NASA SP-2002-4524

Deep Space Chronicle
A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958-2000

ASIF A. SIDDIQI

Monographs

in Aerospace History Number 24 June 2002

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Office of External Relations NASA History Office Washington, DC 20546-0001

Library

of Congress

Cataloging-in-Publication

Data

Siddiqi,

AsifA.,

1966space and planetary probes, no. 24) (NASA SP; 2002-4524) II. Series. III. NASA SP; 4524 1958-2000 / by AsifA. Siddiqi,

Deep space chronicle: a chronology of deep p.cm. - (Monographs in aerospace history; Includes bibliographical references and index. 1. Space TL 790,$53 flight--History--20th 2002 century. I. Title.

629.4'V0904_de21

2001044012

Table of Contents
Foreword Introduction 1958 by Roger D. Launius .......................................... 1 11 17 17 17 18 18 18 19 19 21 21 22 22 23 23 23

......................................................

.......................................................... 1) Able 1 / "Pioneer 0" . ..................................................

2) no name / [Luna] ..................................................... 3) Able 2 / "Pioneer 0" . .................................................. 4) no name / [Luna] ..................................................... 5) Pioneer 2 ........................................................... 6) no name / [Luna] ..................................................... 7) Pioneer 3 ........................................................... 1959 .......................................................... 8) Cosmic Rocket ....................................................... 9) Pioneer 4 ........................................................... 10) no name / lLuna] .................................................... 11) Second Cosmic Rocket ................................................ 12) Automatic Interplanetary Station ....................................... 13) Able IVB/"Pioneer" . ................................................ 1960 14 Pioneer 5 .......................................................... 15 no name / [Luna] .................................................... 16 no name / [LunM .................................................... . ................................................ 17 Able VA/"Pioneer" ]8 no name / IMars] .................................................... 19 no name / lMarsl .................................................... 2o Able VB / "Pioneer" . .................................................
..........................................................

5

25 25 26 26 26 27 27 29 29 29 31 31 33 33 3,3 34 34 34 35 35 35 36 36 37 T_bieoi_-o,_te.t_

1961

..........................................................

21) Tyazhelyy Sputnik / [Veneral ........................................... 22) Venera ............................................................ 2:3) Ranger 1 .......................................................... 24) Ranger 2 .......................................................... 1 962 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) ....................... .......................................................... Ranger Ranger Mariner no name Mariner no name no name 3 4 1 / 2 / / .......................................................... .......................................................... .......................................................... lVeneral ................................................... .......................................................... [Veneral ................................................... [Venera] ...................................................

Ranger 5 .......................................................... no name / [Mars] .................................................... Mars 1 ............................................................ no name / IMars] ....................................................

1963 36) no name 37) no name 38) Luna 39) Kosmos 1964 / lLuna] / [Luna] ................................................... ............................................. .39 .39 .39 .40 .40

4 _ ............................................ 21 / [Zondl ..................................................

41>oname/IZondi n ii;i:...............................................
42) noname/ILunM 43) Kosmos 44) Zond 27 / [Zond] ..... " ........................................ ............................................. 1 .............................................................

41
44_ 42 42 43 43 43

45) no name / [Luna] ................................................ 46) Ranger 7 47) Mariner 3 .......................................................... 48) Mariner 4 ..........................................................

49,Zond2 ii;iiii;i;iii;i;::iii;;ii:;i:iii;;i;;i;ii;:iiiii;iiiiiii144
1965 50) "l_anger 51)"Atlas 8 ................................................... Centau'r'5" ....................................................

.45 47 47

521gosmos60/ ILunai i ..................... "

53) an_er R 9
54! no name

......................

iiiii ;iiiiiiiii;;iiiiiiii

.47

4_

/ ILunal

................................................

.48 .48 .48 49 ...................... . . 49 50 50 .50 51 51 51
52

55) Luna 5 .......................................................... 56_ Luna 6 57) ............................................................ Zond 3 .................................. 58) Surveyor Model 1 59) Luna 7 .................................................... 60_ 61) Venera Venera 621 Kosmos 63) Luna 64) Pioneer 1966 65) Luna 9 ........ ................................................ .................................................. .................................................. 896 ............................................................ 2 .......................................................... 3 ........................................................... / [Venera] .................................................

; ...........................................................
..........................................................

" ...................

53 .53 .53 54 54 " ....... 55 56 56 56 57 .57 58 58
58

66) Kosmos 111 / [Lunal 67) Luna 10 68} Surveyor 69) Surveyor 70) Explorer 71) Lunar 72) Pioneer 73) Luna 74) 75) Surveyor12 Luna 76) Lunar 77) Luna 13 11 7 Model 1 2

33 .................................................. Orbite; l ...................................................... ..................................................... .......................................................... ........................................................... 2 ........................................................ 2 ...................................................... .....................................................
...........................................................

Orbit;;

Deep

,Space

Chronicle

-

1967

.......................................................... 78) Lunar 79) Surveyor 80) Lunar 81) Kosmos 82) Venera 83) Mariner 84) Kosmos 85) Surveyor 86) Explorer 87) Lunar 88) Surveyor 897 no name 90) Surveyor 91) no name 92) Pioneer 8 Orbiter 3 Orbiter 3 ..................................................... ......................................................... 4 ..................................................... .................................................

61 61 61 63 63 64 64 65 65 65 66 67 67 67 68 68 69 69 69 70 70 70 70 71 71 73 73 74 74 74 75 75 76 76 77 77 78 78 78 79 79 79 81 81 81 82 82 83 83

159 / [Luna]

4 ........................................................... 5 .......................................................... 167 4 35 Orbiter 5 / [Venera] ...............................................

......................................................... ........................................................ 5 ..................................................... ......................................................... .................................................... .....................................................

/ [Zond] 6 / [Zond]

......................................................... ..........................................................

1968

.......................................................... 93) Surveyor 94) no name 95) Zond 96) Luna 4 14 7 ......................................................... ....................................................

/ [Luna]

............................................................ ........................................................... / [Zondl ....................................................

97) no name 98) Zond 99) Pioneer 100) 1 969 Zond 6 5

............................................................ 9 .......................................................... ...........................................................

.......................................................... 1011Venera 102) Venera 103) 104) no name no name 5 .......................................................... 6 .......................................................... / [Zond] / [Luna] / [N1 ................................................... ................................................... test] ............................................

1051) no name 106) 107) 108) 109) 110) 111) 112) 113) 114) 115) 116) 1970 Mariner no name Mariner no name no name no name Luna 15 Zond Pioneer Kosmos Kosmos 7

launch

6 ......................................................... / {Mars] ...................................................

7 ......................................................... / [Mars} / lLuna] ................................................... ...................................................

/ IN1 test flight} ............................................ .......................................................... ........................................................... ........................................................... 300 305 / [Luna] / [Luna] ................................................. .................................................

.......................................................... 117) no name 118) Venera 119) Kosmos 120) Luna 16 8 17 / ILunal ...................................................

7 .......................................................... 359/[VeneraJ ...............................................

.......................................................... ........................................................... ..........................................................

1211) Zond 122) Luna

1971

124) 125) 126) 127)

Kosmos 419/ Mars/ .......................................... Mars 2 ............................................. Mars 3 ...................................................... Mariner 9 ........................................................ and Fields Subsatellite ..........................

85 85 86 87 88 .90 .90

128) Apollo 15 Particle 130) Luna 1972 19

l , onal ::::::::::::::::::::::::::ii!iiii!iJiiiiiiiii
.93 .93 .93 .97 .98 98 98

131) Luna 20 ........................................................ 132) Pioneer 10 ................. . .............................. ,33) Venera 8 ......................................................... 134) Kosmos 482 / [Veneral .............................................. 135) Apollo 16 Particles and Fields Subsatellite 136) no name / [N1 launch test] ............................... ............................................ 1973

137) L_.;d ..................................................
138) Pioneer 11 ........................................................

,0,
101 102 102 103

139) Explorer 49 ....................................................... 140) Mars 4 ...................................................... 141)Mars5 ::::: .....................................................

144) Mariner 1974

14_,Mars6 i:i:i::i:i::i::: ..... 143) Mars 7 ::i . , ....... 10

.....................................
.....................................

104
104 105 105

' ...................................... i i. i ...........................................

1451, .................................................. L,;,;_2 1461Luna23 ... ' ..................................... iii:ii:iiiiiiiii
147) Helios 1 975 1
.......................................................

,07
107 107
10_

.....................................

148, V_ir_'9 ..................................................
149) Venera 10 ...................................................... ......... ................ ' ................................... iiiii ....................................

'09
109 110 110 111

150) Viking 1 ........................................................ 151) Viking 2 ......................................................... 152) no name/ILuna] 1 976 153') Heiiol 2 .................................................. ................................................... .........................................................

1,2
11 5 115 115 ]1 7 117 120

154) Luna 24 1 977

155!) Voyager 2 ................................................. 156) Voyager 1 ........................................................ ........................................................

Deep Space

C hron!cJe

...................

.

. L

1978

......................................................... 157) 158) 159) 160) 161) Pioneer Pioneer ISEE-3 Venera Venera Venus 1 ................................................... Venus 2 ................................................... .......................................................... 11 ........................................................ 12 ........................................................

123 123 124 125 125 126 129 129 130 131 131 131 133 133 134 137 137 137 138 141 141 142 143 143 145 149 149 149 153 153 155 155 157 159 159

1981

......................................................... 162) Venera 13 ........................................................ 163) Venera 14 ........................................................

1983 ......................................................... 164)Venera 15 ........................................................ 165)Venera 16 ........................................................ 1984 .........................................................

166) Vega 1 ........................................................... 167) Vega 2 ........................................................... 1985 .........................................................

168) Sakigake ........................................................ 169) Giotto ........................................................... 170) Suisei ........................................................... 1988 ......................................................... 171) Fobos 1 .......................................................... 172) Fobos 2 .......................................................... .........................................................

1989

173) Magellan ........................................................ 174) Galileo .......................................................... 1990 ......................................................... 175) Hiten/Hagomoro ................................................... 176) Ulysses .......................................................... 1992 ......................................................... 177) Mars Observer .................................................... 1994 ......................................................... 178) Clementine ....................................................... 179) Wind ............................................................ 1995 ......................................................... ...........................................................

180) SOHO

1996

......................................................... 181 _ NEAR 182) Mars 183) 184) Mars Mars ........................................................... Global 8 Pathfinder Surveyor ..............................................

161 161 163 164 165 169 169 169 170 1 73 173 173 174 176 1 77 Space 2 ...................................... 177 178

.......................................................... ...................................................

1997

......................................................... 185) ACE 186) ............................................................ ..................................................

Cassini/Huygens 3

187) Asiasat 1998

........................................................

......................................................... 188t Lunar 1891 Nozomi 190) Deep 191) Mars Prospector ..................................................

.......................................................... Space Climate 1 ..................................................... Orbiter ..............................................

1999

......................................................... 1927 Mars 193) Stardust Polar Lander/Deep

.........................................................

Master

Table

of All

Deep

Space,

Luna_

and

Planetary

Probes,

1958-2000

.........

179 181 181 181 182 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 188 188 189 189 189 189 189 190 190 190 190 190 190 191

1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1981 1983 1984 1985 1988 1989 1990 1992 1994 1995

............................................................... ............................................................... ................................................................ ................................................................ ................................................................ ................................................................ ................................................................ ................................................................ ................................................................ ................................................................ ................................................................ ................................................................ ................................................................ ................................................................ ................................................................ ................................................................ ................................................................ ................................................................ ................................................................ ................................................................ ................................................................ ................................................................ ................................................................ ................................................................ ................................................................ ................................................................ ................................................................ ................................................................ ................................................................ ................................................................ ................................................................

1996 1997 1998 1999 Program

................................................................ ................................................................ ................................................................ ................................................................ Tables ..................................................

191 191 191 192 193 207 217 223 227 237

Appendices Bibliography About

..................................................... .................................................... ................................................. Series ............................................

the Author History

The NASA Index

.........................................................

........

Table

of Contenls

Foreword
From the 1950s space image To to has the present, to some and placed on and have it the asteroids, spacecraft planets have been visited. around and and to We our Jupiter; our explore a treasure how have Moon we Americans, and the the as a positive world quest a place and represented prestige States signified view in orbit Venus, on Venus, for the United others, security. it has Some Mars, Mars,

stage.

landed

Moon. the of

for national to station else.

NASA's outer

stunning Solar System about how

missions have our

telecommunications To still others, greater space knowlfor them, of the scinegspace by Asif probes

yielded

satellites

little

know/edge nated, of and

universe, NASA's the

it origi-

is, or should edge pure of the science

be, about universe. and

gaining

it works. with

exploration of the

It represents, the exploration history

Mars--coupled Union/Russia--has prospect to of past Venus

efforts

Soviet the

powerfully life on the Red some increased planets.

shown Planet. that our Lunar advanced and and evothe

unknown. ence lected program. A. Siddiqi that other a have bodies and

Even technology

so, the

of space largely of the

is one of the the history

Missions landed

(including have

aspects This

in

on it) and of has knowledge of the solar learned Earth

Mercury the

important the from solar

monograph many Earth system. of space

understanding exploration human lution we have three thing while seem

inner

chronicles been sent

exponentially about system. that, like the origins Most Goldilocks

to explore It provides all space United Soviet data status is funa

of the

importantly,

chronological both and those those and their As data the the

discussion developed developed other findings; this that all work for

probes, States

by the by the

bears, necessary all the

is a place life

in which is "just of our

everyright," system

to sustain other planets hostile. has

Union/Russia about over handy damental during Since planet them; time.

nations; and will

basic their provide

exceptionally exploration It required

such,

monograph

reference

Planetary magic.

not taken

place

by

missions century. discussed has once

undertaken

visionary and and it States would be near when other and the the

leadership, persevering aspects as the first a Soviet to get It of race

twentieth first flights solar way of the our

strong-willed execution. here, been (save every the space the to see sort of between Union some Like

management, NASA

program, United who

began

of the

system at least

explored Pluto), bodies comets

in a modest and several

moons as

of planetary well as some

spacecraft 1960s

Moon. science

(including

own},

expanded

in the

space

"

"

]

i

-

i

Forward

first that Soviet gather system

became decade, Union

a major both the

field United an

of study. States

During and effort the to

more

since

astronomers in a mysterious hiding the it and

realized cloak was also twin

that of clouds view. the to this

it was perAs a

shrouded manently further planet

began

impressive

surface

from

information using

on the planets air-, and

of the

solar

attraction, to Earth of size,

closest planet

ground-, Especially types

space-based was one the cre-

a near and

equipment. ation that the that able of two was second could

important of spacecraft, a heavenly

in terms

mass,

gravitation.

a probe and After the to ground-based planet the other using clouds, things, motion motion, States robotic the that opposite both began the efforts radar, and in which after 1961 to view see

sent an gain

toward

body, observatory

Earth-orbiting the clearest because atmosphere.

could learning, rotated Union to the The

resolution it did not

availhave

through among retrograde of orbital

in telescopes with the

Venus from Soviet

in a and planet United

contend

the direction

The have

studies

resulting

from

this

new

data under-

the with States

United several

a race

revolutionized of Earth's studies even as

humanity's immediate of the Project of

spacecraft. first the success summer 2

standing neighbors. haps tured as the

planetary planets, Apollo, from percapall

claimed 1 and Venus.

in planetary of 1962, were when launched 1 was lost by of estithe for

These much

exploration Mariner toward during Venus 34,827 mated charged a magnetic phere Mariner (but

during

Mariner Although

imagination and and system of the

people

Mariner

backgrounds of the of the cross had planets solar section little

perspectives. theories appealed public. about

Photographs the origins broad NASA holding of the

a launch failure, Mariner 2 flew on 14 December 1962 at a distance kilometers. planetary particle field found 2 sped ceased It probed temperatures, environment, similar none). inside the and clouds, measured looked magnetosencounter, of Venus on

to a very As a result, and aspect

difficulty interest

in capturing in this

a widespread space science

to Earth's After the orbit this

program.

and

Exploration Planets
During focused with Orbiter. planetary the the Mariner early part the much projects Even

of the Terrestrial (Inner)

eventually 1963, States when sent

operations

3 January the United

it overheated. Mariner

In 1967,

5 to Venus Both

to investigate demoninhospitable that the

1960s,

NASA

space on lunar and of

science missions Lunar NASA's era was in the

the strated place entire 425 the

atmosphere. that Venus

spacecraft a very determined was a fairly discovery least

of its efforts Ranger, so, a

was and

Surveyor, centerpiece effort originated decade by

for life to exist planet's degrees probability surface Celsius. that it--existed

uniform refuted

exploration program, of the

in that

This life--at

by NASA

as humans

to investigate Jet and proved Mars Propulsion technicians, enormously and

understood

on Venus.

nearby Laboratory satellites productive

planets. (JPL) of this

Built scientists program both

The

most

significant when the

mission Magellan the surface mission for more

to Venus spacecraft from that than orbit had

began set out with the been

in 1989 for Venus imaging Pioneer orbiting and had

in visiting

Venus.

to map radar. Venus the

This

followed

Mariner 1960s States be rival United nized ance and the as and

made part the to just Cold

a huge of a race Soviet reach an War; the

impact between Union Venus.

in

the the

early United

1 spacecraft planet

a decade radar 2, which to peneinfordense It also

to see who would This to goal beat in both Union for the Both Venus the done was the the

completed map, and

a low-resolution Pioneer Venus probes communicate Venus's

first than

topographic had trate mation clouds, built had part dispatched the

more

opportunity scientists Soviet

heat-resisting and

in the States the

atmosphere about and the work radar and had the

and

recogfurtherevening long

surface,

attraction

of Venus studies. star, and

425°C of the

temperature. Soviet Union, of the

of planetary the morning humans,

on the compiled of Venus

which

had

images deployed

northern into

enchanted

it has

so all the

balloons

_Deep

Space Chronicle

the

Venusian

atmosphere. 1990 at high amount returned returns

Magellan and

arrived mapped imaging more than 99 parts

4,000 deep.

kilometers As the dust

long settled, that, on

and

5.6

kilometers "rivers" time and in the Mars the

at Venus percent

in September of the surface The

meandering at some reporters,

resolution, of digital was from some

appeared, past, fluid fascinated public.

indicating flowed scientists,

of it in stereo. data twice missions. among was clearly activity. NASA's the craft and at the the

Mars.

Suddenly,

spacecraft sum This

of all data on

previous surprises, tectonics lava flows

provided that and evidence the end

them work

the discovery Venus the at

plate that of of the

Project a series begun identical lander 1975 Florida, to Mars, the

Viking

represented

the

culmination Mars that used

of had two of a

of missions in 1964. and The

to explore Viking each Launched Space nearly

showed In Jet 1993,

volcanic mission, down spaceto a

mission consisting Center a year

spacecraft, an orbiter. the Kennedy 1 spent

Propulsion functions

Laboratory of the turned their

shut attention

on 20 August IKSC}, cruising around on the 2 was on

major

Magellan

from

scientists analysis

Viking placed and

detailed

of its data.

an orbiter landed (Golden

in operation 1976 Viking and

planet,

on 20 July Plains). 1975 primary on Mars's

Mars the yet

has

attracted of the

significant space

attention

from

Chryse launched

Planitia

beginning

age. An attraction planetary missions. and 6 March in and sciIn took 7, 1969, August to

on 9 September 1976. The

landed

to be relinquished Mars 1965, close-up in prompted

by most many

3 September Viking eleven tion (its project days

mission

of the 1976, conjunc-

entists, July 21

ended before

15 November superior the Sun),

Mariner pictures.

4 flew

by Mars and

Mariners

passage spacecraft after

behind

although for last Earth

launched respectively, 1969, lay on the the

February each passed

the Viking six years transmission

continued reaching the planet

to operate Mars. reached The

Mars and eventual

first from 1982.

studying

its atmosphere for an Their

surface landing

groundwork planet.

on 11 November

pictures of Mars

verified and able gave

the no Since several the Viking landings, to Mars there seeking have been missions to further

Moon-like hint life. found like active that Among that the

appearance Mars much had ever

been was

to support probes almost once been

other that planet, the that

discoveries, of Mars volcanoes that poles huge activity. the was plates orbit chilling

these cratered had frost made

unlock its mysteries. 1996 when a team University meteorite sible the about warmer pitable ago, jettisoned remained around three scientists found

These were energized in of NASA and Stanford announced Martian that contained life. rock, an igneous was oceans Planet where Antarctica presented pieces remains date back of Mars a Mars posWhen labeled rock much hosyears and it

Moon, on the on and

observed of carbon con9, schedNovember storm

in Antarctica of ancient

seasonally dioxide, siderable uled 1971, spreading obscured pictures only known As the by as to

evidence 1.9-kilogram, was billion and 4.5

indicated in

potato-sized formed years as ago,

tectonic enter detected across almost showed a group Nix

Mariner

ALH84001,

Martian a

dust

probably asteroid the rock it B.C.E. but suggest

contained about hit into crashed The not that the Red space, into scientists conclusive,

Mars; by mid-October dust all of Mars. Mariner 9's first a featureless of black spots disk, in marred a region

to life. Then, a large

15 million

until 11,000

Olympia storm of the

(Snows

of Olympusk the four spots the

dust out

subsided, dust extinct cloud

compelling, that

emerged remains anything largest at the base the top.

to become

evidence of Martian 3.6 These billion

fossil-like that in

of giant on of the with

volcanoes Olympus

dwarfing Mons, crater the across in surthree pic-

micro-organisms years are electrified the for by an the public present the

Earth. four, was

ALH84001. world, fully and

483 kilometers

findings they excited

scientific just as set

a 72-kilometer-wide 32 kilometers from Mons Everest. Valles

but added sions cover

Rising plane,

the was Later

support to Mars the truth

aggressive year 2000 theories.

of misdis-

rounding times tures the

Olympus of Mt. a canyon,

to help

height

of these

showed

Marineris,

Foreword

The

United

States since then,

has

undertaken including After to Mars a small, the

several hugely in

entists by flash

compared floods

those on Earth.

features

to those

left

missions popular December on 4 July robotic the main

Mars 1996, 1997.

Pathfinder. it sped There,

launch and landed

Everyone water tions Ed

agreed

that would

the have

presence profound for "If Space life

of liquid implicaNASA's Science, ever did

10.4-kilogram departed from

on Mars for the Weiler, there, then

rover

named and

Sojourner began

question commented, and

of life on Mars.

lander

to record and

weather the down cheminto

Associate

Administrator

patterns, ical

atmospheric

opacity,

composition Vallis in

of rocks flood Mars's plain,

washed an ancient

develop time, places images va]ley

if it survives landforms

to the would observed in a deep

present be great in the crater channel or

the Ares channel Pathfinder (1.2

outflow

these

northern more and than over

hemisphere. 1.2 gigabits 10,000 tan-

to look." were on

The

gullies

returned bits)

cliffs--usually showed

billion

of data of the

walls--and

talizing The the mation lion

pictures from and the

Martian craft more end were than

landscape. posted to infor500 mil1997. on 11

images Internet, about

both mission the

with a collapsed region at the other end an debris ported the that down appeared the slope. surface, young, recent that meters

at its upper end and area of accumulated to the have gullies been to the transrest of to have sci90 of of way

individuals

retrieved

Relative

times

through mission 1997, launched orbit. That

of July Mars the

Martian

appeared they may

be extremely Another September Surveyor, entered meter tary reached when in formed entists meters Mars. these to find of and like their made core. A of to for As the heady additional in the said, to Some claims, out

meaning past. water

It is possible, could be the been that present about surface skeptical the only

Mars

Global 1996, magneto-

December

400

below have

spacecraft's the existence This held

scientists but what missions

soon

detected field. for for the existence the

of a planeimportant history Planets

all agree is truly to Mars.

magnetic

is to send

implications Mars and continued Earth, magnetic up of

geological

possible

development

of life there. Saturn

Jupiter, fields moving interior heat and continents

and

generate of a dynamo at the could the

Exploration Planets

of the Jovian (Outer)

by means molten suggests sources a flowing over that

metal

spaceflight in the from 1970s, more

projects lunar

of

the

molten internal volcanoes moving

existence give rise

1960s--culminating effort--suffered budgets planetary amongst in the

exploration constrained

crust geologic

responsible time

NASA's expedition Once outer one was geometric observation solar

most was every

ambitious hatched 176 years, of the Sun, in made all (with the the the so-

periods.

science its leadership. planets gather This

These create ment weather the down program 1999,

missions, a new through

coupled portrait

with of the

others, Martian

began environrelating

to

the solar and the

giant such late

on the on

reaches side due of the line-up of

system 1970s.

the analysis

of data

to and

a configuration

to occur

patterns,

atmospheric of flood

opacity, rocks plain.

chemical into the with scientific

composition Ares the Vallis failure setbacks to the

washed Despite in

possible planets exception called would increase the through next in

close-up the outer

system flight,

significant

Mars of two

exploration missions Mars

of Pluto) Tour." the

in a single The flyby

"Grand bend its

of each flight path

planet and it to occur as

returns

from interest

the

Global planet. scifeathat at or the from scithat

spacecraft's enough This

Surveyor In what entists tures there near smallest Martian

reenergized may prove announced

in the 2000

velocity destination.

to deliver would known

a landmark on 22 June

discovery,

a

complicated something the from flight

process like time

obsmwed may the be

on the sources The

planet

suggested water showed

"gravity-assist," effect, could whereby be reduced

a slingshot to Neptune years.

of liquid new ever images

surface. features orbit--the

thirty

to twelve

observed

size

of an SUV. NASA

_-E)eep

-Space

Chronicle

..........

In

1964,

to prepare conceived

the

way Pioneers

for the

"Grand 11 as severe

were only on two

funded of Jupiter a more Pioneers. as as

to conduct

intensive

flyby

studies

Tour,"

NASA

10 and

and Saturn, scale so, the

in effect the

repeating of the builders the two

outer-solar-system budget ment forced Pioneer arrived 1973, the ation the about out constraints of the a project somewhat

probes. prevented until less the

Although the

elaborate Even much possible

flights

commenceand It

spacecrat_ into the

fall of 1968 ambitious 1972.

designed Voyagers budget Cape on

longevity with

effort,

$865-million these 2 lifted from off'

10 was at Jupiter and while

launched on the many

on 3 March night were

available. Canaveral,

NASA Florida; 1977, and

launched Voyager Voyager

of 3 December concerned to intense orbital that radiplane, data its way

20 August on a

1 entered on 5

spacecraft discovered spacecraft the of the

might in

fall prey Jupiter's

space

faster,

shorter

trajectory

September

1977.

survived, and system,

transmitted continued away from on the 1991, from

planet, solar

As

the

mission achievement and Saturn,

progressed, of all its additional planets,

with flybys

the

sucat of the and

center it was Earth, to

cessful ,Jupiter two

objectives

of the about roughly the

Milky

Way galaxy.

By May units (AU) from

52 astronomical twice and the still

outermost proved

giant

Uranus irresistible-as

distance transmitting

Jupiter

Neptune, to mission

possible--and

Sun,

data.

scientists. flew across

Accordingly, the solar was greater Voyager the giant moons, magnetic

the

spacecraft In 1973, NASA launched with 42,800 in and kph, object their Pioneer closest 11, view above The speed ever the reached Pioneer the The of Earth ence, and origin Voyagers the well spectra, discovered Io, new not outer as two that helped raised and proof the close of remote-control prepare Eventuall3; Voyager planets, unique those 2 the viding Jupiter, cloud approach 172,800 by an scientists from tops

system, used mission. 1 and outer and the fields to

reprogramming Voyagers between explored for the them, all of their of rings possess. and

kilometers 1974.

December the

spacecraft's the Earth, fastest hurled kilometers Pioneer 20,900

forty-eight systems planets

by far from

11 spacecraft solar Saturn, the planet, lets and system. closing

2.4 billion In 1979,

across

11 encountered kilometers

spacecraft

returned

information solar system

to sci-

to within

revolutionized to resolve intriguing evolution took well

where a new its

it discovered ring and charted field, the In system into of the and 11 general 1990,

two new moonthe magneand of

some new of the

key ones planets.

questions, about The images the two of as

tosphere, temperatures, Saturn's departed Pluto toward Both space design twenty only solar teries

magnetic and

its

climate structure it

over rings, of

100,000 and magnetic, measurements. Jupiter, in and last

interior. the and the Pioneers probes; years solar headed center 10 they into other also and the but

officially beyond space galaxy.

planets, millions and radiation

satellites, chemical

by passing interstellar Milky were Way

They on rings, and of of the other

rings

around satellites

volcanoes Saturn's Neptune, sequence of most and six

remarkable

shepherded moons on around

stretched a mission Jovian about returned

a thirty-month of more useful planets some of the data, than of the mys-

Uranus The

life cycle about system,

geysers images solar planets bright

Triton.

was Voyager system, star, the showing Sun.

l's portrait Earth sky

as sparks

in a dark

lit by a single

of the interstellar

universe.

Meanwhile, launch Although what the

NASA became

technicians known mission became that could

prepared as Voyager. known

to

It was any system

nearly spacecraft again. and obseI_,ed years was

two decades ventured In October sent the a probe planet

after to 1989, into and in interest

Voyager the outer

before solar Galileo to for 1995.

four-planet it quickly

was

NASA's the

to be possible, to build tance, long

too expensive go the and dislast

spacecraft ,Jupiter that several Jupiter

began

a gravity-assisted

journey atmosphere its satellites

a spacecraft carry the

instruments

needed, such Voyager

enough

to accomplish the two

an extended spacecraft

beginning of great

December to

mission.

Thus,

scientists

.

Foreword

because original the solar

it appeared state left system, to investigate physical that on the both state

to contain over from the the

material formation mission

in its of was

revealed even

that liquid

Europa water--a

may harbor key

"warm in

ice" or lifeand that

element scientists speculated and three might

and the

sustaining science Europa--in moon bodies or may primitive Europa Ganymede Europa. floes regions. in

environments. fiction writers addition one solar to of

Many have Mars the that

designed tion and and back first and

chemical

composiatmosphere orbital the Sun came the and

of Jupiter's of the probe to Jupiter, and Earth,

Saturn's planetary possess, where photos of of from

satellites. back past

Because sent way Venus of asteroid data Soon Space Galileo's not

a unique around Galileo

Titan--is in this have

inclination

system

possessed, life existed. taken 154,500

an environment Galileo's during kilometers what seen appeared on Earth's giant a

made in 1991,

close flyby

Gaspra

were some They similar The

flyby away

provided was ment learned antenna

scientific

on all. But the after Galileo's NASA

mission deploy-

star-crossed. from that could the

revealed to those

to be ice polar cracks

Shuttle,

engineers high-gain Without

umbrella-like be fully deployed.

pictures

also revealed warnl-water exist. on to the These the In

Europa's

ice where may

"environearly 1997, a disof genof

this antenna, communication craft was both more difficult consuming, hampered. and data The transmission

with the spaceand more timewas that greatly worked exercises tower

mental Galileo covery hidden, erated

niches" discovered that lent

icebergs credence oceans. about NASA

Europa,

possibility findings possibility stressed prove exciting, called

engineering tried a series the

team

subsurface new questions

on the project designed and enable

of cooling

to shrink

antenna

central

life on Europa. that thing, the data and effort through

While did not

scientists

its deployment.

conclusively images They a lander

anycomfor a to

they

thought

the

In mid-1995, would phere. tion the the probe the that parachute The rest

Galileo into

deployed Jupiter's then

the

probe

that

pelling, concerted burrow NASA's Rendezvous Eros first year orbiting took

suggestive. to send

dense flew into

atmosin forma-

to Europa water beneath. Asteroid asteroid was In

two spacecraft of the its way began main placed descent

the ice to reach Near mission results. an

to Jupiter,

and the into

while atmos2000-01 (NEAR) excellent to orbit all of its Earth to the NEAR asteroid. goals then surface chief

phere, tory 7

spacecraft

went

a trajecorbit. On its data

it in a near-circular 1995, the probe began about of the cloud heat the

achieved spacecraft it met the

the one

December

began relaying

descent. back tion; phere's dynamics; lasted stored

Its instruments to the the of radiative and for about and orbiter the

scientific and to the 2001. was million

while of the goal of close-up of 433 from

chemical cloud layers; the

composiand atmosand probe which before it the planet because scienback to

asteroid

Eros,

it under-

nature

particles pressure, The during

a controlled

descent

structure

asteroid the Eros, Earth. meter most bod): pictures

on 12 February descent than 315.4 its of the

The

balance, ionosphere. the pressure data,

controlled more

to gather surface kilometers

boulder-strewn

45 minutes,

returned and it. For the

During journey, detailed It began 2000 model pulses;

five-year, mission

3.2-billion-kiloprovided the

atmosphere destroyed the tists Earth high-gain and for

of the

the NEAR profile yet

months was

thereafter, inoperative, the Galileo data

of a small orbit

celestial on 14

antenna

a yearlong and

of Eros ten times data than

technicians analysis. scientific result has

coaxed Today,

February data than a detailed lion Eros's rior; laser weak x-ray,

collected planned. from

more include 11 rail-

continues back to

originally

The more

to transmit Earth. tion and The

measurements brought

culled radar

a reinterpretaabout Jupiter

and but

laser

data

on inte-

of human its moons.

understanding

gravity gamma-ray,

and solid and spectral covering cratered,

cracked

infrared

readings and 34-

on its composition Most the ering Jupiter. significant discovery Europa, On in terms of a frozen one of the 1996, of results ocean has been covof about kilometer asteroid. 160,000 of water moons from Galileo

and images

properties; all of the dusty-terrain

bouldered,

principal data

13 August

Finally,n 1997, i NASA launched theCassini spacecraft onits voyage Saturn.n some to I respects asister pacecraft s totheremarkable Galileo vehicle atJupiter, thisspacecraft will lingerforseveral years collecting allmanner ofdataabout aturnandits moons. it S Once arrives in2003, Cassini expected is toprovide a similar levelof stunningscientific data aboutheSaturnine t system therichharto vestthatGalileo brought tothehuman race about upiter nditsmoons. J a
Conclusion
The since and are Deep the Space of deep opening the of Chronicle space of the provides missions space age a ready attempted in 1957 and Here testing,

NEAR 2000.

spacecraft

orbit

of Eros

in February

• A discussion, introduces Saturn, • A detailed author Solar

with attempts

results, on Neptune.

of planet Mars,

flybys Jupiter,

Uranus,

and

bibliography recommends Log

is enclosed, Andrew details

and

the

highly System

Wilson's regarding

for more

particular

missions.

We

are

pleased

to publish

Asif

A. Siddiqi's underHe is The in published

monograph taken also during the

on all planetary the book and twentieth of the Challenge the Space He a author

missions century. recently

reference

pathbreaking Soviet (NASA Deep source Union

to Apollo: Race, has factual to created

documents a few

development, robotic

1945-1974

implementation

spacecraft.

SP-2000-4408). Space that Chronicle will prove

of its features:

reference all who are

useful

• A list from August craft the down

of significant the American 1958, impact to the on Mars Mars in

"firsts" Able Russian

takes 1 lunar Mars wheeled to the

readers probe 2 space1971, touchAmerican to in

interested

in planetary

exploration.

in November 1997,

American on

Sojourner's

Roger NASA

D. Launius Chief Historian

Introduction
This of all since The cally monograph robotic the deep contains space of the listed brief missions space strictly date age descriptions attempted in 1957. 3) 2) Any probe that was deliberately orbit without sent a planeto heliocentric tary encounter. (solar) opening are

missions in order

chronologiAny around million probe the that was sent into point a halo {about orbit 1.5

of launch

{not by planetary

encounter).

L1 libration from Sun's equal.

kilometers and are the

Earth),

where

Different which "deep have isfied kind space

people

have

different to include list

criteria

for

Earth's forces 4)

gravitational

of spacecraft probes." all

in a list of follows, that satI

exactly

In the robotic

that

included the

spacecraft

Any probe lunar space or li.e.,

that

was

launched program to lunar

as part into distance)

of a deep in

following

guidelines:

planetary at least

1)

Any

probe

that with

was

launched body."

to

an

order (such Model

to simulate as Zond mockups!.

a deep-space 4 and a few early

trajectory Surveyor

"encounter"

a "planetary

Encounters a) bl c) d) flybys, orbiting,

include

the

following: I have ceeded included in their never the left got launch the solar probes objectives more pad, whether or not. than while they Thus, others sucsome meters have

atmospheric soft-landing.

entry

and

impacts,

and

probes beyond already

a few

system.

Planetary a) b) c) d) e) Mercury, Saturn, Earth's asteroids; natural asteroids; comets.

bodies

include Venus,

the Mars,

following: Jupiter, and Pluto; From late the launch a of Sputnik the mission For deep but an Soviet that space were in 1957 Union failed to until the never reach that there, of any Kosmos assigned that 21

Uranus, Moon;

Neptune,

1980s,

announced Earth orbit.

payloads stranded

satellites and

of the

planets

and

reached they kind in did until

Earth not

orbit make

announcement with Soviets space

1963.

