitiveness of the economy. Higher Education in Vietnam cannot produce high quality human resources to meet the demands of the country’s development and global labor market.Prof. high qualified businessmen and layers that can compared to other countries. eliminating all the obstacles for its development.political system. facing with unstable environment and high speed IT development. Integrating.Dr. cooperating and learning cream of higher education in the world. Vietnam enters globalization with ample and cheap human resources and stable socio . Because of availability of human resources .

FDI capital mainly flows to the most developed countries. Vietnam has become an official member of the WTO creating advantage conditions to attract FDI from developed countries for developing totally national economy. strategic solution to resolve the contradiction between big capital demand and poor internal capital is searching external capital. Our country implements industrialization and modernization with low and poor beginning. people working in educating branch considered education a social welfare complying with non . especially slow developed and developing countries do not need FDI. pledging to implement GATS for all of 12 service branches including education. Before Vietnam has taken part in WTO. The goal of the project: to suggest a solution to strengthen attracting FDI for developing services branch in general and education services in particular when Vietnam become an official member of WTO.Panel 14: Education and training of human resources [14.commerce law. Therefore. Vietnam has followed an active and positive standpoint. But in the negotiating process to join WTO. That means after joining WTO. especially for education services. So. education is one of commercial services. FDI is considered a key to development. and EU… also need FDI. Attracting FDI is a common law for all countries. 431   . This law is especially necessary for developing countries which have not enough capital like Vietnam. using capital more effectively will gain the bigger advantages in this competition. Japan. FDI. Nation which has a good investment environment. Capital investing competence of the world now is not big but the needs of capital investment of all nations is very big.429] ATTRACTING FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT FOR DEVELOPING EDUCATION SERVICES WHEN VIETNAM BECOMES AN OFFICIAL MEMBER OF WTO Nguyen Thi Quynh Thu Vinh Xuan Computer JSC To attract FDI is an indispensable objective. The capital for developing accumulating from inner is very small. Great nations such as America. breaking the poor circle. the services impact directly to economic quality. there were heated competitions among nations to find capital investment. In this age. originating from the development of international commerce and linking economics. neither big nor small countries. considering FDI the important resource to develop nations. exceeding the supplying resources.

At present. [14. After Global Summit of United Nations held in Johannesburg about stable development and declare of education decade for stable development from 2005 to 2014. the members take part in education for stable teachers' college have been studying target. concept of education for stable development has not been mentioned in study units and geography textbook yet.Prof. 2008.Hanoi high . universities and schools in all the world have taken part in education decade for stable development. students of faculty of geography .school teachers' college has already introduced content of stable development education in study unit of teaching method of geography" since 2006. however. From that point. Hanoi National University of Education Stable development has already been mentioned in geography study units. Department of Geography already compiled syllabus: "Education for stable development through geography subject". programs and textbook. PROGRAMS AND TEXTBOOKS IN VIETNAM Nguyen Thi Thu Hang. Assoc.430] EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT THROUGH GEOGRAPHY.Panel 14: Education and training of human resources The task of the project: To systemize fundamental argument of attracting FDI for developing education services when Vietnam becomes an official member of WTO.high . To analyze the fact of attracting FDI for developing education services when Vietnam becomes an official member of WTO and on this basis finding the disadvantaged reason when attracting FDI for developing Vietnamese education services. Department of Geography . content and strategy.Dr. To petition main directions and solutions to strengthen attracting FDI for developing education services when Vietnam becomes an official member of WTO. a lot of students and research students already studied content of education for stable development and successfully defense their university graduation thesis in May. 432  .

Instutite of Environment and Social Problem Researh Choosing the shortened industrialization strategy has forced Vietnam to step by step enter into the knowledge . Prof. The data used in this report proves that human resources in Vietnam are trained positively by formal Education and non . at the present. Urgent issues of the current system of higher education in Vietnam and requirement for innovating.based economy right in the process of transferring from an agricultural to an industrial economy. Besides.Panel 14: Education and training of human resources [14. The logic of problem is to build a learning society in which lifelong learning is a principle for education development in the present period. including both formal and non . However. which are referred to as the continuing Education.formal and informal Education. especially. the quality of human resource has presented itself as the most pressing and serious necessity. VNU Hanoi Following contents will be addressed by this paper: The role of higher education in Vietnam in the science of international integration and rapid socio . College of Social Sciences and Humanities.432] OBSTACLES RELATING TO RENOVATING THE SYSTEM OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN VIETNAM Pham Van Quyet. Concerns of various social classes relating to the necessity and tendency of innovating higher education in Vietnam. the more important task is to develop and improve the Adult Education by both non .Prof. 433   . [14.formal education (in Vietnam. Higher School Education. Assoc.431] LEARNING SOCIETY AND HUMAN RESOURCES IN VIETNAM Pham Tat Dong.Dr.formal education).economic change of country and the development of science and technology. The learning society requires to expand the educational scale in the initial Education.Dr.

Panel 14: Education and training of human resources Compilation of several proposals and solutions for innovating system of higher education in Vietnam. Ho Chi Minh is thought about the world in general and about education in particular is fundamental for the establishment of policies. this tendency must be in “incorporation and in struggles”. has been influenced many cultures in the world and itself has established an education. Hanoi National University of Education With the globalization tendency. tactics of Vietnamese Communist Party and government for management of educational activities. It is an important basis for the establishment of Ho Chi Minh’s ideology that includes the idea of corporation of national and international power.Dr. including International integration. economy. peoples in all countries must have international and regional integration. From the beginning of XX century to the year 1969. culture with national character.433] EDUCATION IN THE CONTEXT OF INTEGRATION AND GLOBALIZATION Phan Ngoc Lien. and military. Ho Chi Minh is a typical person and a mirror for Vietnamese people in accepting the human’s culture for the establishment of Vietnamese revolution culture and education in accordance with socialist orientation... Some important points are as follows: 434  . Prof. however. Using the Ho Chi Minh’s ideology and the Vietnamese Communist Party’s points of view and policies in education’s international integration. The report underlines the methodological requirements and principals with illustration of the Vietnamese practice and education’s international integration in accordance with the Ho Chi Minh’s ideology and the Vietnamese Communist Party’s points of view and policies. [14. the Vietnamese nation with its strategic position in geography. This is the main content of the report with international integration of Vietnamese education Ho Chi Minh and the Vietnamese Communist Party with the International integration in general and educational in particular In its historical development from ancient time up till now. points of view.

the international organization with institutionalization. training high . integration with international educations. Prof. The requirements and principals for education’s international integration that underlies education’s international integration as follows: With the position and power of the Vietnamese education for corporation.Panel 14: Education and training of human resources Good understanding of the Vietnamese educational situation and education’s international integration. the Vietnamese Communist Party and government’s policies.quality human resources is the most important factor of production forces. against the conspiracies. strongly defend the national independence and government sovereignty in education. Each state has its own strategy on education and training for heighten quality of human resources. being aware of risks in the education’s international integration On the basis of the Ho Chi Minh’s ideology. Assoc. an economy. It is necessary to clarify these characteristics fro developing 435   .A PROBLEM FOR DEVELOPMENT OF VIETNAM Tran Hau. the answer for problem on preventing the backward threaten of Vietnam. Dr. Exploring the favorable. Central Committee of Vietnamese Fatherland Front Vietnam determines to accelerate the development for getting out the status of a less developed country. points of view. overcoming difficulties. Vietnam has her own characteristics and difficulties as well as advantages in drawing the solutions for enhancing the quality of human resources education and training. with the implementation of WTO’s GAST. Keeping and developing the target and political orientation of the Vietnamese education. legalization and globalization. the study of education’s international law has been implemented. Educating. tricks of “peaceful development” in the education. Enhancing quality of human resources. grasping opportunities.434] IMPROVING EDUCATIONAL QUALITY IN HUMAN RESOURCES TRAINING . of the using knowledge in all fields of society. [14. Due to historical conditions. best using labor potential for society is aimed to bring into full capacity of most important inside resources for meeting development demand of the country.

voluntary but highly feasible. Viet Nam is developing very rapidly all aspects of society: economy. From 1986 up to now. culture and education. according to regional and international trends. especially in education and manpower development. national policy for education and human resource development.e.435] NATIONAL POLICY FOR EDUCATION AND HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT IN VIET NAM Tran Khanh Duc. structure of the educational system. In the “DOI MOI” process for the purposes of industrialization. The paper addresses the issue from macro approach that review achievements and limitations in training and education for enhancing human resources quality in innovation process then determining requirements for serving the development cause of the country up to 2020. however.Dr. completion of industrialization and modernization of the country. Assoc. Vietnamese education will be developed with a big space and higher quality.Prof.Panel 14: Education and training of human resources a system of oriented ideas and relevant policies. Based on that standpoint. soon get Vietnam out of the less developed country status. we will face great challenges. VNU Hanoi This paper presents the issues on national policy for education and human resource development in Viet Nam in the process of innovation and internationalization. 436  . science & technology. In this paper a comparative analysis is made about changes on educational philosophy. [14. Faculty of Education. orientation and basic solutions are proposed with the aim to enhance the quality of human resources training and education in Vietnam serving the requirement of fast development of the country in the period up to 2020 i. educational content as well as goals and solutions for the educational development in the future. We have many new opportunities. modernization and the building of market economy oriented socialism. solutions that are not subjective.

master and doctoral thesis. following the requirements of program evaluation and assessment that other countries have been being implemented. Assessment and Evaluation must support the renovation aims of educating and training Educational Managers and Leaders in Vietnam and the renovation of assessment and evaluation in Education and therefore helps to enhance quality of Educational Managers and Leaders. 437   . and programs for educational managers in particular.Panel 14: Education and training of human resources [14. based on program accreditation standards. skills and attitude they received during and after a program. the assessment and evaluation of programs for Educational Leaders happens every year. Dr.436] RENOVATING PROGRAM ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION FOR EDUCATIONAL LEADERS AND MANAGERS IN VIETNAM . Assessing focused only on the learners.A SOLUTION TO ENHANCE THE QUALITY OF EDUCATIONAL LEADERS AND MANAGERS IN VIETNAM Tran Thi Bich Lieu. However. In Vietnam assessing and evaluating programs in general. of the instructional process and the quality of Educational Managers have been facing with many problems that need to be solved. essay. VNU Hanoi This paper is about how to assess and evaluate programs for Educational Leaders and Managers in the world and in Vietnam. In different countries in the world. The quality of the programs. used both formative and summative assessment. minor thesis. focused on the learners’ knowledge. it has not met the requirements of assessment and evaluation yet. Vietnam’s context and the requirements of evaluation and assessment. processes and outputs. but used limited tools and methods of written tests such as: objective tests written by instructors. Faculty of Education. Learning experiences from other countries. Assessment and evaluation have been carried out systematically on inputs. used different methods and tools and involved different stakeholders to make the collected data be objective and precisely. the authors suggest some directions to be implemented in assessing and evaluating programs for Educational Managers and Leaders in Vietnam such as: focusing on assessing learners’ management and leadership skills. has been being focused recently.

skill and hardness to build a human resources development strategy. democratic educational system for individual development. Educational system assist all people to have opportunity to study in whole life and complete through self study. human resources training and talent cultivation. Educational process is a process to discover and select talents.Dr. Attaching much importance to the combination of training and scientific technological research and production so that real human resources and talents are available 438  . Prof. intelligence. Vietnam has no choice other than utilization of the nation’s fondness for learning. Building an open. subject to its human resources. have become the developed and rich countries.economical development in the process of globalization tendency. In fact some countries who are poor in natural resources but with well trained and wise use of human resources. Sc. talents and responsively adapts with social demand. patient and dynamic into higher level in socio .economical development of each state. In order to quickly develop and complete the cause of industrialization and modernization in 2020. Human training and talents cultivating are of entire national educational system that does not depend on endowed aptitude and belong to an individual.Panel 14: Education and training of human resources [14. An equitable educational system that respects human resources. respecting human resources. The process of economical development has proved that the most economical developed country is not a country who is endowed with natural minerals and favorable conditions. Completing the system of national education toward increasing intellectual standards of people. 1. Vietnamese must be those people who posses basic knowledge and comprehensive understanding. free. 2. To change from an administrative education system into qualitative system. Socio . Institute of Educational Sciences of Vietnam Human is the most important capital. is different.437] HUMAN RESOURCES TRAINING FOR MEETING THE DEMANDS OF GLOBALIZING SOCIETY Vu Ngoc Hai. well using human resources that would upgrade the Vietnamese people who are intelligent.

