There are different slots and sockets for CPUs, and it is necessary for a motherboard to have the appropriate slot or socket for the CPU. Most sockets are square. Several precautions are taken to ensure that both the socket and the processor are indicated to ensure proper orientation. The processor is usually marked with a dot or a notch in the corner that is intended to go into the marked corner of the socket. Sockets and slots on the motherboard are as plentiful and varied as processors. The three most popular are the Socket 5 and Socket 7, and the Single Edge Contact Card (SECC). Socket 5 and Socket 7 CPU sockets are basically flat and have several rows of holes arranged in a square. The SECC connectors are of two types: slot 1 & slot 2.
Design Socket 1 Socket 2 Socket 3 Socket 4 No of Pins Pin Rows 169 238 237 273 3 4 4 4 5 4 Voltage 5 Volts 5 Volts Mobo Class 486 486 Processor's supported 80486SX, 80486DX, 80486DX2, 80486DX4 80486SX, 80486DX, 80486DX2, 80486DX4 80486SX, 80486DX, 80486DX2, 80486DX4

5 / 3.3 Volts 486 5 Volts 3.3 Volts 3.3 Volts

1st Generation Pentium Pentium 60-66, Pentium OverDrive Pentium 486 Pentium 75-133 MHz, Pentium OverDrive 486DX4, Pentium OverDrive

Socket 5 320 Socket 6 235

Design Socket 7 Socket 8

No of Pins 321 387

Pin Rows 5

Voltage 2.5 / 3.3Volts

Mobo Class Pentium Pentium Pro

Processor's supported 75-200 MHz, OverDrive, Pentium MMX Pentium Pro OverDrive, Pentium II OverDrive

5 (dual pattern) 3.1 / 3.3Volts N/a N/a N/a N/a 2.8 / 3.3Volts 2.8/ 3.3Volts 2.0 Volts 1.0/1.85 Volts -

Intel Slot 1 242 Intel Slot 2 330 Socket 370 Socket 423 Socket 479 370 423 479

Pentium Pro / Pentium II Pentium II, Pentium Pro, Celeron. Intel Xeon Celeron Pentium IV Pentium M Pentium II 400,450, Pentium Xeon Celeron, Pentium IIIs Celeron, Pentium Iv Pentium M

AMD ATHLON PROCESSORS Slot A - Original AMD Athlon processors Socket 462 - Newer AMD Athlon, Athlon XP, Sempron, and Duron processors Socket 754 - Lower end AMD Athlon 64 and Sempron processors with single-channel memory support Socket 939 - AMD Athlon 64 and AMD Athlon FX processors with dual-channel memory support Socket 940 - AMD Opteron and early AMD Athlon FX processors

Different kinds of SLOTS y y y y
Slot 1 - Celeron, Pentium II, Pentium III Slot 2 - Pentium II Xeon, Pentium III Xeon Slot A - Early Athlons Slot B - DEC Alpha

Different kinds of SOCKETS y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y
Socket 1 - 486 Socket 2 - 486 Socket 3 - 486 Socket 4 - Early Pentiums (60-66) Socket 5 - Pentium, IDT Winchip C6, Winchip 2 Socket 463 - (also known as Socket NexGen) - NexGen Nx586 Socket 6 - Intel 80486 Socket 7 - Pentium Super Socket 7 - Faster Bus Speed - AMD K6-2, K6-III, Rise mP6 Socket 8 - Pentium Pro Socket 370 - Celeron, Pentium III, Cyrix III Socket 423 - Pentium 4 but short lived Socket 478 - Intel Celeron, Pentium 4 Socket 479 - Mobile Pentium Socket 775 - (also known as LGA 775 or Socket T) - Intel Pentium 4