Beginning 1963, the

November numbers

Kosmos

to deep

payloads

.....

Introduction

remained failed it For readers

stranded had provide

in Earth

orbit.

Since

such

In terms kept the

of the focus

mission on mission Mission short in

descriptions, events rather

I have than have point; details to

missions to of what

no designation, a quick missions where of mission no

I thought indication were name to about. was I 1.

useful Soviet

scientific been readers about search phies. Andrew space kept

results. relatively

descriptions and to the more

these

missions the type

interested particular the I

learning are in

assigned, The the

is bracketed bracket as Imna, test.

missions listed particularly Solar up to the

encouraged the bibliograrecommend Log

designation class of the Zond,

inside mission, or N1 flight

the such

denotes Mars,

sources would

Venera,

Wilson's missions

System

for deep

mid-1980s.

Additionally, appear indicate assigned by NASA).

some

U.S. marks names or assigned

mission ("Pioneer (that

names 0") is, to not All spacecraft masses listed tables are masses at launch. in the statistical

in quotation unofficial by NASA

retroactively Many Chief thanks Historian, monograph. staff in the to Roger D. Launius, NASA's aid of NASA and

for his support I acknowledge, History

in facilitating too, the at Alstork Lisa

For

statistical vehicle

data

on

U.S.

probes

(such times,

as list as as

this his

launch of

numbers, I have NASA postflight cases leven

launch used, sources mission there within as

Office Louise thank attention and

instruments), original kits in and many data

much such reports, wildly

Headquarters, Stephen and Joel while Garber. Vendette

especially I also for their editing, Special

possible, press Because contradictory have other Every accurate this size, Corrections

Jirousek to detail this to Anoo

exist data

proofing,

designing go out

NASA), from sources. to present

I

manuscript. Raman.

thanks

corroborated nongovernmental attempt has

statistical published been but made with

Asif A. Siddiqi of

information, there are

a project be errors.

will naturally welcome.

Deep Space C-hronicJe

-__

....

i

--

-

_

....

"

Deep Space Chronicle:

1958
1) Able 1 / "Pioneer Nation: U.S. (11 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft lunar Able 1 / BMD orbit 0" TX-8-6 insert Altitude with The an solid the would optimal propellant into have motor orbit been would the fire to vehicle around 29,000 of about Moon. kilometers two weeks. only 77 at hit later. had

lifetime

actual after

mission, the Thor

however, first The 123 that

lasted stage upper seconds the

Mass: 38 kg 1 (Thor no. 127) UT

seconds the

exploded stages

Mission Design and Management: USAF Launch Vehicle: Thor-Able Launch Launch Scientific 1) 2) 3) 4) Results: Air the

15.2 kilometers Atlantic

altitude. about concluded

Date and Time: 17 August Site: ETR / launch Instruments: magnetometer micrometeoroid temperature infrared This mission

1958 / 12:18 17A

Investigators been The caused mission 0."

accident

complex

by a turbopump has been

gearbox

failure. known as

retroactively

"Pioneer detector sensors 2)

camera was launches deep the first to the space of two Moon U.S. and

no name / [Luna] Nation: USSR 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft (1) lunar Ye-1 impact Ino. 1) kg (with upper stage)

Force first

(USAF) attempted The Able

launch a squat,

by any concrude

country. ical, infrared thermal parabolic from the

1 spacecraft, structure, This device for

Mass: c. 360

fiberglass radiation mirror lunar voltage Engineers stripes regulate was prior

carried device was comprising

a

Mission Design and Management: OKB-1 Launch Vehicle: 8K72 09:03:23 UT / launch site 1 (no. B1-3) 1958 / Launch Date and Time: 23 September Launch Site: NIIP-5 it Scientific 1) 2) 31 4) 5) Results: modest Instruments: three-component two gas scintillation ion The plan traps Soviet for government initial exploration approved of the a discharge detector counter magnetometer counters

TV scanner.

a simple a small light would light of dark outer surThe ultravito the to the

focusing onto

reflected a cell that to the a pattern

surface

transmit received. and face light to

proportional painted on the internal also to

spacecraft's with

temperature.

piezoelectric

spacecraft olet ideal reach light

disinfected launch. Able after

According 1 was

mission the Moon

profile,

designed then

2.6 days

launch;

Moon March in 1958. Engineers conceived of four initial probes,he Ye-1(for lunar t impact), Ito photograph Ye-2 thefar sideof theMoonh e-3 Y (tophotograph thefarsideof theMoon), andYe-4 lunar impact with a {for
nuclear probe, from mately ried the five mission explosion). a pressurized aluminum-magnesium the size of the first The Ye-1 was a simple made spherical

During shut information uring vehicle the

the down

mission, 10 seconds from an

the

Thor due

second

stage measlaunch for An highby

early

to incorrect

accelerometer velocity. insufficient the Earth's spacecraft x 32,200 failed The

incremental thus imparted to escape to orbit its insert the

velocity gravity. into kilometers internal for the The of

probe

object
alloy, that

attempt Earth using

approxicarof

at 128,700 retromotor had

Sputnik, The

because

scientific were

instruments. to study matter particles (using magnetic the ray the

goals

temperatures teries did, however, by

fallen adequate an

too much power. altitude

batprobe

gas component the proton in

to provide

of interplanetary traps), cosmic detectors), and tions nuclei probe kilogram comet be first Earth in in (on meteoric radiation the iusing cosmic primary its of on the upper natrium

(using and the fields

reach 11:42 Van data after

115,400 the exis-

photons piezoelectric of the

kilometers tence other of the useful

UT, verifying belts and

Allen before launch.

returning 43 hours later mistakof an has

Moon varia-

reentering Investigators had because The

magnetometer), intensity, cosmic stage) and radiation. also carried an

17 minutes concluded enly cut

heavy The one

that off

an accelerometer the Able stage

incorrect been 4)

setting

of a valve. known

mission 1."

to create trajectory Earth.

artificial that could the lon-

retroactively

as "Pioneer

outbound from the

photographed Ye-1 launch,

During developed

booster

gitudinal boosters eventually destroying 3)

resonant vibrations on the strap-on of the launch vehicle. The rocket disintegrated its payload. at T+93 seconds,

no name / [Luna] Natron:USSR (2) Objective(s): lunar Spacecraft: Spacecraft Mission Launch Ye-1 impact (no. 2) upper OKB-1 1958 / stage)

Mass: c. 360 kg (with Design and Management: (no. B1-4)

Vehicle: 8K72

Able 2 t "Pioneer Nation: U.S. (2) lunar Able Mass:

1"

Launch 23:41:58 orbit Launch Scientific kg AFBMD / no. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 11 October 1958 / 08 Results: Moon complex 17A Earth's exploded resonant 5) system

Date and Time: 11 October UT Site: NIIP-5 Instruments: three-component two gas-discharge counter / launch site

0biective(s): Spacecraft: SpacecraH NASA Launch

1

2 38.3

magnetometer counters

Mission Design and Management: Vehicle: Thor-Able

piezoelectric scintillation ion The failed traps second when,

detector

i (no. 1 / Thor

130 / DM-1812-6) Launch 42:13 Date and Iime: UT

attempt again, the The in the

to probe launch strap-on

impact never

the left

Launch Site: ETR / launch Scientific Instruments: 1) 2! 3) 4) 5) Results: ducted space formed ionization chamber

atmosphere. vibrations

vehicle boosters.

at T+ 104 seconds

due to longitudinal

magnetometer micrometeoroid NOTS infrared

detector imaging sensor

Pioneer 2 Nation: U.S. (3)

temperature Although the mission mission, under the

USAF this was aegis The to the

actually the of the and spacecraft Able first

conU.S.

Objective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft Mission NASA

lunar Able 3

orbit

the

recently Space was

Mass: 39.6 Design

kg USAF BMD

National

Aeronautics (NASA).

and Management:

Administration very similar in

design

1 probe.

Launch Vehicle: Thor-Able 129 / DM-1812-6)

I (no. 2/Thor

no.

Results: row

This

mission attempts to the

was

the third to send

failure a Ye-1

in a lunar

in Soviet probe

Launch Date and Time: 8 November 07:30 Launch UT Site: ETR / launch complex

1958

/

impact the core

Moon.

The

thrust

level dropped

of

engine at T+245

of the seconds,

R-7

booster leading The

17A

abruptly

eventually never

Scientific 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Results: lunar of

Instruments: ionization magnetometer temperature mierometeoroid proportional imaging For this sensor sensor counter system third Air Force launch of a chamber

to premature reached showed hydrogen had lost nmlfunction working 7) Pioneer 3 Nation: U.S. (4) 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft Mission / JPL launch Launch 05:44:52 Scientific 1) 2) Results: Army escape that

engine

cutoff.

payload

velocity.

Later seal of the main

investigation cooling main in the engine The to cease

a pressurized pump the

peroxide integrity caused and thus

in vacuum

conditions. turbine failure.

led to engine

orbiter, to

engineers the

introduced

a number The a new

changes included

Thor-Able

launcher. and

probe type

a new as study

TV scanner as a new Cherenkov

of battery, to

well the

cosmic-ray Effect. reached down than thirdAs a

lunar N/A Mass:

flyby

telescope Pioneer its target. the Thor

2, like its predecessors, A signal launch from vehicle's

never

5.87

kg NASA / ABMA

the ground stage when the

shut

Design and Management: Vehicle: Juno

2 earlier X-248 to fire.

planned. stage result, phere its brief

Additionally, engine the only separated, probe 45 mission, burned minutes it and Earth's energy

II (no. AM-11) 1958 /

it failed

Date and Time: 6 December UT / launch complex

up in Earth's after launch. an data than

atmosDuring of sughad

kauncl_ Site: ETR

5

reached sent back

altitude that

Instruments: photoelectric two This mission to the probe sensor was the trigger counters first Pioneer of two U.S. a

1,550 gested higher thought.

kilometers that flux and The

equatorial levels also was

region

Geiger-Mueller

previously that near

information density in space.

indicated higher

launches

Moon.

3 was whose

mierometeoroid Earth that because than the

spin-stabilized maw goal was

(up to 700 rpml Moon. to spin

pri-

Investigators engine wire. had

concluded failed to tire

to fly by the were spin

Two out

special on 1.5-

third-stage of a broken

0.21-ounce meter mission wires was

weights and

reduce

to 12 rpm spacecraft a future from bemn through

once the cam'ied inmging a source of light a lens then on an

under sensor

way. The to test

6) no name / [Luna] Nation: USSR Objective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft Launch (3) lunar impact

an

optical

system. such that

If the as the

sensor

received,

Moon,

a collimated to pass

was

wide

enough

Ye-1 (no. 3) Mass: c. 360 kg (with upper OKB-1 1958 / stage)

and fall simultaneously the sensor would system event, 4 seconds depletion. 3 was of escape kilometers 6 minutes to the about send

on two phot(mells, a signal to switch

Mission Design

and Management: (no. B1-5)

imaging In the

Inot carried the main than put

on this booster planned on its

spacecraft}. engine shut

Vehicle: 8K72

Launch Date and lime: 4 December 18:18:44 Launch Scientitic 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) UT Site: NIIP-5 Instruments: three-component two gas-discharge detector counter / launch site 1

down pellant Pioneer short 102,322

earlier

due to protrajectory, per hour reached Africa

Once velocity. and after major

1,030

kilometers

It eventually burned launch. scientific around up over The Earth.

magnetometer counters

38 hours contributed dual

spacecraft discovery of

piezoelectric scintillation ion traps

bands

of radiation

1958

_"

1959
8_ Cosmic Rocket/[Luna Nation: USSR Objective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft (4) lunar impact kg (with (no. B1-6) 1959 / 1 upper OKB-1 stage) 1]

Ye-1 (no. 4) Mass: 361.3

Mission Design and Management: Launch Vehicle: 8K72

Launch Date and Time: 2 January 16:41:21 UT / launch site Launch Site: NIIP-5 Scientific 1) 2} 3) 4) 5) Results: the rate system, target, with its first due Instruments: three-component two gas-discharge detector counter

magnetometer counters

piezoelectric scintillation ion traps this

Although humanmade its to and the

Soviet object was in

spacecraft to reach less the missed than its

was escape accumain (which, to as The first robotic explorer to the Moon, Luna 1. Ground Rocket 1963) The enter controllers (retroactively approximately probe orbit became around the 62 the lost contact named hours first Sun. with Luna after Cosmic 1 launch. to in

velocity,

trajectory a the Moon. problem probe The

guidance

spacecraft was Soviet referred press)

launch Rocket"

vehicle, in by the about the the kilogram flyby, the

"Cosmic tually 6,400 launch. January released tance was

evenof

passed kilometers Before 1959, one

Moon 34 at

at a distance hours 00:57 upper following UT on stage

3

attached of natrium

at a disEarth on and Earth.

of 113,000 photographed

kilometers by

from

spacecraft

astronomers

flyby, reach time angles craft 59,545 32,000 imaging

Pioneer escape and

4 was velocity. the

the

first During stage

U.S. spacecraft the launch,

to the

Sergeants

of the second caused

did not and

cut off on elevation

azimuths

of the thus

trajectory by the

to change. Moon of

The

spaceof

passed

at a range the planned

kilometers kilometers)--not scanner was tiny hours

(instead close to function. UT

enough The

for the closest 1959,

approach The craft's for 82 tance greatest The Luna 3 spacecraft returned the first views ever of the far side of the Moon. The first image was taken at 03:30 UT on 7 October at a distance of 65,200 kiloobject heliocentric American received 10)

at 10:25 radio before

on 4 March was lost

transmitted contact

information at a disthe

of 655,000 tracking to date.

kilometers distance The probe and to

from

Earth,

for a humanmade eventually became do so. entered the first

orbit spacecraft excellent

Scientists in space.

meters, after Luna 3 had passed the Moon and looked back at the sunlit far side. The last image was taken 40 minutes later from 66,700 twenty-nine photographs kilometers. Altogether,

data

on radiation

were taken, covering 70 perwere very noisy

no name / [Luna] Nation: USSR Objective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft (5) lunar Ye-IA impact (no. 5) upper OKB-1 1959 / 08:08 site 1 UT stage)

cent of the far side_ The photographs

and of low resolution, but many features could be recognized. This was the first image returned by Luna 3; taken by the wide-angle lens, it showed that the far

Mass: c. 390 kg (with (no. I1-7)

side of the Moon was very different from the near side, most noticeably in its lack of lunar maria (the

Mission Design and Management: Launch Vehicle: 8K72 Launch Site: NIIP-5 Scientific 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Instruments: three-component two gas-discharge piezoelectric scintillation ion traps Soviet Ye-IA probe, impact. (a detector counter Launch Date and Time: 18 June / launch

dark areas}. The right three-quarters oF the disk are the far side. The dark spat at upper right is Mare Moscoviense; the dark area at lower left is Mare

Smythii. The small dark circle at lower right with the white dot in the center is the crater Tsiolkovskiy and its central peak. The Moon is 3,475 eter, and north is up in this image. kilometers in diam-

magnetometer counters

Results: The 9) Pioneer 4 Nation: U.S. (5) Objective(s): lunar Spacecraft: N/A Spacecraft Mass: 6.1 kg Mission Design and Management: NASA / JPL Launch Vehicle: Juno 05:10:45 UT / launch complex 5 II (no. AM-14) 1959 / Launch Date and Time: 3 March / ABMA flyby was designed

like

the

Ye-1, had to the

for lunar some minor

Engineers

incorporated scientific housing four

modifications modified

instruments for the

antenna of

magnetometer, counters, and

six instead an improved

gas-discharge

piezoelectric tion received tLuna launch but the with was l) and was

detector) as a result of informafrom the first Cosmic Rocket the American scheduled for two days Pioneer 4. The

originally

for 16 June as a result of

postponed

negligence the wrong one

of a young fuelling propellant.

lieutenant During

who inadstage actual inertial and the

Launch Site: ETR

vertently launch, guidance the a

permitted of the

of the upper of the

Scientific Instruments: 1) 2) photoelectric two sensor trigger counters its primary during

gyroscopes at T+153 was from the

Geiger-Mueller

system

failed booster

seconds, subsequently ground.

Results: Although objective to

it did not achieve the Moon

wayward

photograph

destroyed

by command

11) Second Cosmic Rocket / tuna 2 Nation: USSR 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft (6) lunar Ye-IA impact (no. 7) kg (with upper OKB-1 stage)

Launch Date and Time: 4 October 00:43:40 UT / launch site Launch Site: NIIP-5 Scientific 1) 2) 3! 1959 1 / Results: was / launch site the Instruments: Yenisey-2 system micrometeoroid cosmic-ray This first of the detector detector of the probe side of the photographic-TV

1959 / 1

imaging

Mass: 390.2

Mission Design and Management: Launch Vehicle: 8K72 Launch 06:39:42 Launch Scientific 1) 2) 3) 4) 5} Results: September, lifted days Soviet released September ters from off and later. (no. I1-7b)

Date and Time: 12 September UT Site: NIIP-5 Instruments: three-component six gas-discharge piezoelectric scintillation ion traps After an the counter

spacecraft, Soviet far

Ye-2A

class, to take

designed Moon

pictures Yenisey-2

using

the the

imaging used on the

system abandoned

(replacing

magnetometer counters detector

Yenisey-1 The with

Ye-2 probe). camera and and Strictly to reach vehicle a

TV system two lenses

consisted of 200-mm

of a 35-mm (wide-angle) focal lengths

500-ram capacity launch on 9

(high-resolution) to the velocity; the read probe up to was

40 not the called (AMS)

images. meant launch the in orbit

aborted Ye-IA probe escape named

speaking, escape inserted

successfully velocity the three "Second spacecraft on 12

instead,

reached Officially

spacecraft, Station

Automatic the around Soviet the suffithe over-

Interplanetary press, Earth cient coast heating but the into

Cosmic its one at Earth

Rocket," kilogram

the

a highly

elliptical x 468,300

of natrium of 156,000 that

at 48,280 to to reach the

kilometers, During suffered

a distance in a cloud in diameter the at ground. lunar its

kilomeout clearly this much The of

lunar Moon, the and

distance. AMS poor

expanded and was

to 650 kilometers visible sixth more from attempt accurate

problems vehicle southern on

communications, passed over the

Fortunately, impact was

eventually polar 6 October

Moon's kilometers over 65,200 October, pictures exposed dried the

cap at a range before

of 7,900 up of on 7

than

predecessors. the 14 object another was surface

climbing

spacecraft the 1959, origin body. mately on the Mare after lunar metallic Moon thus

successfully at 23:02:23 the

reached UT first with on

Earth-Moon kilometers cameras of film the was

plane. from began

At a distance the Moon, the the first Moon. fixed, a per

September of human celestial approxi-

becoming contact

taking of

of 29 The and

to make The probe's

far

side

hnpact latitude

point and 2 (as

then

developed, after which lines

at 30 ° north slope of the Serenitatis.

0 ° longitude east called of it was

automatically, beam the were a few images parts of up film to

special image

Autolycus tuna

crater,

light scanned hnages (after the

1,000

for transmission received attempts). of usable never the

to Earth. next day of and seen tuna

1963) deposited surface carried spheres. The

Soviet emblems on the in 9 x 15-centimeter spacecraft's magne-

finally aborted were of the The

Seventeen quality before named

tometer measured no significant lunar magnetic field as close as 55 kilometers to the lunar found surface. no hint The radiation detectors belt. also

showed by human

Moon

eyes.

spacecraft,

of a radiation

3 after 1963, photographed of the far side and found the far side, their theories 13) prompting of lunar

about 70 percent fewer mare areas on scientists evolution. to revise

12) Automatic Interplanetary Station / tuna 3 Nation: USSR Objective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft (7) lunar Ye-2A Mass: flyby (no. 278.5 1) kg OKB-1 (no. I1-8)

Able IVB / "Pioneer" Nation: U.S. (6) 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft lunar orbit IVB

Mission Design and Management: Launch Vehicle: 8K72

P-3 /Able

Mass: 169 kg

Mission Design and Management: AFBMD NASA Launch Vehicle: Atlas-Able 2O) Launch Date and Time: 26 November 07:26 UT complex 14 (no. 1 / Atlas

/ D no.

planners after the sion. internal All

had redirected success of the the scientific

their missions Soviet Luna 3 misexperiments were powered Each and by from probe

instrumentation batteries cells on solar

1959 /

nickel-cadmium 1,100 also carried motor of 8,000

charged hydrazine orbit

4 paddles.

Launch Site: ETR / launch Scientific Instruments: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) high-energy ionization

an internal for lunar kilometers orbital 6,400

monoproat a Moon. were The use of

pellant counter range Ideal planned counter missions the device detector natural radio

insertion from the

radiation chamber tube radiation

lunar as

parameters kilometers. the first

Geiger-Mueller low-energy

x 4,800

also

inaugurated

two magnetometers photo-scanning micrometeoroid

Atlas-with-an-upper-stage increased launch, just forces the 45 away payload nose then seconds

combination, weight. fairing after the and the caused away with During began to liftoff. third

affording this break first

aspect indicator radio receiver to detect waves

Aerodynamic stage

and payload ground at that because lost T+104 the there

to break contact 3-meter had

explode. tumbling shroud to the

10) Results:

transponder densities This mission

to used

measure the first

electron of four

The

booster showed failed

seconds. been

Investigation fiberglass no measures as

spacecraft Laboratories 1960; two

designed by Space for a lunar assault of them orbit had (in June originally 1959),

Technology in 1959 and been but slated mission

compensate rocket gained

for pressure altitude.

differentials

for Venus

Deep Space Chronicle ...............

.__---_--'-

..............

".....

1960
14) Pioneer 5 Nation: U.S. (7) Objective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft Mission USAF Launch heliocentric P-2 / Able Mass: 43.2 6 kg NASA GSFC no. / orbit transmitter, with driver. Information 1 bit per second. with Pioneer distance (later using ments, IV (no. 4 / Thor 1960 / of 36.2 surpassed a 5-watt transmitter rates varied from Controllers 26 June million by maintained 1960, kilometers Mariner suite 2). from The acting as 64 to 8 to contact to a record Earth probe, instru-

5 until

Design and Management: BMD Vehicle: Thor-Able

its 18.1-kilogram confirmed the

of scientific

existence magnetic

of previously fields.

conjectured 15)

interplanetary

219 / DM-1812-6A) Launch Date and Time: 11 March 13:00:07 Launch Scientific 1) 2) 3) 4) UT Site: ETR / launch complex 17A Instruments: magnetometer ionization chamber tube momentum

no name / [Luna] Nation: USSR 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft (8) lunar Ye-3 farside (no. 1) photography

Mass: unknown (no. 1l-9) 1960 / site 1

Geiger-Mueller micrometeoroid spectrometer

Mission Design and Management: OKB-1 Launch Vehicle: 8K72 15:06:44 Launch trajecScientific 1) 2) 3) UT Site: NIIP-5 Instruments: Yenisey-2 system micrometeoroid cosmic-ray detector detector success of Luna 3, photographic-TVimaging / launch Launch Date and Time: 15 April

5} 6) Results: orbit deep map

photoelectric proportional Launched Earth technologies interplanetary had originally

cell aspect counter on a direct and Venus and

indicator

telescope solar orbit

tory, Pioneer between space of the

5 successfully

reached

heliocentric

to demonstrate the first field. The for a to a first on

to provide magnetic

spacecraft Venus solar digital

been was

intended switched the

Results: After this class using with spacecraft

the spectacular was of the was launched lunar

flyby, but flyby.

the mission 5 carried system

to return far side. The a Ye-2A system, system.

more Ye-3 probe but

Pioneer

Telebit,

detailed

photos vehicle

telemetry

operationally tested or

used on Explorer a 150-watt

essentially radio-telemetry imaging

a U.S. spacecra_; 6. The system

it was first used a

a modified

5-watt

the old Yenisey-2

(A more

advanced type Ye-3 withanew imagingystem s had beenabandoned earlier.} Duringthe launch, theprobeeceived r insufficient velocity afterpremature third-stage engineutoff. c The spacecraft reached analtitude of200,000 kilometersndthenfellback a toEarth andburned up in Earth's tmosphere, likesome a much of theearly American Pioneer probes.
16) no name / [Luna] Nation: USSR 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft (9) lunar photography ferent

2) 3} 4) 5} 6) 7) 8) 9)

ionization Geiger-Mueller low-energy two

chamber tube radiation counter

magnetometers spectrometer detector

scintillation micrometeoroid plasma Sun probe scanner probe,

Results: This

Able

VA, had

a slightly from that

difof its

instrument Able it had to enter with

complement IVB lunar (launched

predecessor 1959), VA was after but

in November goals. 62.5 Able hours x 2,250 the

similar

mission orbit about

farside

Ye-3 (no. 2) Mass: unknown (no. [l-9a) 1960 / site 1

launch

parameters

of 4,000

kilometers launch, without ignited because third up in

in a period although problems, abnormally of an never oxidizer fired, the

of 10 hours. first the and Able shut system and the 17 Able stage

During

Mission Design and Management: OKB-1 Launch Vehicle: 8K72

performed stage early The

second down failure. probe minutes was VA's

Launch Date and Time: 19 April 16:07:43 UT Launch Site: NIIP-5 / launch

stage Earth's

burned after onboard engine-was fired

Scientific Instruments: 1) 25 3) tion" Yenisey-2 photographic-TV detector detector the last to of the the it side "first-generaLike its to Moon. was of imaging

atmosphere the mission fired

launch. ground

Although controllers

a failure,

system micrometeoroid cosmic-ray was Soviet probes predecessor, the the far probe

liquid propellant the first time that on a space NASA Able vehicle.

hydrazine an onboard Later, that had

rocket motor on two been 15

Results: This

November from in

1960, the

announced VA South payload Africa.

objects found

immediate photograph Unfortunately, atmosphere. launch_ began away, over

designed the left Moon. Earth's after vehicle

Transvaal,

never

Instead, seconds, apart. As booster near

immediately the each landed the broke launch strap-on

18) no name / [Mars] Nation: USSR (105 flyby

at T+10 to parts a large fall

fell

of the area

separately launch windows site. in

Objective(s): Mars

Spacecraft: 1M (no. 11 Spacecraft Mass: 480 kg Mission Design and Management: OKB-1 Launch Vehicle: 8K78 (no. L1-4M} 1960 1 / Launch 14:27:49 Launch Oate and Time: 10 October UT Site: NIIP-5 / launch site

Thundering many 17_ nearby

explosions buildings.

Able VA / "Pioneer" Nation: U.S. (8) 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft NASA Launch 80} Launch Dale and Time: 25 September 15:13 Launch UT Site: ETR / launch complex 12 1960 / Vehicle: Atlas-Able (no. 2 / Atlas D no. lunar P-30 orbit / Able VA kg /

Scientific Instruments: 1) 2) 3) ultraviolet radiation cosmic-ray was intended first attempt vicinity initially and life engineers the spectrograph detector detector first of two Soviet Mars. Mars It also to send

Mass: 175.5

Mission Design and Management: AFBMD

Results: This spacecraft was the

to fly past by

humans of Mars. included

spacecraft the

to the

Although a TV

spacecraft system organic forced

imaging (to detect

a spectroreflectometer on MarsL to mass remove conboth

Scientific Instruments: 1) high-energy radiation counter

straints

instruments week a before launch. Themissionprofile called fortheprobe tofirstenter Earthorbitandthenusea newfourthstage (called "BlokL")to gainenough additional velocity fly to a Marsencounter. to During thelaunch, violent ibrationsaused gyrov c a scope tomalfunction. result, hebooster Asa t began toveerfromits planned ttitude. a The guidance system failed atT+309 seconds, and thethird-stage ngine e wasshutdown after thetrajectory deviated a pitchof greater to than 7 degrees. payloadeventually The burnedup in Earth's atmosphere over eastern iberia S without eaching arthorbit. r E
The 19) no name / [Mars] Nation: USSR (11) Mars flyby Mars flyby was planned for 13 May 1961.

20) Able VB / "Pioneer" Nation: U.S. (9) 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft NASA Launch Vehicle: Atlas-Able 91) Launch Date and Time: 15 December 09:10 Launch 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) UT Site: ETR / launch complex detector radiation chamber tube radiation counter counter 12 Instruments: micrometeoroid high-energy ionization Ceiger-Mueller low-energy two Sun plasma solid The scanner probe spectrometer detector of Able VB, as with was to enter its two lunar state 1960 / (no. 3/Atlas D no. lunar P-31 orbit / Able VB /

Mass: 176 kg

Mission Design and Management: AFBMD

Scientific

0blective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft Launch Launch 13:51:03 Scientific 1) 2) 3) Results: never

magnetometers

1M (no. 2) Mass: 480 kg OKB-1 1960 / (no. L1-5M)

Mission Design and Management: Vehicle: 8K78 Date and Time: 14 October UT / launch site

9) i0) Results:

scintillation mission

unsuccessful 1 orbit. radiation spectrograph detector detector predecessor, orbit. this During in as spacecraft the the launch thirdof its from along Earth's Mars 1961. dence lunar of Scientific near

predecessors, objectives the Moon,

Launch Site: NIIP-5 Instruments: ultraviolet radiation cosmic-ray Like reached there its

included recording and

studying the detecting incia

micrometeoroids, field. 4,300 Planned x 2,400 The

magnetic were

lunar kilometers spacecraft

orbital with had compleThis was a a

parameters a period slightly ment third probe

of 9 to i0 hours. different scientific of its attempt the Moon launch Later was first stage

Earth was

instrument

trajectory, stage frozen engine

a failure seconds the pipeline

from and

that last

predecessors. by NASA in the

at T+290 in

a result feeding

to launch period. exploded of about indicated stage firing. igni-

kerosene (which The

to orbit

1959M30 booster

turbopump opening). with flyby the had atmosphere

prevented and burned eastern fourth up

a valve stages, over The

Unfortunately, 68 seconds 12.2 that tion after

the Atlas-Able

third over

at an altitude investigation Able still was

payload, been

kilometers. the while cause the

Siberia. for 15 May

premature

planned

-

1960

1961
21) Tyazhelyy Sputnik / [Venera] Nation: USSR 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft Mission Launch 01:18:04 Launch Scientific 1) 2) 3) Results: to send (12) Venus 1VA (no. Mass: Design impact 1) kg OKB-1 196] 1 / (no. L1-7) into L) that DC Earth never there orbit, fired had the to been that L guidance not The 1961. of been fourth send the stage (the Blok to spacecraft showed PT-200 supply system in in the power The Venus. A subsequent investigation a failure ensured system. designed +

transformer Blok

c. 645

to the had

and Management:

evidently

to work upper-stage on

Vehicle: 8K78 UT Site: NIIP-5 Instruments: three-component variometer charged-particle This a mission spacecraft had been pictures proved

a vacuum. stack" February

"spacecraft Earth's The the Soviets

Launch Date and Time: 4 February / launch site

reentered

atmosphere announced as

26 the

total

weight

combination

6,483

kilograms. magnetometer 22) traps was to to send of the to be far instead the first attempt Original 1V spacesurVenera Nation: USSR 0blective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft Launch (131 Venus 1VA (no. Mass: 643.5 impact 2) kg OKB-1 (no. L1-6) 1961 1 /

Venus. the

intentions craft face, to take but

Venusian too

this

ambitious the for a The 1VA

Mission Design and Management: Vehicle: 8K78

a goal. mission simple was used craft various rating first

Engineers and Venus used

downgraded spacecraft entry. 1M

the

1VA

Launch Date and Time: 12 February 00:34:37 Launch Scientific 1) 2) UT Site: NIIP-5 Instruments: three-component variometer charged-particle This was the probes that the / launch site

atmospheric a modified exploration. a small and This

essentially for Martian souvenirs the occasion mission.

spacecraft The space-

contained

globe medals flight the Soviets

containing commemowas also used the an

magnetometer

on which Earth orbit

3) Results: impact 1961. exited

traps second of two Soviets

Venus in

intermediate craft the into booster

to launch space. placed

a spaceAlthough the probe

launched

interplanetary successfully

This time, the probe successfully Earth orbit and headed toward

Venus. espite D some initial problems ith w thesolarorientation system, the spacecraft
responded tions tance session properly on during a communica1961 at a dis17 February kilometers. unable to of 1.9 million were a on indicated "permanent" optical of excess control Unfortunately, regain contact

intended to study in was 1 was parking deep space

for operational the nature

Ranger of particles

flights and

and fields orbit

interplanetary 60,000 the

space.

Its

intended

x 1.1 million first orbit American around

kilometers. spacecraft Earth prior case, the

Ranger to use to a its

controllers during attempt tion its

subsequent 22 February. that the

communications A later spacecraft orientation that after the failed. passed by investigahad due spacecraft's The Venus inert on lost to a

mission. stage ignition cut

In this off for almost

Agena

B upper after (instead remained x 168 27 dead. its

immediately injection The orbit ceased battery probe (501 by went Earth's cause of

translunar

solar sensor heat system

of firing stranded kilometers), when

for 90 seconds). in low-Earth and the telemetry main

faulty because thermal spacecraft 19 and 100,000 tric

malfunctioned

August, The

eventually 20 May 1961

spacecraft three failure switch days was that the red

reentered later. traced had fuming The

at a distance and entered

of about heliocen-

atmosphere the Agena

kilometers

to a malfuncprematurely nitric acid

orbit.

tioning choked

the rocket

flow

23) Ranger 1 Nation: U.S. 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft Mission Launch (10) highly P-32 Mass: 306.18 kg NASA JPL elliptical Earth orbit

to the 24)

engine.

Ranger 2 Nation: U.S. 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecrafl Mission (11) highly P-33 Mass: 306.18 kg NASA JPL elliptical Earth orbit

Design and Management: Vehicle: Atlas-Agena

B (no.

1 / Atlas

D no. 111 / Agena

B no. 6001) 1961 / 12

Design and Management:

Launch 0ate and Time: 23 August i0:04 UT Launch Site: ETR Scientific 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6} 7)

Launch Vehicle: At]as-Agena D no. 117 /Agena Launch 08:12 UT Site: ETR / launch

B (no. 2 / Atlas 1961 /

B no. 6002)

/ launch complex

Date and Time: 18 November

Instruments: electrostatic photoconductive Rubidium vapor analyzer particle detectors

Launch Scientific 1)

complex

12

Instruments: electrostatic plasma analyzer for solar

magnetometer cosmic-ray telescope ionization

triple-coincidence cosmic-ray chamber x-ray

integrating detectors dust

2) 3) 4)

photoconductive Rubidium vapor

particle

detectors

magnetometer cosmic-ray telescope ionization

scintillation

triple-coincidence cosmic-ray chamber x-ray

micrometeoroid detectors

particle

51

integrating

8)

Lyman

alpha 1 was spacecraft

scanning the first designed

telescope in a series to roughon the of

6) 7)

scintillation

detectors dust particle

Results: Ranger standardized land surface lunar Moon. central containing control provided battery. test and by Ranger simple of the surface The body

micrometeoroid detectors Lyman Like to orbit the its that Moon. five both alpha

instrumented Moon during connected basic and

capsules take its photos descent

81 Results: designed Earth beyond that could vehicle

scanning

telescope Ranger 2 was elliptical deep space expected they of the experiover I Rangers a

of the to the base for was

predecessor, in take a would

operate

highly it into planners

spacecraft

consisted equipment

of a tubular required Power

to a hexagonal

Mission months the

during verify and to study

of operation, design

communications. solar l's cells specific of the and a

technical key

silver-zinc was to

conduct the

scientific environment

mission new

ments

space Since

performance

technologies

prolonged

period.

the

Block

Ranger 7 took this image of the Moon on 31 July 1964 at 13:09 UT (9:09 A.M. EDT), about 17 minutes before is

impacting

the lunar surface. The area photographed

centered at 13 ° south latitude and

10° west longitude

and covers about 360 kilometers from top to bottom. The large crater at center right is the 108-kilometer-diameter AIphonsus. Above it is Ptolemaeus and below it Arzachel. The terminator is at the bottom right corner. Mare Nubium is at center and left. North is at about 11:00 at the center af the frame. The Ranger 7 impact site is off the frame, to the left of the upper left corner. (Ranger 7, BOO1) The Ranger series of spacecraft were designed solely to take high-quality pictures of the Moon and transmit them back to Earth in real time. The images were to be used for scientific study, as well as For selecting landing Apollo Moon sites for the missions. Ranger 7 was the first of the

Ranger series to be entirely successful. It transmitted 4,308 high-quality images over the last 17 minutes of Flight, the final image having a resolution of 0.5 meters per pixel. Ranger 7 was launched on 28 July 1964 and arrived at the Moon on 31 July 1964.