Building university culture on the competetive basis so that each university will have its own trade . International cooperation and competition in training and using Vietnamese human resources and talents. Activities need to be implemented relating to training and using human resources and talents Develop a strategy for training and using Vietnamese human resources and talents. Transfer the National Council of Education to National Council of Education and Talents Development and Using. talents in training process.Panel 14: Education and training of human resources To build a large university that is an environment for free study. Scientific . talents through modernization and advancization of infrastructure and working conditions. relevant salary and just reward/punishment.tehnological research and productive enterprises. Diversification of international cooperation in human resources training and talents cultivation.mark. inventing and finding new scientific truth. Enterprises is responsible ito invest in human resources training. training human resources in combination with scientific and technological research. Transferring human knowledge to young generation. Issue a policy to prevent the loss of expertise. To attract human resources and talents to serve social demands and the cause of industrialization and modernization A preeminent Vietnamese is educated one.sea Vietnamese who devote their contributions to the country. For conclusion 439   . Secriously protection of intellectual property right. Commercialization of intellectual products. Strengthening competitive capacity among universities in relation of training scientific and technological research. Policy to attract human resources. Policy to attract human resources. Open recruitment. Priority policy for over .

and the open policy in international integration in globalization tendency. by and for people. These resources would facilitate to shorten the difference between our country with developed countries in the region and in the world. With her population of about 85 million. imitative. With the policy of the Party and State that State is of.Panel 14: Education and training of human resources Human resources and talents are the most precious capital of our country. and fond for learning. intelligent. and industrious. hard . It is difficult to train human resources and cultivate talents.working. Vietnam is considered as a powerful country in terms of inhabitant. Vietnam will certainly has an abundant human resources in both terms of quantity and quality and many talents. 440  . Vietnamese people are determined. However effective use of these resources is much more difficult.



such as about its people. which means general knowledge. The above-described situation results from a number of reasons. Vietnamese Studies is relatively a new program. teachers. and 20% serves as teachers. etc. The method applied in this major should be multi disciplinary approach.Dr. The rest 443   . 30% serves in other organizations like Youth Unions. of which 30% serves in governmental organization. Consequently. Second and more importantly. However.’ When we develop the curriculum for this major. and of its typical features of this major. in general. First. Women associations. culture. broadcasting corporations.438] IDEAS ON HOW TO DEVELOP THE CURRICULUM OF VIETNAMESE STUDIES FOR VIETNAMESE STUDENTS Cao The Trinh. for 14 years we have accepted 891 students. therefore. the major of Vietnamese Studies has not proved itself a vital major. and other equipments required in this major have not been sufficient and need more upgrading.Pro. objectives. etc. which means we are wasting a certain amount of human resources. core course materials. of which 456 students have graduated and contributed to the demand of human sources of many cultural and economics fields. culture. companies and organizations are still unfamiliar with this. Assoc. general. logically synthesizing thinking. etc. like museums. According to a recent survey. Moreover. institutes. Also. In order to maintain and develop the major of Vietnamese Studies in colleges. we must anticipate the advantages of graduates from this major as well as their specialized ‘territory.Panel 15: Theory and training methods in Vietnamese Studies [15. and specialized knowledge about the country.. we must determine the importance of this major in comparison with other majors. Vietnamese Studies is a major that orients the learners to the achievement of modernized university education. we must assure ourselves that this major is to provide specialists about one country in terms of civilization. etc. and inter disciplinary approach It is worth noting here that the objectives of Vietnamese Studies are about Vietnamese culture. As for Dalat university. of its aims. especially its cultural tradition. graduates of Vietnamese Studies find it hard in searching for jobs. the curriculum is still on its ways of reaching a destination. Da Lat University Vietnamese Studies is currently a new major in most universities in Vietnam.. etc. history. students should be provided with fundamental.. therefore. most graduates have found jobs. In short. the courses relating to culture should play important parts and should be the majority in the curriculum.

439] DEVELOPING VIETNAMESE STUDIES IN MALAYSIA: FROM WAR STUDIES TO CULTURAL STUDIES Danny Wong Tze Ken. and even Vietnamese history. making the country a new area of enquiry. It was sustained mainly as part of the study on Southeast Asia. University of Malaya The study of Vietnam in Malaysia has undergone many changes since its introduction in the mid-1970s. etc.Dr. [15. Once we determine that the priority should be given to Vietnamese culture. It is necessary for teachers to specialize in the field of Vietnamese Studies. and they are not provided chances to specialize in any field. renewed interests on Vietnam. This paper will trace the genesis and the transformation of Vietnamese Studies in Malaysia by focusing specifically on the manner the subject has developed from a mere section of 444  . The curriculum should be designed avoiding the problem of considering Vietnamese Studies as a program. and the required courses should be General Introduction to Vietnamese Culture. geography. the subject almost died a natural death with the waning of interests on the region following the end of the war. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. etc. South East Asia Culture. Another problem should be avoided is the fact that graduates are provided with too general knowledge. Assoc.) Vietnamese Culture in Regions (Tây Bắc. The Ministry of Interior should issue some documents which require people who work for certain organization to equip themselves a degree of Vietnamese Studies.. Vietnamese Studies should not be considered as a play-ground for professors from different majors. etc. other Indochina states into the Association of Southeast Asian Studies (ASEAN). It is obvious that we should develop a standard program for Vietnamese Studies. which combines courses like Vietnamese Literature. Indian Culture. The introduction of the renovation policy in Vietnam and the subsequent integration of that country and later. History. It is vital to promote this new major. the fundamental courses should be General Introduction to Culture. Đai Viet.Panel 15: Theory and training methods in Vietnamese Studies should be optional and complementary.. etc. Started initially mainly for the study of the Vietnam War and the Indochina Crisis. Graduates of Vietnamese Studies should be given priory in jobs recruitments in organizations relating to culture since these graduates are pioneers in the task of maintaining Vietnam an ethnically traditional but culturally modernized country. Việt Bắc. Chinese Culture. etc. Vietnamese Culture in Timeline (Đong Son.Prof.) The optional courses should be World Civilization.

Panel 15: Theory and training methods in Vietnamese Studies Southeast Asian studies into a specific subject with research and post-graduate students of its own.Their syntactic behavior in sentences . Consequently. [15. yet it is a group of words causing a great deal of difficulty for students and teachers alike. Vietnam has become greatly more integrated with and open to the rest of the world. VNU Hanoi Over the last 20 years. In return. and scientists who are studying Vietnam or are planning to do so. the world has also become far more interested in Vietnam. As shown in the title my paper consists of 2 parts. The Institute/Center has more than 20 years experience in teaching Vietnamese language to foreign students. The second part of this paper focuses specifically on the method of teaching Vietnamese modal idioms to foreign students. MA Institute of Vietnamese Studies and Development Sciences. examining how to teach Vietnamese language to foreign students efficiently is becoming increasingly important. A new. such as: These are very familiar parts of language that express a great deal of nuance in the modality of sentences. specialists. The first part is an introduction to teaching Vietnamese language at the Institute of Vietnamese Studies and Development Sciences (formerly the Center for Vietnamese Intercultural Studies). Modal idioms require closely adhering to the contexts and to the interaction among communicators. The paper will also explore the transformation of Vietnamese Studies from focusing on the war in Indochina to focus on cultural issues. Vietnamese language plays a vital role in helping foreigners learn and understand Vietnamese culture and advance in Vietnamese studies.440] ABOUT TEACHING VIETNAMESE IN GENERAL AND IN PARTICULAR TEACHING VIETNAMESE MODAL IDIOMS TO FOREIGN STUDENTS Doan Thi Thu Ha. postgraduate students. young and enthusiastic generation of specialists in Vietnamese studies has successfully inherited the wisdom-experienced specialists from the previous generation. The paper will also attempt to discuss the concepts behind the development of Vietnamese studies in Malaysia. Specifically these words will be analyzed and described from three different aspects: . This part of the paper focuses on what distinguishes this Institute from other centers teaching Vietnamese language. This interest covers all areas of society.Their semantic-function characteristics in relation to the attached proposition 445   . but especially in the academic fields. In this part of the paper I describe how to efficiently teach learners to use these words correctly. The number of foreigners learning Vietnamese is increasing more than ever before.

“virtual decipher of realistic”. to forecast.442] THOUGHTS ON “REGIONALIZOLOGY/AREA STUDIES” Furuta Motoo. guide training program following route and place. National University of Seoul (Korea). Prof. four key East-Asia universities including University of Beijing (China). training program of tourism management. supporting for tourist adequate knowledge about Vietnam culture. guide training program following special subject. we have a specialized training program directing Vietnamese studies for tourism activities: guide training program at visiting place. training program following address. all four universities of the Forum have strong tradition in study of their own country and due scientific interest to neighbors states that is 446  . This science will help researchers to understand more clearly about Vietnam in all fields of social life in the past. Content of our schedule will contribute to “cultural decipher”. As universities representing their respective state. The goal and direction are to become a place of tourism guide training high quality specialized with two outstanding advantages: specialized cultural knowledge and specialized foreign language knowledge.Panel 15: Theory and training methods in Vietnamese Studies . training program following requirement… [15. University of Tokyo (Japan). University of Tokyo 1. present. HANOI COLLEGE OF CULTURE: STATE OF THE ART Duong Van Sau. training of Vietnamese studies is in cultural tourism. Hanoi College of Culture Vietnamese Studies is a science which studies Vietnam in various subjects. potentiality guide training program.441] VIETNAMESE SUDIES AT CULTURAL TOURISM FACULTY. Since 1999. and Hanoi National University (Vietnam) have held annual meeting namely The Forum of four East-Asia Universities with the aim to strengthen exchange in university education for developing several common curricula and programmers that can be applied in all four universities. The Forum of four East-Asia Universities and “Area Studies”. Beside.describing formal criteria for distinguishing modal idioms from normal parts of speech where the form and position are identical [15. orientation of future about issues dealing with that field. MA. In Hanoi University of Culture.

Its core is a working group known as the Vietnam Initiatives Group (VIG). Then our VIG and faculty members and five Vietnamese graduate research                                                                   7 http://bengal. The studying its own country in Southeast Asian countries assumes strong traditional “national culture”. This paper’s focus is on those efforts most relevant to Vietnam’s education and training needs. Most critically. Seoul and Tokyo have a section to study Vietnam. and match them with host departments at MU. EDUCATION AND TRAINING PARTNERSHIPS IN HIGHER EDUCATION: PROGRESS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI Joseph John Hobbs University of Missouri-Columbia. Nature of “Area Studies” In Japan. section of Japanese Studies of a General School and Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (A post-graduate school that is built based on General School where new inter-branch approach is respected) starts studying Japan in “Area Studies” approach. [15.Panel 15: Theory and training methods in Vietnamese Studies increasingly stronger than in the past in context of globalization. We intend our process of assisting students to serve as a model for Vietnam’s higher education needs.missouri.html and http://asia. it may also lead to a narrow nationalism.missouri. we strive from the outset to mentor prospective and accepted students. Though “national culture” has contributed to the formulation of contemporary awareness.443] VIETNAMESE/U. the establishing a cooperation network on teaching Vietnam of all four universities in which Vietnam play a core role is a feasible scenario. “Area Studies” is so far understood as a method to study foreign countries and studying Japan is the work of traditional scientific branches. In such a situation. Taking into account the situation that universities of 447   . Method to consider Japan in a broader context is an effective one that could prevent “Japanese Studies” in Japan to a narrow nationalism. We work hard to identify Vietnam’s most promising students. based in the university’s Vietnam Institute7. The Japanese researchers of University of Tokyo are strongly trended to maintain traditional approaches of specific branch study. We personally visit as many of the students as possible in Vietnam. 2. USA The University of Missouri-Columbia (MU) is building a collaborative bi-national and multidisciplinary platform to assist Vietnam’s efforts in education

to prepare Vietnamese students to return home. participation in the Vietnamese Student Association. it has been offered in many colleges. Then. and assist in course registration. grant writing. model. on how to best deal with the academic and social challenges of life in the American university. We build and maintain a sense of community among students and between students. program structure. and the students’ advisors. theory and skill practice. American home visits.444] SOME ISSUES IN DESIGNING A B. We greet them at the airport. Hanoi National University of Education Designing a BA program in Vietnamese studies has been an essential work when a new field of study has been established.Prof. the Directors of Graduate Studies at the host departments. we propose some detailed changes in the current BA program such as major: knowledge. our Vietnamese GRAs. and to prepare them for a successful return to Vietnam. practical activities.Panel 15: Theory and training methods in Vietnamese Studies assistants (GRAs) help candidates with preparation of curriculum vitae and statements of purpose. a combination between “hardware” and “software”. In the second week of class. as well as other considerations in building educational partnerships between our two countries. In order to complete the training program. we assist as appropriate in career placement. scientific basis should be determined firstly: training target. faculty and town residents through regular academic and social events.A PROGRAM IN VIETNAM STUDIES TODAY Le Quang Hung. critical thinking. Emphasis is on building problem-solving. our Graduate School. attended only by our Vietnamese students. and other efforts. 448  . Assoc. We keep up a steady stream of correspondence between the students. transport them to their housing. and writing and speaking skills useful in all disciplines. including a Tet celebration. [15. Finally. The paper discusses these issues. and newsletters and electronic media. we hold an intensive workshop. We identify appropriate scholarship and teaching and research assistantships for the students. MU makes extraordinary efforts to ensure the academic and personal success of our Vietnamese students. and social demand.Dr.