When the power is turned off. Static RAM (SRAM) retains its contents as long as electrical power is applied to the chip. In today's computer. In EEPROMs the erase operation is accomplished electrically. The third hybrid. NVRAM has similar characteristics as hybrid memories discussed previously but it is physically different. rather than exposure to ultraviolet light. The advantage EPROM has over PROM is that it can be erased and reprogrammed repeatedly. but not to write). DDR RAM (Next level of SDRAM) and RDRAM. Flash memory devices are high density. NVRAM application is limited due to its high cost. VRAM (Designed for graphics). PROM: One step up from the masked ROM is the PROM (programmable ROM. The technologies for flash and EEPROM are similar. These multiple VRMS are designed to share the total current demand of the processors. y y y Masked ROMs: The very first ROMs were hardwired devices the contents of which had to be specified before chip production. A Device programmer is used for writing the data to the PROM. the NVRAM draws just enough power from the battery to retain its data. low cost. flash is much more popular than EEPROM due to its advantages.  High-performance computers use multiple microprocessors to satisfy the computing speeds. y EEPROM: Electrically-erasable-and-programmable. History of Memory with: Speed Number of Pins Speed Limit Form Factor 50ns 50ns 66MHz 30. Dynamic RAM (DRAM) has an extremely short data lifetime-typically about four milliseconds. SDRAM (next level of DRAM). but maintain their contents without electrical power.or 72-pin SIMM 72-pin or 168-pin DIMM 168-pin DIMM 168-pin DIMM 184-Pin RIMM 168-pin DIMM 184-pin DIMM Year Introduced Technology 1987 1995 1996 1998 1999 1999/2000 2000 FPM EDO PC66 SDRAM PC100 SDRAM 100MHz RDRAM 800MHz PC133 SDRAM 133MHz DDR SDRAM 266MHz . Once programmed the PROM's contents can never be changed. They are faster than DRAM but are expensive.  Most VRMs have VID (Voltage ID). its contents will be lost forever. Apart from SRAM and DRAM. NVRAM. fast (to read. then a VRM must be installed in the header to power the processor. An NVRAM is usually just an SRAM with a battery backup. 64MB (64 megabytes) of SDRAM is a minimum for a desktop computer. VRM (Voltage Regulator Module) is used for supplying proper voltage to the processor for its operation. Data on an EPROM is erased by exposing it to a strong source of ultraviolet light which resets EPROM to its initial un-programmed state. y NVRAM: Non-volatile RAM is the third member of Hybrid memory class. Hybrid memories are developed that can be read and written as desired just like RAM. Despite this disadvantage. EPROM (erasable-and-programmable ROM): is programmed in the same manner as a PROM. These are typically used to store code. it writes data one word at a time by applying an electrical charge to the input pins of the chip. NVRAM holds persistent data. MEMORY RAM . just like ROM. which function as the computer's primary workspace. EEPROM and flash are descendants of ROM devices. When the power is turned on. 2. and electrically reprogrammable. Typical sector sizes are in the range 256 bytes to 16KB. The major difference is that flash devices can only erase sector by sector but not byte by byte. They are effective whenever large amounts of RAM are required. is a modified version of SRAM. There are two types of RAM: 1. VID allows the processor to program the correct voltage during power-on. the NVRAM operates just like any other SRAM. They are now called masked ROMs to distinguish them from other types of ROM. If the power even if lost temporarily.Random Access Memory is a collection of memory chips. there are EDO RAM. If the motherboard has Header 8. nonvolatile. SRAM is used only where access speed is extremely important. A VRM (Voltage Regulator Module) is installed in Header 8 on the motherboard. The applications use one VRM for each microprocessor to take advantage of the modularity and economy offered by the VRM.