(Ranger they could attempt, to leave B stage 2 lost ally phere its

1 and not Ranger low-Earth failed solar power; on 19

2) alter

carried their

no

rocket

engine, On this failed Agena Ranger eventuatmosmost

probable of the guidance used first second engine up orbit

cause roll-control system.

of the

failure

was on

inoperation the Agena stage time attitude, B had for its of the the

trajectories. its predecessor, This time, and the

gyroscope As a result, burn.

2, like orbit. orientation it

the propellant

all attitude-control insertion without to fire.

to fire.

In its low orbit, then Earth's 1961. The

At the proper

burn, failed

lost

reentered

November

_eep

Space Chronicle

.............................

--

__-

....

1962
25) Ranger 3 Nation: U.S. (12) 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft lunar P-34 Mass: 330 kg JPL D impact Because ance probe jectory quent the early of a malfunction (due inserted an to faulty into excessive course reached in the Atlas guidthe trasystem was with incorrect spacecraft and missed The and The transistors), transfer a lunar

velocity. change the

A subsethat hours on 28

ensured Moon kilometers and 14

Mission Design and Management: NASA Launch Vehicle: Atlas-Agena no. 121 / Agena 20:30 UT / launch complex 12 B no. 6003)

it by 36,793 computer

B (no. 3 /Atlas 1962 /

January. failed images. tists etary entered 26) Ranger 4 with

central the probe

sequencer no TV

spacecraft

returned provide

Launch Date and Time: 26 January

did, however, measurements flux. orbit. Ranger

scien-

the first heliocentric

of interplan3 eventually

Launch Site: ETR Scientific 1) 2) 3) 4) Results: achieve II Ranger used imaging the main ment bus lunar' bus an

gamma-ray

Instruments: imaging gamma-ray single-axis surface-scanning experiment This impact was the first lunar carried telescope to about during 24 U.S. surface. attempt The to Block that allow above The instrufrom then the indeby a was lunar on the system spectrometer seismometer pulse radio

Nation: U.S. (13) Objective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft lunar P-35 Mass: 331.12 kg JPL D impact

spacecraft optical down

a TV camera that would

Mission Design and Management: NASA Launch Vehicle: Atlas-Agena no. 133 / Agena 20:50 Launch UT Site: ETR / launch complex 12 Instruments: imaging gamma-ray single-axis system spectrometer seismometer pulse radio B no. 6004) 1962 / Launch Date and Time: 23 April

B (no. 4 / Atlas

kilometers the descent.

sm_ace also carried that

a 42.6-kilogram would separate and altitude Moon. the times rest. a

capsule

at 21.4 kilometers impact outer to bounce before instrument

Scientific 1) 2) 3) 4)

pendently balsa-wood designed surface onboard

on the casing, several

Protected capsule on the The

coming

to was

primary

surface-scanning experiment

seismometer.

Results: Thisspacecraft, similarin design to Ranger , wasthe first U.S.spacecraft 3 to reach another elestial Apowerailure c body. f in the central computer nd sequencer a stopped spacecraft's the masterclockand prevented thevehicle fromperformingny a of its prep]anned operations,such as opening solarpanels. its Driftingaimlessly and without any midcourse corrections, Ranger impacted 4 theMoon onits far side at 12:49:53 T on 26April 1962.mpact U I coordinates were15°30southlatitudeand ' 130°42 ' westlongitude. Although thespacecraftdidnot achieve primaryobjective, its the Atlas-Agena-Ranger combination erp formed withoutfaultforthefirsttime.
27) Mariner 1 Nation: U.S. (14) 0blective(s): Spacecraft: Venus flyby R-1

28) no name / [Venera] Nation: USSR 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft (14) Venus 2MV-1 impact (no. 1) kg (no. T103-12) 1962 / 1

Mass: 1,097

Mission Design and Management: OKB-1 Launch Vehicle: 8K78

Launch Date and Time: 25 August 02:18:45 Launch UT Site: NIIP-5 / launch site

Scientific Instruments: unknown Results: This generation on a unified second designed included with (for mission of Soviet platform was deep called "MV" Mars the first of a second probes based

space 2MV

("2" for the and The Venus) series bus but

generation, to study four

for Mars and Venus. the

variants payload

with

same

different Venus

complements: (for Venus

2MV-1 flyby),

impact),

2MV-2

2MV-3 flyby). sules; JPL D

(for Mars The the Venus

impact), landers system,

and 2MV-4 were while cooled the

(fbr Mars capwith Mars an lanBoth sub-

P-37 / Mariner

landers

carried

pressurized

Spacecraft Mass: 202.8 kg Mission Design and Management: NASA Launch Vehicle: Atlas-Agena no. 145 / Agena Launch 09:21:23 Launch Scientific l) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Results: UT Site: ETR microwave infrared fluxgate cosmic solar / launch complex 12 Instruments: radiometer radiometer magnetometer dust plasma detector spectrometer detectors Headquarters three Ranger spaceBlock B no. 6901) 1962 /

ammonia-based ders landers stance of area used

B (no. 5 / Atlas

a system were

of air

conditioners. a special the

sterilized

with from of

Date and Time: 22 July

on recommendation Institute powered Venus, for window, This into stage only cut the one first the meters

Academy The with an

Sciences's were

Microbiology. panels prepared capable

buses

by solar Soviets

of 2.5 square

of providing three 1962 and two

2.6 A. For spacecraft launch landers. launched upper after

August-September flyby spacecraft was but

spacecraft orbit,

successfully the Blok burn planned that motion L

Earth

energetic After

particle

off its

interplanetary of the

approval 1961, on the

by NASA JPL prepared of the Mariner

45 seconds Later been engine

(instead investigation set

in September craft based

240 seconds). the prior rical craft before 29) Mariner 2 stage had

showed

design named Each

on a tumbling due motors. orbit

I series Venus modest mentation spacecraft was

(therefore in late suite but 1962.

R) to fly by carried instruThe and Earth that a

to main firing remained reentering

ignition

to asymmetThe spacedays

spacecraft of scientific

of stabilizing in Earth Earth's

(9 kilograms) had

for three

no imaging 54,000

capability. components

atmosphere.

included

designed

to maintain

contact

with

for 2,500 the (still

hours--an unsuccessful) 65 hours on

ambitious Ranger

goal given was

designed 1 would kiloto an range its paydue

Nation: U.S. (15) 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft Venus flyby R-2

for only have meters incorrect safety load

of contact. 1962, during the

Mariner but

flown

by Venus 8 December trajectory

at a range

of 29,000

P-38 / Mariner Mass: 203.6 kg

launch, and

Mission Design and Management: NASA Launch Vehicle: Atlas-Agena no. 179 / Agena B no. 6902)

JPL D

had

to destroy seconds.

booster

B (no. 6/Atlas

at T+290

Launch Date and Time: 27 August 06:53:14 UT Launch Site: ETR / launch Scientific Instruments: 1) 2) 3) 41) 5) 6) microwave infrared fluxgate cosmic solar

1962 /

Scientific

Instruments: was launched

unknown the second by the of three Soviets in Venus 1962. 1962

Results: This 12 spacecraft lake (also never

complex

its predecessor a Venus left parking impact

launched probe), around Blok out the into

in August the Earth L upper of Earth valve the that

radiometer radiometer magnetometer

spacecraft because stage orbit con-

orbit in the the

of a malfunction designed toward trolled R-2 spaceit just 1. was of (see first percorflew by on scan significant and 07:00 surface orbit. UT was on 87.4 14 of 31) no name / [Venera] Nation: USSR (16) 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft Venus 2MV-2 Mass: of Mariner launch, chamber never fired. launch. to send Venus.

dust plasma

detector spectrometer detectors

probe

Evidently, of fuel Blok As

energetic

particle

the delivery of the opened. The

combustion S1.5400) never of

Results: NASA craft thirty-six Mariner equipped out of days

brought storage after

the Mariner and the known identical launched after failure

L engine the within

(the engine

a result, decayed

payload

five days

2, as it was with an

complement

instrumentation Mariner fully formed rection Venus December the data before NASA 3 January million for was tion planet. dense planet, 1). The successful by any

to that mission

of its predecessor proved to be the mission a midcourse spacecraft kilometers

interplanetary nation. After the

flyby (no. unknown (no. T103-114) 1962 1 / 1)

on 4 September, at a range 1962. Mariner During 2

of 34,762

a 42-minute gathered

Mission Design and Management: OKB-1 Launch Vehicle: 8K78 00:59:13 UT / launch site Launch Date and Time: 12 September Launch Site: NIIP-5 Scientific 1) Instruments: imaging (remainder Rest, Its: Like on 25 August Venus the to fired its two and probe Earth. send for only system unknown) predecessors 1 September never The the 0.8 left (launched 1962), parking L upper this orbit stage, toward before attitude. the by The the upper the tumble propellant engine. was atmosreenafter shutLater stage violent had

on the Venusian continuing maintained 1963, kilometers space the 425°C the on

atmosphere to contact until

heliocentric

when from

the spacecraft Earth, The minimal night that

a new data

record

a deep that at least between

probe. surface with day 2 also that the

returned on Venus differentia-

showed

temperature

and found

sides there from

of the was a

Soviet around designed Venus, ting

Mariner cloud layer above no lack of the

Blok

extended surface. explained this

56 to 80

spacecraft seconds

kilometers detected field; this

The

spacecraft magnetic by the great misthird sched-

discernable is partly

planetary

down

because

of unstable that a tumble stage. within a clean firing

investigation had been put

indicated into

distance sion,

flyby. After

successful down the

NASA

elected

to stand series launch

shutdown mixed tanks, Unlike air

of the

third

spacecraft in the uled for the 1964

(Mariner window.

R-3),

bubbles

preventing its

of the probe than

predecessors, flyby

this rather The

30) no name / [Venera] Nation: USSR 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft Mission Launch 02:12:30 (15) Venus impact

designed pheric tered launch.

for a Venus entry Earth's and

impact. atmosphere

spacecraft two days

21VIV-1 (no. 2) Mass: c. 1,100 kg OKB-1 32) Ranger 5 Nation: U.S. (16) 1962 1 / 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: / launch site Spacecraft lunar P-36 Mass: 342.46 kg impact

Design and Management: Vehicle: 8K78 UT

(no. T103-13)

Launch Date and Time: 1 September Launch Site: NIIP-5

-

_-

-

.

1962_

Mission Design and Management: NASA Launch Vehicle: Atlas-Agena

JPL D

spacecraft. technological missions.

The

three

missions rather the Just Blok

were than

primarily scientific

B (no. 7 / Atlas 1962 /

test In this failed

flights case, again.

no. 215 / Agena no. 6005) Launch Date and Time: 18 October 16:59:00 UT complex

L interplaneafter main

tary

stage

17 seconds the

trans-Mars 12 engine destroying traced to (the

injection $1.5400A1) the leaking fragments reentered was payload.

ignition, turbopump The

Launch Site: ETR / launch Scientific Instruments: 1) 21) 3) 4) imaging gamma-ray single-axis system

exploded, problem As many tracked, was as the The on

lubricant. were later

spectrometer seismometer pulse radio

twenty-four largest original 17 June

of which probe 1963.

on 29 October. to fly by Mars

surface-scanning experiment

designed

Results: This the lunar

was surface On

the

third with a

attempt Block just solar

to impact II Ranger 34) Mars 1 to Nation: USSR Spacecraft: (18) flyby (no. 4) kilograms (no. T103-16) 1962 /

spacecraft. after the power. tery normal transfer

this

mission, from

15 minutes led to battery batand all

operation, of power operation depleted died. never the

a malfunction never after The resumed; 8 hours, first

0bjective(s): Mars 2MV-4

Normal was

power

Spacecraft Mass: 893.5 Launch Vehicle: 8K78 16:14:16 UT

spacecraft correction Ranger kilometers centric 1,271,381 spacecraft from 33) the

systems was 5 passed on 21 orbit.

midcourse and of 724 helioof the

Mission Design and Management: OKB-1 Launch Date and Time: 1 November

implemented, at a range and entered to a distance loss of signal,

Moon tracked Before about

October

It was

Launch Site: NIIP-5 Scientific Instruments: 1) 2) imaging

/ launch

site

1

kilometers. sent back

4 hours

of data

system

gamma-ray

experiment.

magnetometer second of three 1962 first Mars spacecraft Soviet launch sent spacecraft window, by any mission time the after that the

Results: The intended Mars nation flyby (no. 1) kg was upper toward cutoff, one 1962 / craft's (17) Mars 2MV-4 no name / [Mars] Nation: USSR 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft

for the 1 was the

to fly past to photograph stage Mars, controllers nitrogen

Mars. the

Its primary surface. fired This

successfully but immediately discovered gas

probe engine in

Mass: c. 900

Mission Design and Management: OKB-1 Launch Vehicle: 8K78 17:55:04 Scientific 1) 2) Results: generation" probes reach late-1962 repeated during to outfit and Mars, UT / launch site 1 Instruments: imaging system first of three probes probe), by window. of the missions, for the control As a result, were removed Blok the "second(two designed of flyby to the stage elected with (no. T103-15) Launch 0ate and Time: 24 October

pressure

of the

bottles system closure

for the had ofa used

spaceto On

attitude-control to incomplete

dropped valve).

zero (due 6 and

Launch Site: NIIP-5

7 November, system exposed although became contact when from flew on scientists

controllers to keep to the further impossible. with the Earth. the probe Mars 1963. able the

a backup panels the cor21

gyroscope constantly coast rections maintained March kilometers silently kilometers contact, phase,

solar during midcourse

Sun

magnetometer This was the interplanetary one launch failures deep the space stage impact

Controllers vehicle was until

1963,

106 million 1 eventually of 197,000 to loss data intensity, gases densities) from up of on

prepared

Soviets Because L upper

for the

by Mars 19 June were space

at a distance Prior

engineers Mars and missions

to collect

interplanetary Earth's the Sun, magnetic and

(on cosmic-ray ionized impact

supplementary equipment. instruments

measurement of the from scientific the Mars

fields,

most

meteoroid of 1.24 AU.

to a distance

35)
no name / [Mars] Nation: USSR (19) impact (no. 1) 0bjective(s): Mars Spacecraft: Spacecraft 2MV-3

1962 During Blok

and the

also

the

only

lander injection engine after

in the firing

series. of the

trans-Mars the shut main down in the problem

L stage,

(the

S1.5400A1) due for to

prematurely to a malfunction the stage.

33 seconds timer traced

programmed was later

Mass: unknown

The

Mission Design and Management: OKB-1 Launch Yehic_e: 8K78 Launch 15:35:15 Scientific (no. T103-17} 1962 / Date and Time: 4 November UT / launch unknown the third and Mars last of the in site 1 Instruments: was

excessive ]iftoff. loose

vibrations These

of the

second evidentJy

stage also its

during jarred

vibrations

a pyrotechnic the Blok

igniter L upper

from stage

support, firing. and by

preventing The The Mars

from

Launch Site: NIIP-5 Results: This Soviet

spacecraft spacecraft on 21 June

remained had been

stranded intended

in orbit to fly

reentered

Earth's

atmosphere 1963.

on 5 November.

"second-generation"

attempts

1963
36) no name / [Luna] Nation: USSR (20) soft-landing inverter guidance Blok issue The in the power (which spacecraft), to fire remained by the the in Soviets. system controlled which Blok of the both failed L engine. orbit, 1-100 the to system the L and

0bjective(s): lunar Spacecraft: Spacecraft

a command spacecraft

Ye-6 (no. 2) Mass: 1,420 kg (no. T103-09) 1963 / 1

Earth

unacknowledged 37) no name / [Luna] Nation: USSR 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft (21) lunar Ye-6

Mission Design and Management: OKB-1 Launch Vehicle: 8K78

Launch Date and Time: 4 January 08:49 UT Launch Scientific 1) 2) Site: NIIP-5 Instruments: imaging radiation system detector was the / launch site

soft-landing (no. 3) kg (no. G103-10) 1963 / 1

Mass: 1,420

Mission Design and Management: OKB-I first (known accomplish surface equipped the send to of the with ALS} back Each "secondas Yea Launch Vehicle: 8K78 probe to the were was lunar

Results: This generation" 6). These survivable Moon. simple whose The

spacecraft Soviet were landing Ye-6 lunar designed on probes capsules objective from ALS deep were the was space also

Launch Date and Time: 3 February 09:29:14 UT Launch Site: NIIP-5 Scientific 1) 2) Instruments: imaging radiation was system detector the second on failed Soviet the / launch site

lander primary

{called

photographs egg-shaped and Venera

surface. on Like the by but of Luna because

Results: This accomplish time, the

attempt Moon. Earth stage,

to This

installed bus. probes, launched booster Like this many first orbit

a roughly the Ye-6 the Mars Luna four-

a soft-landing spacecraft separation lost attitude fourth

cylindrical-shaped

main

to reach second and

orbit. the its

Following booster third near cated a tory and

of the control stages Later

spacecraft stage for space failed failure stage. 8K78 lunar

deposited Pacific

(Molniya) missions.

modified its deep probe of

in the

Ocean indiprovided trajec-

Midway that control the

Island.

investigation system booster's

predecessors, to in There escape the was

1-100 guidance to the

Earth Blok

incorrect

information system.

L translunar a failure

injection in the

apparently

1963

38) Luna 4 Nation: USSR Objective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft Mission (22) lunar Ye-6 soft-landing (no. 4) kilograms OKB-1

Scientific 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7)

Instruments: radiation detector detector

charged-particle magnetometer piezoelectric atomic radio

detector detector

Mass: 1,422

hydrogen telescope and

Design and Management:

Launch Vehicle: 8K78

(no. G103-11) 1963 /

ultraviolet ation

Roentgen

solar

radi-

Launch Date and Time: 2 April 08:16:37 UT / launch Launch Site: NIIP-5 Scientific 1) 2) Results: lunar

experiment experiment engines was the first deep 3MV Soviet 3MV: the series. engineers 3MV-1 flyby), (for the of the space Soviet planethe

8) site 1 9) Results; Union's tary attempt the first orbit. to perform in which During the the a second four

technology plasma This

Instruments: imaging radiation The third system detector Soviet was

"third-generation" probes of the

Like

generation, types of the 3MV-2 impact), primary was doubled) these Mars

projected (for Venus 3MV-3 Mars second in (for

soft-landing actually the Moon,

spacecraft coast to

left Earth the

impact), Mars The

(for Venus and 3MV-4 over

spacecraft's suffered its thermal in an incorrect 4 was unable a

Yupiter major control attito per-

flyby). genmany to

astronavigation failure system) tude. form Although with range tually As its (probably and

system in Luna

difference vastly four and

eration cases While study of two ilar 4 but

improved versions the to the "test key

(and system were Soviets of the 3MV-1 variants"

left the planned

probe

orientation

elements. meant conceived series, and sim3MVwere systems missions On this variant," abnororbit, Blok past turL to par-

a result,

midcourse were

correction. maintained at a evenin

Venus, variants

communications it passed

additional not

the spacecraft, of 8,500 entered

by the Moon and

identical These

kilometers heliocentric barycentric

on 6 April orbit (after

versions.

being

designed during the ticular the third

to verify simpler and and after control stage launch,

technological on flyby planets.

an intermediate 39) Kosmos 21 / [Zond] Nation: USSR 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft (23) lunar

orbit).

missions the fourth the craft near the first

Moon

to fly a "test separated Earth from the main

stages

mally; flyby (no. 1) kg (no. G103-18) 1963 / 1 ground upper the bopump destroying the

reached

lost telemetry designed The to send exploded payload. the With stage's

the vehicle engine

3MV-1A Mass:

c. 800

Moon.

Mission Design and Management: OKB-1 Launch Vehicle: 8K78 Launch Date and Time: 11 November 06:23:35 UT / launch site Launch Site: NIIP-5

probably the

upon this

ignition, mission, of giving

Soviets

began

practice and

Kosmos probes orbit.

designations that remained

to lunar stranded

planetary in Earth

•o

Deep Space Chronicle

...........

1964
40) Ranger 6 Nation: U.S. (17) 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft Mission lunar impact Atlas booster separation The cameras and were photos kilometers were longitude. left the system translunar kiloinoperable. mitted approach meters Impact NASA JPL D 41) 1964 / no name / [Zond] Nation: USSR complex 12 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: (six TV cameras) attempt success. type was at The vehicle sterilized The for closest III Spacecraft (24) flyby (no. 4A) and B (no. 8 /Atlas kg to have of the to 6.4 high-resolution from range 21°30 ' east coordinates 1,448 in

P-53 / Ranger-A Mass: 364.69

support

of Project 9°24 ' north

Apollo. latitude

Design and Management:

Launch Vehicle: Atlas-Agena no. 199/Agena 15:49:09 UT B no. 6008)

Launch Date and Time: 30 January

Launch Site: ETR / launch Scientific Instruments: 1) Results: lunar with imaging This impact the a suite was first system the

Venus 3MV-1A

Mass: c. 800 kg OKB-1 (no. T15000-19) 1964 / 1

fourth

American

Mission Design and Management: Launch Vehicle: 8K78

spacecraft,

Block

Launch Date and Time: 19 February 05:47:40 Launch Scientific 1) UT Site: NIIP-5 Instruments: radiation detector detector / launch site

of six TV cameras, the serve lunar as a

to avoid series future systems used

contaminating would also

surface. test bed

interplanetary (such as solar ambitious carried the two impact full-scan for more

spacecraft panels) missions.

by deploying that could The be Block

2} 3) 4) 5) 6) 7)

charged-particle magnetometer piezoelectric atomic radio telescope and

III spacecraft (replacing Block included cameras. fully and 09:24:32 power

a 173-kilogram capsule and carried The four

TV unit on the

detector detector

hydrogen

I] Ranger

spacecraft).

six cameras partial-scan successat the had during

ultraviolet ation

Roentgen

solar

radi-

Ranger impacted

6 flew

to the

Moon on

experiment experiment engines was deep another space probe Soviet that "thirdfailed to

precisely

schedule

8) 9) Results: generation"

technology plasma This

UT on 2 February. supply for the three

Unfortunately, package

TV camera days

short-circuited

previously

accomplish mission fa Venuslyby. his its o f T spacecraft toreach failed Earthorbitdue toa malfunction the launchvehicle's in third stage. aterinvestigation L indicated a that liquidoxygen leakthrough anunpressurized valveseal frozepropellantin the main pipeline. a result,the pipeline As cracked, leading toanexplosionthethirdstage. in 42)
no name / [Luna] Nation: USSR Objective(s): Spacecraft (25) lunar soft-landing

Lander: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) barometer thermometer radiation detector detection composition experiment experiment experiment experiment

micro-organism atmospheric acidity

measurement

electro-conductivity luminosity The probe, experiment designed

Results:

to

accomplish successfully to leave for

atmospheric entry into reached Earth orbit but Venus tioned. attitude power The phere when The due supply spacecraft the the upper Blok

Venus, failed

L upper in the

stage circuit

malfunclost stable of" the system. atmosbeen given

Spacecraft: Ye-6 (no. 6) Mass: c. 1,420 kg

stage

evidently

to a failure for the burned

Mission Design and Management: OKB-1 Launch Vehicle: 8K78M 08:15:35 Launch Scientific 1) 2) Results: UT Site: NIIP-5 Instruments: imaging radiation This fourth on the system detector Soviet Moon around attempt failed Earth. valve to achieve to reach During third-stage failed to off. As a result, reached full at a an the / launch site 1 (no. T15000-20) 1964 /

attitude-control up in Earth's this have mission been

Launch Date and Time: 21 March

following it would

day. Had probably

successful, a Zond 44) Zond 1 Nation: USSR 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft

designation.

(27) Venus impact (no. 4) OKB-1

soft-landing intermediate boost engine's open the thrust T+489 Earth 43) when phase, main

orbit the

3MV-1

]auncher's oxygen rod broke never cut

Mass: 948 kg (no. T15000-23) 1964 / site 1

liquid valve

Mission Design and Management: Launch Vehicle: 8K78 02:42:40 UT / launch

the

third-stage and

engine

Launch Date and Time: 2 April Launch Site: NIIP-5 Scientific Instruments:
Bus:

eventually The

off prematurely never reached

seconds. orbit.

spacecraft

1) 2) 3) impact (no. 5) 4) (26)

radiation

detector detector

Kosmos 27 / [Zond] Nation: USSR 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft

charged-particle magnetometer piezoelectric

Venus 3MV-1

detector detector

Mass: 948 kg (no. T15000-22) 1964 / 1

5) atomic Lander: 1) 2) 3) 4) barometer

hydrogen

Mission Design and Management: OKB-1 Launch Vehicle: 8K78 03:24:42 UT / launch site Launch Date and Tin}e: 27 March Launch Site: NHP-5 Scientific Bus: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) radiation detector detector Instruments:

thermometer radiation detector detection composition experiment experiment experiment experiment

micro-organism atmospheric acidity

5) 6) 7) 8) Results:

measurement

electro-conductivity luminosity Although sent this experiment Venus

charged-particle magnetometer piezoelectric atomic

impact Venus,

probe ground

was con-

successfully detector detector trollers tions planet.

toward a series

discovered in the These

of major its

malfuncto the of the

hydrogen

spacecraft included

during

coast

depressurization

Deep

Spoce

Chronicle

.....

main

spacecraft

bus

when

the

glass sensor

cover

of a

Launch Date and Time: 28 July 16:50:07 UT / launch

1964 /

solar-stellar Additionally, the at spacecraft the wrong the gas that

attitude-control the internal radio

cracked. of on

transmitters switched

Launch Site: ETR Scientific 1) Results: Ranger cess

complex

12

were

automatically

Instruments: imaging Ranger series, system 7, the was the {six TV cameras) second first of the Block III suc-

time--during discharge shorted with module out the

depressurization, created high-voltage Contact 2901964, by system.

when currents was

unequivocal the Moon--after

maintained lander time major and

the still-pressurized until 25 May

in U.S. efforts consecutive a major exploration increased After July, on prior

to explore failures. milestone because

kilogram which two meters Earth,

thirteen marked space

In some in American the ratio

ways,

it

controllers course

had managed

to conduct kilofrom actions flew

deep of this

corrections

(at 560,000 kilometers time such

in favor after

13 to 14 million the first spacecraft 1964

successes point. on 29

dramatically midcourse 7 approached two days the later. suite

respectively), performed The inert on 19 July The

a nominal Ranger target

correction the Moon 15

had been spacecraft. by Venus kilometers. data

on a Soviet

interplanetary eventually of 110,000 some 1.

precisely minutes eras of the dish

Just

at a range later

to impact, sending back surface The only UT

of TV camphotos Goldstone images prior 1964. to The and rim ground image of

Soviets

published by Zond

began

spectacular to JPL's last

on cosmic-ray

flux measured

approaching in California. transmitted at 13:25:49 was

of 4,316 seconds 31 July

45) no name / [Luna] Nation: USSR 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft (28) lunar Ye-6 soft-landing (no. 5) kg (no. T15000-21) 1964 / site 1

was impact impact

2.3 on

point

at 10o38 ' south on the Scientists with cases, taken an in the given

latitude

20°36 ' west the were Sea

longitude

northern on the

of Clouds. than was,

Mass: c. 1,420

more

satisfied in many photos that

Results;

Mission Design and Management: OKB-1 Launch Vehicle: 8K78M

resolution times Scientists landing of the better

one thousand from Apollo mare their Earth. crewed regions relative

than concluded

Launch Date and Time: 20 April 08:08:28 UT Launch Scientific 1) 2) Site: NIIP-5 Instruments: imaging radiation was system detector the fifth The the / launch

would lunar

be possible surface,

smoothness.

47) Soviet mission attempt was to Earth engine at a Mariner 3 Nation: U.S. (19) 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft to Mars flyby / Mariner-C kg NASA JPL

Results: This lunar early the

soft-landing. when launch during vehicle's shut down. that when fourth

aborted orbit, pre-

ascent

third-stage A subsequent the engine

Mariner-64C Mass: 260.8

maturely tion loss tery

investigacut off due

indicated of power in the

MissioJl Design

and Management:

a circuit stage and (which the

between powered 1-100

a batthe

Launch Vehicle: Atlas-Agena D no. 289 / Agena 19:22:05 UT / launch

D (no.

11 /Atlas 1964 /

D no. AD68/6931)

third-stage unit was

engine) broken.

guidance

Launch Date and Time: 5 November

Launch Site: ETR 46) Ranger 7 Nation: U.S. (18) 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft lunar impact

complex

13

Scientific Instruments: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) JPL D 6) 7) 8) B (no. 9 / Atlas imaging cosmic system dust detector telescope chamber

P-54 / Ranger-B Mass: 365.6 kg

cosmic-ray ionization magnetometer trapped solar

Mission Design and Management: NASA Launch Vehicle: Atlas-Agena no. 250 / Agena B no. 6009)

radiation plasma probe

detector

occultation

experiment

m43

Results: NASA Mariner-Mars The primary

approved 1964 goal project of the

two

probes

for

the

in November

1962. was to

two spacecraft surface using

photograph TV camera return up

the Martian fixed to

a single could an of the from mys43

on a scan twenty-one

platform pictures the two

that after launch probes,

eight-month Mariner booster the payload

journey. 3, the first shroud

During of the failed

to separate power T+8 solar to replenish control hours

payload.

Additionally, dropped and the to zero

battery (at

teriously minutes), apparently power contact entered tion glass outer 48) Mariner 4

spacecraft's unfurled

panels the lost Eleventh picture of Mars from Mariner 4 (in "raw" state) taken through the green filter from 12,500 kilometers

never

supply. with

As a result, the spacecraft, orbit. the

ground which A later shroud's from

eventually investigainner the fiber-

heliocentric that had thus

indicated layer skin,

separated preventing

shroud's

away, showing a crater 121 kilometers in diameter in the Atlantis region. Mariner 4 was the first spacecraft to get a close look at Mars. Flying as close as 9,846 kilometers, Mariner 4 revealed Mars to have a cratered, rust_:olored surface, with signs on some parts oFthe planet that liquid water had once etched its way into the soil. Mariner 4 was launched on 28 November 1964 and arrived at

jettisoning.

Nation: U.S. (20) Objective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft Mars flyby / Mariner-D kg JPL

Mariner-64D Mass: 260.8

Mars on 14 July 1965.

Mission Design and Management: NASA Launch Vehicle: Atlas-Agena

D (no. 12 / Atlas /

approach 1965 camera images

(which

was

at 01:00:57

UT on 15 July the TV

D no. 288 / Agena D no. AD69 / 6932) Launch Date and Time: 28 November 1964 14:22:01 Launch Scientific 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 81 UT Site: ETR / launch complex 12 Instruments: imaging cosmic system dust detector telescope chamber

at a range began (plus through hours after

of 9,846 taking the

kilometers), first lines green

of twenty-one of a twentyAbout 4 Mariner

twenty-two red the and

second) 1.25 dipped viewed signals indicated future

filters.

encounter,

behind the from Earth) through that Mars the

right-hand in order Martian pressure would engines detected

side of Mars (as to refract its radio atmosphere. was quite have Data low--

cosmic-ray ionization magnetometer trapped solar

surface landers

to be equipped to parasurface weak of the

radiation plasma probe

detector

with chutes.

retro-rocket The probe

in addition daytime

occultation Mariner

experiment 4 mission, in 1964 successes first photos the second of was

temperatures radiation Earth's, closest ting clearly body its belt, was

of about about also

-100°C. 0.1 percent The

A very

Results: The two Mars one of the returning planet shroud, problems Mars course the 9,660 from the and

of that day after

flyby great the

attempts early very

by NASA,

detected. Mariner back to

of the Agency, of another all-metal any toward midthat and

encounter, photos showed with

4 began Earth. The

transmitimages Moon-like the thin that con1965,

deep

space.

Using lifted

a new

Mars

to be an ancient cratering. believed Given

spacecraft was

off without boosted ensured 8,000

widespread scientists

successfully D upper on 5 December

atmosphere, Mars tact when from harbored with the Earth. the

it unlikely maintained 1 October

by the Agena correction

stage.

A single

any life. NASA spacecraft was years until 309 later,

spacecraft kilometers

would from 40

fly

between Martian prior

probe Two was

million

kilometers 1967, con-

the

surface. to closest

in October for attitude

Approximately

minutes

the spacecraft

reactivated

troltests insupport oftheMariner 5mission to Venus, which useda similarspacecraft bus. Finalcontact loston21December was 1967. 49)
Zond 2 Nation: USSR 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft (29) Mars 3MV-4 flyby (no. 2) kg

Results: Zond third-generation toward 4, was Mars. designed

2 was

the ("3MV")

Soviet

Union's

first sent

spacecraft model, planet the and

This

particular

3MVtake

to fly by the After the

photographs. entered trollers panels deprived tigation pull tion 1964 / off. panel / launch site 1 the Instruments: radiation detector detector the from

spacecraft trajectory, that the

successfully ground probe's consolar which investo

a trans-Mars discovered had not

completely

unfurled, Later

the vehicle indicated panels the

of full power. that a tug cord,

Mass: 996

designed of separahad broken

Mission Design and Management: OKB-1 Launch Vehicle: 8K78 Launch Date and Time: 30 November 13:12 Launch UT Site: NIIP-5

free Blok

at the L upper able

moment stage, to fully

Controllers only time for the had

were first already

open

the to

on 15 December

1964,

but

by then

midcourse passed. sessions, onboard

correction Additionally, there programmed

Scientific 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6)

fly by Mars between been timer detector injection conditions of cosmic-ray before

communications a failure immediately that led in the after to

had

charged-particle magnetometer piezoelectric radio nuclear experiment telescope

transinterplanetary thermal 18 December, fired as a space by

inappropriate On

for the

spacecraft. Zond rocket

component

loss of contact, electric

2 successfully engines for future (twice) deep

six plasma and Roentgen solar raditechnology missions. Mars heliocentric

7)

ultraviolet ation

demonstrator The spacecraft 1965.

experiment system

was

to have

flown entered

8)

imaging

on 6 August orbit.

It eventually

.

....

.....

_964I_

I

1965
5O) Ranger 8 Nation: U.S. (21) Objective{s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft lunar impact just point 24 kilometers equatorial area from its region that intended of the Apollo target Sea mission in of in the Tranquillity--an planners studying. kg NASA JPL 51) "Atlas-Centaur 5" Nation: U.S. (22) 1965 / 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: / launch complex system 12 (six TV Spacecraft highly SD-1 Mass: 951 kg JPL / Atlas / C (AC-5 1965 elliptical orbit were

particularly

interested

Ranger-C Mass: 366.87

Mission Design and Management: Launch Vehicle: At]as-Agena D no. 196 / Agena 17:05:00 UT

B (no. 13 / Atlas

B no. 6006)

Launch Date and Time: 17 February

Launch Site: ETR Scientific cameras) Results: Ranger tographs scheduled February. turned to return As

Instruments:

Imaging

Mission Design and Management: NASA Launch Vehicle: Atlas-Centaur no. 156D Launch 13:25 UT / Centaur C)

successful 7,137 lunar at Ranger

as

its

predecessor, photo on its 20 8

8 returned of the impact Unlike on its cameras pictures

high-resolution surface 09:57:37 7, however, 8 minutes prior UT

Date and Time: 2 March

Ranger earlier

Launch Site: ETR / launch complex Scientific Instruments: none Results: This complete of the nominal payload Moon. dynamic lated Moon During after main booster lunar with the mission was designed upper-stage lunar the lander Centaur burn

36A to rehearse in support On boost to a its the a

about

with telescopes

resolution

comparable and

Centaur Surveyor mission, on On this model,

to Earth-based comparison to align vector doned coverage. loss tion cern, the (to this

(for calibration Controllers

program. would trajecto_5_

purposes). cameras reduce

attempted main but greater velocity abanarea

along imagine to also

the

a direct-ascent test flight,

smear) allow been

SD-1,

a nonfunctional on a simu-

maneuver There had

would

be boosted

a mysterious correcfor con-

transfer an orbit actual

trajectory

to a hypothetical kilometers. 1 second both a result, Atlas the

of telemetry on 18 February

during that

a midcourse gave was rise

of 167 x 926,625 launch, valve down. the less than

although

the Ranger and

mission 8

completed at 2°43 '

lii%off, a faulty engines fell back to shut onto

caused As

successfully. north latitude

impacted ' east

24°38

longitude,

pad and exploded.

.............