the Japanese invaded Korea 1592 and 1598. when Vietnam was under the direct control of the Chinese Ming dynasty in the early fourteenth century. whereas Vietnam shares a long border with other countries. the founder of the Le dynasty. Both nations have some common ancestral origins. and its allied forces. almost the first thing to be discussed by the government was an expedition to Korea. The Japanese were invaders of neighboring nations. and its allied forces in World War Two and why Vietnam won such a difficult war with the U. This difference has given rise to historical differences between the two countries. although she was defeated in the Second World War. As soon as the modern era of Japan started.Panel 15: Theory and training methods in Vietnamese Studies [15. Japan has not been invaded so often. Japan has not been colonized.S. They are not a warlike people but peace lovers.S. After the war he returned the sword to the turtle. Early Japanese history started with a military expedition to Korea which was organized and £$ commanded by the Emperas Jingu in the middle of the fourth century. The Vietnamese have never invaded other nations. But Japan is an island nation. Vietnam has been invaded around twenty times. 449   . was given a sacred sword by the guardian turtle of the lake in 1428. The Vietnamese always fought against invaders and finally defeated the invaders. the author here attempts to search for how differences were formed between the national characters of the Japanese and the Vietnamese Japan and Vietnam have similarities and differences. They are one of the nations who know best the value of peace in the world. The Japanese should consider the value of peace more deeply in this conflicting world.445] FORMATION OF NATIONAL CHARACTERS: SOME COMPARISONS BETWEEN JAPAN AND VIETNAM Masahira Anesaki Japan In order to find an answer to the question of why Japan engaged in such a reckless losing war with the U. Vietnam was colonized by China several times over a long period extending for ten centuries and by France for eighty years. Both countries are similar in land. He fought and won the war of independence against the Ming with that sword and liberated Vietnam. Towards the end of the sixteenth century. area and population. A legend concerning Lake Hoan Kiem in the center of Hanoi tells that. King Le Loi.

the stress falls on the last component of word phase that creates “rheme”.Dr. MA College of Social Sciences and Humanities. It also makes clear the relation between features of Vietnamese intonation and information structure. the report proves that the intonation centre of statement is syntax of stress. If the “rheme” includes more than one word. Assoc. It not only creates a gap in anthropography but also limits application of 450  . there are still different opinions and research approaches in political geography. perfected and penetrated in to many fields of life and society. For the relation of intonation structure and information structure. grammar structure and theme-rheme structure in Vietnamese. The information units are defined by terminology of oral language.447] POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY: ISSUES AND RESEARCH ORIENTATION IN VIETNAM Nguyen Dang Hoi. VNU Hanoi The report describes common affairs related to awareness of intonation and affirmation of specific features of the Vietnamese intonation. as well as its superiority in advising to give the spatial decisions. These segments of information are not always co-extensive which the same syntactic unit but to be phonetic units. more exactly to be stress. In the relation of intonation units and theme-rheme structure.Panel 15: Theory and training methods in Vietnamese Studies [15. the authors affirm that unit of information is segment of information.. Ngo Thi Hoa. The report also describes how information units are organized in Vietnamese language. this science has not been appropriately evaluated in Vietnam yet.Prof..446] TEACHING VIETNAMESE INTONATION Nguyen Chi Hoa. The syntax of stress concentrates on the rheme. the paper affirms that there is no absolutely one to one correspondence between them. [15. Because there has not been the right and positive evaluation about the position and role of political geography in the systems of geography sciences.Russian Tropical Centre. political geography has been enlarged in research aspects. For the relation between intonation and grammatical structure. this writing shows the teaching methods of Vietnamese intonation styles to oversea students as a foreign language. In order to apply the features of Vietnamese intonation in teaching reality. Vietnam . Dr. Ministry of National Defense Formed about 110 years ago and well developed in great countries in the world. However.

they will face difficulties in looking for a job after graduation. 451   . ethnic groups and distribution of population. especially at national space decision level. science. international relations become central assignment of the modern political geography. there have been many problems in identifying the objectives and designing the training program for the study. As a result. ethnology. In this context. economics. state. education. Based on the background knowledge of Vietnam provided in three years. integrated research of nation territory. MA University of Luong The Vinh. medicine. Teaching Profession or Scientific Research. but its contents and tasks are concentrated widely and perhaps it covers and relates to different sciences and fields such as national defense. economics. the research issues of political geography should be focused on: the border and the international relation. culture. ethnology. religion. [15. etc. environmental protection). law. society. language. “Politic-territory system” is a research object of political geography. Vietnamese Studies was introduced and developed as a necessary demand in Vietnam. organization and division of territory. literature. This study has been a popular study in Vietnamese tertiary education system so far. Vietnam has been integrating strongly into the world in many fields including culture. etc. telecommunications. culture that are organized in definitely territorial space along with inside and outside relationships. In the first orientation students get extensive knowledge instead of intensive one. Journalism Profession.448] THE ORIENTATONS OF VIETNAMESE STUDIES AT LUONG THE VINH UNIVERSITY Nguyen Thi Lan Huong.Panel 15: Theory and training methods in Vietnamese Studies geography on issues that concern the development of the nation. Vietnamese Studies has two main orientations: Providing students with Vietnamese knowledge system in many fields: history. Vietnam Over the past few years. division of territorial administration (including management and use of resources. science. In the status of Vietnam. Currently. tourism. However. geography. Therefore. the major issues such as border. students can choose one major which is suitable to their career path to study such as Tourism Profession.

However. culture. This will give them a clear career orientation when they graduate from university. Vietnamese Studies also has a long preparatory process with many achievements and famous experts in various research and training sectors.Panel 15: Theory and training methods in Vietnamese Studies The second orientation is considered to be more practical. Institute of Vietnamese Studies and Development Sciences. Our objective is to provide students the basic knowledge and the professional knowledge. VNU Hanoi Initially established in Western countries in the 16th and 17th century. Vietnamese society. it gradually becomes an scientific discipline branch in Vietnam. Though Vietnamese Studies appeared by the requirement of West. as a scientific branch. After reviewing the real situation.Dr. And students will be trained how to apply the knowledge into their own professions. language. literature. However. it hasn’t met the increasing demand for human resource quality of Vietnamese society. Vietnamese Studies must be a inter disciplinary science. Details are as follows: Training objective: providing the background knowledge of humanitarian and social science. we suggest that the training orientation of Vietnamese Studies at Luong The Vinh University should be based on combining closely providing background knowledge with profession training. history. The training objective is carried out as follows: Step1: Identifying the training majors of Vietnamese Studies including: Tourism Profession Journalism Profession Office Profession Step 2: Designing the program framework for each major. We do not intend to provide students with the whole knowledge of Vietnam in all fields. Vietnamese Studies has officially become a scientific discipline at the end of the 19th century and the early 20th century. Prof. Step 3: Enrolling new students and organization of training. Moving from the incorporation of various disciplines on Vietnam studies into disciplinary 452  .449] VIETNAMESE STUDIES IN VIETNAM ON THE WAY OF INTEGRATION AND DEVELOPMENT Nguyen Quang Ngoc. geography. [15. in accordance with its tight concept. art. The content of professional knowledge accounts for a half of the training program.

however. it is a developed science which recently appeared in Vietnam over the last ten years but is quickly recognized in the research and training system and becoming a key scientific discipline that facilitates resolving many scientific issues and practices of the country in the period of industrialization. [15. Assoc. It meets the requirements of the Vietnamese people and foreigners who want to study Vietnam. The division into different sections follows what was done in previous seminars. The results of Seminar do not only directly contribute to enhanced quality of research and training on Vietnamese Studies inside the country and abroad but provide the objective.Panel 15: Theory and training methods in Vietnamese Studies Vietnamese Studies is a substantial change to Vietnamese Studies in contemporary Vietnam. considering that integration is the development way of the country. modernization. This international seminar is held in Vietnam with largest scale and unified as well as concrete requirements and contents. There are over 770 papers sent to Seminar Organizers of which 500 will be presented at 18 sections. 453   . The end of the paper introduces the third international seminar on Vietnamese Studies. more emphasis is aimed at diversified integration and development requirements. scientific. Hanoi National University of Education This paper focuses on the following parts: The appearance and development of Vietnamese studies at the beginning of the 21st century appears to be a necessity. market opening and integration. Dr. The “hot” developments of Vietnamese studies in Vietnam and some in unsolved problems. Vietnamese Studies is oriented as inter disciplinary in closel combination with regional studies. The perception of purposes and special method of Vietnamese studies. comprehensive and true understanding of Vietnam that serve effectively the integration and development purpose of Vietnam. The prospect of Vietnamese studies in Vietnam and in the world (from the experiences of the Faculty of Vietnamese Studies in Hanoi National University of Education and some institutions that offer of Vietnamese studies to foreigners). Prof.450] VIETNAMESE STUDIES TRAINING IN VIETNAM TODAY Nguyen Thi Bich Ha.

functional grammar has been widely applied in the world and brought about great results. Teaching Vietnamese with a communicative orientation is established on the functional viewpoint of language .452] TEACHING VIETNAMESE IN COMMUNICATIVE ORIENTATION Nguyen Thi Quy. Ho Chi Minh City Pedagogy University Structural viewpoint: the forms linguistic systems that are focused on.PETERSBURG NATIONAL UNIVERSITY. but they overlooked many aspects of language is communicative functions.year post-graduate period. Korean and Southeast Asian linguistics division and in Vietnam history at the Oriental History division. Communicative viewpoint in teaching Vietnamese at schools 454  . we will present the difficulties and opportunities of using Vietnamese versions in teaching Vietnamese literature to Russian students. Institute of Education Research.language is considered as a means of carrying out communication among people in the society. The formal linguists achieved great success in this field. Petersburg National University. [15. Students majoring in Vietnam linguistics are taught Vietnamese literature throughout their school years from sophomore year until senior year and during the two .Panel 15: Theory and training methods in Vietnamese Studies [15. students are given a tremendous load of knowledge about Vietnamese literature. ST. In this paper. Russia Federation Vietnamese is now taught in Orient Faculty as a major second language for students majoring in Vietnam linguistics at the Chinese. semantics. II. Functional viewpoint: the underlying principles of functional grammar differentiate three aspects of syntactic. RUSSIAN FEDERATION Nguyen Thi Minh Hanh St. Dr. Vietnamese is also taught as a major second language for students majoring in Khmer linguistics. two years.451] TEACHING VIETNAMESE LITERATURE AT ORIENT FACULTY. pragmatics to define the functional relations among these three aspects. In recent decades. In their study. ranging from folklore to modern literature and “doi moi” literature.

Learners’ activities in the study process have four basic forms: • Activities that learners participate in to prepare new lessons • Activities that learners participate in to acquire knowledge • Activities that learners participate in to constitute skills or consolidate and improve skills • Activities that learners participate in to test and evaluate knowledge and skills II.2. Vietnamese syllabuses at high schools pay attention to “communication. Four skills: listening. reading.2. II. It is called pedagogic communication. teacher and teacher.2000 is teaching skills of using Vietnamese based on knowledge about the system structures and on using Vietnamese in communication. Teaching based on activities is a teaching method innovation orientation of new syllabuses from primary schools to universities in Vietnam nowadays. people pay attention to promoting a positive participation of learners. Using discourses with suitable expression modes depends on specific communicative purposes. writing and thought competence 455   . reading and writing are required in the syllabuses. there are many communicative needs among members: teacher and learners. teacher and learners’ parents.2 Teaching method When teaching activities take place. II. In pedagogic communication. speaking.1 Aspect of content A new point of syllabuses at primary schools . Skills are practiced through many exercises with natural communicative circumstances.. That is a communicative viewpoint in teaching Vietnamese at primary schools. II. Learners’ linguistic performance is stimulated.2 Practicing skills: listening. discourse and expression mode”. Listening and speaking skills in the syllabuses are used for teaching reading and writing. learners and learners..1 Organizing activities for tasks is the feature of communicative viewpoint in teaching.Panel 15: Theory and training methods in Vietnamese Studies The communicative viewpoint is expressed through two aspects of content and teaching method. speaking.