y Needs more power than SRAM to refresh signals. 7. but less expensive than SDRAM. y Uses capacitors instead of switches. In few systems the VRAM is shared with the system RAM. Dual Ported VRAM allows the graphics processor to read from memory and redraw the screen simultaneously. The symmetric circuit structure allows the value of a memory location to be read much faster than in a DRAM. Because it must be refreshed periodically. Disadvantage is that it's the slowest of the memory types currently available and because it isn't in demand. meaning larger packets of data re sent to the memory at once. written or read. SRAM is very fast. Sync SRAM: This type of SRAM is synchronous. Hence it is called an Extended Data Out RAM.e. SDRAM (Synchronous DRAM) was introduced in 1996. In comparison a DRAM discharges its contents after read and must be refreshed before another read can occur.. y y 4. Types of SRAM: y y y y Async SRAM: This is an older type of SRAM used in many PC's for L2 cache. instead of transistors. low-capacity SRAMs are used where low power consumption and low cost are the most important requirements. it's compatible with just about everything. EDO RAM comes in 72-pin SIMMs and sometimes even on 168-pin DIMMs (dual inline memory modules). Pipeline Burst SRAM: This type of SRAM is most commonly used. Slow. SRAM is often used as cache memory due to its speed.e. SRAM requests are pipelined. y y Uses several memory units called cells. Hence. so is often used. Takes two processor wait-states each time a read or write takes place. Fast SRAM requires more power than DRAM. VRAM resides on the motherboard physically and is separate from the main RAM. and acted on very quickly. DRAM is also available in DIMMs (Dual Inline Memory Modules). y Stores each bit of data in a separate capacitor. y Is more expensive than DRAM. DRAM). therefore it uses a constant refresh signal to keep the information in memory. this means eliminating few steps to access memory. it is called dynamic memory. This type of SRAM can operate at bus speeds higher than 66MHz. The power consumption of SRAM varies widely depending on its speed. these chips can hold large amounts of data. it's now more expensive than faster memory alternatives such as EDO and SDRAM. the information gets lost eventually. 6. VRAM (Video RAM) is a term used in computers to describe RAM dedicated for displaying bitmap graphics in graphics hardware. SDRAM was developed to match the ever-increasing processing speeds of the Pentium systems. has very low power consumption. but is much more expensive than DRAM. unless the charge is refreshed periodically. . Also known as FPM (fast page mode) DRAM. 5. DRAM stores information as charges in very small capacitors. As the capacitor leaks electrons. therefore. The word "static" indicates that the memory retains its contents as long as power is continuously applied. it comes in 80. Is available on industry standard 30. 70 or 60 nanosecond (ns) speeds. in any order regardless of the memory location that was accessed before. y Extends the availability of data in the memory as the read time does not expire until an additional signal is sent to the chip. The advantage is that. EDO (Extended Data Out) RAM: y Increases performance up to 15 percent over DRAM by eliminating memory wait states. the only time the data on the memory is refreshed or changed is when an actual write command is executed. It works independently of the system clock. The VRAM is used to constantly refresh the display and at the same time be responsive to modifications from the host system. is mostly found in desktop computers. Fast SRAM is faster than DRAM and is used where speed is the most important requirement. DRAM has a different approach towards storing the 1s and 0s. it's interpreted as a 1. The term VRAM is used more specifically in high performance graphics hardware. Random access indicates that locations in the memory can be accessed. The absence of a charge will be interpreted as a 0.3.or 72-pin Single Inline Memory Modules (SIMMs). In a SRAM. i. DRAM (Dynamic random access memory): y Is an enhancement over SRAM. These cells are packed with very high density. If a charge exists in a capacitor. Slow SRAM. SRAM (Static Random Access Memory) is a type of semiconductor memory. meaning it is synchronized with the system clock. such as the battery-powered "CMOS" RAM on PC motherboards. eliminating the problem plaguing single-ported memory types (i.

and can be differentiated from SDRAM DIMMs by the number of notches (DDR SDRAM has 1. PCIOO runs at 100M HZ. DDR2 SDRAM (Double Data Rate Two Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory) is a computer memory technology that is becoming the mainstream standard for PC memory. While a bit in one block is accessed. PC66 SDRAM runs at 66MHz. the RAM controller.4 GB/s bandwidth. To install a SIMM. DIMMs have gradually replaced SIMMs used in earlier machines. the metal leads on either side of the board are electrically tied together. Few new chipsets use DDR memory in dual or even quad channel configurations.3V for SDRAM. SDRAM has 2). DDR SDRAM DIMMs has 184 pins. The term is commonly used to describe the size and the arrangement of a computer case or chassis or its internal components such as a daughterboard. SIMM Single In-line Memory Module (SIMM) is a small circuit board with integrated circuit chips used to hold RAM (Random Access Memory). but operates on the same principle as DDR. SIMMs offer two main advantages. The pair must have the same size. Thus a 100 MHz DDR system has an effective clock rate of 200MHz. which doubles or quadruples the effective bandwidth. 11. SDRAM can run at the same speed as the CPU/memory bus. or physical arrangement of a computer hardware object. configuration. It achieves greater bandwidth by transferring data on both the rising and falling edges of the clock signal. which has some alterations to allow higher clock frequency.3 volts. The best and easiest way to differentiate these two different kinds of SIMMs was by the number of pins or connectors. is synchronized to the speed of the systems (e. A SIMM is an older type of memory module used for RAM in PC. SDRAM are DIMMs and have 168-pins running at 3. The chip is divided into two cell blocks. and latency timings. and data is split between the two. The subsystem consists of the RAM. RDRAM (Rambus Dynamic Random Access Memory) is a memory subsystem that can transfer data up to 1. 10. a bit in the other is buffered for access. SIMMS clip into the memory expansion socket s on the motherboard. By running in sync to an external clock signal. enabling the chipset to interleave accesses with maximum efficiency is replaced by DDR-2. providing up to 6. On a SIMM. DIMM (Dual In-line Memory Module) is an assembly of several memory chips on a single PCB used to upgrade RAM capacity. SDRAM 9. the design structure. XDR is the official choice by Sony for the Play station 3 console. compared to 3. With data being transferred 8 bytes at a time DDR RAM gives a transfer rate of 16 bytes Thus with a bus frequency of 100 MHz. XDR DRAM is a high performance RAM with clock speed of 3.also called PS/2 after the IBM line of computers in which it was first used . They are recognized by their aluminum sheath called a heat spreader. DDR operates at a voltage of 2. and the bus connecting RAM to the microprocessor and devices in the computer that use it. DIMMs have . This can significantly reduce power usage. DDR-SDRAM gives a max transfer rate of 1600 MB/s.has 72 pins and lets (transfers) 32 bits of data (36 bits in parity versions). The advantage DDR2 has over DDR is its ability to work at higher effective clock speeds.2 GHz. 30 Pin SIMM: The first variant of SIMMs has 30 pins and lets (transfers) 8 bits of data (9 bits in parity versions). The term form factor in computers describes the size. In short. 8. A vertically mounted SIMM requires very less space when compared to a horizontally mounted DRAM. speed. look and feel of a hardware device.Synchronous DRAM. contiguous characters at a much faster rate than the first character. 72 Pin SIMM: The second variant of SIMMs . PC133 runs at 133MHz and so on) hence the name "synchronous". the two metal clips at each end should be part to the side and then the chip must be tilted back and pulled out. To remove the module. The difference from a DIMM being that the contacts on a SIMM are redundant on both sides of the module.6 billion bytes per second. Synchronizing the speed of the systems prevents the address bus from having to wait for the memory because of different clock speeds. the module should be placed in the socket at an angle then rotate it (angled) into position. RDRAM has 184 pins and are available in RIMM. A SDRAM's timing is synchronized to the system clock. This allows SDRAM to burst subsequent. minimal consumption of board surface and ease of installation. there by eliminating the CPU wait states. Also the 72-pin SIMMs is 3/4 of an inch longer than the 30-pin SIMMs and has a notch in the lower middle. DDR SDRAM or double-data-rate synchronous dynamic random access memory is a type of memory used in computers. In the dual-channel configuration it is recommended to use a matched pair of memory modules for optimize performance. DDR2 is part of the SDRAM family of random access memory technologies. SIMMs only had contacts on one side of the card.g.5V. It is designed to double the clock speed of the memory.