196_

52) Kosmos 60 / [Luna] Nation: USSR 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft (30) lunar Ye-6 soft-landing (no. 9) kg

Unlike were and

its predecessors, aimed provided directly some approached were

the in the

cameras direction shots lunar

this

time

of travel as the

spectacular the converted

spacecraft These pictures

surface.

for live viewing was up to spaceUT on 357.63 from its °

Mass: c. 1,470

on commercial 25 centimeters craft crashed 24 March east

TV. Best

resolution

Mission Design and Management: OKB-1 Launch Vehicle: 8K78 (no. R103-25) 1965 / N/A

just prior to impact. The into the Moon at 14:08:20 latitude kilometers and

Launch Date and Time: 10 April Launch Site: NIIP-5 Scientific 1) 2) Instruments: imaging radiation system detector Soviet the Blok remained investigation a short circuit lunar

at 12.83 ° south about 6.5

longitude, target.

scheduled 54) attempt surface stage burn. to soft-land ended failed Instead, in Earth that inverter spacein to

Results: Yet another a Ye-6 ihilure fire the orbit. there within craft orbit 53) Ranger 9 Nation: U.S. (23) 0bjective(s): lunar Spacecraft: Spacecraft Ranger-D probe when on the

no name / [Luna] Nation: USSR 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft (31) lunar Ye-6 Mass: soft-landing (no. 8) c. 1,470 kg

L upper injection

for the spacecraft A had

translunar

stranded

later been

indicated in an of the Blok

Mission Design and Management: OKB-1 Launch Vehicle: 8K78 (no. R103-26) 1965 / N/A site 1 Launch Date and Time: 10 April Launch Site: NIIP-5 / launch Scientific Instruments: 1) 2) Results: failure the imaging radiation This was system detector the seventh a lunar this problematic caused most the Blok On the had probe consecutive soft-landing engineers guidance previous unit stage had and (and and Earth of a on the engine over the by

the 1-100 guidance (which decayed also engine five controlled ignition. days

system the The

L stage)

preventing

spacecraft's

later.

to accomplish Soviets. the that had On

mission, 1-100 of the 1-100 L upper this fourth separate never

impact

redesigned system kg NASA JPL failures. controlled the B (no. 14 / Atlas 1965 /

Mass: 366.87

Previously, both the itself. Lunas), spacecraft this the

Mission Design and Management: Launch Launch 21:37:02 Vehicle: Atlas-Agena D no. 204 / Agena UT B no. 6007)

spacecraft

mission stage

subsequent the Ye-6 Unfortunately,

Date and Time: 21 March

systems.

reached

Launch Site: ETR / launch Scientific Instruments: 1) imaging system 9 was III series the and

complex

12

orbit. nitrogen

During pipe stage

launch, liquid

depressurization oxygen tank

for the had

(six TV cameras) final Ranger out Ranger mission the pro-

third ignition. Pacific 55) for tarLuna 5

prevented spacecraft reaching

third-stage broke orbit. up

Results: Ranger of the gram Ranger of the the geted that Block as

The without

closed both

a whole. 8 had

Since

7 and

provided

sufficient

photographs sites 9 was interesting highlands, recent volcanic on to its piccorrection directly prior of 5,814 at

mare

regions Apollo the

(potential

landing Ranger

early to time

missions), more

Nation: USSR 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft

(32) lunar soft-landing (no. 10) 1,476 kg (no. U103-30) 1965 / site 1

geologically lunar for site

Alphonsus activity. 23 March, impact Ranger tures

crater Following

in the

Ye-6 Mass:

a possible

a midcourse headed the first

Mission Design and Management: OKB-1 Launch Vehicle: 8K78M

the spacecraft Only 9 began taking altitude

point.

20 minutes

to impact,

Launch Date and Time: 9 May 07:49:37 UT Launch Site: NIIP-5 / launch

from

an

of 2,100

kilometers.

,:

Deep Space Chronicle

Scientific Instruments:
1) 2) Results: Soviet years. imaging radiation In May probe Following to system detector 1965, head the Luna for 5 became the Moon the in first two on

57) Zond 3 Nation: USSR 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft (34) flyby (no. 3)

lunar 3MV-4

midcourse began

correction spinning

Mass: 950 kg

10 May, the its main

spacecraft due

around

Mission Design and Management: OKB-I Launch Vehicle: 8K78 A Launch Date and Time: 18 July Launch Site: NIIP-5 Scientific 1) 2) 3) Instruments: imaging ultraviolet ultraviolet system spectrograph and infrared / launch 1965 / N/A site 1

axis

to a problem

in a flotation system unit. engine and the as a 5

gyroscope subsequent failed engine result crashed. latitude second (following 56 ) Luna 6

in the 1-100 guidance attempt to fire the of ground fired. After control loss

main error,

because never of the

of control Luna were It

gyroscope coordinates

problem,

Landing and Soviet Luna

31 ° south was the Moon

8 ° west spacecraft

longitude. to land

spectrophotometer 4) 5) meteoroid radiation wind) 6) 7) magnetometer ion radio This had in late time. mission its side of thrusters telescope "third-generation" originally 1964 but been could slated not deep space detectors sensors (cosmic rays, solar

on the

2 in 1959).

Nation: USSR 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft

(33) soft-landing

8) Results: probe flyby OKB-1 1965 / 07:40 site 1 UT on the far

lunar

Ye-6 (no. 7) Mass: 1,442 kg (no. U103-31)

for a Mars be prepared diverted in 1965 the

Mission Design and Management: Launch Vehicle: 8K78M Launch Date and Time: 8 June Launch Site: N[IP-5 Scientific 11 21 Results: lunar planned late cut Instruments: imaging radiation On this system detector ninth the major Soviet mission / launch

Instead,

Soviet

designers lunar and After Zond flyby

for a simple basic the injection after systems Moon. burn, only began

to test

photograph a successful

translunar the Moon

3 approached flight. side a Its of the similar expoprior to

a 33-hour on 20 July the near used from system 3, with and

imaging attempt proceeded correction retro-rocket it failed propellant later due mistakthe main to to at a as of 11,570 Moon. system sure,

mission kilometers The

at a range

soft-landing, until the

camera

midcourse the main on time, until to fire An

to that development,

of Luna

onboard drying

on 9 June. tthe was off and

Although ignited

fixing,

engine supply indicated human enly engine was ground a series

$5.5A) continued

scanning the three closest These back 3's tions (involving was 31.5

for transmission took was were ultraviolet approach pictures images

to Earth. during to 9,220

In total, visual and The

spacecraft

twenty-five

exhausted. that the

investigation had had been been

its flyby.

problem

kilometers. transmitted

error; sent

a command timer down. that

successfully nine Further on days

to the

ordered the wrong spacecraft an actual

to Earth lunar

on 29 July, when Earth. occurred from

after 2.2

Zond million

to shut sent on

Although

spacecraft trajectory, through landing,

encounter, sessions photo million was the away. the of the

it was 23

a completely put the

kilometers

communicaOctober Zond The March million it had of the demonusing 3

controllers of steps were

to practice satisfactorily

transmissions) kilometers sometime spacecraft During unseen Moon. from in was the 30 Zond

when Earth. early 153.5 mission, percent 3 also correction

all of which Luna a range entered tained from 6 passed

accomplished. late on 11 June and eventually was mainkilometers at

by the Moon kilometers orbit. of

last 1966,

contact when

of 161,000 heliocentric to a distance

Contact 600,000

kilometers photographed far side

Earth.

strated

successful

course

1965

,"

both Soviet 58)

solar

and stellar

orientation,

a first

for a

face at a very

high

speed,

crashing Kepler intended 9 ° north

at 22:08:24 crater, rel-

spacecraft.

UT on 7 October atively Impact 49 ° west cated elliptical orbit gation and kg NASA (AC-6 JPL / Atlas D 60) 1965 / Venera 2 Nation: USSR / launch complex 36B 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: attempt lander toward of to launch spacecraft a simulated the previous worked model Spacecraft (36) Venus 3MV-4 that near

west the

of the actual

target. and indi-

coordinates longitude. the optical had sight

were Later

latitude

Surveyor Model 1 Nation: U.S. (24) 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft Launch highly SD-2 Mass: 950

investigation of the at the during It was

sensor set

astronaviangle critical tenth

system had lost

been

wrong the the

of Earth maneuver.

attitude-control consecutive failure

Mission Design and Management: Vehicle: Atlas-Centaur / Centaur D) no. 151D

in the Ye-6

program.

Launch Date and Time: 11 August 14:31:04 Scientific UT Instruments: none was the second lunar orbit the results 1965), Surveyor

Launch Site: ETR

flyby (no. 4) kg

Results: This a dummy into Moon. attempt without was

Mass: 963

Surveyor

Mission Design and Management: OKB-1 Launch Vehicle: 8K78M Launch Date and Time: 12 November Launch Site: NIIP-5 / launch site 31 1965 / N/A

a barycentric Unlike

(in March fault; on that the

all systems dynamic lunar landed

Scientific 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8}

Instruments: three-component imaging solar cosmic-ray piezoelectric ion traps photon cosmic Geiger radio the counter emission 3MV-3 receivers and intended re-equipped from Venus vehicle side the 1964 3MV-4 type system x-radiation detector counters gas-discharge detectors magnetometer

inserted

a simulated it would a trajectory The after have

trajectory on the on reentered days. an

so precise Moon actual Earth's 59) tuna 7

without mission.

correction

spacecraft thirty-one

atmosphere

Nation: USSR 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft

(35) lunar soft-landing InD. 11) 1,506 kg (no. U103-27) 1965 /

Results: Although spacecraft exploration, the series, were the left

originally Soviets over for

for Mars three of

Ye-6 Mass:

Mars in

Mission Design and Management: OKB-1 Launch Vehicle: 8K78 Launch Date and Time: 4 October 07:56:40 UT / launch site 1

launch 1965.

windows, This particular the sunlit

exploration was scheduled

to fly past than

of Venus range and

at no more take phocompoor. in late

a 40,000-kilometer During with before the the

Launch Site: NIIP-5

tographs. munications Immediately

outbound spacecraft

flight, were

Scientific Instruments: 1) 2) Results: cessfully imaging radiation Unlike carried its system detector predecessors, its way midcourse to the Moon, days Luna 7 suc-

closest

approach

February 1966, ground control commanded to switch on all the onboard scientific instrumentation. was about flyby, relay control at a The 02:52 closest UT on approach 27 to the planet 1966 After supposed ground contact. at its to

out

correction in anticlater.

on 5 October ipation of a

on the

February range. was

soft-landing immediately the approach

two prior to

24,000-kilometer the the was spacecraft collected unable

Unfortunately, retro-fire surface, control grammed engine helplessly, during the and

to planned the lunar

when back

information, to regain

spacecraft failed systems

suddenly

lost

attitude promain

to regain then As

it. Automatic prevented the

Controllers communication ally gation entered

finally gave up all attempts at on 4 March. Venera 2 eventuheliocentric that orbit. improper Later investiof

from tuna

firing.

controllers

observed sur-

7 plummeted

to the lunar

indicated

functioning

Deep Space-Chronicle

......

40 thermal increase craft. and As in

radiator gas

elements

caused in of the the solar the

a sharp space-

Spacecraft: Spacecraft

3MV-4

(no. 6) kg

temperatures elements failed, was may

Mass: c. 950

a result, units and

receiving panels

Mission Design and Management: OKB-1 Launch Vehicle: 8K78M Launch Date and Time: 23 November Launch Scientific l) 2) 3) 4) Site: NIIP-5 Instruments: three-component imaging solar cosmic-ray piezoelectric ion traps photon cosmic This was for in 1965. been and 1965. a Geiger radio the counter emission third and receivers last spacecraft by had coast booster's in the origin to system x-radiation detector counters gas-discharge detectors magnetometer / launch site 31 1965 / N/A

decoding

overheated, the scientific

contact

lost. have

Ironically, collected trans-

instruments but none

valuable mitted 61) Venera 3

data, back

of it was

ever

to Earth.

Nation: USSR 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft

(37) impact (no. 1_

5) 61 7) 8) Results: prepared 1965 / N/A 31 Soviets inally 1964 orbit,

Venus 3MV-3

Mass: 958 kg

Mission Design and Management: OKB-1 Launch Vehicle: 8K78M Launch Date and Time: 16 November Launch Site: NIIP-5 Scientific Bus: 1) (rest radiation unknown) was the Venus left Earth the second attempted 1965. and Venera of three to 3MV launch detector Instruments: / launch site

Venus

encounter spacecraft Mars during in the due Blok unable injection. Earth 96 orbit orbit,

All three for However,

intended

exploration

a combustion engine pipeline. Earth tumbling orbit, and trajectory stranded named

chamber exploded Although the was in

third-stage the fuel reached was

to a crack the L upper to The payload

Results: This spacecraft toward fully

stage fire and for the its on 9

Soviets in late orbit

3 successa small 0.9-

trans-Venus remained Soviets true

probe

released

meter-diameter, say the 310-kilogram) Venusian

337-kilogram landing atmosphere temperature, atmosphere descent

(some capsule and and

sources to explore data of

it Kosmos The probe's

to disguise decayed

mission.

transmit composition back to During

December

1965.

on pressure, the during outbound cessfully nications on 16 26 December Venusian the

Earth the sucon lost the

63) Luna 8 Nation: USSR 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft (39) lunar Ye-6 soft-landing (no. 12) kg (no. U103-28) 1965 /

by parachute. ground a midcourse and completed contact However, 1966,

trajectory, performed 1965 sessions. February encounter, released landed

controllers correction was before the sterilized on the object 1966. had

93 commu-

Mass: 1,552

shortly

Mission Design and Management: OKB-1 Launch Vehicle: 8K78 Launch Date and Time: 3 December 10:46:14 Launch Scientific 1_ 2) Results: achieve ceeded. tion on UT Site: NIIP-5 Instruments: imaging radiation This, a After the lunar system detector tenth Soviet attempt nearly correcheaded probto suc/ launch site 31

Venusian automatically probe, surface the first

although its inertly

spacecraft lander Venusian It was made body conof the

which time

at 06:56

UT on

1 March

a humanmade with another Later 3 suffered 2, such and

physical besides firmed same

contact the that

planetary investigation many

Moon. Venera

failures

as Venera components

as overheating solar panels.

soft-landing, the

of internal

the

a successful

midcourse spacecraft any apparent

4 December, the Moon prior

62) Kosmos 96 / [Venera] Nation: USSR (38) 0bjective(s): Venus flyby

toward lems. burn, ioning

without to was the

Just

planned sent

retro-fire cushprobe.

a command airbags

to inflate lander

around

the

ALS

m

5!

Untbrtunately, plasticmounting a bracket apparently pierced oneofthetwobags. The resulting expulsionfair putthe spacecraft o into a spinof 12degrees second. per The vehicle momentarily regainedttitude,ong a l enough fora9-second retro-engine but firing, thenlost it again. ithouta full retro-fire W burnto reduce approachelocity v sufficient fora survivable landing, Luna8 plummeted tothelunarsurfacendcrashedt 21:51:30 a a UTon 6 December westofthe Kepler just crater.Impactcoordinates were9o8 north ' latitude and63o18 ' westlongitude. 64)
Pioneer 6 Nation: U.S. (25) Oblective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft Mission Launch Launch 07:31:21 Scientific 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) heliocentric Pioneer-A Mass: 62.14 kg NASA ARC no. / E (no. 35 /Thor 1965 orbit

stations Measurements used mately Federal cial tion to

spaced by

along the solar four storms users,

Earth's Pioneers for

orbit. were approxithe

predict 1,000 Aviation power

primary

including

Administration; companies;

commercommunicaand

airlines; companies;

military in

organizations; navigation, By the billion

entities and 1990, nine and

involved electronic Pioneer times

surveying,

prospecting. 6 had circled 24.8

December twenty-

Sun

(traveling been operational

kilometersl years-original On

had

for twenty probe. only Its

a record slated

for a deep lifetime had 1996, failed, 1996, ground transmitter.

space been the but

six months.

15 December transmitter 11 July the six

spacecraft's during a

primary track on on

controllers Of the two NASA once worth 29 the that),

switched spacecraft's (the detector) maintains or twice plasma

backup scientific and

instruments, the cosmic-ray

analyzer continue tact year. data with For was

still coneach

Design and Management: Vehicle: Thor-Delta

to function. the spacecraft

460/DSV-3E) Date and Time: 16 December UT / launch complex 17A Instruments: single-axis Faraday-cup plasma cosmic-ray fluxgate plasma magnetometer probe

example, collected 1995

1 hour's on

of scientific and transon 6 after to can the solar 15

July primary and

December mitter October launch. deteriorate, be flux detector experiment experiment first of four NASA power. rate ground contact its turned On failed

(although after

Launch Site: ETR

soon

again years continue

1997, The

more probe's although

than solar the

thirty arrays

transmitters when provide

analyzer telescope

on

at

perihelion to 2000,

is strong thirty-fifth

enough

sufficient of operation, successful 2 hours.

cosmic-ray-anisotropy radio celestial wave propagation the

8 December

to commemo-

anniversary established spacecraft

mechanics 6 was

controllers with the

Results: Pioneer spacecraft phenomena fully provided at

for about

designed in space.

to study The

interplanetary successmeas-

spacecraft scientific

simultaneous widely dispersed orbit. It returned solar passage Along with

urements heliocentric on the

locations in the first data and later

tenuous the

atmosphere of Comet Pioneers a ring

recorded tail the

Kohoutek's 7, 8, and weather 9,

in 1974. spacecraft

formed

of solar

Deep

Space

_hronicle

.........

--

1966
65) Luna 9 Nation: USSR 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft Lavochkin Launch 11:41:37 Launch Scientific 1) 2) Vehicle: UT Site: NIIP-5 Instruments: imaging SBM-10 this system radiation mission, spectacular survivable on another attempt was the also it by detector the Soviets first landing celestial the first in the accomspace 66) Kosmos 111 / [Luna] 9 by space bureau, and lunar operations fault, UT and (at and on 3 build and Nation: USSR Objective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft Lavochkin Launch Vehicle: 8K78M 11:03:49 UT / launch site 31 (no. N103-41) 1966 / Launch Date and Time: 1 March (41) orbit (no. 204) kg lunar Ye-6S / launch site 31 8K78M (no. U103-32) 1966 / (40) lunar Ye-6M Mass: soft-landing (no. 202) 1,538 kg Luna it was elevation) first of 9 began 7 hours before nine of the first transmitting (after the the probe data Sun began to Earth, climbed sending to but 7° the five These of

images surface sent body. scientific a dosage

(including of the from Moon.

panoramas) were another detector, board, day. the object dust, heavy craft the

images

the surface radiation

Mission Design and Management: GSMZ

planetary the measured only

The

instrument of 30 millirads discovery that into could with

on per of

Launch Date and Time: 31 January

Perhaps mission would that

the was not

most

important

determining simply the sink

a foreign the lunar a

is, that

ground contact

support the space1966.

lander. was

Last

at 22:55

UT on 6 February

Results: With plished race, made was the probe which almost the another first

of a humanbody. deep Luna

object the Soviets; built all

twelfth

at a soft-landing design design Russian) All without ALS 18:45:30 Reiner

Lavochkin would (and

Mass: c. 1,580

ultimately Soviet

Mission Design and Management: GSMZ

interplanetary prior the landed February craters latitude Approximately to landing 58-centimeter on the 1966 in the and 5

spacecraft. occurred Moon west Ocean at of the

spheroid

capsule

Launch Site: NIIP-5 Scientific 1) 2) 3) Instruments: magnetometer gamma-ray

Marius

of Storms ' west after

7°8 ' north longitude). touchdown,

64o22

spectrometer counters

minutes

five gas-discharge

4) twoiontrapsanda charged-particlelunar equator. The spacecraft carried a set of solid-state oscillators that had been protrap grammed to reproduce the notes of the 5) piezoelectric micrometer detector Internationale so that it could be broadcast 6) infrared detector live to the 23rd Communist Party Congress. 7) low-energy photon x-ray counters Results: early 1966,the Soviets In began During a rehearsal on the night of 3 April, hastilyputtingtogether n interimlunar the playback went well, but the following a discovered a missing orbiter rogram, p theYe-6S, partlytoupstage morning, controllers the American Lunar Orbiterprojectand note and played the previous night's tape to partlytocommemorate the23rdCongress the assembled of gathering at the Congressthe Communist Partyheldin March1966. claiming it was a live broadcast from the Engineers quickly designedsetoftworudi- Moon. Luna 10 conducted extensive research a data on mentary probes usingthe oldYe-6 (lander) in lunar orbit, gathering important buses forthese missions. Thefirstofthem was the weakness of the Moon's magnetic field, its prepared lessthana monthbut failed in to radiation belts, and the nature of lunar rocks to terleave Earthorbit.DuringEarthorbitopera- (which were tbund to be comparable and tions,heBlokL upper tage t s lostroll control restrial basalt rocks), cosmic radiation, andfailedto fire tosendtheprobe towards micrometeoroid density. Perhaps its most theMoon. official The Soviet media amed n the important finding was the first evidence of (called "mascons")-strandedatellite s Kosmos11;it reentered mass concentrations 1 Earth's tmosphere a twodays afterlaunch. areas of high density below the mare basins
that distort has Lunar lunar orbital been Orbiter 1966. trajectories. credited Last series. Their to the contact

67)
Luna 10 Nation: USSR (42) orbit (no. 206) 1,582 kg Objective(s): lunar Spacecraft: Spacecraft Lavochkin Launch Vehicle: 8K78M 10:47 UT / launch site 31 (no. N103-42) 1966 / Launch Date and Time: 31 March Ye-6S Mass:

discovery American was 68)

usually

on 30 May

Surveyor Model 2 Nation: U.S. (26) Objective(s): highly Spacecraft: Spacecraft SD-3 Mass: 784 kg NASA (AC-8 JPL / Atlas elliptical orbit

Mission Design and Management: GSMZ

Mission Design and Management: Launch Vehicle: Atlas-Centaur no. 184D / Centaur D)

Launch Site: NIIP-5

Scientific Instruments: 1) 2) 3} 4) magnetometer gamma-ray five two trap 5) 6) 7) piezoelectric infrared low-energy a micrometer detector x-ray midcourse second photon counters on prethe two the orbit 1 detector spectrometer counters and a charged-particle

Launch Date and Time: 8 April 01:00:02 Launch UT Site: ETR / launch none a test lander toward

1966

/

gas-discharge ion traps

complex

36B

Scientific Instruments: Results: This Surveyor barycentric Unlike tests, was lunar orbit

to launch spacecraft a simulated Surveyor

a dummy into Moon. model a

the two previous this flight was

mass

Results: After April, pared backup), days first around gram from later Luna Soviet

correction of two hastily is, orbit

supposed for the

to demonstrate Centaur orbit the upper around Centaur A thrust The per-

10, the Ye-6S

a restart stage. The successfully Earth, engines imbalance problem x oxide stage. leak With but

capability achieved at the

probes entered UT, object thus to

(that lunar

Centaur-Surveyor parking time,

combination

successfully at 18:44

becoming go into

desired a few payload traced

humanmade another instrument the main bus, orbit

fired

for only left the

seconds.

planetary

body.

A 245-kiloseparated in a 350

tumbling. of the its

compartment which inclined was

was

later

to a hydrogen motors

in the ullage no hope

Centaur ultimate

1,000-kilometer

at 71.9 ° to the

of reaching

orbit, hespacecraft t reentered Earth's tmosa phere May1966. on5 69)
Sunleyor 1 Nation: U.S. (27) 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft lunar soft-landing kg JPL / Atlas (AC-10

face indicated that Surveyor a 100-kilometer-diameter tained length showed distant 11,350 tions mary NASA 1967. the boulders scattered crestlines horizon. images sessions mission maintained Without doubt, over by was of more all The two

1 was crater than

resting in that con1 meter in

around. lander separate

The

photos in the

of low

mountains

transmitted communicathe 13 priJuly,

Surveyor-A Mass: 995.2

6 July.

Although by until

completed contact Surveyor of NASA's

Mission Design and Management: NASA Launch Vehicle: Atlas-Centaur D no. 290 / Centaur Launch 14:41:01 Launch Scientific 1) Results: the D) 1966 /

7 January 1 was one of

great

successes

early

lunar

and

[:}ate and Time: 30 May UT Site: ETR, launch

interplanetary

program.

complex

36A

Instruments: imaging NASA system initially program lunar (c. 1963) as project, specific (seven toward scientific a conceived landing but program were basic it of and scaled of ten

Surveyor robotic plans

orbiting down lunar launched) goals primary imaging ders, prising

to a more

soft-landers geared than "scientific system. Surveyor a

eventually engineering The was Luna an lancomon trianat each retro60 percent center. a

rather

exploration.

instrument" the Soviet

Unlike was

a true

soft-lander, based

3-meter-tall thin-walled with a large

vehicle

27-kilogram, gular corner rocket of the The structure and engine

aluminum legs

one of three solid-propellant comprised over

(that

spacecraft's spacecraft was

overall

mass)

in the with

equipped that

a Doppler information a of

velocity-sensing

system

fed

into the spacecraft controllable descent the type provide important Surveyor unprecedented the very first first true try three shock data for 1, the landing absorbers on

computer to the pads also and landing future

to implement surface. Each carried strain aircraftgauges

to

characteristics, Apollo missions. was an accomplished Moon on its in the at 63.6 latiImage of Surveyor l's shadow against the lunar surface in the late lunar afternoon, with the horizon at the upper right. Surveyor 1 was the fiJsl U.S. mission to make a successful soft-landing on the Moon. In addition it sent information temperature. to transmitting over 11,000 pictures,

first success.

in

the NASA

series,

soft-landing when the of the 2 June from

on the probe Ocean 1966, Cape

landed

southwest 06:17:36 hours after Touchdown tude meters the initial and

region UT on launch

of Storms just

Canaveral.

coordinates 43°13 the ' west

were longitude,

2°27 . south just At

14 kilolanding, The sur-

from

planned

target. 294.3 from

spacecraft panoramic

weighed views

kilograms. the lunar

on the bearing strength of the lunar soil the radar reflectivify, and

" " )966

70) Explorer 33 Nation: U.S. (28) 0bjective(s): lunar Spacecraft: [MP-D Spacecraft Mass: 93.4 kg Mission Design and Management: NASA Launch Vehicle: Thor-Delta no. 467 / DSV-3E) Launch Date and Time: 1 July 16:02:25 Launch UT Site: ETR / launch complex 17A 1966 / GSFC E-1 (no. 39 / Thor orbit

resolution landing series four from lunar

photographs sites. NASA

of planned stabilized

potential launches spacecraft engine

Apollo of a with (derived for

of three-axis solar panels

and attitude

a main control

an Apollo orbit

thruster) instrument

insertion. was system

The

primary

on board imaging angle scan The

a 68-kilogram (using could and send pictures wide-

Eastman-Kodak and narrowfilm,

lenses)

that

develop them

exposed back

the images, narrow-angle

to Earth. resolution

provided while up the the

of up to 60 to 80 meters, photos ters. kilometer August, showed Lunar orbit becoming spacecraft's nine secondary site. frames During of the photos but best One was Lunar the lunar of the the resolutions Orbiter

wide-angle kilomeon 24 to to

Scientific Instruments : 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Results: the first fluxgate thermal magnetometers ion probe

to 0.5 Moon

1 entered around the first primary potential areas, its lunar square were

a 191 x 1,854-

ion chamber tubes plus p-on-n probe 33 was spacecraft were stage designed to enter 1,300 accelerated by lunar kg by this orbit main later 30,550 of the orbit. time) 15,897 probe's Instead, went x into but to become lunar x 6,440 the too orbit kiloThor rapretrothe an junction

U.S.

spacecraft mission was landing Surveyor the

do so. The photograph sites, seven

Faraday-cup Explorer U.S. at E-1

Apollo and mission, surface blurred the

1 landing took 207 an area

probe The from images

(planned meters Delta idly rocket spacecraft eccentric kilometers. rocket less orbit probe tail,

parameters second

covering

175 ° inclination),

of 5.18 million

kilometers.

high-resolution smearing, were the to date. the

for

compensation to achieve (56.7 Earth The

medium-resolution surface images first Orbiter and surface images returned, picture 1 returned was

returned taken its on from last to to

435,330 retro-

23 August, Moon.

of Earth

solid-propellant stabilized x the orbit

engine eccentric

to a

picture crash

on 30 August on to the lunar its future were

commanded on 29 October

449,174-kilometer In its new on Earth's magnetic orbit, the

at 28.9 ° inclination. returned the key data

prevent with nates

transmissions Lunar 6042 ' north Orbiters. latitude

from and

interfering coordi162 ° east

magnetic field, and

Impact

interplanetary

radiation.

longitude 72) Pioneer 7

(at

13:30

UT).

71) Lunar Orbiter 1 Nation: U.S. (29) orbit

Nation: U.S. (30) 0bjective(s): heliocentric Spacecraft: kg LaRC D (no. 17 /Atlas / 6630) 1966 13 / Spacecraft Pioneer-B Mass: 62.75 kg orbit

0bjective(s): lunar Spacecraft: Spacecraft LO-A

Mass: 385.6

Mission Design and Management: NASA Launch Vehicle: At]as-Agena D no. 5801 / Agena

Mission Design and Management: NASA ARC Launch Vehicle: Thor-Delta E-I (no. 40 / Thor no. 462 Launch 15:20:17 Launch / DSV-3E) Date and Time: 17 August UT Site: ETR / launch complex 17A 1966 /

D no. AD121

Launch Date and Time: 10 August 19:26:00 UT Launch Site: ETR / launch complex Scientific Instruments: 1) 2) 3t imaging radiation Lunar system detectors dosimeters Orbiter need

Scientific instruments: 1) 2) 3) program to obtain originated l-meter4) 5) single-axis Faraday-cup plasma cosmic-ray fluxgate plasma magnetometer probe

micrometeoroid

analyzer telescope detector

Results: The as a response

to the

cosmic-ray-anisotropy

6) radio wave propagation experiment 7) celestial mechanics experiment Results: Identicalto Pioneer , Pioneer7 6 wasput into heliocentric orbit at 0.814x 0.985 AUtostudythesolarmagneticield, f the solarwind,andcosmic raysat widely separatedpoints in solar orbit. On 7 September 1968,he spacecraft t wascorrectlyaligned with the SunandEarth to beginstudyingEarth'smagnetic tail. In 1977, elevenears y afteritslaunch, Pioneer 7 registered magnetic 19.3million the tail kilometers out, three times further into spacethan recordedpreviously.On 20 March 1986,the spacecraftlew within f 12.3millionkilometers Halley'sComet of andmonitored interaction the between the cometary hydrogen andthesolarwind. tail As with Pioneer andPioneer , NASA 6 8 continues maintainintermittentcontact to with Pioneer7, morethan thirty years afterits mission began. On31March1995, for example, he plasmaanalyzerwas t turnedon during2 hoursof contact ith w theground. 73)
Luna 11 Nation: USSR (43) orbit (no. 101) kg Objective(s): lunar Spacecraft: Spacecraft Lavochkin Launch Vehicle: 8K78M (no. N103-43) 1966 / Ye-6LF

of

scientific similar the

instruments to the lander The 15 one

(plus used

an on used

imaging Zond 3)

system replaced soft-landing photos

small flights.

capsule resolution to 20

on the of the A the as 11,

was

reportedly experiment

meters. testing

technological efficiency a test launched Orbiter, 21:49 for

included

of gear a only

transmission lunar after

in vacuum rover. the lunar Luna

future

two weeks

U.S. Lunar orbit were mission, at 160 the

successfully UT on 27 August. kilometers. failed spacecraft lunar lodged

entered

Parameters the

x 1,193 TV

During to return lost surface in the thrusters. without ended on had

camera the the was

usable proper when

images

because to face

orientation a foreign of the instruthe 1966

object ments mission after 74)

nozzle The fault

of one other before

attitude-control functioned formally the power

1 October been depleted.

supply

Surveyor 2 Nation: U.S. (31) Objective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft Launch no. lunar soft-landing

Surveyor-B Mass: 995.2 kg JPL / Atlas D (AC-7

Mission Design and Management: NASA Vehicle: Atlas-Centaur D) 194 / Centaur

Launch 12:32:00 Launch Scientific 1) Results:

Date and Time: 20 September UT Site: ETR / launch complex

1966

/

Mass: 1,640

Mission Design and Management: GSMZ

36A

Instruments: imaging Surveyor was in Sinus at 05:00 thrusters midcourse into system 2, similar aimed Medii. UT failed correction an unwanted repeated thruster, Surveyor control. at the 2 headed Just for During in a design lunar the to its softcoast to one

Launch Date and Time: 24 August 08:03 UT Launch Site: NIIP-5 Scientific 1) 2) 3) 4) 51 6) 7) Results: Luna take tive tions Instruments: imaging gamma-ray magnetometer radiation infrared meteoroid R-1 gear This subset spacecraft, the was first from detectors radiometer detectors transmission the Ye-6LF, photographs lunar orbit. data on the the on system detector

predecessor, landing the Moon,

on 21 September, to ignite and spin. engine thus

of three second spacecraft many the

for a 9.8put the as to

Despite failed

as thirty-nine recalcitrant and

attempts

to fire

ignite, experiment was of the mass first designed surface concentradetected a suite to of without retro-fire

to the

Moon after on 22 the

proper

30 seconds UT out, of the

of the "second-generation"

ignition crashed

09:34 fell surface and

September, lander at

communications on to the latitude

and

Moon longi-

the Moon

A secondary Moon

objec-

5o30 ' north just

12 ° west crater.

to obtain

tude,

southeast

of Copernicus

("mascons") 10. Using

by Luna

basic

Ye-6 bus,

75) Luna 12 Nation: USSR Objective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft Lavochkin launch launch UT launch Site: NIIP-5 / launch site 31 Scientific 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) mission plish-take Moon's cessfully surface reached Instruments: imaging gamma-ray system detector Vehicle: 8K78M (no. N103-44) 1966 / 08:42 (44) orbit (no. 102) kg

Scientific 1) 2) 3) Results: tograph ondary in the lunar Ye-6LF

Instruments: imaging radiation Lunar thirteen landings system detectors dosimeters 2% mission and was to phosec-

micrometeoroid

Orbiter

Mass: 1,620

primary sites region On a Moon.

seventeen Apollo

Mission Design and Management: GSMZ

for the of the

program near 1966, side the

northern area.

Moon's

equatorial spacecraft orbit the graph, the These square high-gain but did near around probe 211

10 November 196

Date and Time: 22 October

entered the

x 1,871-kilometer when photoof both far side.

By 6 December, back its last

transmitted pictures and had large

been areas nearly lunar

taken of the four surface.

side photos

covered of the

million The day,

magnetometer radiation detectors infrared meteoroid R-1 gear that Luna radiometer detectors transmission launched 11 had experiment to complete failed photos orbit. Luna to the accomof the

kilometers transmitter not by

failed

on the the

same

significantly the photos. the series, the most a

affect Lunar

coverage Orbiter photo shot from an 2

afforded returned of any

perhaps in across of only the surface. the

memorable spectacular crater which

Results: Luna

12 was

looking altitude

Copernicus

high-resolution from the lunar Moon

45 kilometers, three-dimensional On

vividly of the

12 suc1966 The of that

emphasized the main Orbiter orbital data wider when depleted, the south lunar

nature after over,

on 25 October orbit.

8 December, was

and entered Soviet the showed crater. meters. matically, Earth. After Luna CmTy filled tions press surface the

a 133 x 1,200-kilometer released on Sea 29 the first and as photos

photographic 2 fired plane of the swath. attitude spacecraft latitude on future its in Moon's

mission main order

Lunar its a

taken

engine to

to change tracking field October was surface over

October--pictures

provide

of Rains was

the Aristarchus as 15 dried to 20 autoto

gravitational on 11 gas lunar

Resolution Film was

high fixed, for were

Finally, control onto and the

1967, almost crashed at 4° on the interfer-

developed, scanned photos its into main mission,

and No further

transmission ever released. mission, roll was

a retro-burn

deliberately 98 ° east longitude

completing 12 was quite sessions. put

imaging which was

a spin-stabilized Contact after

to ful-

far ence

side

to prevent

communications

out its scientific successfully. 1967

missions.

finally 77) Luna 13 Nation: USSR (45) lunar Ye-6M soft-landing (no. 205) kg

lost on 19 January

302 communica-

76) Lunar Orbiter 2 Nation: U.S. (32) 0bjective(s): lunar Spacecraft: Spacecraft LO-B Mass: 385.6 kg LaRC orbit

0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft Lavochkin launch

Mass: 1,620

Mission Design and Management: GSMZ Vehicle: 8K78M (no. N103-45_ 1966 /

Mission Design and Management: NASA launch Vehicle: Atlas-Agena

Launch Date and Time: 21 December 10:17 Launch Scientific l) UT Site: NIIP-5 Instruments: TV cameras infrared radiometer / launch site 1

D (no. 18 / Atlas / 6631) 1966 /

D no. 5802 / Agena 23:21:00 launch UT Site: ETR

D no. AD122

Launch Date and Time: 6 November

/ launch

complex

13

2) 3)

penetrometer

_'Deep

Spoce

C_hromcIe

.......