Dr. VNU Hanoi Inter-branch oriented post graduate studies at universities are both a duty and an important priority in the activities of the Institute of Vietnamese Studies and Developed Sciences (IVIDES). writing applications. So it is necessary to combine many teaching methods. Language and thought are formed and developed. This is the first and. practice asking and answering questions. organize and control meetings…. [15. art texts…. we should use many activities in class as well as in everyday life for developing their Vietnamese using competence. rewriting someone’s words directly or indirectly. listening. In addition. So. tell stories. 453] POST . This is one basic point of view in organizing Vietnamese teaching at schools.Prof. Learners must have many chances to communicate in class and out of class. discuss. up to now.2. the equipment support for teaching is required. exchange something. writing based on prompts. It is suitable to the circumstances and pedagogic situations. II.GRADUATE “VIETNAMESE STUDIES” AT THE INSTITUTE OF VIETNAMESE STUDIES AND DEVELOPED SCIENCES HANOI NATIONAL UNIVERSITY Nguyen Thi Viet Thanh. Institute of Vietnamese Studies and Development Sciences. Learners work in groups. the only institute in Vietnam that has the function to train master degree specializing in Vietnamese Studies. role-playing a situation …. the communicative viewpoint in teaching Vietnamese is expressed through the two aspects of content and teaching method. Assoc. Such a change in teaching methodology also requires a change in assessing the results of the learners. Writing skill are also varied: writing after speaking. skills of using language are practiced in conjunction with the development of the learners thought compelenees. these by responding to the 456  .Panel 15: Theory and training methods in Vietnamese Studies Speaking skill are practiced when learners introduce themselves. In short. To help learners to practice their skills.3 Practicing Vietnamese using proficiency in communication through extracurricular activities or games organized in the class.

language. After finishing theory subjects. and other scientific agencies. Since 2008. trainees can select a geographic area in Vietnam as the object for an in-depth study. and to increase the qualifications of the officials to increase the quality of training substantially. especially to participate directly in scientific studies topics at various levels. to enhance the curriculum quality. Lecturers are the leading professors on fields who come from universities. The training programme is integrated with activities of scientific research that will create opportunities for trainees to approach methods of scientific studies. research Institutes of Hanoi National University. together with specific knowledge that had been taught in university programmes. The inter-branch study approach and the area-study approach are basic methodologies that cover and lead through the entire study programme. culture. To present.Panel 15: Theory and training methods in Vietnamese Studies requirement for high quality human resources in development of Vietnamese Studies in Vietnam. law or and economy. as an individual in a common entity. This is a favorable chance for the Institute to improve the training programme. through 100 subject units (equivalent to 70 credits). law. IVIDES is running the fourth academic term with about 80 trainees of which 7 are foreigners. natural sciences. a part from bachelors graduated on Vietnamese Studies in universities in side the country. 457   . geography. environment… and each field is not considered a single manner but in a close relationship with other fields. trainees have the chance to access a large knowledge on Vietnam as a cultural space from such areas as history. are mostly bachelors specified in various branches of humanities. IVIDES is undertaking important preparatory activities for obtaining permission to start post-graduate training for doctoral degrees in 2009. Trainees attending the program. economy. Regarding the programme. post-graduate master degree programme of the Institute joins the international level training project of Hanoi National University.

Although Vietnamese Studies is a major degree in University.A. Dr. 5. 4. To recognize it as an autonomous branch of science. degree on Vietnamese Studies at Universities and Colleges is not successfully designed unless the following points are proved or accepted: a) Vietnamese Studies is a special branch of science. what is the object of Vietnamese Studies? This is the delimitative line of the discipline through the internal features of the concept Vietnamese Studies. 454] VIETNAMESE STUDIES AND THE FRAMEWORK OF TEACHING AND TRAINING STUDENT OF THE FIRST UNIVERSITY DEGREE ON VIETNAMESE STUDIES AT THANG LONG UNIVERSITY. The knowledge from Vietnamese Studies is the basic for all social sciences and humanities majors. Vietnamese Studies is a specialization for training student of the first University degree on Vietnamese knowledge 2. not all studies about Vietnam have to be studied in the program the program. at the same time . 3.VIETNAM Nguyen Van Chien. To build a such particular framework. Thang Long University This report aims to introduce the framework of teaching and training students of the first University degree on Vietnamese Studies at Thang Long University that is based on the following key-points: 1. we acknowledge the need for different opinions and ideas about Vietnamese Studies among scientists over the world and in our country. Because Vietnamese Studies have specific aspects of social sciences and humanities and research object with a wealth panticularities. Understanding Vietnam taught by lecturers and acquired by students through Vietnamese Studies as scientific discipline will have to add forwards to the stock of knowledge in many (or all) fields of (or related to) social sciences much enough for a student 458  .Panel 15: Theory and training methods in Vietnamese Studies [15. A particular framework of teaching and training students of a B. we also assert that we should move towards common ground for a scientific branch with more particular directions to study. yet it has to be open and concentrate at the same time.

the paper also suggests some experiences in building Vietnamese Studies training at USSH. the paper also mentions the perspectives of Vietnamese Studies in the coming years. VNU Ho Chi Minh City In the context of development and integration.HCMC. 455] VIETNAMESE STUDIES AT THE UNIVERSITY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES . Vietnamese Studies in USSH.HCMC. [15.VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY IN HO CHI MINH CITY (SITUATION . VNU .000 participants from 45 nations. such as the design of an M. Besides. it is more important that they have to be viewed as being open and concentrate on specialization and interdiscpinarity discipline so as to serve human life.Prof. in 1998 when the Center became the Faculty of Vietnamese Studies. and also reflect vigorous changes in the mechanism of the university system in Vietnam. VNU . Program of Vietnamese Studies (scheduled for 2009) and a PhD Program (for 2011). the growth both in depth and in width of Vietnamese studies as a discipline reveals a dialectal relationship.HCMC have the following initial achievements: over 15 years. Until now.PERSPECTIVES .Dr. VNU . this scientific domain in the South of Vietnam has experienced different important milestones. In its process of development. College of Social Sciences and Humanities.A. and 34 Bachelors of Art in the twin program 2 + 2 and more than 200 students currently studying at the Faculty. such as in 1980 when the Ministry of Higher Education entrusted the USSH with the task of organizing Vietnamese Studies training. This paper focuses on the founding and development as well as the future perspectives of Vietnamese Studies training at the USSH.Panel 15: Theory and training methods in Vietnamese Studies to work. 28 Bachelors of Art in Vietnamese Studies.EXPERIENCES) Nguyen Van Lich. 459   . Assoc. In the conclusion. Those historically important milestones represent the renovating trends and efforts of the pioneers of the branch. we have received 10. in 1990 when the Center for Southeast Asian Studies was founded.

international cooperation with universities. 460  . training and research activities during last half century and the relation with the development of ethnology/anthropology in the world and integration tendencies in current training and research.456] SOME IDEAS ABOUT RESEARCH THEORY AND METHODS IN TRAINING AND STUDYING VIETNAM ETHNOLOGY AND ANTHROPOLOGY Nguyen Van Tiep. the author proposes some recommendations relating to the development of a training and research programme that emphasize the need to rapidly include the teaching of theoretical subjects and methods over an adequate time into the graduate and post-graduate programmes translation and publication of curricula. human resources’ training and research achievements do not meet with the requirements of the country’s industrialization and modernization in the context of regional and global integration. College of Social Sciences and Humanities. whose goal it is to move from ethnology to anthropology. this paper also indicates that the reason for the limitations in the development of the training programme are low attention attached to theoretical knowledge. VNU Ho Chi Minh City The paper presents the historical context of the foundation and the development of ethnology/anthropology in Vietnam.Prof. Therefore.Panel 15: Theory and training methods in Vietnamese Studies [15. research institutes in the world famous for teaching and studying.Dr. In order to build and develop a Vietnamese ethnology/anthropology that meets the requirements of the country’s construction. the way of approaching methods and research methodologies of the discipline and multi-branches consequently causing the threat that ethnology/anthropology lags behind and is not following the international developments world pace. Assoc. especially in the theoretical and methodological fields to select those achievements of the world ethnology/anthropology that are suitable with Vietnam conditions for building and developing a discipline to meet the requirements of education and scientific innovation in the context of international integration . theory text books and research methods. Based on the analysis of the current status of training and researching Vietnam ethnology/anthropology including its training programmes and researched results.

some factors of society. In organizing Vietnamese courses. learners. course content (language content. 3. etc. teacher. This paper includes 4 parts: 1. e. teaching materials. facilities for the course. the quality of learners. the needs of learning. 4.. In evaluating the course. VNU Hanoi Proceeding from the need to learn Vietnamese by foreigners and overseas Vietnamese from many countries. distributed course content. to approach organizing Vietnamese courses.Panel 15: Theory and training methods in Vietnamese Studies [15. feedback from the learners. course organizing (course planning. Dr.). at the same time offers some opinions about how to prepare and organize teaching material effectively. etc. College of Social Sciences and Humanities.. practical skills. the syllabus and program content. scope of course and course content. the author expresses the views on selecting materials for teaching Vietnamese in the actual state. Analyzing the base for curriculum development in Vietnamese teaching. the teachers (teaching preparation..g.). 2. the author mentions some aspects of curriculum development in teaching Vietnamese as a foreign language to contribute to standardizing and improving the teaching in order to bring about the effect for Vietnamese language teaching and learning. teaching methods and skills. as well as from the reality of Vietnamese teaching and research in Vietnam and other countries. the author mentions some methods of course evaluation. course planning and syllabus design. the author is concerned with some points that should be considered in the process of Vietnamese courses design such as the entry and exit level. scope. learner. In teaching materials design. focusing on many different aspects of a language program: curriculum design (concern about the quality of program planning and organization). 461   .. This paper also emphasizes the role of teachers in applying teaching methodology and language teaching methods in general for teaching Vietnamese more and more professional and effective.457] CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT IN TEACHING VIETNAMESE AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE Nguyen Viet Huong.).. attitude..

It will consider the emergence of common research questions across disciplines and assess the quality of research capacity and the quantity of field-work among the current cohort of scholars. Vietnam Association of Scientific Study on Southeast Asia This study is carried out based on innovations of thought and awareness. While articles in JVS provide insight into many aspects of Vietnamese society. The University of California.Panel 15: Theory and training methods in Vietnamese Studies [15. scholarly forums and book reviews that have been published (or are currently “in press”) within JVS so far this paper attempts to take an impressionistic measure of the current pulse of the field. approach methods and relations between Studies of the region and studies of the country. 459] APPROACHING SOUTH-EAST ASIA (REGIONALIZOLOGY/AREA STUDIES) AND VIETNAMESE STUDIES (COUNTRIOLOGY) Pham Duc Duong. USA Founded at the University of California in 2006. the author has proposed a theoretical frame. to identify objects.458] THE STATE OF ENGLISH . Prof.Dr. This is 462  . Prof. with intersectional methodology in tendency of complex thought and comprehensive knowledge.LANGUAGE VIETNAMESE STUDIES AS SEEN THROUGH THE JOURNAL OF VIETNAMESE STUDIES Peter Zinnoman. an analysis frame and a modeling method for studying the relations between Vietnamese culture (Vietnamese Studies) and South-east Asian culture (Southeast-Asian Studies). The Journal of Vietnamese Studies (JVS) is the only peer-reviewed scholarly journal devoted to the publication of Englishlanguage research about Vietnam produced from within in the humanities and social sciences. the overall composition of the content of the journal to date and the background of its contributors illuminate something of the current state of Vietnamese studies in the English speaking academic world. [15. Special attention is paid to what JVS reveals about the distribution of intellectual energy within the field by discipline. Through a brief consideration of the articles. culture and history. The paper will also reflect on how the preoccupations of field today compare with previous eras and comment briefly on prospects for the future. From the point of global views.Dr. institutional affiliation and generation.