. SO-DIMMs are often utilized in laptop computers. there are 3 kinds of cache memory: Cache is a high-speed storage mechanism. many consumers have started to use the term "RIMM" in much the same way people say "Kleenex" for "facial tissue". the L2 cache is also known as a "secondary cache.contacts on both sides that hold twice as many chips as a SIMM. small footprint PCs (PC's with a Mini ITX motherboard) and high-end upgradeable office printers.These are Smaller than SODIMM. which feeds the CPU. It stands for "Rambus In-Line Memory Module". DRAM and SDRAM are two types of memory chips used in DIMMs. Each 172 Pin Micro DIMM provides a 64-bit data path. covers the module to protect the chips from overheating. and it's neither a brand-independent reference nor an acronym like "DIMM". The major difference between the two is that SIMM has pins on opposite sides of the board are "tied together" to form one electrical contact whereas a DIMM has opposing pins remain electrically isolated to form two separate contacts." L2 caches sit between the CPU and the DRAM. used for SDRAM 184-pin-DIMMs. and the way the module installs in the socket. used for SO DIMM 168-pin-DIMMs. which feeds the L1 cache. the DIMMs have either 72 or 168 pins. A RIMM has a 184-pin connector and an SO-RIMM module has a 160-pin connector.. RIMM is a memory module that takes up less space inside the computer than the older DIMM module and has different PIN architecture. An L2 cache feeds the L1 cache. An aluminum sheath. The gold pins on the bottom of the SODIMM provide a connection between the module and a socket on a larger motherboard. the number of notches on the module. An SO-RIMM is smaller and is used in systems that require smaller form factors. 168-pin DIMMs transfer's 64 bits of data at a time and is used in computer that supports a 64-bit or wider memory bus. At times it is also called hyper page mode DRAM. the RAM controller. Another difference is that many 72 pin SIMMs install at a slight angle. If the L2 cache is also integrated on the CPU chip. At times it is wrongly used as an acronym for Rambus Inline Memory Module. used for DDR SDRAM 240-pin-DIMMs. The subsystem consists of the random access memory (RAM). They are utilized in the latest laptop/notebook computers and networking applications that require high performance DDR memory. The most common types of DIMMs are: 72-pin-DIMMs. It can be identified by its heat spreader. Level 2 cache (External cache) is a memory cache that is external to the CPU chip. RDRAM (Rambus Dynamic Random Access Memory) is a memory subsystem that offers to transfer up to 1. Officially. called a heat spreader. The L3 cache feeds the L2 cache. then the external motherboard cache becomes the L3 cache. However. Some DIMMs are 32-bit. "RIMM" is a term trademarked by Rambus Inc. whereas 168-pin DIMMs install straight into the memory socket and remain completely vertical in relation to the system motherboard.6 billion bytes per second. DIMMs gradually began replacing SIMMs as the predominant type of memory module when Intel's Pentium processors were in the mainstream market. CACHE MEMORY: a fast storage area used to store frequently used data and instructions. and the bus (path) connecting RAM to the microprocessor and devices in the computer that use it. Like SIMMs. but more and more are 64-bit and only have to be installed one at a time in Pentium-class computers. most DIMMs install vertically into expansion sockets. SO-DIMM (Small Outline Dual In-line Memory Module) is a type of computer memory integrated circuit that is a smaller alternative to a DIMM and is roughly half the size of regular DIMMs. Typically located on the motherboard. SO-DIMMs are designed for applications with limited space and require low power consumption. RIMM is the term used for a module using Rambus technology. used for DDR2 SDRAM Generally. used for SO DIMM 144-pin-DIMMs. The faster access and transfer speed generates more heat. Solder balls on each chip create a metal pathway used to conduct electricity. SO-DIMMs have 72 pins (supporting 32-bit data transfer) or 144 pins or 200 pins (both supporting 64-bit data transfer). Micro DIMMs are available in 144-pin SDRAM and 172-pin DDR. Micro DIMMS are primarily used in note book (laptop) computers. . 144-pin SO-DIMMs are commonly found in notebook computers. SO-DIMMs are smaller and thinner than regular DIMMs. Extended Data Out (EDO) DRAM is the most common type of asynchronous DRAM used. It is similar to DIMMs using Direct Rambus DRAM memory subsystems. RIMM's transfer data in 16-bit chunks. DIMMs closely resemble SIMMs. A RIMM module consists of RDRAM chips that are attached using a thin layer of solder. This compares to regular DIMMs that have 168 pins and support 64-bit data transfer. Major physical differences between 168-pin DIMMs and 72-pin SIMMs include: the length of module.