4) 5) Results: spacecraft surface Ocean 1966, craters west the carried addition three-axis ized forces structure timeters. also frame

radiation radiation Luna to 13

densitometer detector became the second Soviet on the

nium-tipped ground with

rods

that

were force

driven by small

into

the

a powerful to measure

exploat

sive charges

soil density

(found

successfully

soft-land

of the Moon. The of Storms at 18:01 between at the

probe landed in the UT on 24 December and Seleucus and 6203 '

roughly 0.8 grams per cubic centimeter). radiometers recorded infrared radiation the surface 117 + 3°C cated that indicating a noon while a radiation radiation for humans. panoramas smooth two of the images) quality levels The temperature detector be less returned

Four from of indithan a

Krafft

18o52 ' north Unlike 13 lander of scientific usual

latitude its (113

would lander

longitude. heavier Luna a suite to the

predecessor, kilograms) in A instruments system. the the pressurlanding the to 30 booms with soil cenwas tita-

hazardous total Luna return diminish of five

of the terrain cameras failed, of

lunar than

surface, seen by to not

showing

a more 9. One stereo the

imaging within recorded to determine of 20

(intended this did

accelerometer of the lander

but the

photographs. contact when was the

during down A pair

impact to

a depth

After a fully lost at 06:13 onboard

successful mission, UT on 28 December were exhausted.

of spring-loaded Both were equipped

batteries

deployed.

-

--

1966_

1967
78) Lunar Orbiter 3 Nation: U.S. (33) 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft lunar LO-C Mass: 385.6 kg LaRC orbit kilometers of the far side. On 30 August 1967, ground controllers commanded the circularize its orbit to 160 kilometers to simulate October crashed north an Apollo 1967, onto latitude the the and from allowed preliminary April 5 in the also 1967, Ocean trajectory. was surface vehicle to in order Later, on 9

probe lunar

intentionally at 14036 ' The Lunar to pick by

Mission Design and Management: NASA Launch Vehicle: Atlas-Agena D no. 5803 Launch 01:17:01 Launch / Agena

91042 , west the NASA landing first

longitude. three

D (no. 20 / Atlas / 6632) 1967 /

photographs Orbiters eight early

D no. AD128

scientists sites site

Date and TJme: 5 February UT Site: ETR / launch complex

for Apollo 2 in the land, Apollo

including Apollo of Storms, 3)would

Sea of and 12

13

Tranquillity, site (and

where

11 would where

Scientific Instruments: 1) 2) 3) Results: Orbiter landing icated spacecraft February were tion. 200 During imaging radiation Lunar mission sites; to system detectors dosimeters Orbiter to further 3 was study missions and in Initial global lunar orbital at the final Lunar Apollo be dedThe on 7

Surveyor

disembark.

micrometeoroid

79) Surveyor 3 Nation: U.S. 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft (34) lunar soft-landing kg JPL /Atlas (AC-12

potential would surveys. orbit

scientific arrived 1967. x 1,850 its took only 182

Surveyor-C Mass: 997.9

parameters 21 ° inclinamission, of pictures, to fihn. fulFebruary the Orbiter objectives, square kilosquare the

Mission Design and Management: NASA Launch Vehicle: Atlas-Centaur D no. 292 / Centaur D) 1967 /

kilometers eight-month 211 were that glitch, frames actually

spacecraft although Earth with Despite filled returning meters the the its because

Launch Date and Time: 17 April 07:05:01 Launch Scientific 1) 2) UT Site: ETR / launch

returned 24

of a problem

on

complex

36B

motor minor original images near

rewound Lunar mission

Instruments: imaging surface system sampler 3 was the third first engineering time, it car-

of 15.5 million side and

Results: Surveyor flight of the

of the

650,000

series;

for the

....

"

..........

1967_

Charles

Conrad,

Jr., Apollo activity (EVA-2).

12 Commander,

examines

the unpiloted

Surveyor

3 spacecraft

during

the second was taken 600 feet

extravehicular by astronaut from back Surveyor

The Lunar Module pilot. and

(LM) Intrepid

is in the right

background. Ocean from

This picture of Storms only Surveyor

Alan

L. Bean,

Lunar Module camera

The Intrepid several olher

landed

on the Moon's were on taken

3. The television

components on the Moon

3 and

brought

to Earth for scientific

analysis.

Surveyor

3 soft-landed

19 April

1967.

i

i

t

ried reach dig vious sion

a soil-sampling up up to 1.5 meters

instrument from deep. the Unlike 3 began around upper

that lander the its

could and premiswith now the basic 3

Scientific 1) 2) 3) Resulls: series Moon. 1967,

Instruments: imaging radiation Lunar dedicated After system detectors dosimeters Orbiter 4 was the first in the of the 8 May x 6,034degrees, polar orbit

to 0.5 Surveyors,

meters

micrometeoroid

Surveyor orbit Centaur firings. out

from

parking the

Earth stage,

a burn capable landing inertial landed vertical 1967

from of

to scientific at 21:54 entered inclined vehicle at

surveys UT a 2,705 85.48 on

multiple cut lunar

Although

a burn

radar control on the

prematurely, that Surveyor with UT region

the

spacecraft orbit the the a Door, first Moon. problem and

ensured surface

kilometer becoming around overcame Camera two-month of 99 percent of the frames. 60 the far The

minimal

to enter

velocity in the

at 00:04:17

on 20 April of Oceanus

Controllers with subsequently, the near orbiter side the

successfully Thermal during took and pictures of 193 of up to lowered of Lunar gravits

southeastern at

Procellarum, 23°20 ways before hour ' west motion coining after

2°56 ' north A fairly the lander

latitude strong hop Less

and sidetwice an

longitude. made

mission, of the of the side

75 percent

to a standstill. landing, the first the

than

Moon had

in a total

spacecraft TV most the

began pictures exciting deployvia

images In early orbit

a resolution controllers that

transmitting of the

of 6,315 The was arm,

meters.

June,

surrounding of the remote fi'om

areas. mission scooper Earth, four

spacecraft's 5 so that data losing 4 took pole crustal lost and fault

to match could of the on 17

experiment ment of the

Orbiter itational Before Orbiter south long was craft October 81)

scientists

collect

which,

in support contact the first

latter July,

mission. Lunar lunar

commands and teen ments, had a performed impact

dug

four tests

trenches and thir-

bearing Based on

photos

of the

tests.

these that

experilunar soil with per for an was the years Conrad, Intrepid on recovthe scitwo the

discovered on the controlled crashed

a 240-kilometercontact spaceon 6

scientists a consistency

concluded similar of

far side. Since impact, onto the the

to wet 0.7

sand,

before 1967

bearing

strength centimeter--solid Lunar Module.

kilograms enough

naturally

Moon

square Apollo made lunar later, Jr., LM 18 ered soil entists

due

to gravitational

anonmlies.

Last two

contact days after three

on night

4 May began.

1967, More

than

Kosmos 159 / [Luna] Nation: USSR 0bjective(s): Earth Spacecraft: Spacecraft Lavochkin Launch 21:43:57 VebJcle: 8K78M UT / launch unknown was a one-off to By could lunar Moon's had highacquire on site 1 (no. Ya716-56) 1967 / Ye-6LS (no. 111} (46) highly elliptical orbit around

Apollo and near Alan the

12 astronauts L. Bean inactive 1969. from and The

Charles landed the

Surveyor

3 lander

November parts scoop

astronauts 3, including

Surveyor camera the

Mass: unknown

system, effects of

to allow of nearly on

Mission Design and Management: GSMZ

to evaluate years

and one-half Moon's surface. 8O) Lunar Orbiter 4 Nation: U.S. (35) 0hjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft Mission lunar LO-D

exposure

Launch Date and Time: 16 May Launch Site: NIIP-5 Scientific Results: orbit apogee data kg NASA LaRC future such measure affected tional send / launch complex 13 with D (no. 22 /Atlas /6633 Instruments: This Earth on trajectory lunar techniques, trajectories by anomalies field. the Mission probe into

spacecraft satellite orbital

developed missions.

measurement engineers of future in the designers a highly

techniques perfecting accurately orbiters gravita-

Mass: 385.6

Design and Management:

Launch Vehicle: Atlas-Agena D no. 5804/Agena 22:25:00 UT

D no. AD131

Launch Date and Time: 4 May

1967 /

planned

to orbit

elliptical but

Launch Site: ETR

an apogee

of 250,000

kilometers,

the

..

i967

Blok Instead, entered ters orbit,

L upper the

stage

evidently named of 260

cut off too early. Kosmos 159, kilomeincorrect spacecraft on x 60,710 the the

kilometers transmit through entists until missions when the

altitude). for the 93

The minutes

probe as Initially, it

continued slowly Soviet transmitted trans-

to fell sci-

spacecraft, orbit

a lower

atmosphere. that the with

at 51.7 ° inclination. controllers no doubt mission. lost 159

Despite used

believed contact ceased high

probe

the surface. at an altitude

In reality,

for its original when craft. phere 82) Venera 4 Nation: USSR 0blective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft Lavochkin the Kosmos

No data contact

is available with Earth's the

of 27 kilometers pressure The and data pressure and temimplied were

ground

spaceatmos-

atmospheric the probe. atmospheres analyzers was

reentered 1967.

peratures that 500°C Venera planet's surface

crushed and 4's gas 75

on 11 November

temperatures

respectively. found that the

also

atmosphere carbon bus field

composed with

of 90 to 95 The weak of above to

(47) impact

percent spacecraft magnetic belts. GSMZ atomic the 1967 / 83) / launch site 1 Mariner 5 transmit

dioxide measured and found a very about 4 was from

no nitrogen. the planet's atmosphere kilometers first atmosphere.

Venus

1V (no. 310) Mass: 1,106 kg

no ring weak

of radiation

It detected hydrogen Venera data

Mission Design and Management: Launch Vehicle: 8K78M Launch Date and Time: 12 June 02:39:45 Launch Scientific UT Site: NIIP-5 Instruments:

9,900 the

planet.

spacecrai_

a planet's

Nation: U.S. (36) 0bjective(s): Venus flyby / Mariner-E kg JPL

Lander: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Bus: 1_ 2) 3) 4t Results: built although basic probes. about lander descended This high thick capsule magnetometer cosmic-ray charged-particle ultraviolet Venera by design The 3.5 the counters traps photometer 4 was the first Venus probe bureau, the Korolev bus radio aneroid eleven ionization altimeter barometer gas-analyzer densitometer cartridges

Spacecraft:

Mariner-67E

Spacecraft Mass: 244.9

Mission Design and Management: NASA Launch Vehicle: Atlas-Agena D no. 5401 Launch 06:01:00 Launch / Agena Date and Time: 14 June UT Site: ETR / launch complex 12

two resistance

thermometers

D (no. 23 / Atlas / 6933} / 1967

D no. AD157

Scientific Instruments: 1) 2) 3) ultraviolet S-band photometer occultation experiment occultation

Lavochkin engineers of the layout

design earlier

dual-frequency experiment

Lavochkin

retained

4) 5) 6) it 7) Results: as project craft a

solar

plasma

probe

spacecraft meters high

consisted and

of a main a 383-kilogram data

magnetometer trapped-radiation celestial In mechanics 1965, Mariner flyby December the detector experiment NASA approved spacethan a

probe

designed the

to transmit Venusian

as

through was

atmosphere. loads and

designed land entry,

to endure land

to modify to conduct

4 backup of Venus

as 350 g and ablative on Venus

on both it was

liquid. with

a closer

For atmospheric

equipped

heatshield. 29 July

After 1967,

a midcourse Venera and released prior the the second planet's rate of to 4

the only Mariner Mariner ment. Mariner 8,165 plan meter ized

other NASA 2. Unlike 5 did not

probe to fly past Venus, Mariner 4, however, carry an had at the imaging planned a miss Agency modest instruto distance altered 75,000-kilothe into nonsterilthe planet. send of its

correction approached the entry lander of the

on 18 October

Initially, 5 on kilometers, in favor

NASA a flyby but

at 04:34 bus. the

UT, immediately into when per

Parachuting lander turned later

atmosphere, instruments descent

on its scientific (at 55

of a more in order from

5 minutes lowered

flyby vehicle

to prevent crashing

to 10 meters

*"

Deep

Space

Chronicle

....

_ ___

After Mariner Venus Closest range radiation field.

a

midcourse 5 began 19

correction transmitting during at

on

19

June, about

85) Surveyor 4 Nation: U.S, a 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft a (37) lunar soft-landing

data its

on

October was kilometers. trapped

encounter. UT 5 found magnetic detected Venera 5's surface and at

approach of 4,094 belts

17:34:56 Mariner by Venus'

no

Surveyor-D Mass: 1,037.4 kg JPL /Atlas (AC-11

The

ultraviolet corona

photometer Soviet

Mission Design and Management: NASA Launch Vehicle: Atlas D no. 291 / Centaur Centaur D) 1967 /

hydrogen but ments perature 100 tered craft planet's lost no

(as did the emission. that the

4),

oxygen indicated and

Mariner planet's were 527°C

instrutem75 to coun4 space-

pressure

Launch Date and Time: 14 July 11:53:29 UT Launch Site: ETR Scientific 1) 2) 3) Results: equipped the ments claw) / ]aunch

atmospheres the had Soviet

respectively--which claim that to its Venera transmit

complex

36A

Instruments: imaging surface system sampler

managed

from 1967, although

the

surface. with

On 4 December the spacecraft, contact did NASA

NASA con-

contact

soil magnet Like with in the Surveyor a surface and lunar 3, Surveyor ferrous mission 4 was in elewas

trollers 1968. ther

briefly The

regained

on 14 October any fur-

spacecraft and

not transmit eventually with the

claw (with measure The

a magnet

telemetry,

stopped vehicle,

to detect

attempts to communicate now in heliocentric orbit.

surface. until

completely were

successful lost 02:03

all communications prior to 1967, retrowith Moon.

abruptly cutoffat 2.5 minutes

2 seconds

84 ) Kosmos 167 / [Venera] Nation: USSR 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft (48) impact

rocket only The Bay) gitude. kg have 86)

UT on 17 July

left to landing was latitude Sinus and that the was

on the Medii

landing

target

(Central lonmight

Venus

at 0.4 ° north NASA exploded

1.33 ° west lander lost.

1V (no. 311) Mass: c. 1,100

concluded when

contact

Mission Design and Management: GSMZ Lavochkin Launch Vehicle: 8K78M Launch Date and Time: 17 June 02:36:38 UT / launch site 1 1967 /

Explorer 35 / International Monitoring Platform Nation: U.S. (38) 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft lunar IMP-E Mass: 104.3 kg GSFC E-1 (no. 50 /Thor orbit

6

Launch Site: NIIP-5 Scientific 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Bus: 1) 2) 3) 4) Results: failed magnetometer cosmic-ray Instruments: radio aneroid eleven two ionization Lander:

Mission Design and Management: NASA altimeter barometer gas-analyzer densitometer cartridges Launch Vehicle: Thor-Delta no. 488 / DSV-3E) Launch Date and Time: 19 July 14:19:02 UT Launch Site: ETR / launch Scientific Instruments: 1) counters traps photometer twin orbit stage the prior stranded engine's to craft when failed to Venera its Blok apparhad and not 4 L Earth 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Results: magnetometers thermal ion detector and and Geiger 1967 /

resistance

thermometers

complex

17B

charged-particle ultraviolet This to leave identical

ion chambers Geiger tubes micrometeoroid Faraday Explorer cup 35 space solar dust wind,

tubes junction

p-on-n detector

transinterplanetary ently been because cooled

to fire,

was

designed

to

study

turbopump The orbit

interplanetary larly netic the the field, lunar

phenomena--particuthe interplanetary near the the weak magMoon, lunar

ignition. in Earth

spacecraft reen-

remained tered

distribution field,

Earth's

atmosphere

on 25 June

1967.

gravitational

1967

.

This image from Lunar Orbiter

5 shows crater Copernicus,

93 kilometers wide and located within

the Mare

Imbrium Basin at the northern near side of the Moon (10 ° north latitude and 20 ° west longitude). The picture shows the crater floor, floor mounds, rim, and rayed ejecta. Rays from the ejecta are superposed on all other surrounding terrains, which places the crater in its namesake age group: the Copernican assemblage of rocks on the Moon. ionosphere, The 1967. 7,692 spacecraft and Initial kilometers similar found that against creates After the satellite Thor-Delta had failed, and the left entered orbital at to that solar the six years was 35 a "cavity" radiation Earth lunar parameters 147 ° on environment. a direct orbit were inclination. 33, has also ascent 800 The in x Launch Vehicle: Atlas-Agena / Agena D (no. 24 / Atlas / 6634) 1967 / system, established as the youngest

D no. 5805 22:33:00

D no. AD159

trajectory

on 21 July

Launch Date and Thne: 1 August UT

Launch Site: ETR / launch Scientific Instruments: 1) 2) 3) Results: series Moon general lunar meters imaging radiation Lunar of highly system

complex

13

spacecraft, lunar orbit,

Explorer the wind surface, in Moon

no magimpact that the wind opera24 June by the only

netosphere, directly Moon stream. tion, 1973. fiftieth three rating 87)

particles and the solar

micrometeoroid Orbiter successful landing

detectors 5 was the last to map and in the a

dosimeters

of successful turned off on of booster

missions sites

for potential observational

conduct after paraat 85.0 ° it entered

Explorer

was booster,

launched which

surveys. UT. Initial

Two

days

a midcourse orbit were

correction at 16:48 196 The different most of the its potential

on 3 August,

giving

the

a success

orbital

of 94 percent.

x 6,040 spacecraft areas far

kilometers

inclination. thirty-six mapped frames orbit kg LaRC included as well sions. Lunar Orbiter 5 Nation: U.S. (39) Oblective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft lunar LO-E Mass: 385.6

photographed near side and

on the side month Apollo tbr via

a set landing

of 212 These sites, misthe

during five

first

in orbit.

as possible Controllers to map

targets also the

Surveyor used gravitational perturbations

extensively Moon's orbital

Mission Design and Management: NASA

spacecraft field

in order

to predict

onfuturelunarorbitalmissions. Theprobe also obtained spectacular high-quality photos ofEarthshowing Africa andtheMiddle East. LunarOrbiter5 wascommanded tolandon thelunarsurfacenddidsoat0° northlatia tudeand70 westlongitude n31January ° o 1968.n total,the fiveLunarOrbiters I photographed 99percent ofthelunarsurface. 88)
Surveyor 5 Nation: U.S. (40) Objective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft lunar soft-landing

be composed amounts was of lost with

of more silicon the lander

than and

half aluminum.

oxygen

with 1967.

Contact

on 16 December

89) no name / [Zond] Nation: USSR 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft (49) circumlunar 7K-L1 (no. 4L) kg +Blok D (Proton-K no. flight

Mass: c. 5,375

Mission Design and Management: TsKBEM Launch Vehicle: 8K82K 229-01 /B]ok D no. 12L) 27 September / launch unknown a 7K-L1 that cosmonauts which was was set orbit spacecraft the for to line, at T+97.4 fire and larger type, the was the site 81L 1967 /

Surveyor-E Mass: 1,006 kg NASA (AC-13 JPL / Atlas

Launch Date and lime: 22:11:54 UT Launch Site: NIIP-5 Scientific Instruments: spacecraft,

Mission Design and Management: Launch Vehicle: At]as-Centaur 3C no. 5901C / Centaur D-1A)

Results: This 1967 36B / first tried

Launch Date and Thne: 8 September 07:57:01 UT Launch Scientific 1) 2) 3) 4) Results: helium from prime the Site: ETR, launch complex Instruments: imaging system instrument

of a series to send project The

of spacecraft to send program, 1965,

Soviets as part around officially

on circumlunar

missions

of a larger the Moon.

approved technological and April

in October flights 1967. The version During engines

off by two in March was 7K-OK six of a

alpha-scattering surface footpad Brilliantly leak sampler magnet

in Earth 7K-L1 of

stripped-down a near-fatal engineers (the of Soyuz first-stage blockage vehicle 90) Surveyor 6 Nation: U.S. 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft Launch Atlas launch 07:39:01 (41) lunar spacecraft operations.

overcoming regulator, Aircraft

intended this failed

Earth-orbital one of the because the launch

in a pressure Hughes

launch,

JPL

and deposit

Company surface

contractor in the

for the Surveyor

spacecraft) 5 on the region

managed of Mare and on 11 the its of

of a propellant was destroyed

to safely Moon

seconds.

south-eastern at 1°25 ` north at

Tranquillitatis 23°11 ' east September lander target the the about

latitude UT put from the slope

longitude 1967. 29 The

00:46:42

malfunction away within series. before

kilometers incline Surveyor of the photos September. the

soft-landing kg NASA (AC-14 D-1A) 1967 / JPL /

in an angular rimless most crater. successful 18,006 on 24

Surveyor-F Mass: 1,008.3

5 was,

however: lander night sucfurday the

The lunar

Mission Design and Management: Vehicle: Atlas-Centaur / Centaur 3C no. 5902C UT

returned descended cessfully

Controllers vehicle to take

commanded

Date and Time: 7 November

ther photographs between 15 and fourth pictures ment, main effects on lunar were 13 engine

during the second lunar 24 October 1967 and In total, In another controllers seconds the lunar craters surface. were dust had and found

day in December. transmitted. September, fbr 0.55

20,018 expert-

Launch Site: ETR / launch Scientific Instruments: 1) 2) 3) 4) Results: imaging surface system

complex

36B

fired

the the

alpha-scattering sampler footcomplex Sm_eyor UT on

instrument magnet safely on the 1967 Moon in the lati10 November Bay)

to examine

of disturbing that there onto

NASA created, The been soil to

announced nor was

no new any

6 landed

significant

cloud. earlier the

at 01:01:04 Sinus tude Medii and

alpha-scattering released

instrument the surface

(Central

at 2.45 ° south The

43.21 ° west

longitude.

spacecraft

m

67

returned 29,952 imagesfthelunarsurface Mission Design and Management: NASA ARC o during thantwoweeksfoperation less o before Launch Vehicle: Thor-Delta E-1 (no. 55 /Thor the onsetof lunar nighton 24 November. no. 489 / DSV-3E) Althoughontrollers c regainedontact c briefly Launch Date and Time: 13 December 1967 / on14December primary 1967, landing pera- 14:08 UT o tions ceased had bythistime. n 17 November O Launch Site: ETR / launch complex 17B
1967, Surveyor main onds. before 6 was termination commanded thrusters the lander of operations, its 2.5 the lunar three secfirst surScientific 1) 2} 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Results: was sent Instruments: single-axis plasma cosmic-ray radio-wave cosmic-ray electric cosmic celestial Pioneer field dust fluxgate analyzer telescope propagation gradient detector detector experiment two predecessors, to study to carry fields, interexperiment detector magnetometer to fire for liquid-propellant As a result,

became the

spacecraft face. before landing inal the the

to be launched 6 lifted 2.5 up landing point. meters

from west then

Surveyor

to about

3 meters

of its original the orig-

Cameras footprints

studied

landing soil's

in order properties

to determine and, now that also

mechanics 8, like its

mechanical point some

source

had stereo

been imaging.

displaced,

to heliocentric space, on particularly magnetic

orbit

accomplish 91)

planetary information cosmic different from those were probes. path with move D (Proton-K 1967 [

collected and a

plasma, carried instruments 7, its

rays.

Although

the spacecraft of scientific 6 and those was to in solar orbit

no name / [Zond] Nation: USSR (50) circumlunar (no. 5L) kg + Blok 13L) flight

complement of Pioneers with spacecraft of Earth velocity beyond

findings other into vehicle to two a

0bjective(s):

correlated The ahead added out

of the launched

Spacecraft: 7K-L1 Spacecraft Launch

Mass: c. 5,375 Vehicle: / Blok UT 8K82K D no.

provide orbit

the

Mission Design and Management: TsKBEM no. 230-01 19:07:59

in order

Earth's

at 1.0 x 1.1. AU. bounds Later, and on 18 Earth of 1967. Sun,

It arrived at 19:00 January

at Earth's 1968, Pioneer aligned tail 1968.

magnetospheric 8, the to allow in detail, Controllers contact years, electric past 1995, 8's NASA transmitter, was the too far with although field 1982. was

Launch Date and Time: 22 November

UT on 15 December

Launch Site: NIIP-5

/ launch

site

81P

were Earth's

perfectly magnetic

investigation first performed have the

Scientific Instruments: unknown Results: This a robotic one Proton onds was the second mission. Soviet attempt at

by Pioneer mittently craft

7 in

interspace-

circumlunar four

On this launch, engines at T+125.5 nozzle. of the secThe

maintained thirty the operational on 23 July on the to 1996, Pioneer spacecraft charge contact

of the rocket due

second-stage to ignite in the then

for nearly

only one detector, During unable probably away from On via detector nearly 22 a to

failed

instrument, remained tracking switch because

to a break booster was

engine destroyed

wayward mand 92) Pioneer 8 from

on comseconds.

the ground

at T+129.9

the (42) heliocentric Pioneer-C Mass: 65.36 kg orbit

Sun

solar was

panels. reacquired field 2001,

August backup remains thirty-six

Nation: U.S. 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft

transmitter. functional years after

The as

electric of June

launch.

1968
93) Surveyor 7 Nation: U.S. (43) Objective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft lunar soft-landing few craters, much like area the was mare rougher. sites, About although 21 fired hours the general after landing, charge on arm was soil, ]east from ground to drop the lunar to controllers the alphasurface. conit down. numerous trenches, surface21,274 pho-

a pyrotechnic instrument the used scoop for on instrument the the

Surveyor-G Mass: 1,040.1 kg JPL /Atlas (AC-15 D-1A) 1968 /

scattering When trollers The times and bearing

failed

move,

Mission Design and Management: NASA Launch Vehicle: Atlas-Centaur 3C no. 5903C / Centaur

robot arm up at

to force used digging sixteen

picking

Launch Date and Time: 7 January 06:30:00 UT / launch

conducting tests. (many served (of the Apart

taking in stereo), for to

Launch Site: ETR Scientific 1) 2! 3) 4)

complex

36A

tographs 7 also lasers measure Moon. vated

of them as a target

Surveyor

Instruments: imaging system instrument

Earth-based accurately and the Earth

1-watt distance it the down 87,000

power) between was

alpha-scattering surface footpad sampler magnet

Although after shut the than five

successfully night,

reacti7 In

lunar on photos the 21

Surveyor 1968. returned surface of surface. soft-

Results: Since fully Apollo, Surveyor side the coast down the fulfilled NASA

Surveyors

1, 3, 5, and in last landing an

6 successsupport remaining outsite for of

finally total, more and landing 94)

February Surveyors of the lunar

requirements opted to use the scientific

successful

for a purely

mission

demonstrated a spacecraft

feasibility lunar

of exploring early Apollo Moon,

a potential flights. Surveyor UT on After

on the

uneventful set on no name / [Luna] Nation: USSR 0bjective(s): (51) lunar orbit (no. 112)

to the

7 successfully 10 January from of the 40.86 the near ° south about rim target. 1968

at 01:05:36 ejecta blanket in

emanating the south were

bright side. lati-

Tycho Landing tude meters

crater

coordinates 11.47 ° west north from from the of the

Spacecraft: Ye-6LS Spacecraft Lavochkin Launch

and

longitude, Tycho's craft's showed

29 kiloand 2.4 Initial

Mass: unknown

Mission Design and Management: GSMZ Vehicle: 8K78M (no. Ya716-57)

kilometers photos

surface

surprisingly

.............

i 68 ..

Launch 10:43:54

Date and Time: 7 February UT / launch site

1968 1

/

Spacecraft: Spacecraft Lavochkin

Ye-6LS

(no. i13)

Mass: unknown

Launch Site: NIIP-5

Mission Design and Management: GSMZ Launch Launch 10:09:32 Launch Scientific Results: orbit orbital at at Vehicle: 8K78M (no. Ya716-58) 1968 site 1 /

Scientific Instruments: unknown Results: third-stage of an via the During engine launch to Earth orbit, the

cut offprematurely propellant The The consumption spacecraft of the

because rate never mission systems landing

Date and Time: 7 April UT Site: NIIP-5 Instruments: Luna 19:25 parameters / launch unknown

excessive gas Earth

generator. orbit. to test of the

reached was

goal

evidently

communications human lunar

14 successfully UT on were The 10 April

entered 1968.

lunar Initial

in support program. 95) Zond 4

N1-L3

160 x 870 primary

kilometers goal of the in

42 ° inclination. was to test of the Ground also lunar as allowed gravitational those vehicles. of

flight support (52_ space mission project. orbit map predict TsKBEM D (Proton-K 1968 / no. such landing tific Date and Time: 2 March UT Site: NI[P-5 Instruments: Soviets / launch unknown decided not 330,000 opposite the perturbing the 1966). Surveyor The to send this next flight, into deep in site 81L 97)

communications NI-L3 tracking piloted

systems lunar landing

Nation: USSR

of the to

spacecraft's accurately in order missions LK lunar scienand few to

Objective(s): deep Spacecraft: Spacecraft Mission Launch 232-01) Launch 18:29:23 Launch Scientific 7K-L1

controllers anomalies of future the Luna to LOK 14 also study

(no. 6L) kg + Blok

Mass: c. 5,375

trajectories

lunar and

Design and Management: Vehicle: 8K82K

carried rays

instruments

cosmic Sun,

charged particles details have been

f_om the revealed.

although

Results: The 7K-L1 but space order without (much 1965 fully apogee flight, worked aged back the the tion. to

no name / [Zond] Nation: USSR 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft (54) circumlunar 7K-L1 Mass: c. 5,375 flight

spacecraft, about in the to test the like and boosted of

on a circumlunar kilometers direction of the

Moon systems

(no. 7L) kg + Blok D (Proton K no.

main

spacecraft effects model of the test was and

Moon in

Mission Design and Management: TsKBEM Launch Vehicle: 8K82K 232-01 / Blok D no. 15L/ 1968 / site 81P

flights success-

spacecraft

on its trajectory 354,000 kilometers.

reached During

an the

Launch Date and Time: 22 April 23:01:27 UT Launch Site: NIIP-5 Scientific Instruments: Results: During lunar stage T+194.64 from system was the 98) Zond 5 later launch the was mission, engine seconds payload. activated, recovered pad. this the / launch unknown third

although only

a key

attitude-control controllers for a guided

sensor manreentry

intermittently, spacecraft

to aim the into same vehicle Instead, Earth's sensor from

attempt

at a circumseconddown signal rescue capsule from at

atmosphere. failed

Unfortunately, preventing orienta-

Proton

rocket's shut erroneous the 7K-L1

at reentry,

spuriously due to an and about

maintaining 4 began for

stable to carry in

Zond

out a direct the Indian howthe

The

emergency 520 kilometers

ballistic Ocean. ever, Gulf from 96 ) Luna 14 Nation:

reentry An

landing destruct

emergency the

system, capsule over

destroyed of Guinea recovering

returning

to prevent the wayward

foreign

observers

spacecraft.

Nation: USSR 0bjective(s): USSR (53) lunar orbit Spacecraft: Spacecraft

(55) circumlunar flight

7K-L1

(no. 9L) kg

0hjective(s):

Mass: c. 5,375

_DeeP

SPaCeCh_°njcle --

_---____

.

T .......

Mission Design and Management: TsKBEM Launch Vehicle: 8K82K (Proton-K Launch 21:42:11 Scientific 1) 2) 3) Results: to the sensor sensor's accurate course circled range taking Earth. no. 234-01 Date UT and + Blok / Blok D upper D no. 17) 1968 / stage

4) 5) 6) 7) 8)

cosmic-ray

gradient

detector experiment

radio wave propagation electric field detector cosmic celestial dust detector

Time: / launch

14 September site 81L

mechanics 9 was to the

experiment fourth in a series of

Launch Site: NIIP-5 Instruments: biological radiation imaging Zond

Results: Pioneer probes designed from

study orbit. the

interplanetary In its 297.5-day cylindrical, valuable wind, spindata cosmic The and put

payload detectors system the first Soviet spacecraft misflight control of used two Moon the less midat a to

space orbit

heliocentric x 1.0 AU,

at 0.75

stabilized on the

spacecraft properties

obtained of the solar

5 was a three the

complete Moon, failed optical

successful failures. main due to stellar

circumlunar During contamination Controllers to perform the attitude

sion-after

rays, Delta

and interplanetary launch vehicle Satellite orbit systems NASA 9 until to use

magnetic fields. also carried the Test which was

Training into Earth

(TETR-B), to test in

ground-based support of the

commuApollo with

surface. sensors The the far

nications program. Pioneer attempts Intelligence contact failed, spacecraft 100 ) Zond 6

backup corrections. around of 1,950

maintained 19 May 1983.

contact

spacecraft side of the on 18

successfully

Subsequent

Search

for Extraterrestrial to 3 establish 1987 the

kilometers photos

September, Moon and

(SETI) with the

equipment probe on officially

high-resolution On the return sensor

of the flight, and

March declared

leg of the failed stabilization

a second the space-

and

the

Agency

attitude-control craft's switched result, reentry down Indian three-axis off the Zond (instead safely Ocean

inactive.

platform system. direct As a

guided

reentry a

5 performed of a guided backup at

ballistic splashed in the and

one) and target

Nation: USSR Objective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft Mission 5 Launch 235-01 Launch 19:11:31 Launch Scientific

(56) circumlunar flight 121,) kg TsKBEM D (Proton-K no. + Blok 19) 1968 /

in the

area latitude

32°38 ' south about tracking

7K-L1

(no.

65°33 ' east from time carried including effects vived 99) Pioneer 9

longitude, Soviet UT on

105

kilometers Landing Zond payload the sur-

Mass: c. 5,375 Design 8K82K D no.

the nearest was 16:08 an two

ship.

and Management:

21 September. biological

Vehicle: / Blok

extensive steppe

tortoises flight.

to measure The tortoises

Date and Time: 10 November UT Site: NIIP-5 Instruments: biological radiation imaging payload detectors system camera detector second the ground / launch site

of circumlunar the trip and were

returned

to Moscow.

81L

1) 2) 3) orbit 4) 5) kg NASA ARC E-1 (no. 60 / Thor Results: the

Nation: U.S. (44) Objective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft Mission Launch solar

photo-emulsion micrometeoroid Zond 6 was sent the

Pioneer-D Mass: 65.36

spacecraft Moon. Soon

that after dis-

Design and Management: Vehicle: Thor-Delta

Soviets

around

translunar covered that

injection, the

controllers

no. 479 / DSV-3E) Launch 09:46:29 Date and Time: 8 November UT complex 17B 1968 /

vehicle's Given was

high-gain that installed had for circled

antenna attithe plans on

had

failed

to deploy. sensor boom,

the main

tude-control antenna to use magnetometer control. the detector again Moon

Launch Site: ETR / launch Scientific Instruments: 1) 2) 3) triaxial plasma fluxgate analyzer

controllers sensor

to make

a backup The

further the far

attitude side of

spacecraft

at a range

of 2,420

kilometers, photographs

once of

cosmic-ray-anisotropy

taking

black-and-white

m

Z]

theMoon. During thereturnflight,temperaturesin a hydrogen eroxide for the p tank attitude-control thrusters dropped farbelow acceptable levels.Engineers ttempted a to heatthetankbydirectsunlight, asthey but laterdiscovered, sucha procedure affected the weakpressurization sealof the main hatchandledto slowdecompression ofthe maincapsule. Despite failures, ond6 the Z

successfully carried fullyautomated a guided reentryinto the primarylandingzonein Kazakhstan.radioaltimeter, A notdesigned forworkin depressurized spacecraft, issued an incorrect command jettisonthe main to parachutes. result,hespacecraft Asa t plummetedto the groundand wasdestroyed. Although mainbiological the payload was lost, escuers r salvaged filmfromthecameras.

_--DeepSpace

Chronicle

_-

_

......................................

1969
101) Venera 5 Nation: USSR 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft Lavochkin Launch Vehicle: 8K78M Launch Date and Time: 5 January 06:28:08 UT /]aunch site 1 Launch Site: NIIP-5 Scientific Instruments: 1969 (57) landing a similar spacecraft landers designed tas The opposed landers bus-lander (flown (each to system as Venera 405 g-loads for used the their smaller probes as the 1V-type two new were as 450 4), the kilograms! as high weighing endure to 300 also allowing the operating

Venus

2V (no. 330) Mass: 1,130 kg

predecessors). parachutes to descend to increase to the surface.