Panel 15: Theory and training methods in Vietnamese Studies the result of the process of studying of the author. as well as research centers and institutes have been established by various countries in the world. research about Vietnam is an essential factor. history. However. For more than 100 years. Some solutions can be suggested aiming at resolving the imperfections in training and educating Vietnamology. Vietnam is situated between the two great civilizations of China and India.460] TEACHING . content and object of this major have not unified. until the 2007-2008 school years. Particularly. The reality of the training schedule of Vietnamology in Vietnam. This leads to a synchronous program of Vietnamese Studies. history and ethnicity has to be studied more deeply. the subjects of Vietnamese culture. This is to develop teaching and learning Vietnam Studies in the future. who presides over Southeast-Asian studies in Vietnam [15. Researchers have reached out to Vietnam by many kinds of methods such as single studies. This report intends to confer to all scholars about training in the Vietnamology/Vietnam Studies in Vietnam generally and in Ho Chi Minh City particularly.LEARNING AND RESEARCHING VIETNAMOLOGY IN VIET NAM THE ISSUES OCCUR ON THE FORUM Pham Thi Thu Nga. special purposes or area studies. Therefore. That’s why many Colleges and Universities in Vietnam have been established. 65 Universities and Colleges have founded Vietnamese Studies. these colleges and universities need to develop a united schedule to fulfill all requirements. For the requirements of integration. Trough contacts. Vietnam has frequently had cultural exchanges with China and India for a long time. It also plays an important role as a crossing of cultural and communication exchanges from West to East inversely. The process of forming and developing Vietnamese culture. Dr. the target. many Vietnamology/Vietnam Studies research projects. However. Saigon University Vietnam is situated in a location which is both politically and economically important. Existing issues (advantages and disadvantages) 463   . and ethnic by Vietnamese ourselves have not yet been studied seriously.

advantages and disadvantages. After entering the WTO in 2007. Methodology and method. the Central highlands and Cochin China. up to now. Institutes of social sciences in central Vietnam. exchanging. Over the past decade. Vietnam needs to be more active in updating international standards and approaches and in the establishment of suitable organizations in order to connect. International Vietnam studies provide other points of view for the Vietnamese development in relation with the region and the world. Besides specific researches. Vietnamese Association of Historical Sciences 1. dialogues between Vietnamese and foreign researchers at international conferences on Vietnamese studies. exchange information and hold meetings. In the period of international integration Vietnamese studies play an important role in contributing to the promotion of knowledge on Vietnam objectively and honest both about weak and strong points. 3. In the Vietnamese studies education structure and system. 461] VIETNAMESE STUDIES IN THE PERIOD OF INTEGRATION Phan Huy Le. making dialogue and updating information. Vietnamese studies in Vietnam have developed according to the trend of integrating into global Vietnamese Studies. 4. since the first international conference on Vietnamese studies in 1998. Aiming to one common goal. that means it also includes demands for exchange and integration. Prof. state level or provincial level projects which are carried out in intersectional direction of studied areas. Vietnamese Studies in Vietnamprovide various sources of data and results from subjective studies to promote knowledge of Vietnam. numbers of issues arise for development of Vietnamese studies themselves in relationship with other research and educational organizations as well as foreign Vietnamese Studies researchers. besides its specific structure. In that new context. researchers in Vietnam and over the world all want to exchange results of research especially with regards to sources and approach methods. projects. 2. However. the demands of international integration are increasing in depth. the Department of Vietnamese Studies in some universities.Panel 15: Theory and training methods in Vietnamese Studies Suggested solutions [15. there are intersectional research organizations such as the Institute of Vietnamese Studies and Development Sciences. there is a great gap between Vietnamese studies in Vietnam and overseas in approaching. tools for research. there are programs. In the education of Vietnamese studies 464  . The broad meaning of Vietnamese studies includes studies of Vietnam inside herself as well as overseas. approach are also taking advantages of global scientific achievements.

Prof.MA. In China. 462] TEACHING VIETNAMESE IN SOUTH CHINA .463] THE PROGRAM OF VIETNAMESE STUDIES IN VIETNAM TODAY Tran Le Bao. The Vietnamese studies training 465   . governmental organizations.Prof. this paper aims to discuss reasons. Foreign Languages College. the new teaching model of training Vietnamese . The development of Vietnamese studies. Vietnam is the essential place for an approach. Assoc. Some practical steps are put forward for reference. But the traditional way of teaching Vietnamese cannot meet new social needs. plays an increasingly important role in these activities. its connection with and exchange between inland and overseas Vietnamese studies are an unprejudiced demand in the time of integration not only for Vietnam but also for other countries. a bridge of communication. significance.Chinese translators should be modeled to make Vietnamese teaching more practical and effective. Under new circumstances. Vietnamese Studies is a new studying field but it has been established promptly in 60 universities and colleges nationwide. Guangxi University. Those graduates trained with the traditional approach are not competent for their jobs as translators or interpreters. Bilateral exchanges need more qualified translators and interpreters.A TEACHING MODEL OF TRAINING TRANSLATORS Chen Bilan. direct investigations and the environment for effective Vietnamese language learning and practicising. the economic and cultural exchange between Vietnam and China is becoming deeper and wider. China With the establishment of the China-ASEAN Free Trade Area (CAFTA). more and more students are enrolled into colleges to study Vietnamese every year. [15. and nongovernmental organizations. [15. especially in provinces in South China such as Guangxi and Guangdong.Dr. measures and difficulties in practicing the reform.Panel 15: Theory and training methods in Vietnamese Studies for young researchers. for it just puts stress on grammar and vocabulary. Translation. Hanoi National University of Education The studying program is an important factor to determine and decide the quality of education quality. Assoc. Based on the Vietnamese teaching reform already practiced at Guangxi University.

they can improve their knowledge and can show more creativenesses on this field. 466  . We have to define trainning programme and carrer orientation exactly and raise the trainning standard according to the social requirement. Vietnamese studies researchers and teachers are given a chance to foster their professional ability. Moreover. Hanoi National University of Education Start to appear as a studied branch 10 years ago at Dalat University. the Ministry should enhance international cooperation on education. [15. It shows a strong development of this new branch. they can not find a common voice in term. So all of the universities. textbooks. However. We also have to build the relationship among domestic foudations and between domestics and foreign foundations to develop this studied branch eachday. object. Although. Vietnamese Studies still exists and develops strongly not only for foreigners but also for Vietnamese people. colleges and institutes. Vietnamese Studies now has been trained in more than 70 universities. the training target in universities is different. Besides. many scientists have researched and debated about Vietnamese studying and teaching orient matter. in Vietnam. The Vietnam Ministry of Education and training needs to standardize “a standard curriculum framework” for Vietnamese studies in universities and colleges nationwide. exchange information on new programs and research results to develop Vietnamese studies in the world as well as in the region. that affects the quality of education in this area. recently. Therefore. not many people understand this studied branch. in which we need to determine the training target and result. MA. Besides.Panel 15: Theory and training methods in Vietnamese Studies program now seems to have some problems and is not univalent. Then. But we have to think about the fact that almost trainning foudations still haven’t image the whole face of this branch. Specially. from intermediate to master degree. nowadays. colleges and institutes need to have a common voice in trainning Vietnamese Studies to avoice confused stuation. tranning Vietnamese Studies has many difficuties in building a trainning programme. function and duty of this studies branch.464] FINDING A COMMON LANGUAGE FOR TRAINING VIETNAMESE STUDIES NOWADAYS Tran Van Kien. so that the program details should focus on closely related subjects.

Together with the development of many other academic fields. training on Vietnamese studies at undergraduate and graduate levels is being implemented at many universities and research institutes. teaching methods and training management.Dr. textbooks. good combination of teaching and scientific research towards regional and interdisciplinary studies.3%). assignment of rational training quotas. faculty. improvement of academic programs. training in the field of Vietnamese studies in recent years has thrived. of which there are 42 institutions with junior college training programs (55. especially in academic programs. contents and teaching staff. the number of training institutions and the number of students pursuing Vietnamese studies have increased rapidly in recent years.2%).465] REAL STATUS OF TRAINING ON VIETNAMESE STUDIES IN VIETNAM NOWADAYS Truong Quang Hai. the whole country has 76 institutions offering Vietnamese studies. but still has many limitations.Panel 15: Theory and training methods in Vietnamese Studies [15. Bui Van Tuan Institute of Vietnamese Studies and Development Sciences.. Prof.3%). In Vietnam. programs and textbooks. Vietnam’s status in the region and all over the world in the context of ever-increasing regionalization and globalization. scientific research and international cooperation. on one hand for development and integration of Vietnam. one research institute with master training programs (1. requiring profound and comprehensive understanding of the country. faculty development. We conducted quantitative research using statistic and sociological survey methods by questionnaire combined with interviews on this academic field in institutions offering Vietnamese studies in Vietnam. 33 institutions with bachelor programs (43. on the other hand for investment and cooperation process of countries and international organizations with Vietnam. 467   . enhanced control and evaluation. At present. The report deals with the real status of training in the field of Vietnamese studies at undergraduate and graduate levels by contents: academic specializations. number of Vietnamese and foreigner students over academic years. In general. VNU Hanoi The process of integration and development in Vietnam is posing opportunities and challenges. Based on the analysis of the real situation the report proposed effective solutions to enhance training on Vietnamese studies such as selection of specializations suitable to capacity of institutions. Research and training in Vietnamese studies have become pressing needs.

468  . according to that the History and Culture of ethnic groups in Vietnamese territory should be considered objectively and equally each with other.Sc. being one of 54 ethnic groups of Vietnam but Thai people has not only settled in Vietnam but also in the territory of China. The author suggests that researchers. The author also suggests that a new thinking on the contribution of Champa. and the beginning of Vietnamese History sought only in some regions where Viet (Kinh) people had settled down. For example. Funan Kingdoms and others as parts of Vietnamese History. It is necessary to overcome the prejudice of some ethnic groups and the affection for another. Culture only as Viet (Kinh) people’s one. must look back to the past beyond the bias which considers the identity of Vietnamese History. Their reigns are worth being considered as Vietnamese dynasties.STATE Vu Minh Giang. Prof. Being a multiethnic country Vietnam could not be rightfully understood without scientific and deep knowledge of every ethnic group. a new research view-point on Vietnam relating the conception of Nation-State is suggested. Concurrently with an approach of Ethnic Culture. especially for Vietnamese. The ethnic space usually is not coincided with the national territory.466] VIETNAMESE STUDIES: FROM A CULTURAL APPROACH OF ETHNIC PEOPLE AND A NATION . Laos Mianma and especially of Thailand. Vietnam National University. The process of ethnic settlement usually took place long before the establishment of the State.Dr. Hanoi The author put forward a new approach in Vietnamese studies with the aim to improve understanding on the history and the culture of Vietnam. The author suggests that Vietnamese Studies should be extended to the outside of Vietnamese territory.Panel 15: Theory and training methods in Vietnamese Studies [15.



Panel 16: Synthetical area studies


Do Thi Minh Thuy, Dr., Institute of Cultur, VASS

Religious life is a constituent of culture in general and of Thang Long - Hanoi culture in particular, especially folk beliefs embodying the specific features of Thang Long - Hanoi culture. The folk beliefs of Thang Long- Hanoi have been formed through its long urban development and were basically constituted in the 18th century when the culture of Thang Long- Hanoi reached its pinnacle of socio- economic and cultural development. The folk belief of Thang Long- Hanoi is regulated by a specific geo-cultural structure, manifested through such factors as: being an Imperial city, a “natural” city of the Northern Delta where the rivers flow together, a medieval city with an economy combining handicrafts, agriculture and trade. Seen from this angle, the folk beliefs of Thang Long- Hanoi have three outstanding features, as follows: Bureaucratic model of Bach than (a hundred gods). The importance of water in the folk belief of Hanoi (a subject of worship) The deity system in the folk beliefs of Thang Long- Hanoi seen from the viewpoint of the socio- economic structure. During the transitional stage, from the end of the 18th century to the early 19th century and today, the cultural life of Thang Long- Hanoi, and especially the religious life of its inhabitants, has been greatly changed by the impact of three notable events: At the end of the 18th century Thang Long was no longer the capital of the feudal state. This event had great influence on the socio-political life of Thang Long- Hanoi: the number of bureaucrats decreased significantly while the socio-economic context continued to develop. This event directly impacted on folk belief and worship institutions under the State administration. At the end of the 19th century, Thang Long - Hanoi became a concession granted to the French colonialists . The impact of this event on the cultural life of Thang Long- Hanoi was very great; it was expressed through Western- oriented urbanization. A notable point of this stage was the demise of ancestor worship. Some communal houses have been rebuilt, but

Panel 16: Synthetical area studies

places of worship became only small-scale in the city center, where urbanization was proceeding rapidly. The development of the mother-goddess worship was regarded as a change in Vietnamese folk beliefs early in the 20th century. Hanoi has been the capital of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam since 1954, and the religious life of Hanoi can be divided into two main periods: from 1954 to before 1986 and from 1986 to the present. During the first period, places of worship existed under the patronage of the State. Since 1986, Renovation has brought about more vitality for religious life, and the market mechanism has restored the traditional cultural space of Hanoians. The dominant feature of the current religious climate is the increasing role of the pagodas. Pagodas are the place where most folk belief is practiced. Hanoi always reminds us of the past and the present; it is both deep and implicit. The religious life of Hanoi is a precious heritage that is always preserved and promoted by Hanoians. Spiritual culture, including folk beliefs and their variants, is now becoming a hot topic in urbanization.
[16. 468]

Doan Minh Huan, Dr,. Institute of Politics and Administration, Region I

This research on Thang Long (Rising Dragon) - Hanoi as the Political Administrative Centre of the country focuses on the following content: The power sphere of the political - administrative centre in relation to historical changes, including territory reformation, of Vietnam’s participation in the region and the world; Management system of Thang Long - Hanoi throughout the historical period in relation to the process of urbanization from the viewpoint of power institutions; Hanoi as the centre of the Tonkin area in its interactions as the centre of the whole country; The process of “functioning as the capital city” and “not functioning as the capital city” of Thang Long - Hanoi affected by the historical context and the viewpoint of power institutions;

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The relationship between the dominant functions of the political - administrative centre with multiple functions including acting as the economic, cultural, educational, scientific and technological centre of Thang Long - Hanoi; Relationships between central power and local power in Hanoi’s territory; Process of capital city formation and development; Organization of the urban centre in relation to the particular characteristics of the territory as the political - administrative centre of the whole country.