etc. but some use it in other ways as well. The next level of cache is the main memory itself & the one after that is called virtual memory. With the introduction of the 486 CPU. the more data it can transfer. Sometimes known as the ³primary cache´. PCI Bus: This bus is the present standard. bus masters. Modern computers have the level II cache inside the CPU package to shorten the bus length and increase the speed to L2 cache.  Internal Cache (Level I or L1) Internal cache is a small amount of SRAM placed inside the actual CPU (internally) and is accessed directly.Cache Level The level of cache is determined by referring to its connecting circuits or electronic pathways (bus) and physical proximity to the CPU. Devices operating on a bus can be divided into two categories. L1 cache is built into the CPU chip or packaged within the same module as the chip. you should remember that the primary (L-1) cache is internal to the processor chip itself. Basically. VL-Bus (VESA Local bus): was a bus originally used with the 486 computers and was limited in the number of slots to add on devices. A PCI bus is shared by devices connected to the bus. AGP Bus: The AGP bus is designed for video cards. These level II cache runs at half the processor speed. then the external motherboard cache becomes the L3 cache. Used for expansion cards such as video cards. . port addressing. also referred to as secondary cache. The L3 cache feeds the L2 cache which feeds the L1 cache which in turn feeds the CPU.  External Cache (Level II or L2) External Cache is external to the CPU. However it's still separate from the CPU core and connected by a bridge.  Level 3 Cache (L3) If the L3 cache is also integrated on the CPU chip. COMPUTER BUS: A bus is a set collection of wires that allow information and signals to travel between components inside or outside of a computer. and Level III cache attached to the motherboard with a bus speed the same as the system bus. The address lines provide the memory or I/O device with the exact locations of the data. The data lines provide a channel through which the actual data is transmitted. Types of bus systems for the motherboard: y y y y y ISA Bus: The original 8-bit bus used in first-generation IBM PCs accepted only 8-bit expansion boards. it runs slower than the processor. but faster than the main memory. The external lines are also called the system bus or expansion bus. termed as 'backside bus'. The fastest of the present PIC is the PCI express (clock speeds reaching 133 MHz). It runs at the same speed as the processor. later known as the ISA bus. L2 cache. is typically located on the motherboard and feeds the L1 cache. This is eliminated by AGP Bus. an L1 cache is the memory closest to the CPU. and the secondary (L-2) cache is almost always external. The present computers have 16K .) and bus slaves are devices responding to a bus cycle but are not capable of initiating them. Data in a computer is transferred digitally. Level II on the backside bus or bridge running at half the processor speed. The speed of L2 cache is directly proportional to the system bus speed. Intel placed 8K of internal cache memory in the processor.64K of L1 cache memory. The transfer rate is reduced as more peripherals plugged to the PCI bus. COMBO Bus: It is a combination of VL-Bus and PCI bus and allows use of both types of add-in cards. and bus slaves. Bus masters are devices capable of initiating any bus cycle (memory read/write. These lines allow the processor to talk to device. It was superseded by the 16-bit AT bus. the larger the bus width. The bus consists of components like the external bus. A single wire carries 5 volts to indicate a 1 data bit or carries zero volts to indicate a 0 data bit. the data bus and the address bus. the control bus. CAUTION: For the purposes of the exam. It can transfer data 64-bit at a time with rates up to 66 MHz. The control lines are responsible for passing control signals across the bus which instruct the device when to read / write data. Most operating systems use this when they run out of main memory. It's on the motherboard in DIP chips or in COAST (Cache On A Stick) slots.