Mission Design and Management: GSMZ

for descent, faster chances After tions pleting March side its through of

atmosphere close

performing sessions one 1966, of Venus lander, with

seventy-three ground

communicacontrol and on the and reduced to 210 com14 dark from meters atmoslater, with transmitted and at an when latitude compofor altitude the and 53 of presImpact 18 ° from ternsur530°C, conthe

midcourse Venera on whose

correction 5 approached 1969 speed

Lander: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) radio aneroid eleven two ionization altimeter barometer gas analyzer densitometer sensors cartridges

16 May

detached

1,100.17 per second at

meters after

per it hit

second the

Venusian

resistance

thermometers

phere trollers lander data sition

06:01 UT. reestablished and began

One

minute contact

611 photoelectric Bus: 1) 2) 3) 4) Results: spacecraft atmosphere tific craft to Earth magnetometer cosmic-ray charged-particle ultraviolet Veneras 5 and

receiving temperature,

on of

pressure, the Contact

Venusian was

atmosphere lost

counters traps photometer 6 were to two identical Venus's of scienspaceonly a Both Venus

minutes. about sure 24

to

26 were

kilometers 26.1 3 ° south

exceeded

atmospheres.

coordinates longitude. Venera perature face were

designed and transmit during

penetrate a variety

Information 5's data and suggested pressure 140

extrapolated that at the ground Venusian and

descent. to reach some both

were

targeted thus

atmospheres

day apart, tion of data.

allowing

cross-calibraspacecraft used

respectively.

Although

102) Venera 6 Nation: USSR (58) landing

about readings,

400°C.

This

compared indicated temperature

with

Venera at

4's 75

which and

pressure at 500°C.

atmospheres

Objective(s): Venus Spacecraft: Spacecraft Mission Lavochkin

2V (no. 331) Mass: 1,130 kg GSMZ

103) no name / [Zend] Nation: USSR Objective(s): Spacecraft: 1969 1 / Spacecraft (59) circumlunar 7K-L1 Mass: c. 5,375 flight kg TsKBEM D (Proton-K

Design and Management:

Launch Vehicle: 8K78M Launch Date and Time: 10 January 05:51:52 UT / launch site Launch Site: NIIP-5 Scientific Instruments:

(no. 13L)

Mission Design and Management: Launch Vehicle: 8K82K + Blok

no. 237-01) Launch Date and Time: 20 January UT Site: NIIP-5 Instruments: This was / launch unknown the program success December lifted was sixth and of 1968. off on time, nominal. firing, one attempt the the first at after a site 81L 1969 /

Lander: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Bus: 1) 2) 3) 4) Results: reached magnetometer cosmic-ray charged-particle ultraviolet Identical Venus after counters traps photometer to sessions Venera performing with 5, Earth Venera sixty-three and one mil6 radio aneroid eleven two ionization photoelectric altimeter barometer gas-analyzer densitometer sensors cartridges

04:14:36 Launch Scientific Results: robotic L1 piloted the Apollo launch stage during engines off at continued mary during onds feeding near due

resistance

thermometers

circumlunar lunar

flight

in support

of the

resounding 8 in

American The and Proton first-

vehicle operation

However, of the four

second-stage of the T+313.66 firing, third-stage its firing stage

mysteriously The other

switched engines the switched prioff sec-

seconds. but

communications midcourse lion 1969. the planet

subsequently, also at in the

correction from

at a range Earth lander on

of 15.7 16

engine sequence

kilometers

March from the

T+500.03 main

Its 405-kilogram main and bus 25,000

separated from

to a breakdown fuel to the flight, border fuel the between

pipeline After landed and a

kilometers

gas generator: L1 payload the USSR

entered of 11.17 17 May

the Venusian kilometers 1969. The

atmosphere per second at

near-ballistic the

at a velocity 06:05 sule UT on

Venera

6 capbefore

Mongolia. 104) no name / [Luna] Nation: USSR (60) 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft Lavochkin Launch Vehicle: 8K82K 239-01) Launch Date and Time: 19 February 06:48:15 Launch Scientific 1) UT Site: NIIP-5 Instruments: imaging TVs and photometers) system four (two low-resolution / launch site 81P 1969 / + Blok D (Proton no. lunar Ye-8 roving (no. 201) kg operations

transmitted

data

for 51 minutes at an Pressure

contact was lost, probably about 10 to 12 kilometers. ilar at at the a much time to that

altitude of was simby Venera 5

measured

higher have plateau.

altitude, come down

indicating over

that a moun-

Venera tain were from by the firm Venera Venus's 93 to or

6 may high

Landing 23 ° longitude. 6 missions, 1970,

coordinates Results published to confrom that

Mass: c. 5,700

-5 ° latitude the and Venera sharpen two

and 5 and in March new

Mission Design and Management: GSMZ

Soviets 4. The

seemed findings

earlier

spacecraft composed

found

atmosphere 97 percent was the split ground and

was

of roughly (the oxygen, 6 sugabout 60 was

carbon among Data ground from pressure

dioxide nitrogen, Venera was

remainder and gested inert that

gases).

high-resolution

atmospheres

temperature

2) x-rayspectrometer 3) penetrometer 4) laserreflector 5) radiation detectors 6) x-ray telescope 7) odometer/speedometer Results: TheYe-8 represented the"thirdgeneration" f Soviet obotic o r lunarprobes. The basicYe-8comprised landerstage(the a "KT") opped ffbyaneight-wheeled, t o remotecontrolledlunar rover (the "8YeL")for exploring Moon's urface. the s Essentially a pressurized magnesium alloycontainer n o wheels, 8YeLwasdesigned operate the to overa periodof threelunardays(roughly threeEarth months) nd collect scientific a
data face. Moon onds, booster tion sure from This was the various first attempt points on the the lunar rover At T+51 and suron the secthe to put failure. a complete payload eventually that the stack

four

years.

On this 7K-L1

first

launch,

the

N1 carried known as orbit as with for the shut opercontrol crashed site, its and

a basic Zond) (rather the an

spacecraft for operations

(openly

modified than

in lunar flight). Known

for circumlunar the spacecraft

7K-L1S, Engine

was Complex

equipped (DOK) During initially engines the

Orientation control in lunar

attitude launch, down, ated system about the escape

orbit.

two but until shut the

first-stage remainder T+70 them

engines of the when The the

seconds down. from

booster launch used

50 kilometers payload system

successfully to descend from booster pressure in motion fire stage. the failed

launch 32

without pad.

problem Investigators a pipe

to 35 kilometers believed measuring onds that tail the that that fuel set

when

for sec-

broke

at T+23.3

a sequence at T+54.5 The fire shut T+70

of events in the

led to a huge of the control first

seconds

disintegrated Later

short-circuited down seconds. all the

exploded. maximum

investigapresa new tension searchers radioacthe that isotope winter rover. solto

system

and

indicated during

dynamic tore

engines 106) Mariner 6

at approximately

ascent off at

trajectory its weakest effort,

payload points. were tive

shroud Despite unable isotope

an intensive to find heat rumors the

polonium-20 in abound used the the still

Nation: U.S. (45) 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft Launch Mars flyby / Mariner-F JPL / Atlas

source

Unconfirmed diers heat at their the

Mariner-69F Mass: 381 kg

launch

site during

barracks

bitter

Mission Design and Management: NASA Vehicle: Atlas-Centaur / Centaur D-1A) 1969 (AC-20 3C no. 5403C

of 1968.

105) no name / [N1 launch test] Nation: USSR 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft (61) lunar 7K-L1S orbit (no. 2) kg TsKBEM 15003) 1969 / 110P

Launch Date and Time: 25 February 01:29:02 UT / launch complex Launch Site: ETR Scientific 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Results: intended launch test of Mariner Centaur, suite. the close Both surface flybys.

/

36B

Instruments: imaging infrared ultraviolet infrared celestial S-band Mariners to fly spacecraft permitting spacecraft and system (two TV cameras)

Mass: 6,900

spectrometer spectrometer radiometer mechanics occultation 6 and by Mars, launched a heavier intended of Mars experiment experiment spacecraft the the first Atlaswere by

Mission Design and Management: Launch Vehicle: N1 (no.

Launch Date and Time: 21 February 09:18:07 UT Launch Scientific Site: NIIP-5 Instruments: was the / launch unknown first attempted site

7, identical

Results: This the giant ations gram. two

N1 booster Soviet

as part piloted

of early lunar

operproafter

instrument to study during was were

in the N1 years

landing in 1962

were

development of initial the

began R&D first on

atmosphere

heavy

booster had been

All onboard data for

instrumentation on Mars; of there

designs. originally of the

Although planned

launch a major financial the

designed no

to collect

for 1965, and

redesign and launch orgaby

experiments The

study

interplanetary spacecraft was magne-

booster

in 1964

space.

3.35-meter-tall around an

nizational

difficulties

delayed

constructed

eight-sided

m75

siumframework fourrectangular with solar 8) low-energy ion spectrometer panelsor449wattspower. f Theheartofthe 9) imaging system Ithree cameras} spacecraft the 11.8-kilogramontrol Results: The M-69 series of Mars spacecraft was C Computer andSequencer (CC&S), which was was the first of a new generation of Mars designed operate to Mariner independently probes designed by the Lavochkin design withoutintervention fromgroundcontrol. bureau for launch on the heavy Proton booster. Afteramidcourse correction on1March 1969 Although the 1969 missions were originally and preliminaryimagingsessions (fifty meant for both Mars orbit and landing, weight photos) on28July, ariner flewbyMars M 6 at constraints late in mission design forced engi05:19:07 UTon31Julyatadistancef3,429 neers to delete the lander and focus only on a o kilometers. 15minutes riorto closest Mars orbit mission. The probes were designed Just p approach (justsouth oftheMartian equator), around a single large spherical tank to which thetwoTVcameras onascan platform began three pressurized compartments were takingphotos the planetautomatically attached. After two en route midcourse correcof every 42seconds. During period a of17min- tions, the spacecraft were intended to enter utes, Mariner 6 took twenty-fournear- orbit around Mars at roughly 1,700 x 34,000 encounter photos thatwerestored andlater kilometers at 40 ° inclination. After an initial transmitted Earth.Thephotosshowed photography to mission, the probes would lower heavily crateredndchaotic reas otunlike their pericenter to about 500 to 700 kilometers a a n partsoftheMoon. Imagesfthesouth o polar for a second imaging mission. Total mission region showed intriguing detailof anirreg- lifetime would be about three months. During ularborder. Thescientificnstruments i indi- the launch of the first M-69, the Proton's third catedthat the polarcapgaveoff infrared stage stopped firing at T+438.66 seconds, after radiation consistentwith solid carbon its turbopump had caught on fire because of a dioxide. Mariner found 6 surface pressure to faulty rotor bearing. The probe, scheduled to be equalto about30.5kilometers above reach Mars orbit on 11 September 1969, never Earth'ssurface. Atmosphericomposition even reached Earth orbit. c wasabout 8percent 9 carbon ioxide. d Surface temperatures ranged from-73°C nightto 108) at Mariner 7 -125°C atthesouth polar cap. 107)
no name / [Mars] Nation: USSR 0bjective{s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft (62) Mars M-69 Mass: orbit (no. 5211 c. 3,800 kg Nation: U.S. (46) flyby Objective(s): Mars Spacecraft: Spacecraft Mariner-69G Mass: 381 kg NASA (AC-19 D-1A) 1969 / JPL / Atlas

Mission Design and Management: Launch Vehicle: Atlas-Centaur 3C no. 5105C / Centaur

Mission Design and Management: GSMZ Lavochkin Launch Vehicle: 240-01 Launch Date and Time: 27 March 10:40:45 Launch Scientific 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) UT Site: NIIP-5 Instruments: radiometer instrument levels ultraviolet radiation gamma to measure spectrometer detector spectrometer mass spectrometer water vapor / launch site 81L 1969 / 8K82K + Blok D (Proton no.

Launch Date and Time: 27 March 22:22:01 Launch Scientific 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Results: a similar Mariner Mars's grammed increase the UT Site: ETR / launch

complex

36A

Instruments: imaging infrared ultraviolet infrared celestial S-band Identical mission 6 had south system (two TV cameras)

spectrometer spectrometer radiometer mechanics occultation to Mariner of flying experiment experiment 6, Mariner by Mars. 7 had After of

returned polar cap, 7's

intriguing controllers control

photos reprosystem

hydrogen/helium spectrometer

Mariner number

to pole

of scans

of the south

,.

Deep Deep

Spoce

Chronicle

for the

second

spacecraft Following

from

twenty-five midcourse

to

4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9)

radiation gamma

detector spectrometer mass spectrometer

thirty-three. correction on 30 July, scheduled tracking Africa, gain Spain,

a perfect to Mars before Mars,

on the just to

way 7 hours

on 8 April Mariner the deep

1969, 6 was space South high-

hydrogen/helium spectrometer low-energy imaging second ion system M-69

fly

by at with

spectrometer (three cameras) was six orbit its idendays

station lost contact

Johannesburg, the spacecraft's

Results: The tical before) Mars never launch, stage Although remaining 7 course attitude, first-stage and at to its

spacecraft (launched to enter 1969. Like

antenna. was

One diverted Pioneer

of two stations from its original the

in Madrid, mission search station from antenna, probfor at the to

predecessor intended

and was on

around twin, orbit. it At

of tracking Mariner Goldstone spacecraft. Mariner which lems

8 and joined the faint sent to the

15 September

7. Fortunately, picked 7 to switch worked with well up

Pioneer signals low-gain

reached at T+0.02 engines the five

intermediate-Earth seconds, of booster engines, the one of the Proton lifted it off

six firstexploded.

Controllers

commands Despite

using veering horizontal remaining T+41

the off

afterwards. calibration,

began

positional ninety-three

Mariner and of the very 6. The

eventually which engines point shut

assumed all down. the At

recorded thirty-three planet, similar closest

far-encounter images cratered terrain

near-encounter heavily recorded to Mars

secfrom

showing to images approach

by Mariner was at 05:00:49 of 3,430

onds, the booster impacted the launch site in a massive

3 kilometers fireball.

UT kiloof of 110) no name / [Luna] Nation: USSR 0bjective(s): (64) lunar sample (no. 402) kg return

on 5 August meters. 300 Hellas found perature 28 ° east suggesting 6 kilometers photo Phobos. visible, from meters,

1969, Mariner

at a distance the high 7 found of craters. of 3.5 millibars

Oddly,

despite

resolution the The center spacecraft and latitude

to be devoid a pressure of-90°F longitude that

a temand region, about One moon not to moon

Spacecraft: Ye-8-5

at 59 ° south in the this area the

Spacecraft Mass: c. 5,700 Lavochkin Launch Vehicle: 8K82K (Proton 04:00:47 no. 238-01)

Hellespontus was average 7 showed features showed the elevated terrain. the

Mission Design and Management: GSMZ + Blok D

above Mariner

Although the picture

surface clearly

were

Launch Date and Time: 14 June UT / launch

1969

/

be irregularly 109) no name / [Mars] Nation: USSR Objective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft

shaped.

Launch Site: NIIP-5

site

81P

Scientific Instruments: 1) 2) 3) orbit (no. 522) kg (63) Mars M-69 stereo remote radiation Ye-8-5 rover design imaging arm detector was a variant of the basic by the verwas It had that of system for sample collection

Results: The Ye-8 lunar

spacecraft bureau.

developed This began portion particular in

Mass: c. 3,800

Lavochkin sion, no. whose

Mission Design and Management: GSMZ Lavochkin Launch 233-01) Launch Date and Time: 2 April 10:33:00 UT Launch Scientific 1) 2) Site: NIIP-5 Instruments: radiometer instrument levels ultraviolet to measure water vapor / launch 1969 / site 81P Vehicle: 8K82K + Blok D (Proton

development a small and return lander

1968,

designed the lunar the the same rover

to recover surface basic variant four together with rover was tanks that

of soil from

it to Earth. ("KT') as

stage

(built spherical in a

around

a structure tanks was lunar

comprising linked installed soil. The stage" propellant

propellant square), which up

a robot was built that

arm around

to scoop by a new three of Moon,

replaced

"ascent spherical a main a pres-

consisted the

3)

spectrometer

rocket

engine

to lift off from

surized compartment electronics, for anda small,39-kilogram spherical capsule that woulddetach from the stageandreenter Earth's tmosphere a withitsvaluableayload p oflunardust.Onthefirst launch attempt of theYe-8-5 scooper, robot thefirstthree stages ofthe Proton worked withoutfault,but the BlokDfourth stage, which tofiretoattain was orbital elocity, toignite toadisrupv failed due tionin thecircuitofitsguidance system. The spacecraft reentered Earth's tmosphere a over thePacific ithout eaching w r orbit. 111)
no name / [N1 test flight] Nation: USSR 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft (65) lunar 7K-LIS Mass: c. 6,900 kg orbit

0bjective(s):

lunar

sample (no. 401) kg

return

Spacecraft: Ye-8-5 Spacecraft Lavochkin

Mass: 5,700

Mission Design and Management: GSMZ Launch Vehicle: 8K82K (Proton no. 242-01) 1969 site / 81P + Blok D

Launch Date and Time: 13 July 02:54:42 UT Launch Site: NIIP-5 Scientific 1) 2) 3) Results: before Moon, recover a race the were, / launch Instruments: stereo remote radiation Luna the was and to reach 15, imaging arm

system for sample collection

detector launched Apollo second lunar Moon the 11 Soviet soil back and return only three to days the to In

historic the bring

mission

attempt to Earth. to Earth,

Mission Design and Management: TsKBEM Launch Vehicle: N1 (no. 15005) 1969 / site ll0P

parallel in race the

missions some that United After ways, defined States

of Luna the the and

15 and Apollo

11

culmination space the Soviet correction lunar

of the of the orbit Union

Launch Date and Time: 3 July 20:18:32 Launch Scientific UT Site: NIIP-5 Instruments: was the / launch unknown second As with of a basic

Moon both in the day

programs

1960s.

a midcourse Luna 15 entered 1969. for

after 10:00

launch, UT on in

Results: This the giant payload spacecraft mentation enable after the

attempt 7K-L1

to launch its ("Zond") instrublock to Moments booster engulfed nearby kilome-

at

17 July orbit

The two

spacecraft days while and astroset retrosurface

N1 rocket. consisted equipped and an operations

its predecessor,

remained controllers performed nauts foot on the rocket at

lunar

checked two orbital

all onboard maneuvers. Aldrin 15 fired descent 1969. had

systems After already its main to the

with additional attitude-control in first pad lunar stage inferno and for orbit. of the that several damaged

Armstrong Moon,

and Luna

launch, entire

the launch

engine UT

to initiate on 21 July

exploded buildings ters around

in a massive and the structures area. system descent recovered An

15:47

Unfortunately,

transmissions ceased deorbit at a calculated The side Mare spacecraft had

only 4 minutes after altitude of 3 kilometers. probably hnpact crashed coordinates longitude onto the were in

Amazingly, operated apparatus safely

the payload's without fault,

launch and the

escape Zond was pad. cause

of a mountain, latitude Crisium.

(or descent 2 kilometers commission to the pump entry of a

17 ° north

and

60 ° east

module) from traced foreign the the the

investigation failure

of the

113) Zond 7 Nation: USSR 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft (67) circumlunar 7K-L1 Mass: (no. c. 5,375 11) kg + Blok D flight

object

into

the oxidizer at T-0.25 a fire

of one of The to

first-stage

engines started stage.

seconds. that began

ensuing engulf down onds. the

explosion the first all The engines booster and then

The

control one about

system 200 meters down

shut secoff in a

except lifted came

by T+10.15

Mission Design and Management: TsKBEM Launch Vehicle: 8K82K (Proton Launch no. 243-01) Date and Time: 7 August UT Site: NIIP-5 / launch site 81L 1969 /

pad

crashing

massive 112) Luna 15

explosion.

23:48:06 Launch (66)

Nation: USSR

Scientific 1) 2) 3) Results: and fully

Instruments: biological radiation imaging Following payload detectors system a spate failures, Soviet had been for robotic the Like next flight of partial Zond 7 was successes the first mission. vehicle original been a

stage

of the

booster culminated

developed

a problem loss

that

eventually sure

in complete only

of presprior to

at T+213

seconds, cutoff

4 seconds stage.

main-engine second-stage was no way error first

of the

first was

Although there large

performance to compensate

nominal, for the

catastrophic successful

circumlunar the last flight. 7K-L1 In the

pointing in the course, destroy was the

introduced With control the

by the booster

malfunctions veering off to

The spacecraft manufactured schedule, piloted.

stage.

ground the vehicle last

sent

a command seconds. Pioneer-E intended heliocentric

would Zond including part

have

at T+484

its predecessors, specimens, that were

7 carried four male

in a series

of probes space from

for

set of biological steppe thirty course tortoises selected correction

studying orbit. L was test An

interplanetary additional and

of a group After the

of

payload Training

on the Thor-Delta Satellite (TETR) to

for an experiment. on 8 August, the far side

a mid-

a Test

spacecraft Moon

the Apollo

ground

tracking

network.

successfully two Zond August of both days later

circled

of the

at a range color and the

of 1,200 imaging

kilometers. on 8 major the

115) Kosmos 300 / [Luna] Nation: USSR Objective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft Lavochkin Launch 244-01) Launch Date and Time: 23 September 14:07:36 Launch Scientific UT Site: NIIP-5 Instruments: stereo remote radiation This return in the orbit was imaging arm detector the third attempt to July the to send Moon On (after this a system for sample collection / launch site 81P 1969 / Vehicle: 8K82K + Blok D (Proton no. (68) lunar Ye-8-5 sample (no. 403) kg return

7 performed (of Earth) Earth and

sessions (two The only was

11 August Moonl. the main mission

sessions

malfunction failure (due this mary carried atmosphere south day 114) Pioneer Nation: U.S. Objective(s}: Spacecraft: Spacecraft Mission Launch 540) 18-hour

during the

to deploy to a problem did not

parabolic securing

antenna cables), but pri-

Mass: c. 5,700

in the

Mission Design and Management: GSMZ

prevent of the a

fulfillment mission. Zond reentry

of all

the

goals out

7 successfully over Earth's problem after a 6-

guided landed

and

without

of Kustanay 25-minute

in Kazakhstan flight.

1) 21 (47) solar orbit 31 Results: sample kg NASA ARC no. L (no. 73 / Thor failures attempt, Earth translunar 1969 / cated fire 17A that

Pioneer-E Mass: 65.4

spacecraft June and

196911.

Design

and Management:

spacecraft but failed

successfully to Later inject

reached itself on indito a

Vehicle: Thor-Delta

trajectory. the

investigation stage

Launch Date and Time: 27 August 15:59 UT Launch Site: ETR / launch Scientific Instruments: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Results: Pioneer three-axis cosmic-ray complex

Blok D upper time for

had failed injection injection the

a second of that of the

translunar with stuck Earth liquid Soviet orbit a fuel during orbital oxygen press

because valve firing tion). Blok

a problem had become

first inserin the

magnetometer telescope

Blok

D (for all the The

As a result, D was goal. days Kosmos The after

radio propagation detector electric field detector quadrispherical cosmic-ray-anisotropy cosmic celestial At T+31 dust detector experiment launch of this plasma analyzer detector

depleted.

named to its about

the vehicle lunar four 116)

300 without

alluding decayed

payload's launch.

mechanics seconds

in the

Kosmos 305 / [Luna] Nation: USSR (69)

probe,

the hydraulics

system

of the first

1969

Objective(s): lunar
Spacecraft: Ye-8-5 Spacecraft Lavochkin

sample (no. 404)

return

Results: Exactly failure another craft. Earth meant telemetry 1969 / nications been of Kosmos Ye-8-5 Once orbit. to again, When fire readings were

one

lunar the sample spacecraft Blok

month Soviets return failed

after

the

300, lunar the the for went lost.

launched spaceto leave stage was injection, and commuapparently one of the

Mass: c. 5,700

kg

Mission Design and Management: GSMZ Launch Vehicle: 8K82K 241-01) Launch Date and Time: 22 October 14:09:59 UT / launch site 81P + Blok D (Proton no.

D upper

translunar off scale had in

There failure designed The as

a programming blocks fire. Blok D to to the the orbit craft

Launch Site: NIIP-5

radio-command the

to command press merely 305. orbit The of

Scientific Instruments: 1) 2) 3) stereo remote radiation imaging arm detector system for sample collection

Soviet

referred spacecraft's before Earth.

probe

Kosmos over a single

decayed completed

Australia

°

Deep Space Chronicle

1970
117) no name / [Luna] Nation: USSR (70) lunar Ye-8-5 sample (no. 405) kg GSMZ D (Proton no. return 118) Venera 7 Nation: USSR Objective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft Lavochkin + Blok Launch Vehicle: 8K78M 1970 31 / (71) Venus landing

0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft Lavochkin Launch 247-01 Launch 04:16:06 Launch Scientific 1) 2) 3) Results: failures program. from deposit neous at T+127 the its

3V (no. 630) Mass: 1,180 kg GSMZ

Mass: c. 5,700

Mission Design and Management: Vehicle: 8K82K

Mission Design and Management;

Launch Date and Time: 17 August Date and Time: 6 February UT Site: NIIP-5 Instruments: stereo remote radiation This on attempt the robotic fifth the imaging arm detector continued lunar attempt Proton in Earth shut down and the the for the and the sample to recover booster orbit. the failed An spate return soil to of system for sample collection / launch site 81 1970 / 05:38:22 Launch Scientific Bus: 1) 2) 1) 2) Results: prepared vivable spacecraft Veneras spherical grams). redesigned pressures peratures left course November, Earth a solar wind detector detector thermometer barometer 7 was one of a pair in 1970 surface similar UT Site: NIIP-5 Instruments: / launch site

cosmic-ray resistance aneroid Venera by the landing were 4, 5, and lander After the of up

Lander:

On this Moon,

of spacecraft to make of Venus. in design bus and a surThe to a

Soviets on the quite

payload seconds,

errostage was

command

second booster

6, with with last

a main a mass mission,

destroyed. zation TsKBM, the simple 1970

Subsequently, responsible implemented performance diagnostic corrective suborbital

design Proton,

organithe of

(now the landing

of 500 kiloengineers to withstand and tem-

a thorough flight

review completed in August

capsule

Proton's

to 180 atmospheres Venera 2

of up to 540°C. orbit and corrections respectively, on

7 successfully two and mid17 its

to verify

measures.

implemented October

before

beginning

-

_

i

i

-i

....

,970

Venus 1970 charged

encounter when the

operations lander solar probe's panels

on

12 December batteries were and

engine igniting onds) and power stranded Earth's spacecraft Soviet 120) Luna 16

of the and

Blok cut in

L upper

stage (after

was only

late

in

off early the DC The

25 secin the

up (using

on the bus)

due to incorrect a failure supply in

operation

of a sequencer

the internal

temperature

lowered.

At 04:58:44 from

transformer payload

UT on 15 December, the bus and entered

the lander the Venusian

separated

system. orbit,

remained reentering 1970. 359 by The the

atmosphere and When down of 60 a velocity aerodyto 200 kilo-

eventually on 6 November

at an altitude of 11.5 namic meters meters, Within was on drag per the

of 135 kilometers per reduced at an second. velocity altitude system had

atmosphere was

kilometers second

named

Kosmos the failure.

press

to disguise

parachute

deployed. capsule at the tracking to be a valu-

35 minutes, the

at 05:34:10

UT, the ended

Venusian appeared

landscape. to have Soviet

Although

Nation: USSR 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft

(73) lunar sample (no. 406) kg GSMZ D (Proton-K no. return

transmissions moment stations of the able from

of landing, recorded noise. Soviet data,

ground

Ye-8-5

what After scientists 58

at first computer

proved

Mass: 5,727

unintelligible 22 the

processing

discovered

Mission Design and Management: Lavochkin Launch Vehicle: 8K82K + Blok

minutes

seconds first surface loss tipped

of information transmissions of another of signal over on its planet. occurred side. of

capsule---the from the capsule the

248-01) Launch Date and Time: 12 September 13:25:53 UT Launch Site: NIIP-5 Scientific 1) 2) 3) Results: the fully the after Instruments: stereo remote radiation tuna in the imaging arm 16 was their mission recovery of the failures. (which Luna Moon. After included 16 entered with Two detector a landmark deep space of soil The success exploration the first from came coast to cororbit on samples success for system for sample collection / launch site 81L 1970 /

spacecraft Quite when Venera ture with Impact longitude. 119) likely, the

initial

7's data The

indicated and and 5 ° south information

a surface a pressure was latitude American

temperaof 90 + 15 a good estimates. and 351 ° fit

of 475 previous point

_ 20°C Soviet was

atmospheres.

Soviets automatic surface five Moon

program; Kosmos 359 / [Venera] Nation: USSR Objective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft Lavochkin Launch Vehicle: 8K78M Launch Date and Time: 22 August 05:06:09 Scientific Bus: 1) solar wind detector detector thermometer barometer the second of a pair and transmit case, orbit, after the of probes inforthe main UT / launch site 31 Instruments: Launch Site: NIIP-5 1970 I I72) Venus landing

accomplished

a successful

the kg

one midcourse circular lunar

3V (no. 631) Mass: c. 1,200

rection), (at 17 110

kilometers

a 70 ° inclination) orbital altered preparation at 05:12 fired its surface. soft-landed latitude area 100 mass

Mission Design and Management: GSMZ

September. on 18 and and to the to begin later, target the area

further

adjustboth for UT main Six

ments altitude descent on 20 engine minutes in its

19 September in 16

inclination Moon. Luna its descent spacecraft

At perilune to the safely

September,

at 0°41 ' south in the

and of

56°18 ' east the Sea

longitude,

northeast

2) cosnfic-ray Lander: 1) 2} Results: designed mation spacecraft resistance aneroid This back was

of Fertility, east at of Webb landing

approximately crater. was The 1,880 the After a stop

kiloof the

meters spacecraft Less an face

kilograms. at 06:03 lunar drilling its UT, surfor

than automatic

an hour drill

after

landing,

penetrated

to land

on Venus

to collect the depth

a soil sample. drill and reached then

to Earth. reached

In this Earth

7 minutes, limeters

at 35 milsample

had

withdrew

DeepSpace Chronicle

......

and craft,

lifted

it in an arc the

to the

top

of the

space-

the

spacecraft of

performed a guided) The safely vehicle's in the

a reentry

simple into descent Indian

ballistic Earth's module Ocean at

depositing capsule bus.

precious

cargo on the

in a small main UT stage spaceon 21

(instead atmosphere. splashed 13:55 a UT

spherical craft

mounted at

Finally, the

07:43 upper days

down

September, off from direct rections, lunar velocity sule of the 05:25 the soil, the ascent the

spacecraft's Three with with Earth's per

lifted after corof at a capat of

on 27 October of the Chagos target

about Islands, point.

730 kilometers 24 kilometers

Moon. traverse capsule,

later,

southeast from 122)

no midcourse its 105 grams

its original

reentered

atmosphere second. The

of 11 kilometers down town UT on of Dzhezkazgan 24 September material basalt

Luna 17 / Lunokhod 1 Nation: USSR 0bjective(s): Spacecraft Lavochkin Launch Vehicle: 8K82K + Blok D (Proton-K no. (75) lunar roving (no. 203) kg operations

parachuted

80 kilometers

southeast

in Kazakhstan 1970. indicated Analysis

Spacecraft: Ye-8

dark

a close

Mass: 5,700

resemblance Apollo 121) Zond 8 Nation: USSR Objective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft

to soil recovered

by the American

Mission Design and Management: GSMZ

12 mission.

251-01) Launch (74) circumlunar 7K-L1 (no. 14) kg flight 14:44:01 Launch Scientific 1) D (Proton-K 2) 1970 81L / 3) 4) / launch site 5) 61 collector the last packages in the series of cira ini7) Results: cesses Luna Lunokhod roving the a second Moon descent ramps a to piloted to rehearse project the the was Date and Time: 10 November UT Site: NIIP-5 Instruments: imaging TVs and system four (two low-resolution / launch site 81L 1970 /

Mass: c. 5,375

Mission Design and Management: TsKBEM Launch Vehicle: I UT 8K82K + Blok no. 250-01 19:55:39

high-resolution

photometers) x-ray laser spectrometer reflector detectors

Launch Date and Time: 20 October Launch Site: NIIP-5 Scientific 1) 2) Instruments: solar imaging 8 was wind

penetrometer radiation x-ray

telescope

odometer/speedometer Luna 16 and 1, the 17 continued lunar Zond first whose landing 8. the Luna spate 17 of robot of sucbegun carried lunar in the the by

system

Results: Zond cumlunar piloted tiated in the Apollo midcourse tance reached lems, range face

in Soviet

exploration in a series conception as operations. such in

spacecraft circumlunar in 1965

designed flight. The with but circled in December on 22

to compete Moon

Americans Moon on the After

vehicles early lunar attempt after stage for the

had begun part This a vehicle of was

race

to the

lost its importance 1968. October from Earth,

1960s,

originally to land

once three

astronauts

8 mission correction

on the The

at a disZond probat took surtwo 8

a failure was onto rover was 2.15 could forward was about issued The by set solar

February with that

1969. two

of 250,000 the Moon circling of 1,200 during its

kilometers without target

equipped stage," the stood meters be and

landing rover, The meters of its

any apparent on The 24 October spacecraft of the sessions. lunar After

"ascent

is, the surface. 1.35 Each

disembark

Moon's about across. controlled

kilometers. photographs separate

756-kilogram high eight dently Its top with second was inside "drivers" and

black-and-white two

wheels for two speed

indepenspeeds. per with hour, of 5the

midcourse corrections flew a return over sphere approach trol tact stations with instead profile, of

on the return leg, Zond 8 Earth's northern hemithe standard Soviet near-continuous The guidance return southern ground conconsystem leg, and

two reverse meters to deal

100

commands on Earth delay. powered of the

by a five-man of scientific cells top lid

team

allowing

who had

to maintain the ship.

instruments on the and

(installed of the

evidently

malfunctioned

on the

hinged

rover)

The Soviet Moon lander, Lunokhod 1_ chemical rections lunar face batteries. en route orbit and After to the then UT on two midcourse Luna on the corthe rover traveled more than 10.54 20,000 panoramas. performed its RIFMA kilometers TV images In and and

Moon,

17 entered lunar 1970 longitude, 16 site 1 rover lunar surfor surat

returned 206

landed

high-resolution 1 with

addition, soil

at 03:46:50

17 November 35 ° west the Lunokhod onto had but days the an

Lunokhod analyses

twenty-five x-ray fluorescence

38o17 ' north about in the 2,500 Sea over

latitude kilometers of Rains. the ramps UT. The lunar its 322

and The and

from

Luna

spectrometer and used its penetrometer at 500 different locations. Controllers finished the last communications session with Lunokhod Attempts discon1

rolled face lifetime eleven.

at 06:28

rover days Earth

expected

at 13:05 to tinued

UT on 14 September contact were on 4 October.

1971. finally

of three During

operated of operation,

reestablish

''

_D_eePSpace

_Ch;°nicle

.....

__

.

i.

1971
123) Mariner 8 Nation: U.S. (48) Objective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft Mars orbit / Mariner-H kg JPL / Atlas (AC-24 malfunction control system, at an altitude utes. As occurred leading in the stage's of pitch at T+4.7 began down. flightcontrol minto loss of 148 kilometers the engines reentered 1,500 site. stack shut

a result, Centaur

to tumble The stage

Mariner-71H Mass: 997.9

and the and from

its payload the launch

Earth's kilometers

atmosphere downrange

Mission Design and Management: NASA Launch Vehicle: Atlas-Centaur 3C no. 5405C / Centaur D-1A) 1971 /

approximately

Launch Date and Time: 9 May 01:11:01 UT / launch

124) Kosmos 419 / [Mars] Nation: USSR 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: (76) orbit (no. 170) kg

Launch Site: ETR

complex

36A

Scientific Instruments: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Results: was the imaging ultraviolet infrared infrared S-band celestial Mariner-71H first of a pair the of Mars goals on the gather of the that origin system spectrometer spectrometer radiometer occultation mechanics (also experiment experiment called Mariner-H) spacecraft and Martian were support evolution on and could until dynamic orbit.

Mars M-71S

Spacecraft Mass: 4,549 Lavochkin Launch Vehicle: 8K82K 253-01)

Mission Design and Management: GSMZ

+ Blok

D (Proton-K 1971 / site 81L

no.