Go Yonezawa*, Mamoru Shibayama*, Prof.Dr., Truong Xuan Luan**, Assoc.Prof.Dr. *Kyoto University, Japan **Hanoi University of Mining and Geology, Vietnam

Analyzing the relief of terrain and micro-topography of Hanoi City plays an important role towards an explanation of its urban transformation. It is necessary to generate the DEM (Digital Elevation Model) using the elevation data to analyze the geomorphic change. DEM is a digital representation of the ground surface topography, the most important element of topographic analysis for urban transformation (i.e.)the evidence for the existence of phenomena such as old rivers, lakes, fills and land subsidence. We have generated the DEM of Hanoi City by the collected 8,000 points data resolution Contour interval is 0.5 meter. The very subtle elevation gaps which cannot be distinguished on the satellite image are significantly recognizable on this DEM. Meanwhile, the topographic map as a paper map was generated by French government in 1950 and belongs to the French library. We also have generated this DEM at 2 meter resolution based on the DEM generation using the method of STRIPE. It also enables us to show the difference between DEM (2005 and 1950). By comparing 2 patterns of DEM, the area of fills and land subsidence are figured out. Moreover, the 3-D mode of buildings which we generated from house map in Hanoi City can be expressed visually.


Panel 16: Synthetical area studies


Mamoru Shibayama* Prof.Dr., Go Yonezawa*, Yumio Sakurai**,Prof.Dr., Truong Xuan Luan*** , Assoc.Prof.Dr. *Kyoto University, Japan, ** University of Tokyo, Japan *** Hanoi University of Mining and Geology, Vietnam

The authors embarked on a five-year project [1] to create a new discipline calledarea informatics?, an approach that integrates the interdisciplinary field of informatics with area studies, which encompasses all academic disciplines, including natural ecology, environmental studies, human ecology, sociology, history, cultural studies economics and political science. One of the core research topics for this project was research into the process of urban formation in Hanoi in the 19th and 20th centuries. In this research, we aim to explain the history of urban development in Hanoi, which has been the capital of Vietnam for 1,000 years, and to digitize that research process and its results for publication. To explain the process of Hanoi’s urban development and transformation, we created thematic maps of actual phenomena within 4-dimensional space, taking into account both spatial and temporal axes, and we conducted a spatial analysis of various data we gathered, including maps, satellite images, land registers and historic ruins, using GIS (Geographical Information Systems) and RS (Remote Sensing) technologies in order to further research into the process of Hanoi’s urban development. In this paper, the analyses for urban transformation in the 19th and 20th centuries with emphasis on urbanized city, water area, and villages, mainly, have been discussed.

Hoang Luong, Assoc.Prof.Dr. College of Social Sciences and Humanities, VNU Hanoi

As a historical and cultural region, Muong Thanh is renowned for its culture in the historical process of north-western Vietnam. In this report, the natural, historical and social economic conditions of Muong Thanh have been addressed. In the old days, this area was considered a Muong Then (heaven) by ethnic minorities, particularly the Tai ethnic minority. It is a valley with fertile soil, enriched

Panel 16: Synthetical area studies

by the silt from the Nam Rom River, which created the biggest rice fields in the Northwest. “First is Thanh, second is Lo, third is Than, and fourth is Tac” (an old saying). Thus, Muong Thanh is typical of a wet paddy-field culture. For a long time, Muong Thanh was a meeting point for many ethnic groups due to its convenient transportation systems to many Southeast Asian countries and to other regions in Vietnam. Moreover, in alignment with the victory at Dien Bien Phu, Muong Thanh regional culture has some unique features. These provide a solid foundation for the development and integration of the Muong Thanh sub-culture into the general culture.

Lam Thi My Dung, Assoc.Prof.Dr. College of Social Sciences and Humanities, VNU Hanoi

Using the study of the evolution of archaeological sites and artifacts, the paper is concerned with two main aspects: i). The main tendencies of the transitional process from Sa Huynh to Linjy and Champa; and ii). The essence of this transition. The main tendencies for cultural and historical processes could be recognized as follows: The initial phase of Sahuynh culture: contacts and acculturations with South East Asia characterized this phase of cultural development. We should emphasize the strong impact of Dongson culture on Sahuynh culture in the period from 4BC to 2BC. In the final phase, from 1 BC to AD 1, contacts and acculturation between Sahuynh culture and Han and South Asian cultures became stronger. These contacts had a considerable impact on the transformation of the social structure and relationships. These transformations effectively contributed to radical changes in the superstructure of Sahuynh society. The epi-Sahuynh period (i.e. the time of the Jinan Prefecture (under Han domination from AD 1 to AD 2) in the northern and central parts of Central Vietnam): In this period, the main cultural tendency was the adoption of some components of the Han political system; however, this adoption was defined and governed by ancient and fundamental local


Panel 16: Synthetical area studies

institutions. The cultural and trade relationships with South Asia and Southeast Asia were increased. The period of Linjy and other polities which linked Linjy and existed along with Linjy: This was a time for the co-existence of two tendencies. The first was the adoption of several Han cultural components (so-called sinicization) and the second was rejection of Han domination (so-called anti-sinicization). The cultural and trade relationships with South Asia increased and became more complex in nature. This was also the period of an alliance of small states with Linjy taking the dominant role by the various means, including both spiritual ascendancy and conflict. Cultural elements from India increased, especially in the areas of statehood and religious institutions. From AD 6 onwards, the Champa kingdom emerged based in the original states. Champa culture developed in a direction closer to India and away from China.

Le Huynh Hoa, Dr. Ho Chi Minh City University of Education

“Dang Trong” of the Nguyen kings was formed and developed mainly in the 17th and 18th centuries. This was also the period when Dai Viet in general and Dang Trong in particular took part in the international market. It was a vitally important event for a country which considered agriculture the “root” and commerce the “stalk”. In the 17th and 18th centuries, commerce, especially trading, for the first time played an important role in Dang Trong’s economy and society. This change was not only analyzed from the viewpoint of external factors (the prosperity of international commerce, the existence of the “three- continent triangle”: Europe, Africa and Asia) but also from internal factors like dynamic thoughts of “the frontier” expressed through the open policy of the Nguyen kings. According to that general policy, this article focuses mainly on the trading policy of Dang Trong’s Nguyen kings, which was considered the basis for the development and integration of Dang Trong during the 17th and 18th centuries. At present, since Viet Nam is a member of the WTO (World Trade Organization), there are many “doors” opening to us. However, along with these opportunities, we are also

Panel 16: Synthetical area studies

facing many challenges which call for clear thinking, caution and knowledge to overcome our obstacles. Studying trading policies throughout different periods of our country’s history can help to identify our position in the international market and to draw some lessons from actual experience. And that is also part of this article.

Okada Masashi Osaka University, Japan

This paper attempts to pose arguments about the history of Muong Then (or Muong Thanh, now called Dien Bien Phu) in the 18th century from a new point of view. Muong Then is quite a famous place in the history of Southeast Asia for the reason that the origin myths of many groups of Tai language speakers in the Indochinese Peninsula, such as the Tai peoples of North-western Vietnam and the Lao, regard Muong Then as their homeland. Thus many historians and ethnologists (both in Vietnam and abroad) have concerned themselves with Muong Then, and their literature has tended to focus on the origins and historical formation of these Tai-speaking groups. However, no study has addressed the unique position of Muong Then as an inland emporium, nor examined its meaning for frontier society as well as the historical changes in this area. I would like to examine the position and role of Muong Then in the context of not only Tai society in North-western Vietnam, but also Northern Mainland Southeast Asia. In the same way, I also analyze the dynamic historical changes in Muong Then in the 18th century, which are closely related to changes in the structure of inland trade and the economic-social life of this region; in other words, the development of trade in forest products, especially cinnamon in the middle reaches of the Ma River and the Ca River, as well as the large-scale immigration of Chinese people who played an important role in the production and trade of forest or mining industry products. Further, this paper examines the important role of Hoang Cong Chat (a Vietnamese rebel leader) in the history of Muong Then as a typical example demonstrating the process of re-organizing the political order in this area in response to the above-mentioned changes.


Panel 16: Synthetical area studies


Momoki Shiro, Prof., Graduate School of Letters, Osaka University, Japan

In the last 10 years, especially after archeological remains at 18 Hoàng Diệu were discovered, the studies on Thăng Long Capital City have been ebulliently undertaken by historians of Việt Nam and the world. As an expert on Lý - Trần period, the author of this paper would like to contribute to finding the scope and structure of Thăng Long Capital City in XI - XIV centuries through re-reading and re-exploration of the written documents such as annals and ancient epitaphs. First, we should put some new questions that are in line with verbatim of documents and theories on the ancient capitals of the East Asia. For example: (a) is the area of “câm trung” and “đại nội” mentioned in the documents the same? (b) Documents of Lý - Trần period often addressed to “thành” (city) and area of “thành nội” (inside the city)”. So, what is “thành”? (c) The concept of “tam trùng thành quách” (three levels of city) in China has been set up after the Song dynasty. Before that period, the most external area of kinh đô (capital city) does not necessarily include the area inside the thành (city). Therefore does the concept “tam trùng thành quách” (three levels of city) really exist in Great Viet during Lý - Trần period? (d) Can we determine if there was any palace in the area 18 Hoàng Diệu? It is difficult to answer the above questions based on current documents. The author therefore makes some remarks as premises for further study cooperation between historians and archeologists.
[16. 476]

Nguyen Cong Binh, Prof., Sounthern Institute of Social Sciences

During the period of 2001-2005, social growth and development in Vinh long was achieved in accordance with new policies. Economic growth together with poverty alleviation is aimed at mobilizing resources for the most important national objectives i.e.

Panel 16: Synthetical area studies

industrialization and modernization. The classification in Vinh Long takes place in the following basic contents: Income in various categories, productive methods of people corresponding to income classification, role of state in the social classification. It can be confirmed that: Economic growth combined is combined with social development. Industrialization and modernization have started. GDP increases in which, the ratio of the secondary sector increases and the primary sector decreases. The HDI improved. The number of poor families is decreasing. Under the old regime: classification included social division. In the current “Đổi mới” period: social division does not allow the return of classification.

Nguyen Phuc Nghiep, Dr., Tran Thi Thanh Hue Tien Giang University

At the beginning of the 17th Century, Vietnamese immigrants reclaimed the virgin soil of My Tho - Tien Giang, building hamlets and engaging in agricultural activities. Thereafter, the lives of these immigrants became ever more stable. In 1679, My Tho received a stream of new Chinese settlers, led by Duong Ngan Dich. In the new area, Vietnamese farmers formed a majority and Chinese, traders a minority; the two worked closely to set up and develop My Tho dai pho (My Tho Big City Market). As it became more prosperous it made a considerable contribution to the development of the economy of southern Vietnam in the 17th and 18th centuries.