network. They are around 3" long and usually in white or cream color. PCI-X. As games adapted to better graphics. The collection of chips and controllers is known as the "chipset". AGP 4x: Operates at 66 MHz quad pumped to an effective 266 MHz reaching up to a maximum data rate of 1066 megabytes per second using a 32-bit channel. So with each clock tick. Note: Plug and Play is a term used in the computer field to describe a computer's ability to have new devices. PCI slots can usually be found in any computer that has a Pentium-class processor or higher. AGP Pro cards come in two versions based on physical interface. 64 bit AGP slot is also available. primarily to accelerate the computer graphics. PCI devices are plug and play. disk controllers. Doubled from the 133MBytes/s transfer rate of PCI bus 33MHz / 32bit. added to it without having to reconfigure or (ideally) restart the computer. A few such expansion devices are video.8 V signaling. the BIOS will configure the card automatically. AGP 2x: Operates at 66 MHz double pumped to an effective 133 MHz reaching up to a maximum data rate of 533 megabytes per second using a 32-bit channel. . They are used in high end professional graphic cards. AGP 8x (Pro): Operates at 66 MHz octuple pumped to an effective 533 MHz reaching up to a maximum data rate of 2133 megabytes per second using a 32-bit channel.5 V signaling. Most computers have Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) slots.5V cards. machining. 3. A motherboard is likely to have three main types of expansion slots namely. Motherboards that support AGP have Plug-and-Play BIOS that will automatically configure the card. The major components are the video card.3V and 1. shorter than the PCI slots and located right next to the PCI slots on the motherboard. These cards are usually used to cater to high end computer designing applications employed in architecture.33 MHz clock speed with a peak transfer rate of 133 MB per second. The Northbridge handles all the data flows to and from the main memory and also all the CPU transactions Integrated and nonintegrated are the two major types of Motherboards based on the way components were installed or designed on it. PCI Express Bus has been released using a differential serial bus instead of a parallel bus. Transferring 64 bits at a time translates to a very large parallel bus. The Motherboard has two main processing chips on it called the Northbridge and the Southbridge. using a minimum of 64 lines in addition to all the required control and signal lines. using a 64 bit channel. Advanced Graphics Port is a high-speed point-to-point channel for attaching a video graphics card to the motherboard. The motherboard is a collection of devices that control the flow of data and operating electricity for all the primary components in a PC. The driver may need to be installed for the operating system. Uses 0. Nonintegrated motherboards have lot of expansion cards. The PCI bus uses either 32 or 64 bits of parallel data. AGP runs at twice the speed of a memory bus. The motherboard contains the connectors for attaching additional components. The PCI Express bus requires only a few sets of differential lines. normally peripherals. sound. Basically. Few of AGP standards are listed below: y y y y AGP 1x: Operates at 66 MHz reaching up to a maximum data rate of 266 megabytes per second using a 32-bit channel. AGP slots are easily recognizable because they are usually brown. more realism and more speed there was a need for a slot dedicated to video graphics. Once the card is installed (System power off state) & the system is turned on.Expansion slots are used to install various devices in the computer to expand its capabilities. and disk interface cards. AGP slots were designed to be a direct connection between the video circuitry and the PC's memory. though the slot remains the same. In addition. Nonintegrated motherboards can be easily identified because each expansion slot is usually occupied by one of the components. runs at 133MHz on 64 bit bus. They require more power and are often longer than standard AGP cards. The Motherboard is the main circuit board of a computer. depending on the version. PCI slots are characterized by 33. The newer motherboards will have a PCI Express bus instead of an AGP slot. 32 or 64 bit data is transferred over the bus. Earlier PCI or ISA slots were used for accelerated graphics video cards. engineering and similar fields. Uses 1. y y y ISA PCI AGP Each type differs in its appearance and function.