Launch Date and Time: 10 May 16:58:42 Launch Scientific 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) a 9) UT Site: NIIP-5 / launch Instruments: fluxgate infrared infrared magnetometer radiometer photometer

of American physical from series could and

intended

to explore

characteristics The collect planet; physics, and to overall data to

to search life; to of the

for an

environment

information planetology, data was that nominal upper

planetary cosmology; aid just future Launch after

spectrometer photometer radiometer ultraviolet cosmic-ray charged-particle photometer detector spectrometer

geology, provide such

spacecraft

as the Viking

Landers.

of Mariner-71H separation of the

Centaur

stage,

when

m

85

10)imagingystem s 11)Stereontenna a
Results: Kosmos generation" launched The lander the 1971 original 419 was Mars 1962, was the first probes 1963-64, to launch known window, Mariner a third that as of the (after and two M-71 but "fifththose 1969). orbiterduring to Soviet in 1960, plan

7)

photometer magnetic

in visible spectrum particle

part

of electro-

8) 9) 10)

cosmic-ray energy spectrometer vapor

detector water

spectrometer to determine

combinations Mars the planners a simple spacecraft orbiter could the launch American added orbiter

11)

Stereo

antenna

in order vehicles, the

Lander: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) gamma-ray x-ray wind thermometer velocity recorder barometer imaging penetrometer gamma-ray (on PROP-M) Results: Mars 2 was the first of two sent 1971 propellant orbiterto Mars launch tank modules the Martian (of which were system (two cameras) PROP-M) spectrometer

preempt Soviet 71S, first The for tions entered D upper send tion the

H/I mission,

Mthe

spectrometer

could orbit

become around

to go into also two

Mars.

collect

data

important loca-

aiming in the

landers system. successfully, to fire the to Mars.

at precise The but second Later human for the

Martian orbit failed that the

spacecraft the Blok to in D; The lander by

(on mobile densitometer

Earth stage

time error Blok had

spacecraft

investiga-

showed

there firing

was time

combination Soviets The orbiters fixed landers that

spacecraft during were to a large were would the roughly

programming an eight-digit issued stranded Kosmos Earth's launch. that sent 419, its by an

the

code to fire operator

the engine in reverse which

been

window. structures base. with The

cylindrical

order. was

spacecraft, 419 by the

named reentered days of be

egg-shaped open on

Soviet within had one were

press, two

petals The

atmosphere The to Mars. Soviet Soviets Since officials fate two of their Stereo

surface. 350

1,000-kilogram was top the

landers actual bus into

promised instruments was lost

the on

French would Kosmos

kilograms to the

capsule) and the the Mars on

fastened

of the for entry jettisoning

protected Martian shell, 2 trip 17 June On 27 its the the to two

by a braking atmosphere. landers to the the Red would Martian

shell After

forced up the

to lie about failure.

ultimate

to cover

deploy surface.

parachutes On the corrections

to descend performed

125) Mars 2 Nation: USSR 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft Lavochkin Launch 255-01) Launch Date and Time: 19 May 16:22:44 Launch Scientific UT Site: NIIP-5 Instruments: / launch site 81P 1971 / Vehicle: 8K82K + Blok D (Proton-K no. (77) Mars M-71 orbit and landing

Planet,

controllers

successful and 20

midcourse November 1971,

1971, Mars correction,

respectively. 2 implemented after to initiate the onboard

November final lander pheric puter

(no. 171) kg

midcourse probe entry. was At

which

Mass: 4,650

separated this point, to

atmoscomfinal lander a solidin a speafter the of was

Mission Design and Management: GSMZ

designed to the

implement spin and reentry flight, the the fire

corrections around propellant cific final the no

trajectory, axis,

its longitudinal engine

to initiate During correction, the

direction. midcourse spacecraft need for

trajectory that there measures.

was

so accurate corrective

Orbiter: 1) 2) 3) 4) three-component magnetometer infrared radiometer radiotelescope infrared strips 5) 6) ultraviolet imaging photometer system (two cameras) photometer/CO,_ absorption

further

Because assumed put tion reentry proved system into

of pre-programmed a deviated an incorrect trajectory, attitude for the fired, far too the steep. and

algorithms the lander

that was

after

separaWhen of the entry

to compensate engine to be

"error." angle The the

parachute lander even-

never

deployed,

The Soviet Mars 3 spacecraft.

tually north the with 20:19 were nation, planned 126) Mars 3

crashed latitude first Mars. UT on 1,380 tSee Mars

onto and

the

Martian

surface

at 4 ° It was contact

Orbiter: 1) 2) 3) three-component infrared radiometer magnetometer

47 ° west object the orbit

longitude. to make Mars around 1971.

humanmade Meanwhile, entered

3 orbiter Mars Parameters at

radiotelescope infrared strips ultraviolet imaging photometer magnetic cosmic-ray energy photometer/CO photometer system (two cameras) part detector of electro2 absorption

successfully

4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9)

27 November

x 25,000 entry

kilometers under

at 48.9 ° incliMars 3 for the

2 orbiter

program.)

in visible spectrum particle

spectrometer to determine water

Nation: USSR 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft

(78) Mars orbit and landing

10) (no. 172) kg

spectrometer vapor

M-71

Lander: 1) 2) 3) no. 4) 5) 1971 / sit, e 81L 6) 7) 8) gamma-ray x-ray thermometer wind velocity recorder spectrometer

Mass: 4,650

Mission Design and Management: GSMZ Lavochkin Launch 249-01) Launch Date and Time: 28 May 15:26:30 UT Launch Site: NIIP-5 Scientific Instruments: / launch Vehicle: 8K82K + Blok D (Proton-K

spectrometer

barometer imaging penetrometer system (two cameras) PROP-M)

(on mobile

gamma-ray densitometer (on PROP-MI

Results: Like cessfully Planet. course and 2 sent The

its predecessor, on a trajectory

Mars to

3 was the

sucRed midon the into UT, 2

Launch

Vehicle: Atlas-Centaur / Centaur D-1A)

(AC-23 1971 /

/ Atlas

3C no. 5404C

spacecraft on 1971.

completed 8 June, At 14 09:14

three UT from entry at 13:47 intact first

Launch Date and Time: 30 May 22:23:04 UT

corrections December 1971, and, 4.5

November,

December orbiter the the

the lander hours later,

separated began

Launch Site: ETR / launch Scientific Instruments: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) imaging ultraviolet infrared infrared S-band celestial system

complex

36B

Martian probe

atmosphere. successfully set becoming

Finally, down the

spectrometer spectrometer radiometer occultation mechanics 9 was the experiment experiment second in the in 1971 pair to

on the humanlanding were 45 ° The Mars

Martian made on the

surface, object planet. latitude

to perform Landing and

a survivable coordinates

south bus, with at from UT, probe Martian abruptly violent planet, charge

158 ° west orbit

longitude. around

Results: Mariner of identical orbit failed

meanwhile, parameters 48.9 ° the

entered of 1,500

spacecraft

launched

x 190,700

kilometers different At the 13:50:35 lander of the of a the dis-

inclination, originally

significantly planned after orbit.

Mars. The first to reach Earth structure, propulsion kilograms All Mars. spacecraft platform span panels of 136

spacecraft, Mariner 8, orbit. Based on a wide these vehicles with used a fixed insertion a

octagonal bipropellant thrust around on the scan The solar route Mariner seconds becoming enter orbit

immediately began surface, ceased dust

landing,

system

transmitting although after storm

a TV image 20 seconds. that raged that Because across coronal

for orbital

transmissions

scientific was mounted

instrumentation on a movable the over main bodies.

"underneath" spacecraft 6.9 meters. correction its main

controllers may have on the only a gray

surmised shorted lander.

of the was

its extended an en 1971, 915.6 UT, to

all electric The received with

instruimage no detail, had full con-

Following on 5 June for

mentation showed probably still height tact, probe. orbiter, sion. not

midcourse 9 ignited on

background the two imaging seconds After

engine 1971

because deployed to see the

"heads" to their the initial

14 November the first

at 00:18 object Initial

in 20 surface.

humanmade a planet.

around were

orbital

the ground The had Because Mars

lost all contact 3 orbiter, with

with like its the

the lander Mars mistheir orbit, suborbiter surface. cameras the detail. mission, of sciendata was on lost 2

parameters

1,398 The

x 17,916 primary

kilometers goal of the of the of operbegan major time, dust to

at 64.3 ° inclination. mission surface ation. in dust photos 1972 storm return pitted first time late was during The to map the

problems the orbiters soon wait surface. showed controllers exposure too light until

imaging

about three

70 percent months mission of the this the

had to perform after entering storms the of the set the

first

imaging they sided could on

mission not the

dedicated but the prior show

imaging because

the dust a result,

November, at taken

As

storm did not had

planet to great

during about detail. Once

photographs Additionally. at the wrong far the orbiters

few details had

mid-January

setting, to show a full

making much cycle

subsided,

Mariner photos of

9 began the great than The deeply for

photos Despite both tific the

spectacular Martian such rilles across of that was of water an could features

failure carried

of the out

imaging

landscape,

showing as the more Sirenum.

the

system 1,700 vast the inert.

experiments planet until

returning contact

valuable with both 1972.

of parallel kilometers amount notion

stretching Mare

almost 127)

simultaneously

in July

incoming Mars some was

data

countered

geologically on the

There bility during orbit / Mariner-I kg NASA JPL data Mars

speculation existed but any

possisurface

Mariner 9 Nation: U.S. (49) Objective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft

having

on the the

earlier not

period, provide

spacecraft proof. identi-

conclusive had one

Mariner-7tI Mass: 997.9

By February fied later about named

1972, twenty

the

spacecraft

volcanoes, Mons,

of which, any

Mission Design and Management:

Olympus

dwarfed

similarfeatureon Earth.Olympus Mons, partofNixOlympica--a "great olcanicile" v p possiblyformedby the eruptionof hot magma theplanet's from interior--is25kilometers highandhasa base a diameter with of 600kilometers. 11 February On 1972, NASA announced that Mariner 9 had achieved allitsgoals. Bythetimeoflastcontact at 22:32 on 27 October 972,he UT 1 t spacecraft mapped percent f the had 85 o planetat a resolution f 1 to 2 kilometers, o returning 7,329 photos. 128)
Apollo 15 Particle and Fields Subsatellite Nation: U.S. (50) 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft Mission launched lunar Apollo orbit 15 P&FS kg NASA MSC

129) Luna 18 Nation: USSR 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft (79) lunar Ye-8-5 sample (no. 407) kg return

Mass: c. 5,750

Mission Design and Management: GSMZ Lavochkin Launch 256-01 Launch 13:40:40 Launch Scientific 1) 2) 3) 4) Vehicle: 8K82K ) Date and Time: 2 September UT Site: NIIP-5 / launch site 81P Instruments: stereo remote radiation radio imaging arm altimeter mission was the seventh from after two Soviet the the sursucdetector system for sample collection 1971 / + Blok D (Proton-K no.

Mass: 35.6

Results: This attempt face cess 1971 / on 4 39A of

Design and Management: by Saturn V SA-510)

to recover Moon Luna

soil samples and 16. the After first

Launch Vehicle: Apollo

15 CSM-112

(itself

of the

midcourse 1971, the Luna Moon

Launch Date and Time: 26 July 13:34:00 August Scientific 1) 2) 3) UT (subsatellite 1971 / 20:13:19 / launch UT)

corrections 18 entered on with orbital vehicle

on 4 and a circular at

6 September orbit 100 around kilometers

ejection complex

7 September an inclination corrections, began

altitude more the surface. spacecraft previlatitude edge Soviets in the to be of

Launch Site: ETR

of 35 ° . After on 11

several

Instruments: magnetometer S-band transponder detectors was designed hexagonal with three from The and in proton confirmed Earth's solar deployed leaving around strucinstrusolar instrudirection magnetic the and lunar eleca by

September, lunar the UT

its descent contact lost

to the with

Unfortunately, was ously Impact and the abruptly

charged-particle small 15 The crew probe satellite

at 07:48 point were longitude, of

at the

Results: This the lunar Apollo orbit.

determined coordinates 56°30 Sea ' east of

lunar

landing.

shortly was

before

3o34 ' north near the the landing

35.6-centimeter-diameter ture ment panels ments of fields, gravity tron 35's that was equipped Power chemical the and supply

Fertility. that "the

Officially, lunar conditions

announced complex

booms. and

came

mountainous

proved

batteries. strength terrestrial

measured detected field, flux. finding the field The that and

unfavorable." lished data radio density 130) Luna 19 Nation: USSR 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft

Later, in 1975, the Soviets pubfrom Luna 18's continuous-wave that lunar determined topsoil. the mean

interplanetary

altimeter of the

variations measured

satellite while

Explorer field a tail, to its wind. fororigi-

magnetic wind barrier into due in the

deflects the weak Moon

incoming and creates failure the

(80) lunar orbit !no. 202} kg GSMZ D (Proton-K no.

acts

as a physical

a "hole" on 3 February

Ye-8LS

An electronic mally nally ended had

1972 it

Mass: c. 5,700

mission. design fulfilled.

Although life,

a one-year were

all mission

Mission Design and Management: Lavochkin Launch 257-01) Vehicle: 8K82K + Blok

objectives

Launch Date and Time: 28 September 10:00:22 UT

1971

Launch Site: NIIP-5 Scientific 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Results: lunar the rovers orbiters, stage" Instruments: imaging gamma-ray radio

/ launch

site 81P

kilometers the spacecraft

at

40.58 ° inclination. began its main

Soon imaging images

after, misof the

system spectrometer detectors altimeter

sion-to

provide

panoramic

mountainous region of the Moon between 30 ° and 60 ° south latitude and between 20 ° and 80 ° east ments longitude. included and and strength the Other extensive of the locations in scientific studies lunar of May experion gravitation mascons. and the ,June conthe

meteoroid magnetometer cosmic-ray radiation Luna orbiters 19

detectors detectors was the design bus used collectors. the by first of"advanced" based for the For basic a all upon lunar these "lander scienconthe

shape field

Occultation 1972 allowed

experiments scientists of charged

whose

was

to determine particles at an studies coordinated 2 and

same and

Ye-8-class the sample

centration of 10

altitude of the with with between of operaof

kilometers. wind were

Additional evidently by the Mars

designated was topped frame

Ye-8LS, off that in entered 1972

solar those and Luna 3 and tions, the

wheelless

performed Veneras 19 were

3 orbiters

Lunokhod-like tific tainer. Moon instrumentation Luna

housed

7 and

8. Communications sometime after 4,000 a year

a pressurized orbit after two and were around

terminated 1972 than

19

20 October during more

on 2 October on 29

midcourse 1 October. 140 x 140

revolutions

corrections Initial

September

Moon.

orbital

parameters

1972
131)
Luna 20 Nation: USSR Objective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft Lavochkin Launch 258-01) Launch Date and Time: 14 February 03:27:59 Launch UT Site: NIIP-5 / launch site 81P 1972 Vehicle: 8K82K + Blok D (Proton-K no. (81) lunar Ye-8-5 sample (no.408) kg return February itude meters collecting spacecraft's and 1972 from the at coordinates longitude, site crash 3032 ' north only of Luna of lunar lifted lat56o33 ' east 1.8 kilo18. After soil, the 22:58 to

a small ascent

sample stage and second The

off at accelerated

Mass: c. 5,750

UT on 22 February 2.7 kilometers to return sule island north per

quickly

Mission Design and Management: GSMZ

velocity--sufficient small spherical safely capon an

to Earth.

eventually in the of the at

parachuted Karkingir town 19:19 soil

down River, of UT

40 kilometers in

Dzhezkazgan on 25 February

Kazakhstan, 1972. that system for sample collection The

55-gram

sample 16 in that rock ancient of

differed the

from

Scientific Instruments: 1) 2) 3) 4) stereo remote radiation radio imaging arm altimeter was the eighth lunar Soviet spacecraft It was that a 4.5a detector

collected

by Luna

majority in the

(50 to 60 percent) newer (which than tained Like French the collection the sample consists basalt

of the were largely of the

particles

anorthosite rather conone (which of anorthosite). of the Luna 20 and American

feldspar)

earlier

Results: This launched evidently Luna day single Luna

about Luna were

1 to 2 percent 16 soil, shared samples with

to return sent

soil to Earth. the mission After

to complete failed

18 had flight to

to accomplish. Moon, correction orbit orbital at around which on the

scientists.

the

included 15 February, Moon were

midcourse 20 entered Initial kilometers later, at

132) Pioneer 10 Nation: U.S. (51) Objective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft Jupiter Pioneer-F Mass: 258 kg NASA [AC-27 D-1A) ARC /Atlas flyby

on 18 100

February. x 100

parameters 65 ° inclination.

Three fired to begin firing 20 on set 21

days its

19:13 for lunar

UT, the 267 surface.

spacecraft seconds

main

engine to the reduced

descent further down

A second Luna UT

Mission Design and Management: Launch Vehicle: Atlas-Centaur 3C no. 5007C / Centaur

velocity Moon

before

safely

on the

at 19:19

©

o

The Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft, which were the first humanmade objects to escape From the solar system into interstellar space, carried this pictorial plaque. It was designed to show scientifically educated inhabitants of other star systems, who might intercept it millions of years from now, when Pioneer was launched, from where, and by what kind oF beings (with the hope that those who found the craft would not invade Earth]. The design is etched into a 6-inch by 9-inch gold-anodized aluminum plate attached to the spacecraft's antenna support struts in a posilines at left represents the positions of 14 pulThe "1-"

tion to help shield it from erosion by interstellar dust. The radiating

sars, a cosmic source of radio energy, arranged to indicate our sun as the home star of our civilization.

symbols at the ends of the lines are binary numbers that represent the frequencies of these pulsars at the time oF launch of Pioneers 10 and 11 relative of that to the hydrogen atom shown at the upper left with a "1" unity symbol. The hydrogen atom is thus used as a "universal clock," and the regular decrease in the frequencies of the pulsars will enable another civilization to determine the time that has elapsed since Pioneer was launched. Across the from the Sun, with the spacecraft trajectory arching away from Earth, bottom are the planets, ranging outward passing Mars, and swinging by Jupiter. Launch Date and Time: 2 March 01:49:04 UT complex 36A 1972 /

10) ll) Results: the

Jovian meteoroid Pioneer planets,

trapped-radiation detector 10, the first NASA a series any era: to space; Mars; belt; the the escape the the first

detector

Launch Site: ETR / launch Scientific Instruments: 1) 2) 3t 4) 5) 6) imaging infrared plasma ultraviolet charged-particle instrument 7) 8) 9} cosmic-ray

mission of firsts robotic vehicle

to

outer

garnered by space

photopolarimeter radiometer analyzer photometer composition

perhaps spacecraft placed system craft through Jupiter; to on

unmatched in the

other first the first first

magnetometer

a trajectory interstellar beyond asteroid first the solar version

solar spaceto fly

into fly the the and this

to fly past electrical object to a

to use first

all-nuclear

telescope

power; leave three-stage

humanmade After

Geiger tube telescopes asteroid/meteoroid detector

system.

launch

by (with

of the Atlas-Centaur

",

Deep Space Chronicle

Thisiew v ofJupiter the planet's topsakenythe shows giant cloud t b Pioneer 10spacecraft past asitflew Jupiter inDecember Thisiew taken 2,695,000 1973. v was from kilometers Itshows 40,200-kilometer-long away. the Great Spot, islarge noughswallow Red which e 1o upseveraJ Individual formationsvisible Earths. cloud are in some The right appear detaik b zones tobecome upinto detailed patterns split the flow ofJupiter's atmosphere and clouds. area The surrounding inthe the Spot bright Tropical suggests pattern the South Zone aflow about Spot bulges that toward north the bytheSpot. gigantic swirls are thousands or more kilometers The cloud
across. Pioneer 10 flew past Jupiter in December December California. 1974. 1973. A sister spacecraft, Pioneer 11, reached Jupiter in Mountain View, The Pioneer project was managed by NASA's Ames Research Center, The spacecraft was built by TRW Systems ................................................

a TE-M-364-4 from the

solid-propellant lander}, of 51,800 previous initial when On

engine Pioneer kilometers humanmade problems

modified 10 reached per hour, object. during the

in

recent

record. bow-shock

The wave the

spacecraft (where planet's the

entered the solar

Surveyor speed any some voyage problems. the

Jupiter's wind field) pause, December, pause day, quality Earth-based imaging during photos planet's

an initial faster There outbound heating craft than

interacts on 26

with November, the then second

magnetic magnetofield on 1

crossed magnetic crossed time. was possible had By

were

reentered and

direct 15 July

sunlight 1972, belt, the

caused spacein

the the

magnetofollowing better the best begun Also 300 of the Spot.

for the the

entered 1973 through During

asteroid

emerging

spacecraft photos than telescopes--it as early period, as

returning with already 1973.

February voyage rings.

after the this some

a 435-million-kilometer relatively period, asteroid and densely the hits packed (although

spacecraft

6 November 10 took

encountered many the fewer density On

this

Pioneer that

about

than

expected) light in most

also measured

of Jupiter terminator

included and the time was

images Great up Red

of Zodiacal 7 August,

in interplanetary conjunction with storms 10 recorded solar

space. Pioneer details

Command-and-return utes by this time. was

to 92 minapproach

9 (in solar of one of the

orbit),

Pioneer violent

Pioneer at 02:25

10's closest UT on

to Jupiter

4 December

1973, thespacecraft bytheplanet 133) when raced ata range 130,354 of kilometers anda speed Venera 8 of132,000 kilometers perhour. fthespace- Nation: USSR (82) O craft's eleven scientific instruments, sixoper- 0bjective(s): Venus landing atedcontinuously throughheencounter. t The Spacecraft: 3V (no. 670) spacecraft passed series fJovian oons, Spacecraft Mass: 1,184 kg bya o m obtaininghotos f Callisto, p o Ganymede, and Mission Design and Management: GSMZ Europa (butnot Io).Pioneer 10fulfilledall Lavochkin objectives one except (thatone failure wasdue Launch Vehicle: 8K78M to falsecommands triggeredby Jupiter's Launch Date and Time: 27 March 1972 / intense radiation). Based incomingata, 04:15:01 UT on d scientists identified lasma Jupiter's ag- Launch Site: NIIP-5 / launch site 31 p in m neticfield.The spacecraft crossed aturn's Scientific Instruments: S Bus: orbitin February 976,ecordingatathat 1 r d indicated Jupiter's that enormous magnetic 1) cosmic-ray detector tail, almost 00millionkilometers cov8 long, 2) solar wind detector eredthe wholedistance between two the 3) ultraviolet spectrometer planets. Stilloperatingominally, n Pioneer 10 Lander: crossed theorbitofNeptune (thentheouterl) thermometer 2) barometer most lanet) n13June1983, p o thusbecoming 3) radio altimeter thefirsthumanmade toescape object thesolar system.Now the spacecraft generally is 4) photometer heading the directionof the red star in 5) gamma-ray spectrometer Aldebaran,starthatformstheeyeof the a 6) gas analyzer Taurus onstellation. c It isexpected topass by 7) wind speed recorder Aldebaran aboutwomillionyears. in t Incase Results: Venera 8 was the first in another pair ofanintercept intelligent by life,Pioneer 10 of Soviet spacecraft designed to explore Venus. carries naluminum a plaque ithdiagrams Although similar in design to its predecessors, w of amanandawoman, thesolar ystem, s andits the 495-kilogram lander was substantially locationelative fourteen r to pulsars. Pioneer modified based on the Results from Venera 7. 10is heading ut of the solarsystem a The new capsule was designed to withstand o in directionerydifferent v fromthose ofthetwo pressures of "only" 105 atmospheres (versus Voyager robes p and Pioneer11, that is, 180 atmospheres on Venera 7) and carried heading anoppositeirection in d toward the extra scientific instrumentation. After one nose oftheheliosphereanupstream in direc- midcourse correction on 6 April 1972, Venera tionrelative totheinflowing interstellar gas. 8's lander separated from the flyby bus and NASAofficiallyterminatedoutinecontact r entered the Venusian atmosphere at 08:37 UT
with the vehicle at 19:35 reasons, (as UT on 31 March although permitted with collection 1997 on 22 July per the 09:32 morning Venus. latitude mitted from ground 1 10 travto tion second. UT, 1972 about terminator Landing and data the at a velocity 500 on coordinates of 11.6 kilometers took place from side 10 ° south probe transat the of for budgetary contact onboard from the intermittent by Successful landing kilometers the sunlit were The continues power source) tube instrument. received 28 April humanmade February its range. billion 1998, By 1 July kilometers a 2001.

of data and the

Geiger

telescope For signal Pioneer

charged-particle ground spacecraft the until exceeded was eling 11.83 farthest 17 control on

example, from the

335 ° longitude. for another surface The

50 minutes before

11 seconds to

10 was

hostile conditions.

succumbing informaand pressure

object when 2001, from per second

in existence Voyager Pioneer Earth, relative

transmitted

indicated

that

temperature

at the landing atmospheres less meters sharp than altitude. change

site were respectively.

470 + 8°C and Wind also data below

90 + 1.5 was 10 kiloa that

speed recorded

at 12.24

kilometers

1 kilometer The altitude.

per second spacecraft The

the Sun.

in illumination

between indicate

30 and

35 kilometers

visibilityontheground wasabout nekiloo meter tthetime a Veneralanded. 8 134)
Kosmos 482 / _enera] (83) Venus landing Nation: USSR 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft Lavochkin Launch Vehicle: 8K78M Launch Date and Time: 31 March 04:02:33 Launch UT Site: NIIP-5 / launch site 31 1972 /

Scientific 1t 2) 3) Results: Apollo ejected Service

Instruments: magnetometer S-band transponder detectors to its predecessor, Fields 16 4 hours burn, Because main Subsatellite Command prior which to the was and the sent

charged-particle Nearly identical and

16 Particle from Module trans-Earth home with was from the forced orbit the

Apollo about

3V (no. 671) Mass: c. 1,180 kg GSMZ

crew's them lems crew

injection tbe Moon. CSM

Mission Design and Management:

of probthe in a at 10 °

Apollo

engine,

to release

the subsatellite

low lunar inclination. crashed four year. days

of 100 x 100 kilometers Thus, the lunar rather was probe surface than the

eventually after planned thirtyone

onto

the

Scientific Instruments: Bus: 1) 21) 3) 1) 2) 3) 4} 51) 61 7) cosmic-ray solar wind detector detector spectrometer

in orbit point

Impact 112 ° east 1972. spacecraft data.

at 10.2 ° north at 21:00 of its UT

latitude on 29

and May the

longitude

However, did

because return some

low

orbit, low-

ultraviolet thermometer barometer radio

valuable

Lander:

altitude

136) no name / [N1 launch test] Nation: USSR spectrometer recorder sister earlier). left Earth engine craft to Venera 8 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft (84) lunar 7K-LOK orbit (no. 6A} kg

altimeter

photometer gamma-ray gas wind analyzer speed was four the days never main 125

Mass: c. 9,500

Results: This daunched the spacecraft

Mission Design and Management: TsKBEM Launch Vehicle: N1 (no. 15007) Launch Date and Time: 23 November 06:11:55 Launch Scientific UT Site: NIIP-5 / launch site 110L Instruments: unknown was the fourth booster. attempted test The to send to lunar All three launch first of the two, 1972 /

Unfortunately, orbit. The Blok cut to a the

L escape off after failure spacecraft Earth. Kosmos spacecraft May 135) 1981.

stage's only in the

prematurely of firing As due

seconds timer.

onboard an the

a result, orbit the

entered Officially, 482

elliptical

around probe The in

Results: This giant launched 7K-L1 third tests fourth equipped beefed-up Soviet

Soviets its Earth's

named true

N1

to disguise reentered

mission. atmosphere

in 1969, ("Zond")

rigged-up orbit. The for This a fully to orbiting would (over landing lifted prior a powerful of the first off to 42 a

spacecraft carried orbit. was

booster in Earth

a payload

mockup failed.

launch

intended spacecraft on a robotic the the

to send (similar lunar Moon of future

Apollo 16 Particle and Fields Subsatellite Nation: U.S. (52) 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft Mission Launch launched Launch 17:54:00 April lunar Apollo orbit 16 P&FS

7K-LOK Soyuz) during 3.7 days taking

mission spend orbits), NASA (itself / on 24 39A sites

which circling photographs missions. but apart

spacecraft

Mass: 42 kg Design and Management:

for piloted problems, cutoff, ripped

The

booster

Vehicle: Apollo by Saturn

16 CSM-113 V SA-511} 1972

without first-stage explosion

a few seconds seconds, bottom the

at T+107

Date and Time: 16 April UT (subsatellite / 09:56:09 UT) / launch

ejection complex

1972

stage, destroying Soviet hopes of ever cosmonauts to the Moon. There was conclusive reason for the explosion;

sending never a sug-

Launch Site: ETR

some

"=

Deep

Space

Chron!c!e

......

ii

.......

-'_

gested that and others shutdown

there had been an engine failure, were convinced that the scheduled of six central engines had caused a

structural the

shock

wave

that

eventually

caused

explosion.

1972

1973
137) Luna 21 Nation: USSR Objective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft Lavochkin Launch 259-01) Launch Date and Time: 8 January 06:55:38 UT / launch site 81L Launch Site: NIIP-5 Scientific 1) Instruments: imaging TVs and system four ) (three low-resolution 1973 / Vehicle: 8K82K + Blok D (Proton-K no. (85) lunar Ye-8 roving (no. 204) kg operations Parameters inclination. deorbited landed inside latitude Mare Less the were On and, 100 15 after x 90 kilometers the engine UT the at at 60 ° spacecraft firings, same day, January, multiple at 22:35 crater

on the Moon LeMonnier and Serenitatis than 3 hours the surface. an rover The

25o51 ' north between Mountains. UT onto Lunokhod predecessor an and By the 2 had 1 in rover dust on 16 the 2

Mass: c. 5,950

30o27 ' east and the

longitude, Taurus at 01:14

Mission Design and Management: GSMZ

later,

January, lunar was

disembarked 840-kilogram version with of its

improved equipped scientific first

and was improved additional end

a third traction

TV camera, system,

eight-wheel lunar further

instrumentation. day, than Lunokhod Lunokhod the

of its

high-resolution

already its entire

traveled operational

photometers 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7} 8) 9) 10) x-ray laser

life. On 9 May, into a crater disrupting Attempts 3 June, that the its rover the mission took photos to

spectrometer reflector detectors

inadvertently covered tures rover agency Before photometer pictures performed ical the second Lunokhod after successful 2, and the last corsurveys that in its

rolled solar

and

penetrometer radiation x-ray

panels,

temperasave the news over. TV had

the

vehicle. and on

failed,

Soviet was 80,000 and and Soviets on

telescope

announced last and contact, 86

odometer/speedometer visible/ultraviolet magnetometer photodetector 21 carried lunar

panoramic

hundreds of the

of mechanical soil. The

chemlater planeto 2 of

Results: Luna Soviet was "8YeL" launched lunar

revealed tary

during

a conference

rover,

exploration 1973 21), an

in Moscow, (that American lunar surface is, after

29 January the landing had the

less than landing. after

a month After

February Luna photos

Apollo rection orbit

a midcourse Luna

scientist around engineer

given Luna

the day around

launch, on

21 entered 1973.

of the site

the

Moon

12 January

21 landing

to a Soviet

in charge

of the taken later new

Lunokhod prior used to the

2

mission. Apollo 17 on the

These landing_

photos, were the

encounter, oroid issuing fering detected

on

16 April was turned

1975,

the

micrometeit was inter11

detector spurious with

off because that were

by the "driver on its mission

team"

to navigate Moon.

commands instruments. bow million providing existence shock

rover

other

Pioneer on 31 August out

Saturn's about 1.5 thus of the

138) Pioneer 11 Nation: U.S. (53) 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft Jupiter Pioneer-G Mass: 258.5 kg NASA (AC-30 D-1A) 1973 / 02:11 36B UT ARC / Atlas flyby, Saturn flyby

1979, the

kilometers the first

from

planet,

conclusive magnetic ring 1

evidence field. plane The

of Saturn's the

spacecraft the 1979 16:31

crossed outer and ring then

planet's

beyond

at 14:36 passed

UT on by the

September planet range relative at the at

Mission Design and Management: Launch Vehicle: Atlas-Centaur 3D no: 5011D / Centaur

UT for a close kilometers. of 114,100 of closest

encounter moving per

at a at a hour

of 20,900 speed point ll's

It was kilometers approach.

Launch Date and Time: 6 April Launch Site: ETR / launch Scientific Instruments: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) imaging infrared plasma ultraviolet charged-particle instrument 7) 8) 9) cosmic-ray Geiger tube telescope telescopes

Among a narrow and The tem-

complex

Pioneer ring

many

discoveries named

was

outside

the A ring

the "F" ring in diameter. overall

photopolarimeter radiometer analyzer photometer composition

a new satellite spacecraft perature a more Jupiter. planet After

200 kilometers the

magnetometer

recorded at -180°C featureless Analysis

planet's

and photographs atmosphere of data made Pioneer than

indicated that that of the

suggested of liquid

was leaving

primarily Saturn,

hydrogen. out of

I 1 headed opposite center

the solar of Pioneer in the detector 11 detector

system 10--that

in a direction is, to the

to that of galaxy Pioneer on 23 1

asteroid/meteoroid

general

direction the orbit thus Pioneer By

of Sagittarius. of 10 Neptune the and

10) Jovian trapped radiation 11) meteoroid detector 12} Results: Pioneer fly past tures fluxgate Pioneer 10, was Saturn magnetometer 11, the sister

crossed

February spacecraft spacecraft object the first After 1973 1974. to to to pictwo and the The 7 and 2)

1990, (after to do so.

becoming 1995,

fourth years

Voyagers

twenty-two were Ames

the first and

humanmade

also returned of Jupiter.

after launch, two instruments ational on the vehicle. NASA Center the finally spacecraft received data contact of view on once of the terminated on 30

still operResearch with 1995. engilost

of the

polar

regions

routine

contact

midcourse November Jovian bow

corrections 1974), shock

(on 11 April 11

September of good 1995 but

Pioneer

penetrated

Scientists neering final out

a few minutes 24 November

on 25 November approach

spacecraft's occurred range cloud It was object hour.

closest at 05:22

Jupiter 1974 at a

Earth

permanently antenna. carries

moved Like

UT on 3 December kilometers times faster closer than from than any the

spacecraft's ll also

of 42,760 tops, three

planet's 10.

Pioneer with 139)

10, Pioneer

a plaque beings.

Pioneer humanmade

a message

for any intelligent

traveling at the

time--171,000 of its high

kilometers speed exposure that during

per the

Because the much

Explorer 49 Nation: U.S. (54) 0bjective(s}: lunar Spacecraft: Spacecraft RAE-B Mass: 330.2 kg GSFC 1913 (no. 95 / 1973 / orbit

encounter, tion cessor. was

spacecraft's less than

to radiaprede-

of its

Pioneer

11 repeatedly that its solar the

crossed Jovian as

Jupiter's magneit is buf11 used

bow shock, tosphere feted Jupiter's back flyby by

indicating changes the massive the

boundaries wind. Pioneer

Mission Design and Management: NASA Launch Vehicle: Delta Thor no. 581) UT

gravitational solar system Saturn.

field to set After

to swing itself on a

across course

Launch Date and Time: 10 June 14:13:00

with

its

Jupiter

Launch Site: ETR / launch Scientific 1) 2) Instruments: galactic sporadic bursts 3) 4) sporadic radio studies

complex

17B

3) 4)

infrared

radiometer

spectrophotometer narrow-band narrow-band tion photometer system photometer interference-polariza-

experiment solar radio

5) 6)

low-frequency experiment Jovian emission bursts from

experiment terrestrial

7) 8) 9) 10) 1 l)

imaging photometers

magnetosphere 5) cosmic source

experiment observation

two polarimeters ultraviolet scattered gamma photometer solar radiation photometer

experiment Results: for This was the years launch on final U.S. lunar mission in trajec-

12) 13) 14) 15) Results: craft 1973. the 1976 geous Proton toward standard nations than testing 2T312 analysis rate

spectrometer

twenty-one Atter

(until a direct

Clementine ascent

magnetometer plasma traps electrostatic one of four series eager analyzer Soviet spacein launched to preempt planned less advantathe for

1994).

tory to the Moon on 11 June, at 07:21 the 1,334 On motor around were tion. main

and one midcourse 49 fired its UT on 15 June orbital

correction insertion orbit

multichannel Mars 4 was 3M

Explorer

to enter

of the Soviet American but

(or M-73) were

Moon. x 1,123

Initial kilometers the

parameters

planners Viking limited

at 61.3 ° inclinajettisoned Velocity its its

missions by the

18 June, and, System, with array

spacecraft its

were

engine

using

Control orbit. The radiofrom tip

positions boosters Mars.

of the planets to The launch

that limited thus

allowed

Propulsion spacecraft, antenna ical

circularized a partially

payloads the

deployed 183 meters spacecraft enter not were 49 from and lunar deploy not

Soviets

separated

measuring the to antennas largest ever did goals

to tip, remains dimensions the the its

in physorbit. to full affected. lowsolar and It

pair of orbiter-lander payload combiinto two orbiters and two landers. Less four months prior a rnajor used that to launch, ground with the An

Although length, During frequency system other was radio tion was 140) Mars 4

detected transistors showed

problem

mission mission, radio

on all four vehicles. the after about transistors'

Explorer emissions the Sun

studied the

failure of

began

to increase is, just reach odds of Mars.

1.5 to 2 years when the the spaceroughly

(including galactic and in lunar mission 1977.

Jupiter) sources.

operation--that craft would

extra-galactic orbit NASA in June to avoid announced 1975.