Panel 16: Synthetical area studies


Nguyen Quang Ngoc, Prof.Dr. Institute of Vietnamese Studies and Development Sciences, VNU Hanoi

Vietnam’s capital city, Hanoi, is located at the centre of the Red River Delta and marks the starting point of many roads and waterways. Hanoi has a long history: an urban area developed there at the end of the first millennium. Ly Thai To founded the Ly Dynasty and constructed the country on a larger scale. He was the person who chose this place to be the “Eternal Capital City” and created the major development of Thang Long as the Capital. In parallel with the development of the capital, wards, the basic urban government level, were gradually formed with two main management functions, collecting taxes and keeping security and public order in the capital. During the 13th and 14th centuries, there were 61 wards, and in the 15th century, the number of wards was reduced to 36, forming the typical characteristics of Thang Long-Cho Ke up until the 18th century. By the end of the 19th and into the 20th century, when Thang Long-Hanoi was no longer the Capital, a tendency towards ruralization began. Wards lost their administrative management role and remained on a nominal basis only; in fact villages and hamlets were the basic level of administrative management units. The basic organization and management system of Thang Long-Hanoi seemed to back the original rural management organization system after a long development progress, and efforts were paid to forming management organization suitable to urban conditions. The history of Thang LongHanoi showed that the city was lagging behind in this period, with dire consequences lasting up to the present. Wards are also the typical products of the urban foundation and development of Thang Long- Hanoi, with both advantages and disadvantages for its economy, society, community and culture, as well as its urban management and system of organization. These must be properly and accurately defined if they are to be effective for the urban development strategy and construction of the government of Hanoi today.


Panel 16: Synthetical area studies


Nguyen Thi Hai Thai Nguyen University of Education

Hoa An district encompasses the provincial centre of Cao Bang town. Hoa An is bounded by other districts of Cao Bang Province such as Tra Linh and Quang Yen in the East, Ha Quang in the North, Nguyen Binh and Thong Nong in the West, and Thach An in the South. Under the Ly dynasty, Hoa An belonged to the mountainous district of Thai Nguyen, and later Thach Lam. In the 15th year of the reign of King Minh Menh (1834), Thach Lam mountainous district was changed into a sub-district, and two years later divided into two districts, Thach Lam and Thach An. These districts belonged to the Hoa An prefecture. After many separations, in 1923, Thach Lam was changed to become part of Hoa An prefecture by the French colonial regime. After the victory of the 1945 August Revolution, Hoa An prefecture was changed into the present-day Hoa An district. As seen from cultural-historical perspectives and based on various dimensional approaches to the Hoa An area, we seek to highlight the following conclusions: 1. Hoa An in particular, and Cao Bang in general, are considered the ancient and eternal land of the Tay ethnic minority; other members of the Tay-Thai language group have also been settled there for a long period. During the dynastic period, this area was settled by many migrant people such as the Nung, Hoa, Mong and Dao, who came from China, and also by the lowland Viet, including dynastic mandarins, Confucian scholars, magicians, soldiers, merchants and peasants. There was prompt development of the groups of people in Hoa An. Among them, ethnic minorities such as “Kinh gia hoa Tho” (Kinh people who became old, then metamorphosed into Tho) presents a typical example. This became an important basis for Hoa An as a diversified and typical cultural centre. 2. Having witnessed many important historical events during the period from its origin to the first half of the 19th century, Hoa An remained the cradle of wet rice cultivation, the heart of the “Nam Cuong State” - Thuc Phan-An Duong King’s homeland - the autonomous capital of Nung Ton Phuc, Nung Tri Cao, and finally for its last 85 years the capital of the Mac dynasty. In different periods under divided dynasties, in spite of the fact that it was the capital, Hoa An never separated from the Vietnamese national community. 3. Tay - Viet cultural interplay in Hoa An became both specific and symbolic. This originated from its geography and natural characteristics. Hoa An is not only the cradle of

In the present time of development and integration. 482  . aiming for the comprehensive development of the capital city”. we conducted a survey which included 20 group discussions. Hai Duong. College of Social Sciences and Humanities. Elegance is a standard cultural feature which is expressed through many fields of a social life. Thorough examination of Hoa An not only contributes to deeper understanding of a remote land. the entertainments. Dr. economic and social conditions and the historical and cultural values of Thang Long through 1000 years. and they have a tendency to assume that Hanoians’ elegance is presented through many fields of life. the elderly are very proud of Hanoians’ elegance.Panel 16: Synthetical area studies wet rice civilization. Hung Yen. the patterns of behavior and work. The subject of the survey is “The realities and factors which make impacts on personal characters of Hanoi people”. the people living in Ha Noi for many years also have a tendency to think that the Hanoians’ elegance is presented through many fields. 20 intensive interviews and collecting personal opinions of 1000 Hanoi people.480] THE EXPRESSIONS OF THE CHARACTERISTIC POLITENESS OF HANOIANS TODAY Nguyen Kim Hoa. “A study for promoting the natural. In August 2006. but also is the starting point of the Nom Tay script. one of the most special characters of Hanoi people is their elegance. thereby helping to uphold its inherent values. Hoa An is the place where different historical and cultural values happened in the Cao Bang region. and the transportation. This is a part of the government’s survey. the housings. The content of the research focused on the fields in which Hanoians express their elegance: the way of eating and drinking. A great number of people at the age above 60 answered that they can experience Hanoians’ elegance through many public spheres. but also to further studies of the national history. As a whole. People from different age groups have different opinions about the fields where the elegance of Ha Noi people is expressed. the fashions. the religions. Ha Tay. and some attractive Then songs. it is necessary to deploy various researches on Hoa An. VNU Hanoi As commonly said. [16. 600 people in Bac Ninh. Besides the original Ha Noi people.

how 483   . Duong Lam village is a place which represents the way of life for Vietnamese villages in the upper Red River delta. Researching the specific cultural characteristics of Duong Lam village means researching human creations and the way they interact with the natural conditions. remember its source”. VNU Hanoi In the village system of North Vietnam. Duong Lam. we must research the natural conditions and their interactive impact on the human way of life here. the first of which is human behaviour in regard to the natural conditions. The area boasts clusters of near-intact ancient architecture and many living customs there still reflect the old lifestyle. social environment and historical situation. half-plains. they have other valuable characters as Vietnamese people such as the spirit of unity. in order to thoroughly understand the special characteristics of the cultural space of Duong Lam village. Humans are products of their natural environment and also products of their social situation. With such significance. Therefore. diligence. patriotism. In addition to the elegance as a special character of Ha Noi people. is an area that still preserves many traditional Viet village characteristics within a dense village structure.Panel 16: Synthetical area studies Hanoians belive that their elegance is deserved as a respectful character. natural factors are one of the most important conditions contributing directly to rule human cultural life and way of life. elegance is also a specific character to distinguish Ha Noi people from the other people in different localities. the affection for the mutuality. half-plain midlands with low laterite mounds and hills. and the ethical principle-“when drinking water. home of the kings Phung Hung and Ngo Quyen. humans will find the most suitable way to deal with them. riverside rice-fields with diversified and abundant terrain. Duong Lam is known as an ancient land bearing the landscape features of the half-mountain.481] THE INTERACTION BETWEEN THE NATURAL CONDITIONS AND THE LIVING CULTURE OF DUONG LAM VILLAGE. SON TAY TOWN. Facing a natural environment of half-mountain. HA TAY PROVINCE Nguyen Thi Phuong Anh Institute of Vietnamese Studies and Development Sciences. The interactive relationship between human and natural conditions is the basic factor creating special cultural characteristics. For many people. Whatever the conditions. the eagerness for learning. the love for peace. [16. deep gullies.

Although its existence as the national capital only lasted from the end of the 14th century to the beginning of the 15th century. Among the remaining heritages of the Ho Dynasty. medicine and drugs. Tay Do Citadel is a gigantic architectural work which bears much value of diffierent aspects. clothing. created good conditions for Vinh Loc.Tay Do Citadel. Its ditinctive features of rich nature and ecological environment together vith the diversified population have greatly affected the mode of production. MA Hong Duc University Tay Do (Vinh Loc district. The special feature of the citadel lies not only in its huge size and strong structure but also in the original feature of its skilful construction techniques. confirmed the important position of Tay Do. Thanh Hoa province) is a land which has a particularly important postion in both policical and military terrain. The study of Tay Do cultural space has shown that there is an imprint of a political and military centre left on this land. Long ago. [16. accommodation and travel)? We can show the special basic characteristics of cultural and economic life in order to preserve and develop Duong Lam ancient village for the future. After Ho Quy Ly’s decision of building Tay Do Citadel in 1397 and the capital transferring from Thang Long to Thanh Hoa.Panel 16: Synthetical area studies have people here utilized and adapted to these conditions in their cultural life and daily life (eating and drinking. and on the other hand. There is a number of myths about the citadel most of which are still unexplained today. Tay Do became the political and military centre of the country. hills and mountains. cultural development not only during the time when it was the capital but also until the present time. this place was affected greatly by the political status which.482] TAY DO CULTURAL SPACE Nguyen Thi Thuy.plains. This place is a transitional zone between the highland and the lowland with a complicated geological structure which is well integrated with different forms of topography. the neighboring areas and the whole of Thanh Hoa to make dramatic economic. In order to have a better understanding of its cultural 484  . on the one hand. Tay Do used to be the home of different ethnic groups. cultivation and breeding and created the cultural features of the residential community in Tay Do which is the reason why it was chosen by Ho Quy Ly to be an ideal place to build his new capital.

Quang Nam (the midlands of Tien Phuoc district). Phu Yen The construction technique 1. They have two roofs. The body 3. outer buildings. The roof 2. we should make further studies of its cultural space which presents not only the specific apprehensive foundation of the area but a mirror reflecting its history and cultural tradition as well. of which the upper is made of clay and the lower of thatch).483] THE LÁ MÁI HOUSE OF CENTRAL VIET NAM: AN ECOLOGICAL ARCHITECTURE Nguyen Thuong Hy Quang Nam Center for Conservation of Monuments and Heritage The Lá Mái house of Central Viet Nam consists of the houses of Rội/Rọi (the base of columns are put underground). The place of presentation At Liem Cong Tay village. reporter for the French Far East Museum Each region has its own name. Quang Tri. and Quang Ngai (Son Tinh. thượng Rường hạ Rội (with the middle column) or the popular Rường (with the column built on carved stone).The whole plan: the main building.Panel 16: Synthetical area studies features. [16. storage. which is called Cu Lao Re). for example: The house of Mái xông in Quang Tri The house of Bỏ đất or Trần bích in Quang Nam The house of Đắp in the Ly Son island district of Quang Ngai The house of Lá Mái in Binh Dinh. Definitions and names of each region Definitions by Doctor of Literature Pierre Gourou. and particularly at Ly Son island district. and kitchen 485   . Duc Pho. Binh Dinh.

Places essential for preservation [16. IPs have been developing around Hanoi city. as well as discuss the current state of regional development in the country. I will examine government policies related to industrial parks in Vietnam. using the results of my own fieldwork in Vietnam during the past few years. Consequently.Panel 16: Synthetical area studies 4. 486  . Vietnam has tremendous opportunity for an economic boom in the near future. The function 5. 484] INDUSTRIAL PARK POLICY AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN VIETNAM Niimi Tatsuya Institute of Economics. with special focus on IP policy in Vietnam today. However. The meaning of preservation 3. especially in rural areas. Chuo University. In fact. Comparison of houses in various regions such as Quang Tri. On the other hand. multi-national enterprises have also displayed great interest in the Vietnamese investment environment in comparison with other countries in the region. At the same time. Urgent need for preservation Reasons: 2. Quang Ngai. from 1991 Vietnam has established a number of Export Processing Zones in Ho Chi Minh City. Binh Dinh and Phu Yen. poverty reduction and industrial modernization. calling for increased FDI. Quang Nam. Japan This is a summary of the presentation to be given at The Third International Conference on Vietnamese Studies held in Hanoi in December 2008. the Vietnamese government is urging the development of more and more IPs all over the country. Investment in industrial parks (IPs) presently accounts for more than 40% of total foreign direct investment (FDI) in Vietnam. the Vietnamese economy is set to take off based on this expanding FDI. In this presentation I wish to examine the nature of this opportunity in detail.