ATX will eventually be replaced by BTX. and fan. leading to damage of the motherboard when they were connected incorrectly. The AT power supply provided 192 watts. they are more expensive to repair. A major drawback is that even in case one component breaks down then the entire motherboard needs to be replaced. These motherboards have the same functionality as AT motherboards but the width is reduced from 12" to 8. The AT motherboard is 12 inches (305 mm) and it won't fit in "mini-tower cases" or "mini desktop".). There are a few computers that still use AT and its variant Baby AT. Other common I/O connectors (serial & parallel ports etc) had to be mounted individually. MicroATX offers same benefits as ATX form factor but by reducing the physical size of the motherboard it improved the overall system design costs. which made installation much easier and safer. Reduces Drive Bay Interference. the components are laid out differently than an AT or ATX. with an arrangement they could define themselves. The introduction of SIMM/DIMM sockets. the concept of direct memory installation became obsolete. . Prior to the ATX. The serial and parallel port connectors are usually attached using cables that go between the physical connectors mounted on the back of the case and headers (pin connectors). mouse. Baby AT is a variant of AT.6" deep & a Mini-ATX is 11. but to place all the connectors directly (soldered) onto the motherboard. The AT and Baby AT form factors have the processor socket(s)/slot(s) and memory sockets at the front of the motherboard. Integrated system boards were designed for their simplicity. parallel. Some manufactures design and manufacture their own motherboard designs. The power connectors for AT motherboards are almost identical with 6-pin cords. Reduces Expansion Card Interference & has Better Air Flow. etc. NLX is a new form factor used in "low profile" motherboard types. Instead of two similar-looking power connectors (that could sometimes be misconnected causing short-circuits) ATX used one large 20pin power connector. and by the presence keyboard connector soldered onto the motherboard. This was done by reducing the number of I/O slots supported on the board. Such motherboard is known as a proprietary design motherboard. The ATX was the first computer motherboard to not only include I/O support (serial. Nonintegrated system boards are further classified based on their form factors (design): mainly into 2 types AT and ATX. Basically. The ATX form factor was later on designed by Intel in order to overcome the above issues. by rotating the orientation of the board 90 degrees.5" and are marginally longer. the form factor did not have space to fit the combination of processor. AT-style computer cases had a power button that was directly connected to the system power supply unit (PSU). only the keyboard connector was attached to the motherboard. ATX is not an abbreviation and is actually a trademark that belongs to Intel. . The microATX form factor provides more space at the rear to reduce emissions from using integrated I/O connectors. Though they are cheaper to produce. One of the major problems with the width of this board it takes up space behind the drive bays making installation of new drives difficult. but it will work as a PC.Integrated system boards have most of the components included into the motherboard circuitry that would otherwise be installed as expansion cards. AT stands for Advanced Technology & it was released by IBM in 1984. with disk drive cable connectors nearer to the drive bays and the CPU closer to the power supply and cooling fan. AT and Baby AT motherboards were the first PC motherboards to have built in sockets (headers) for I/O ports (serial. which don't conform to either standard. 486 and early Pentium computers. As processors became larger. They were widely used in 386. The AT standard had only a keyboard connector. The AT motherboards are the first modern form factor to be widely used. etc. Baby AT motherboards were popular as they were cheaper and smaller.). A Full ATX is 12" wide x 9. ATX mother boards are common integrated motherboards. Maximum measures of ATX board are 12" x 9. ATX Motherboards that were introduced in 1995 quickly replaced older Baby AT & AT computers ATX (Advanced Technology EXtended motherboard) improves on the previous Baby AT & AT form factors. heat sink. Long expansion cards and drives were designed to extend over them. The Power could be managed with proper BIOS support. Older processors and memory chips were small and put directly onto the motherboard. introduced by IBM in 1985. The PC and XT form factors that preceded it were quite uncommon.6" (305mm x 244mm). thus the name integrated. but current standards are in favor of ATX.2" wide x 8. Apart from above mentioned advantages ATX form factors also provides Improved Design for Upgradeability. thrice more than older form factors. The newer ATX specification defines a 24-pin power connector to support the power requirements of PCI Express. ATX allowed each motherboard manufacturer to put these ports in a rectangular area on the back of the system. This allowed for a more efficient design. AT was not a huge technological advancement from older form factors. The biggest advancement was the "tower" design and a power switch in the front.2" deep. Some related designs include mini-ATX and microATX. They have a unique design where the expansion slots are placed sideways on a special riser card to optimally use the space. parallel. The two connectors are not physically distinguishable. These motherboards are distinguished by their shape.

one bit per wire. USB CONNECTORS: There are 4 TYPES of USB CONNECTORS: TYPE A which is the MOST COMMON. TYPE B which has a rounded sheath. the STANDARD MINI-B (one-third the size of TYPE A) and the ALTERNATE MINI-B (one-fourth the width of TYPE A). IR ports are very much common on laptops than desktop machines. which demand more power and produce more heat on motherboards compliant with the ATX specification. including power supplies. Listed here. hard drives. This port on the back of the computer normally connects printers and scanners. larger 5-pin DIN connector that was used on the IBM PC/AT design IR (Infrared) Port: Some motherboards have 4 or 5 pin headers to run a connection for an infrared communications port. could also be a DB-25 MALE (older one) PS/2: a 4-pin connector VGA: a three-row 15-pin FEMALE connector GAME: a two-row 9-pin FEMALE connector SCSI: There are a number of different connectors. one byte at a time but over multiple wires i. Floppy Disk Interface: Most motherboards provide a 34-pin header for the floppy disk cable.3 volts Note: It does not supply . They are either 50 or 68 pins in size.5 volts + / . etc. typically used for wireless communication to IR devices. It was proposed by Intel to address some of the issues that arose from using newer technologies. A parallel port is used for simultaneous transmission of data. the mini connectors have been used for smaller devices such as PDAs.e. RAM. The ATX Power Supply supplies: + / . mice and other external devices to the PC. USB (Universal Serial Bus): The USB technology is proposed to be the new standard for connecting devices such as keyboards. Headers are groups of pins used to connect devices or ports to the motherboard. Motherboards that don't use integrated ports. A cable runs from the port and is plugged into the header on the board. Parallel Port: This header has 26 pins.3 volts !!! Connector ³PIN´ Details to Know: Parallel: a two-row 25-pin FEMALE connector Serial: a two-row 9-pin MALE connector (DB-9). they are becoming increasingly popular. they use headers on the motherboard instead. the most common are highlighted in yellow Most SCSI SLOW (5 Mbyte/sec) computers and host adapters use 3666336 . are few communication ports: Serial Ports: It is A male 9-pin or 25-pin port on a computer system used by slower I/O devices such as a mouse or modem.3. Each has 40 pins. The name "serial" comes from the fact that a serial port "serializes" data. Some motherboards provide a 10 pin header to connect a port.The BTX (Balanced Technology Extended) form factor will to be the replacement for the ATX form factor. mobile phones or digital cameras Primary and Secondary IDE/ATA Hard disk Interface: Most of the new motherboards have integrated headers for two IDE channels. PORT ³STUFF´ TO KNOW: Ports are connectors used to connect external cables and devices to the motherboard. processors. SCSI: Few motherboards have integrated SCSI ports or headers. Most of the present motherboards have built in USB ports. though they were uncommon. PS/2 Mouse Port: MOUSE PORT is GREEN with 6-pin mini-din PS/2 connector (same connector also used for the KEYBOARD PORT except it is color-coded PURPLE) NOTE: This 6-pin mini-din connector replaced the older. PCI cards. MISCELLANEOUS FACTS TO KNOW     First processor to combine the L2 system cache inside the processor CPU package? PENTIUM PRO First processor to use SLOTS instead of sockets? PENTIUM II BTX form factor motherboards are incompatible with most ATX form factor cases and vice-versa but all connectors are compatible. depending on the type of SCSI implemented.12 volts + 3.

New SCA 80-pin .the Centronics-type 50-pin connector. Also some 8-bit Fast computers and host adapters. Apple/Mac and some older Sun 8bit workstations. All FAST/WIDE (16-bit) SCSI-3 computers and host adapters plus old DEC single-ended SCSI use this 68-pin High Density connector. Old Sun and DG Computers Many 8-bit SCSI FAST (up to 10 Mbytes/sec) computers and host adapters use this 50-pin HighDensity connector.

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