Phu Chanh levels with “Parachorea hollowed trunk” burial styles. metallurgy workshops. which were completely adapted of modified to match contemporary knowledge and psychology. Thai Hoa.HCM City). with its technology of casting in sandstone moulds.Dr.An Giang). and also were considered the symbol of power. There are Nam Bo sites which contain beaked adze and round-section hoes (Go Cay Tung . related to the Dong Son culture and other inhabitants of the proto-historical epoch in Vietnam and Southeast Asia and beyond. Assoc.Prof. collared pottery (Doc Chua .the “Bronze Triangle” or “Bronze Quadrilateral”: Dong Son . Bung Thom . aesthetic needs and the “indigenous” traditional funeral concept thousands of years ago.Khorat. This Bronze casting industry.exogenous cultures” in ancient villages. VNU Ho Chi Minh City In this paper. Western Han mirror (Phu Chanh) and Bronze Dong Son drums (Heger I type) . the author offers generalized data related to Bronze metallurgy from the Nam Bo area and comes up with the following remarks: The Nam Bo-Viet Nam was an early proto-historical centre of Bronze Metallurgy in Mainland Asia. the potential for military and political functions and social ranking.Dong Nai. big stone tomb chambers (Hang Gon) and bronze halbirds (Ko) (Long Giao. as shown with some distinction in “chiefdom cemeteries” such as the tomb-chamber at Han Gon. came from the “Native land of Dong Son culture” . An Son . as well as the Sa Huynh-type jar shape of with Western Han mirrors and lids of bronze drums of Dong Son (Heger I) type etc. treasures.Yunnan . with capability for adding copper and alloy materials. stone stupas belonging only to Nam Bo tribe chieftains.Binh Duong.Panel 16: Synthetical area studies [16.Long An).Guangdong . reflecting the war-like situation of their contemporary society. the author reviews the most recent and important archaeological discoveries and points out “key sites” in the Nam Bo delta.485] SOUTHERN VIETNAM CULTURAL CONTACTS WITHIN THE PROTOHISTORICAL CONTEXT OF SOUTHEAST ASIA Pham Duc Manh. through various routes: 487   .Guangxi . Bung Bac. cemeteries. authority. megalithic architectural complexes etc. La Nga . Finally.artefacts representing the multi-linear relationships of the owners of Nam Bo culture with other Asian centres. College of Social Sciences and Humanities. from Southern to Western areas typical sites and artefacts best showing “the convergence of Indigenous . The author emphasizes the very early appearance of “exogenous” elements of culturetechnique-art-religion in the Nam Bo delta. Go Cat .Ba Ria.

3. Apart from some intact exotic goods such as Đông Sơn drums from Bến Tre. Big and sophisticated bronze products such as Đông Sơn drums (Heger I type) or Chinese halberds (Ko or halberd). large bronze objects like Đông Sơn . southern metallurgy had its own features that the author considers “nonDong Son”. they were only replaced in the early Christian Era under the influence of Indian civilization. Prof. The study on structure and location of the Royal Castle. Reviewing various opinions on the location and size of Thanglong City. Art figurines such as statues of a pangolin (Manis Javanica) or Amulets. changes of La Thanh and Royal City from dynasties of Ly. with their own characteristics that were “nonĐông Sơn” and “non-Chinese”. B Đăng and Western Han mirrors from Phú Chánh. the formation of new forms of social drums or Quos frequently appeared here as regalia expressing the power of the Big men (the leaders) in the early historical period in southern Vietnam. statues depicting a dog chasing another animal only appeared in early weapons. especially the second circle of the castle that was called Royal City since the 15th century and the most central circle. The discovery of archeological remains area at 18 Hoang Dieu Street. Thanglong Forbidden City. Mac and Restored Le can be sketched out. that had been addressed a long time ago. Thanglong Royal City experienced many important 488  . Hinduism and Buddhism. namely the Forbidden City or Imperial City.486] THE LOCATION AND SIZE OF THE THANGLONG FORBIDDEN CITY IN HISTORY Phan Huy Le. most of the bronze products of the Early Iron Age in South Việt Nam were cast on site.Panel 16: Synthetical area studies directly via the Eastern Sea to the south of Vietnam or indirectly by road via Sa Huynh cultural area and Tây Nguyên (Highlands) along the Mekong River to South Vietnam. maps and data of foreigners to the results of field surveys. 2. According to the author. from the ancient bibliographies. Further field work and study in the future will contribute to further explanation of the appearance and growth of the leadership. However. Hanoi poses the task to determine the historical location of this area in the structure of Thanglong City through historical periods. is now specially interesting to historians and archeologists. primitive State and primary urban centres related to social life. Tran to Early Le. Based on a varitiety of data sources. Vietnam Association of Historical Science 1. [16. investigations and archeological excavations.

Panel 16: Synthetical area studies changes. of which the ground still exists. Based on the map of Thăng Long Royal City in Hồng Đức map. Dr Vietnam Institute of Architecture. the Nguyên Dynasty rebuilt Thăng Long City (in 1831 the name was changed to Hà Nội). Trần. 1516. The typical local culture is a regional feature Culture is the first criterion mentioned when evaluating the specific features of a nation or ethnic minority. within an area of 19. The Forbidden City located at the center of Royal City was almost unchanged in terms of location and size. Early Lê. This city was also based on the Forbidden City with some expansion but the central axis was basically the same as that of the Forbidden City. especially in years of 1490. were found.000 m2. Changes in traditional architecture • Changes in residential areas • Changes in the structures of the village and residential areas 489   . 1592 and 1749.487] CONTEMPORARY CHANGES IN THE TRADITIONAL ARCHITECTURE OF NATIVE ETHNIC GROUPS IN TAY NGUYEN Ta Thi Hoang Van. During the XIX century. archeologydiscovered cultural layers extending continuously from Đại La period to dynasties of Lý. [16. The center was always Nung Mountain or Long Do (Dragon’s navel) on which temples of Càn Nguyên. It’s also the most important component influencing the history. The remains of large-scale palaces. society. data of monographs. and economy of that country. 2. More specifically. relics that represented the power of the Emperor and the royal utensils therein prove that the area is located inside the Forbidden City. The archeological remains area at 18 Hoang Dieu street is entirely located within the Forbidden City. Thiên An in dynasty of Lý. 5. as the location of the Forbidden City was unchanged and in the Đại La City of the Duong vassal period (Edict of City Moving). However. Urban and Rural Planning. 4. the central part of Royal City in the east changed very little. Trần. epitaphs and several marks that exist. Ministry of Construction 1. the location and relative size of the Forbidden City can be determined. We emphasize this point because some changes from tradition to present-day Tay Nguyen still retain the unique features of the area and its indigenous people. Kính Thiên temple in Early Lê dynasty. and Mạc until the end of Restored Lê.

among several other geographical regions of the Mekong delta. 488] A HISTORY OF MULTI .ETHNIC SOCIETY IN THE MEKONG DELTA Takada Yoko. maintenance. There are some villages which still maintain traditional influences. who have mixed intermittently with both groups. Current states and reasons 4. who began living along small rivers in the early 19th century. based on the accounts of Buddhist monks in local hamlets. coastal flats. and mangroves. exploitation and development The culture and architecture of Tay Nguyen express typical local characteristics as well as national characteristics in the context of integration. Awareness for preservation.Panel 16: Synthetical area studies In the Central Highlands. the 490  . and the Hoa. The researcher focuses on the features of one village in this area in order to gain a profound understanding of rural society in the Delta. techniques and building materials (the morphology of the village determined the architectural form of the houses. the process of settlement and how the land was cleared will be presented. with intensive field research involving observing the natural conditions of agriculture and land use in the coastal region. are analyzed through the results of interviews with village elders. The transformation of spatial components and traditional architectural landscapes). Keiai University. The village is characterized by a multi-ethnic society. Secondly. Japan The complex coastal region is a unique area composed of sand ridges. Also using related colonial documents held in the National Archives. inter-ridges. The changes in population. the share of each ethnic group and land-holdings from the French colonial period to today. Khmer people have occupied the sand ridges from an earlier time than the Kinh people. Firstly. • Architectural features of traditional houses and some contemporary changes • In terms of the spatial lay-out • In terms of structure. the villages of each ethnic minorities are arranged differently. the researcher describes the process of village development. 3. [16. Prof. Simple materials have a major influence on structure) • Architectural components of the house • Architecture of new houses (The transformation of traditional architecture.

and finally points out how structural social problems were caused by French colonialism and ethnocentric nationalism. [16.Dr. Dr. showing the economic and cultural relationships and trade of the former Thang Long. along with landscaping including ponds and lakes. Le. Hanoi. including a great many ceramics from China. The site contains different strata of artifacts from different periods: primitive Thang Long under the authority of the Tang (7th to 9th century) to the Tran. Le dynasty (15th to 18th century). 490] SAIGON FROM THE 17th TO 19th CENTURIES Tran Thi Mai. The prominent and unique values of the site overlap and combine continuous cultural layers. the capital of Vietnam.489] ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCOVERIES AT THE THANG LONG IMPERIAL CITADEL SITE Tong Trung Tin. but worldwide as well. College of Social Sciences and Humanities. Saigon was an urban area that played the role of administrative centre for the whole Gia Dinh area. Japan and Western Asia. millions of items have been uncovered. abundant and attractive compound that clearly shows the relationship between city planning and architectural space. The archaeological site is located in the centre of the Forbidden City of Thang Long. [16. In addition. 491   .. Institute of Archaeology. These remains are closely connected to create an uninterrupted. Bui Minh Tri. Ly and Tran dynasties (11th to 14th century).Panel 16: Synthetical area studies researcher presents a history of the village. the legacy has been archaeologically excavated and researched by the Institute of Archaeology Vietnam Academy of Social Sciences since 2002. giving attention to the historical relationship between the ethnic groups. VASS Located in the political centre of Ba Dinh. Dr. Assoc. including: the architectural remains of Dai La (7th to 9th century). Nguyen dynasties (from 1010 to 1789). one of four capitals from the 11th to the 18th century. and the continuous connections between the dynasties in the construction of Thang Long. it has importance not only for the nation. VNU Hanoi In the 17th century.Prof.

[16. With careful consideration. and Westerners etc. (Hoàng) Long. as follows: the first subtype indicates the attributes of the Red River (Cái. Saigon was still the most prosperous economic centre of the time in Vietnam. The name “Lô/Lô Giang” is appears to be a description of the archaic Austro-Asiatic form *lo > la/lô/rào. Prof. The city developed not only its agriculture. VNU Hanoi The aim of this paper is to deal with the Red River toponym and its historical variants. traces of which can be seen in such contemporary typonyms as (sông) Lô. these variants fall into three major divisions. rào (Nậy). Gia Dinh (later Saigon) had both urban architecture including a bastion system for political and military purposes and a street and district system suitable for economic development. In particular. Thao. Vietnamese phonological history shows us that the toponym “Phú Lương” is the present. the kings of the Nguyen dynasty continued to exploit the Gia Dinh area. Nhĩ Hà/Nhị Hà. Saigon was also home to many other people: Chinese. which hold promise for the linguistic-cultural perspective. rào (Quán). Saigon had to cede its political position to Hue. which sold rice to many countries in southern Asia and also China. Tam Đới. When thoroughly investigated. Saigon was the main port for the southern area. Lô/Lô 492  . Xích Đằng và Đại Hoàng). the Red River toponym and its 10 historical variants belong to such different genealogical strata as Austro-Asiatic (Cái. (sông) La. the second subclass consists of Sino or Sino .491] THE NAME OF THE RED RIVER: EVIDENCE OF CULTURAL DIVERSITY IN VIETNAMESE HISTORY Tran Tri Doi. Dr. the final sub-category relates to Sino or Sino .day reflex of the older Austro-Asiatic form *klɔŋ/krɔŋ > sông (Minh Lương. Phú Lương. As well as the Vietnamese. (Đác) Rông và (Đà) Rằng can be firmly indicative of this ancient phonetic form). however. Khmers.Panel 16: Synthetical area studies In the 18th century. etc. The urban development of Saigon in the 17th to 19th centuries provided a steady environment which helped to the city foster its urbanization process in following years.Vietnamese toponyms representing the relationship between the river and the names of the geographical areas through which it flows (Bạch Hạc.Vietnamese toponyms which originated from the ancient general terms of the Austro-Asiatic languages (Phú Lương and Lô/Lô Giang). but also handicrafts and commerce. and Hồng/ Hồng Hà). Indians. In terms of meaning and origin. (Mê) Công. In the 19th century. College of Social Sciences and Humanities.

thus guaranteeing the permanence of these indigenous communities. inevitable progress of history. the collision of different civilizations. The disappearance of any culture makes global diversity poorer. and Sino or Sino-Vietnamese (Bạch Hạc. We can attribute this to such factors as religious belief. Traditional cultural values that once seemed to be firm are now becoming more subtle and easy to break down. Tam Đới. the Red River. By proposing some measures for preserving the traditional festivals of Western Highland ethnic groups.Panel 16: Synthetical area studies Giang). Depending on the socioeconomic and agricultural basis.