Despite the

placed of the

terrestrial complecontact Last

50-percent decided

success, the

government The first

interference.

to proceed Mars headed

with

missions.

in August

spacecraft, orbit and plished July the

4, successfully toward Mars midcourse

left Earth and accomon 30 of

a single 1973, but

correction of three due second

soon

two

channels to the faulty

onboard

computer As a result, could for not Mars

failed the

Nation: USSR

(86) orbit (no. 52S) 3,440 kg

transistors. correction possibility flew by the

midcourse With Mars UT on no 4 10

Objective(s): Mars Spacecraft: Spacecraft M-73 Mass:

be implemented. orbit at insertion, 15:34

Red

Planet

Mission Design and Management: GSMZ Lavochkin Launch 261-01) Launch 19:30:59 Launch Scientific 1) Date and Time: 21 July UT Site: NIIP-5 Instruments: atmospheric instrument 2) radiotelescope radio-probing / launch site 81L 1973 / 7ehicle: 8K82K + Blok D (Proton-K no.

February Ground vehicle 15:32:41 sion During ular

1974 at a range of 1,844 kilometers. control was able to command the to turn Martian on its imaging during performed that included The orbit. system the at sesflyby.

UT to begin

a short surface

photography

of the

6 minutes, cycle of of entered

cameras imaging the

one regtwo

panoramas eventually

surface. heliocentric

spacecraft

_.

103

141) Mars 5 Nation: USSR 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft Lavochkin Launch Vehicle: 8K82K 262-01) Launch 18:55:48 Launch Scientific 1) Date and Time: 25 July UT Site: NIIP-5 / launch site 81P Instruments: atmospheric instrument 2) 31 4) 5) 6) radiotelescope infrared radiometer spectrophotometer narrow-band narrow-band polarization 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) Mars August cessfully to enter parameters 35°19'17" tion, imaging photometers two polarimeters photometer solar radiation photometer photometer interferencephotometer system radio-probing 1973 / + Blok D (Proton-K no. (87) Mars M-73 orbit (no. 53S) kg

panorama took place

was on in the levels.

transmitted 28 February spacecraft Mars

back 1974, decreased some

to after

Earth, which to below of which

pressure working were

5 photos, quality

of comparable showed

to those features free-flowing but

of Mariner that indiwater. relay was for obvi-

Mass: 3,440

9, clearly cated Mars the ously 142) Mars 6

surface by

Mission Design and Management: GSMZ

erosion 5 was Mars 6 and

caused supposed Mars

to act as a data 7 landers

unable

to do so.

Nation: USSR Objective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft Lavochkin

(88) Mars flyby and Mars landing

M-73

(no. 50P) kg

Mass: 3,260

Mission Design and Management: GSMZ Launch Vehicle: 8K82K 281-01) Launch Date and lime: 17:45:48 UT Launch Site: NIIP-5 Scientific Instruments: Bus: 1) 2) 3) 4) magnetometer plasma cosmic-ray micrometeoroid Zhemo proton Lander: 1) 2) 3) at inserslow com4) 5) 6) Results: launched 1973 similar landers except launch at thermometer barometer accelerometer radio-altimeter mass spectrometer one of two landers the very 3 instrument and electron traps sensors detectors for study fluxes of solar 5 August / launch site 1973 / 81L + Blok D (Proton-K no.

ultraviolet scattered gamma plasma

spectrometer traps electrostatic the sister Mars midcourse 2 February main engine the planet. x 32,586 Soon after detected main analyzer orbiter to on 3 5 sucUT

magnetometer multichannel 5 was two and its

5)

Results: Mars 4. After 1973 fired orbit

corrections 1974, Mars

at 15:44:25 Initial orbital the

around were

orbital

1,760

kilometers

inclination. controllers of the

ground

depressurization partment of an orbital the on the impact insertion. rate

instrument

soil analyzer Mars 6 was by the Soviet

orbiter--probably a particle Calculations of loss during

as a result or after showed that

Union landers Mars the

during were

with

window.

The

in design dispatched that the vehicle Mars correction 1973. failure 6

to the by

2 and

Mars in 1971,

current

of air, the

spacecraft three acceler-

Soviets was

would weeks. ated the

be operational Scientists drew

for approximately up a special

spacecraft (instead

now composed orbiter) first Mars there system on was that data channels proand mid13 a its to

of a flyby a lander. course August major

of an

science surface

program at 100

that included imaging of meters resolution. Five 17 and of 180 26 February frames Mars The when last the of 43 5 took comfinal

completed en route days

imaging 1974 usable five

sessions produced photographs.

between a total

A few in the scientific

later,

telemetry and Only neither

Additionally, of the surface. 5, Mars

transmitted from the

operations two

panoramas with

spacecraft. operational,

munication

remained

of which

3) accelerometer vided theground withanydataonthestatus 4) radio-altimeter oftheflybyvehicle's systems. Amazingly, the flybyspacecraft automatically performed all 5) mass spectrometer its functions, andon 12 March1974,he t 6) soil analyzer lander successfully separatedfrom its Results: Mars 7 was the last of the four Soviet mother hipat a distancef48,000ilome- spacecraft sent to Mars in the 1973 launch s o k tersfromMars. hree T hours later,t entered window (although it arrived at Mars prior to i the Martian atmosphere. parachute Mars 6). On its way to Mars, the spacecraft The system deployedorrectly an altitudeof performed a single midcourse correction on 16 c at 20 kilometers, scientificinstruments August 1973. En route to Mars, there were and began torecord dataastheprobe descended. failures in the communications systems, and Dataseemed toindicate thatthelander as controllers were forced to maintain contact via w rocking backandforthunderits parachute the only remaining radio communications farmore vigorously thanexpected. Moments complex. On 9 March 1974, the flyby spacebefore expected landing, theground lostcon- craft ordered the lander capsule to separate tactwiththeprobe. Thelastconfirmedata for its entry into the Martian atmosphere. d was informationon ignition of the soft- Although the lander initially refused to landing engines t 08:58:20 T Theprobe "accept" the command to separate, it eventua U landed 09:11 at UTat 23°54 ' southlatitude ally did accept it. Ultimately, the lander's main and19025 ' westlongitude. Laterinvestiga- retro-rocket engine failed to fire to initiate tion neverconclusively identifieda single entry into the Martian atmosphere. As a cause included landing data from of loss failure the Mars 6 flyby of contact. of the Probable radio rough was reasons system area. transmitted also its short collected flyby. or All result, of the lander kilometers orbit. with The flew by the and planet at a range entered did, its failures Mars probably in the were howshort on 7 1,300 eventually probe during The

in a geographically 6 lander bus,

heliocentric ever, manage encounter both Mars

flyby data

to collect

via the scientific 143) Mars 7

Mars

which

the Red Planet. failure) failure)

information

during

4 (computer ignition faulty

and were

(retro-rocket due (89) Mars M-73 flyby and Mars landing 144) Mariner 10 Nation: U.S. 0bjective(s): no. Spacecraft: Spacecraft 1973 site 81P / UT / launch to the

transistors,

installed which

circuits detected

of the prior

onboard to launch.

computer,

Nation: USSR Objective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft

(no. 51P) kg

Mass: 3,260

Mission Design and Management: GSMZ Lavochkin Launch 281-02) Launch Date and Time: 9 August 17:00:17 Launch Site: NIIP-5 Vehicle: 8K82K + Blok D (Proton-K

(55) Mercury Mariner-73J Mass: 502.9 kg JPL /Atlas (AC-34 D-1A) 1973 / flyby, Venus flyby

/ Mariner-J

Mission Design and Management: NASA Launch Vehicle: Atlas-Centaur 3D no. 5014D / Centaur

Scientific Instruments: Bus: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) magnetometer plasma cosmic-ray micrometeoroid Zhemo proton Stereo Lander: 1) 2) thermometer barometer instrument and electron antenna traps sensors detectors for study fluxes of solar

Launch Date and Time: 3 November 05:45:00 Scientific 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) UT / launch complex

Launch Site: ETR

36B

Instruments: imaging infrared ultraviolet ultraviolet two system radiometer airglow occultation spectrometer spectrometer

magnetometers telescope

charged-particle plasma analyzer

Results: Mariner10wasthe first (andonly)
spacecraft mission Venus) sent to the planet two Mercury, the first and to explore during planets mission, its flight (Mercury a single to change to its target first the first to use path, the first

17:01

UT. Assisted now which it correction 10 to show ridges,

by headed reached on

Venusian to after 16 the

gravity, innermost another 1974. its surface The a weak

the

spacecraft planet, course Mariner began craters, craft's netic

midAs

March Mercury,

gravity-assist to return and the

approached a very and

photos with spacemag-

after an initial wind

encounter, as a major flight. to study

Moon-like terrain.

to use the solar orientation of Mariner

chaotic

means The the

of spacecraft goal

during 10 was

magnetometers field. Radiometer temperatures daytime encounter 1974 looped by Mercury at a more The control. to at was

revealed readings of-183°C of 20:47 of the more range used and took of 327 703 Sun, on at

primary atmosphere

suggested and 187°C. UT on maxThe 29

(if any), of Mercury. the spacecraft Moon

surface, Soon

and physical after leaving photos of

nighttime imum closest March Having flew 1974 meters. its solar 5 tude closest 1975

characteristics Earth both orbit, Earth

temperatures

returned as it sped the problems, antenna

and the Venus.

to its first there

a range around once distant

kilometers. Mariner 10

destination, were

During

coast,

numerous

technical in the high-gain system.

including and the cor-

21 September of 48,069 kiloon the March Contact on

malfunctions attitude-control rections 1974, Februa_ photos scientific closest

After 1973

midcourse

spacecraft A third Mercury,

solar

pressure

on 13 November Mariner 1974 of the data flyby 10 and planet

and 21 January Venus a total on of 4,165 important The at

panels

and high-gain final place

antenna

for atti-

approached returned and

encounter, on 16

collected its 5,768

at a range

kilometers. was terminated

during range was

encounter. kilometers

with the spacecraft 24 March 1975.

h

_e--;p S/_aceChronicie

.

i

.....

"

1974
145) Luna 22 Nation: USSR (90) lunar Ye-6LS orbit (no. 220) kg tography, tions the solar studies Through performed no. tinued the 1974 / site 81P to Luna 22 also performed investigaof to determine lunar and surface, for a lunar cosmic of the the chemical recorded magnetic irregular orbital any photos radiation composition activity, measured continued field. Luna and months mission spacecraft's depleted successful in the early final 22 coninto had meteoroid field, magnetic changes, problems fifteen flux, and

0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft

searched

Mass: 5,700

Mission Design and Management: GSMZ Lavochkin Launch 282-02) Launch Date and Tin]e: 29 May 08:56:51 UT Launch Scientific 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Results: "advanced" 19) designed from the Site: NIIP-5 Instruments: imaging gamma-ray radio-altimeter meteoroid magnetometer cosmic-ray radiation Luna lunar to 22 detectors detectors was orbiters conduct the (the second first being of two Luna detectors system spectrometer / launch Vehicle: 8K82K + Blok D (Proton-K

various without return

mission, by 2

although April propellant and formally Luna lunar

its primary 1975. was the 21 The highly remains

ended on 2

maneuvering September, was mission November Soviet

finally

terminated orbiter.

1975.

or Russian

146) Luna 23 Nation: USSR 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft (91) lunar Ye-8-5M sample return

(no. 410) kg

Mass: c. 5,800

extensive about

scientific a year 2 opera-

surveys after tions a

orbit.

Launched

Mission Design and Management: GSMZ Lavochkin Launch Vehicle: 8K82K 285-01) Launch 14:30:32 Launch Scientific 1) Date and Time: 28 October UT Site: NIIP-5 Instruments: stereo imaging system / launch site 81P 1974 / + Blok D (Proton-K no.

termination lunar

of Lunokhod surface, Luna

on the

20 performed en lunar route orbit the on

single

midcourse before

correction entering

Moon

on 30 May

2 June 1974. Initial 219 x 222 kilometers addition to its primary

orbital parameters at 19°35 ' inclination. mission of surface

were In pho-

"_0-7

2) 3) 4) Results: sample deep the

improved radiation

drill

for sample

collection

Scientific Instruments: 1) 2) plasma two flux plasma cosmic-ray electron zodiacal detector gate and magnetometers radio detectors detector light photometer analyzer experiment a mission and joint to Germanstudy the wave experiment

detector

radio-altimeter Luna return 23 was the first modified lunar a

3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Results: American main

spacecraft, of the

designed Moon's Ye-8-5

to return (hence

core sample change Luna a depth designed orbit

surface

in index 16 and

from 20 had

to Ye-8-5M). samples spacecraft a mid23 at more and of Mare 13 ° north During the lander's prethe

While from was course entered 1974. 138 ° changes to the

returned the new

micrometeoroid celestial Helios deep solar mechanics 1 space was

of 0.3 meters,

to dig to 2.5 meters. on the were 31 October, Moon around

After

correction Parameters inclination. to the lunar in the orbit,

Luna

on 2 November

processes Specifically, were such

solar-terrestrial the to spacecraft's investigate and dust approxiwas the in

104 x 94 kilometers several 6 November portion were

relationships. instruments phenomena electric regions mately largest with the vided vehicles. passed Sun hour at on fields, between 0.3 AU

Following the surface on

designed as solar rays, wind, and orbit the to about cost. and

spacecraft

descended

magnetic cosmic and It for

cosmic

landed Crisium. latitude landing drilling venting return devised science tionary with 147) Helios 1 the

southernmost coordinates 62 ° east

Earth's from project paying

Landing and

Sun. date $180

longitude. terrain,

bilateral Germany total the

NASA, of prolaunch Helios of the per any 1

in "unfavorable" device fulfillment of lunar was

million

evidently of the primary soil plan to

damaged, mission, Earth.

$260-million spacecraft After within a speed 15

Germany the

NASA launch,

Scientists a limited the sta-

a successful 47 million of 238,000 1975, had to the by been the evenly Sun,

a makeshift exploration lander.

to conduct with

kilometers kilometers the closest

program

Controllers until

maintained 9 November

contact 1974.

March object its second from reflected indicated

spacecraft

humanmade star. once heat During every coming was Its data more there

to our spacecraft distribute 90

nearest spun the of mirSun data

mission,

percent surface to the l's

Nation: Federal U.S. (1) 0bjective(s): Spacecraft:

Republic

of Germany orbit

and

which rors. times than

optical the close

presence Helios

of fifteen

heliocentric Helios-A kg

micrometeorites are near with Earth. the (IMP) the and Pioneer 11 was 1982.

Spacecraft Mass: 370 NASA Launch Titan GSFC Vehicle: Titan no. 23E-2

was and /

correlated Platform orbit, 10

Interplanetary Explorers solar 47 and orbiters, the from Data was a

Mission Design and Management: DFVLR IIIE-Centaur D-1T) 1974

Monitoring 50 in Earth

(TC-2

and solar

Pioneers system. center until

while

leaving

/ Centaur

Control outside late

maintained

Launch Date and Time: 10 November 07:11:02 UT / launch complex

/

German received

of Munich.

Launch Site: ETR

41

1975
148)
Venera 9 Nation: USSR (92) orbit and landing Objective(s): Venus Spacecraft: Spacecraft Launch 286-01) Launch 02:38:00 Launch Date and Time: 8 June UT Site: NIIP-5 / launch site 81P 1975 / Results: Venera eration designed more new heavier NPO Lavochkin no. craft The sions light gations. design, during system radiometer imaging spectrometer tained images problems (on 16 lander detectors October Venus's 10.7 imaging system of 9 was Soviet the space Venus. first of a new probes Launched booster, five Each and gen("4V") by the the times spaceto explore powerful spacecraft than comprised 2,300-kilogram were photographing and conducting The landers, their both

Proton were

launch nearly

4V-1 (no. 660) Mass: 4,936 kg + Blok D (Proton-K

predecessors. an orbiter orbiters

Mission Design and Management: Vehicle: 8K82K

a lander. orbit mistheir

(at Venus

insertion)

designed the

to spend planet

in ultraviolet investinew braking entry and to any contake

other of a

scientific completely

Scientific Instruments: Orbiter: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) imaging infrared ultraviolet magnetometer photopolarimeter ion/electron optical

employed Venusian a

aerodynamic atmospheric

panoramic surface.

photometer Without

of the

apparent

and with June and separated 1975, turbulent per the side and

two trajectory 15 October), from two its days

corrections Venera 9's parent later, on it 20 hit of

spectrometer

atmosphere hour. lander After set UT

at a speed using down a series on

Lander: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) panoramic thermometer barometer mass spectrometer

kilometers

of parachutes, planet's Landing and Beta day

the

at 05:13 were at the its surface, very from were, of the

on 22 October. latitude near and the cenfirst

coordinates

32 ° north base Venera

291 ° longitude Regio. During the the surface These received from

of a hill 9 took of

anemometer photometers nephelometer gamma-ray radiation accelerometers spectrometer densitometer

53 minutes first picture

of trans-

missions transmitted Venusian timeters. photos

a height in fact, surface the

of 90 very of

another

/109

planet. Thelander assupposed w totransmit a full 360 °panorama, butbecause ofthe one twocovers nthe camera o failedto release, only a 180 panoramawas received. ° Illumination asakintothatofa cloudy ay w d on Earth.The imageclearlyshowed flat rocks strewn around thelander. TheVenera 9 orbiter meanwhile entereda 1,500x 111,700-kilometer orbitaround theplanet t a 34010 ' inclination andacted communiasa cations relayfor the lander.t became I the firstspacecraft togointoorbitaround Venus. TheSoviets announced 22 March1976 on that the orbiter'sprimarymission, hich w includedsing u French-made ultraviolet amc eras to obtain photographs 1,200in kilometer swaths, hadbeen fulfilled. 149)
Venem 10 Nation: USSR (93) Venus 4V-1 orbit (no. 661) kg NPO and landing 0blective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft Mission Lavochkin Launch 285-02) Launch 03:00:31 Launch Scientific Date and Time: 14 June UT Site: NIIP-5 Instruments: / launch site 81P 1975 / Vehicle: 8K82K + Blok D (Proton-K no.

Venus spacecraft

and

return followed arriving

data

from

the

surface.

The to that after 18

an identical only

mission later

of its twin, two trajectory

a few days

corrections The its

on 21 June lander 23 October later

and

October rated entered

1975. from the

660-kilogram on two days

sepaand at 01:02 gravity

parent

atmosphere reentry, as high

UT. During acceleration as high

the lander

survived

as 168 g and temperatures It performed fault UT its and complex landed

12,000°C. procedures incident

landing without 2,200 site. tude mitted surface, site twin.

without at 02:17 from the

approximately 9 landing latitransthe only of its was

kilometers Landing and for a

Venera were

coordinates 291 ° longitude. record 65

16 ° north 10 from to last than that

Venera minutes designed Venera

although

it was

30 minutes. showed Like

A photo a smoother Venera to take

of' the

10 landing

surface Venera

9, the

10 lander but because the Venera

supposed only stuck

a 360 ° panorama surroundings Meanwhile,

covered of a 10

180 ° of the lens cover.

Mass: 5,033

Design and Management:

orbiter entered a 1,400 x orbit around Venus inclined officials data not but later revealed from by the flying that

l l4,000-kilometer at 29°30 ' . Soviet the termination 9 and of

reception caused by the

both Veneras adverse out surface

10 was

conditions orbiter specindi-

of view

of the

relays for both spacecraft. Gamma-ray trometer and radiation densitometer data cated rather tion that than from the surface as 8. layer hinted was akin by the

to basalt informa-

Orbiter: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) imaging infrared ultraviolet magnetometer photopolarimeter ion/electron detectors spectrometer system radiometer imaging spectrometer

granite

Venera

150) Viking 1 Nation: U.S. (56) 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft Mars Viking-B Mass: 3,527 kg LaRC / landing and orbit

7) optical Lander: 1) 2) 3) 4) 51 6) 7) 8) 9) 10)

panoramic thermometer barometer

imaging

system

Mission Design and Management: NASA (overall) and NASA JPL (Orbiter) Launch Titan Vehicle: Titan IIIE-Centaur D-1T) 1975

(TC-4

mass spectrometer anemometer photometers nephelometer gamma-ray radiation accelerometers 10, like its sister its mission craft Venera 9, on spectrometer densitometer

no. E-4 / Centaur

Launch Date and Time: 20 August 21:22:00 UT Launch Site: ETR / launch Scientific Instruments: Orbiter: 1) 2) 3) to soft-land imaging atmospheric infrared system water thermal complex

/

41

Results: Venera fully accomplished

detector mapper

Lander: l) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) imaging system gas chromatograph spectrometer seismometer x-ray fluorescence biologicallaboratory weather instrument package mass

samples biological matograph data

and

deposited that

them

into

a special a gas chrosome the comLander eventuof conto The 1980,

laboratory mass be

included

spectrometer. construed test as

While indicating for organic The then loss

could

presence pounds continued

of life, a major gave negative

Results. daily reports (and until

to return weather

ally weekly) tact regain on

(temperature, pressure, wind velocity) 7) remote sampler arm AerosheH: l) 2) retarding potential analyzer upper-atmosphere spectrometer Results: Viking 1 was the firstof a pair of complex deep space probes that were designed to reach Mars and collectevidence on the possimass

1 February contact was shut out

1983. proved down

Further

attempts

unsuccessful. on 7 August

Orbiter after 151) Viking 2

it ran

of attitude-control

propellant.

Nation: U.S. (57) 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft Mission (overall) Launch Titan Mars Viking-A Mass: 3,527 Design and kg NASA LaRC landing and orbit

bihty (or lack thereoD for lifeon Mars. Each spacecraft was composed of two primary elea

and Management: NASA JPL

ments, an Orbiter (2,339 kilograms) Lander (978 kilograms). The from

and

(Orbiter) (TC-3 /

Orbiter design buses,

Vehicle: Titan

IIIE-Centaur no. D-1T)

heavily borrowed while the Lander much

the Mariner

no. E-3 / Centaur UT / launch

looked superficiallylike a lunar

Launch Date and Time: 9 September 18:39:00 Launch Site: ETR Scientific Orbiter: 1) 2) 3) imaging atmospheric infrared system water thermal detector mapper complex

1975 41

/

larger version of the Surveyor

lander. Prior to launch, the batteries of the first spacecraft were NASA with Viking discharged, prompting

Instruments:

to replace the original firstspacecraft the second, which was launched as

I. After three midcourse

corrections

(on 27 August

1975 and 10 and 15 June 1976), on

the spacecraft entered orbit around Mars 19 June 1976. Initialorbitalparameters

I, ander: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) imaging gas system mass

were

1,500 x 50,300 kilometers. The following day, when photos Chryse the Orbiter began of the primary transmitting landing back site in the

chrolnatograph

spectrometer seismometer x-ray fluorescence laboratory instrument pressure, sampler arm package wind velocity) (tern-

region, scientists discovered that the rougher than expected. Using the

area was

biological weather perature,

new photos, scientiststargeted the lander to a differentsite on the western slopes of Chryse Planitia. The Orbiter, and Lander after a separated complex from the

atmospheric

7) remote Aeroshell: 1) 2) Results: launched launched retarding

entry sequence, during which

the probe took

potential

analyzer mass

air samples, Viking 1 Lander set down safely at 22.483 ° north latitude and 47.94 ° west longitude at II:53:06 UT down, the spacecraft quality photographs on 20 July 1976. Once began taking high(in three colors) of its

upper-atmosphere spectrometer Viking-A before second was Viking-B due to

scheduled but a problem had

to to with

be be its

surroundings. Instruments recorded temperatures ranging from -86°C Ibefore dawn) to on -33°C (in the afternoonl. The seismometer the Lander was inoperable. On

batteries that cessful launch 19 September Mars launch.

had to be repaired. and a midcourse 1975, Viking

After a succorrection on orbit a year

2 entered nearly

28 July, the

around after

on 7 August As with

1976,

lander's robot arm

scooped up the first soil

Viking

1, photographs

The boulder-strewn field of red rocks reaches to the horizon nearly no

miles from Viking 2 on Mars's Utopian Ptain.

Scientists believe that the colors of the Martian surface and sky in this photo represent their true colors. Fine particles of red dust have settled on spacecraft surfaces. The salmon cobr oF the sky is caused by dust particles suspended in the atmosphere. Color calibration charts for the cameras are mounted at three locations on the spacecraft. Note the blue starfield and red stripes of the flag. The circular structure at top is the high<3ain antenna, pointed toward Earth. Viking 2 landed on 3 September 1976, some 4,600 miles from its twin, Viking 1, which touched down on 20 July. of the terrain, a different edge located, chance separated of the that original prompting site polar is, at landing site indicated planners Planitia where there of life. was The rough to select near water the was Scientists tained bardment characteristics soil. The believed reactants of the of Orbiter mission, to the that created soil Martian by that ultraviolet could living its as moon prompted on soil conbomproduce in Earth successful close as 28 in ter-

mission Utopia ice cap where signs the 1976 Orbiter and, at

organisms continued approaching Martian of leaks

a better Lander incident

of finding from

imaging kilometers May 1978, ° data Orbiters 300 cent 4,500 152) or meters of 1977.

without after 22:37:50

Deimos the

on 3 September entry, 6,460 site. north landed kilometers Touchdown latitude

atmospheric UT about 47.968 longitude a rockier, Lander biology

A series of Orbiter Lander 12 returned April

safely from

mination while until

2 operations 2 continued 1980. 51,539 that The two In

24 July

the

Viking were ° west showed

1 landing

to transmit total, the two at

coordinates and of the 225.71 area

images Landers

of Mars returned

Photographs flatter was site

resolution, surface. of the

is, about

97 per-

than

that

of Viking

1. The The

the

in fact tilted with results

8.5 ° to the scooped-up to that

west.

photos

landing

sites.

experiments similar sive ever

soil

produced no name / [Luna] Nation: USSR (94)

of its twin--inconcluof whether life exists of

on the has

question existed on

the

surface

Mars.

_DeepS_ceChronicle

.....

- .

_

_ . i

7

L

i

0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft Mission Lavochkin

lunar Ye-8-5M

sample

return

Scientific 1) 2) NPO 3) 4)

Instruments: stereo radiation imaging drill system for sample collection

(no. 412) kg

Mass: c, 5,800

improved

Design and Management: + Blok

detector

radio-altimeter This Union return was to the send to second an the attempt "advanced" Moon, by the lunar equipped core. The during On this Proton-K but the

Launch Vehicle: 8K82K 287-02)

D (Proton-K 1975 /

no.

Results: Soviet sample with

Launch Date and Time: 16 October 04:04:56 UT / launch site

craft

the capability spacecraft on the the vehicle D stage, Earth

to dig for a deeper 23) was in October stages without its first The burn damaged 1974. of the fault,

Launch Site: NIIP-5

81L

first

(Luna Moon three first

landing mission, launch Blok into

worked during

for insertion payload ever

orbit,

failed.

expensive

burned reaching

up in Earth's Earth orbit.

atmosphere

without

........

19z5_

1976
153) Helios 2 Nation: Federal U.S. (2) 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft NASA Launch Titan solar Helios-B Mass: 370 kg DFVLR and / Republic orbit of Germany and spacecraft contrast three tance As to million was put into heliocentric Helios to 1976 the orbit. In Helios 1, however, closer million was was important solar wind, 2 flew Sun, kilometers

achieving

perihelion

on 17 April

at a dis-

of 0.29 AU (or 43.432 the spacecraft than

kilometers). exposed to 10

a result, more

percent The

heat

its

predecessor. information cosmic rays,

Mission Design and Management: GSFC Vehicle: Titan IIIE-Centaur D-IT)

spacecraft plasma,

provided the and

on solar (TC-5 and cosmic field 1976 / 154) / launch complex 41 Luna 24

dust,

also performed experiments.

magnetic

no. E-5 / Centaur

and electrical

field

Launch Date and Time: 15 January 05:34:00 Launch Scientific 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10} 11) Results: launched UT Site: ETR Instruments: plasma two flux search-coil plasma cosmic-ray electron zodiacal celestial Faraday occultation Helios 2 was and detector gate

Nation: USSR 0bjective(s): magnetometers Spacecraft: Spacecraft experiment Mission Lavochkin

(95) sample return

lunar Ye-8-5M

(no. 413) kg NPO DM (Proton-K

magnetometer radio detectors detectors light photometer analyzer experiment experiment wave

Mass: c. 5,800

Design and Management: + Blok

Launch Vehicle: 8K82K no. 288-02) Launch 15:04:12 Launch Scientific spacecraft as part Federal States in and the 1) 2) 3) 4) Results: recover

micrometeoroid mechanics rotation

Date and Time: 9 August UT Site: NIIP-5 Instruments: stereo improved radiation imaging drill detector system / launch site

1976 81L

/

experiment the solar second processes the

to investigate project

for sample

collection

of a cooperative Republic which the the

between

of Germany former

and

the United the

radio-altimeter Luna 24 was from the the third attempt to Mare

provided vehicle.

spacecraft its twin,

latter

the launch

Like

a sample

unexplored

-

1976

Crisium October mascon. August the

(after 1975), After 1976,

Luna the

23 and location

a launch

failure

in

the the After sule

Moon, Moon

Luna at

24 lifted UT return

off successfully on 19 August trip, Luna 24's and

from 1976. cappara-

of a large correction orbit Initial

lunar on around orbital at 120 ° 11

05:25

a trajectory Luna 24 days

an uneventful entered down 1976, in 170.1 type shared 24 Earth's to Earth about western

entered later.

atmosphere safely 200 at 05:55

Moon

three were After down

chuted August

UT on 23 southeast

parameters inclination. Luna 24 set

115 x 115 kilometers further safely changes on the 1976 longitude, After control, arm 2 meters was safely and after and into

kilometers Siberia.

to its orbit, lunar surface

of Surgut recovered inated cessive were Luna probe

Study

of the a lamin sucsample 1976.

grams

of soil indicated as if laid portions in last down of the December

at 06:36 latitude where

UT on 18 August and Luna 62012 ' east 23 had from its head

at 12°45 ' north not far from appropriate the Lander its

structure, Tiny the with

deposits. remains

landed.

NASA

commands deployed drilling soil. small The return

ground

Soviet

or Russian spacecraft over four-

sample about

pushed the

to the

Moon. returned

An American to the Moon

nearby in the

{Clementine) teen years

sample capsule,

stowed nearly

later.

a day on

1977
155) Voyager 2 Nation: U.S. (58) Objective(s): Jupiter Uranus Spacecraft: Spacecraft module) Mission Design and Management: NASA Launch Vehicle: Titan Titan no. 23E-7 IIIE-Centaur D-1T) 1977 / / Centaur JPL / (TC-7 flyby, flyby, Saturn flyby flyby, radio the transmitter spacecraft 2 has began failed used on 5 April its backup 1978, ever images and since. of Voyager Jupiter of transmitting 1979

on 24 April

for time-lapse During

movies its of

Neptune

atmospheric it relayed Jovian

circulation. back system, spectacular including

Voyager-2 Mass: 2,080 kg (822 kg mission

encounter, the entire

photos its and

moons Europa, by with at a

Amalthea, all

Io, Callisto, had

Ganymede, been

of which

already

surveyed

Voyager Jupiter range new

1. Voyager was at 22:29

2's closest

encounter 1979

UT on 9 July It

Launch Date and Time: 20 August 14:29:44 UT Launch Site: ETR / launch Scientific Instruments: 1) 2) 3) 4) imaging ultraviolet infrared planetary experiment 5) 6) 7) 8) photopolarimeter magnetometers plasma low-energy experiment 9) 10) plasma cosmic-ray waves experiment particles system spectrometer spectrometer radio complex

of 645,000 data on the four

kilometers. planet's moons clouds and ring

transmitted and its newly

41

discovered

system.

Following its closest to Saturn. began leaving moon the experiment closer 01:21 101,000 more after Voyager of spacecraft 1, kinks, moons. Saturn's thick. on

a midcourse approach Its 22

correction to Jupiter, with 1981, again, with

2 hours Voyager the sixth years

after 2 sped planet after of the

encounter August Once system,

astronomy

two

the Jovian Iapetus.

imaging

Voyager of its 23,000

2 repeated predecessor, kilometers was at of

photographic it actually to Saturn. UT on 26

mission flew closest The

although

charged-particles

encounter at

August The

1981

a range provided spokes

kilometers. detailed images

spacecral_ ring

telescope launched

of the and

and

Results: Although Voyager 2, the

as well as the F-ring Voyager A-ring It also was 2's data perhaps

its shepherding suggested only 300 that meters moons

second

in a pair

designed to explore the outer planets, exited the Asteroid Belt after its twin and then followed it to Jupiter and Saturn. Its primary

photographed Tethys,

the and

Saturn Phoebe.

Hyperion,

Enceladus,

..

1977

The little spacecraft and early 1980s

that could,

Voyager,

which

flew on a "grand

tour"

of the outer

planets

during

the latter

1970s

and is now departing

the solar system

Deep Space Chronicle

This Voyager 2 view, focusing on Saturn's C-ring (and to a lesser extent, the B-ring at top and left) was compiled from three separate images taken through ultraviolet, clear, and green filters. On 23 August 1981, when it acquired these frames, Voyager 2 was Z7 million kilometers from the planet. In general, C-ring material is very bland and gray, the color of dirty ice. Color differences between this ring and the B-ring indicate differing surface compositions for the material composing these complex structures. More than sixly bright and dark ringlets are evident here; the small, bland squares are caused by the removal of reseau (reference) marks during processing.

Although mission ters,

Voyager goals with

2 had the

fulfilled

its primary encounveteran journey, geometry defined by with of close

made on 4

spacecraft November were The

past 1985, 2.5 hours 400 times closest

the when

planet planet signals Earth.

Uranus. began took Light

two planetary directed on the

Long-range approximately conditions conditions. took place

observations

of the to reach

mission

planners to Uranus

spacecraft during of the the

a 4.5-year 33 AU. The was

which Uranus

it covered encounter of a

less than approach

terrestrial to Uranus 1986 at

possibility Voyager

future

encounter

at 17:59

UT on 24 January kilometers. ten During

Neptune: study

2 had

only 5.5 hours the first

a range Voyager

of 71,000 2 discovered

its flyby, two new

during

its flyby,

of any human-

new moons,

1977

rings

in

addition field

to tilted

the at

"older"

nine,

and and

a off-

reached journey, the solar

Voyager the shock

2. wave

During

the

six-month through

magnetic center. in the The

55 ° off-axis that were found 800 wind

had ploughed up and

spacecraft

found of Uranus

speeds as of

wind, particles.

sweeping The

accelerating provided shockoperating as 2020, to

atmosphere per

as high evidence kilometers

charged important energized instruments when the

spacecraft on high-energy from the as late

724 kilometers a boiling below returned Oberon, larger the ocean top

hour

and some

information ions. could levels Data

of water cloud

surface. photos and

Voyager of

2 also

be received are expected

spectacular Ariel, moons Umbriel, of Uranus.

Miranda, five

power minimum

to reduce

Titania,

230 watts.

156) Following craft on 14 the Uranus a single 1986 to Encounter, midcourse set it on the spaceVoyager l Nation: U.S. (57) 0b]ective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft module) Mission Design and Management: NASA Launch Vehicle: Titan Titan Launch 12:56:01 Launch Scientific 1) 2) 3) 4) no. 23E-6 IIIE-Centaur D-1T) 1977 / / Centaur JPL / Jupiter VoyagerMass: flyby, 1 kg (822 kg mission Saturn flyby

performed February to Neptune. capped

correction a precise with journey UT, it flew tops four of the flybys. to fly were During five planet than by still the new itself previwinds. common abundant

course Neptune when 4,500 giant It was the in

Voyager

2's encounter

a 7-billion-kilometer 1989, over the the at 03:56 cloud of its

2,080

on 25 August kilometers planet, the first Its order the and found four to

closest humanmade ten at new

(TC-6

object

planet. working

instruments the rings. time. discovered The active

Date and Time: 5 September UT Site: ETR / launch complex

encounter, moons was ously Hydrogen atmospheric methane Voyager moon, body in

spacecraft be more

41

Instruments: imaging ultraviolet infrared planetary experiment system spectrometer spectrometer radio astronomy

believed, was gives data revealed the on system, the elliptic solar

with found element,

1,100-kilometer to be the although most the

the planet on the Triton, coldest system surface. Voyager plane

its blue

appearance. largest planetary ice the 5) 6) 7) 8)

Neptune's known and

photopolarimeter magnetometers plasma low-energy experiment particles experiment charged-particles

a nitrogen Once past

"volcano" Neptune below system. past were energy. formally Voyager November launch, nently still was 9.6 the put

its

2 followed and out

a course solar 9) 10)

of the

plasma cosmic-ray

waves

experiment

Approximately encounter, in

56 million Voyager mode 2

kilometers instruments to conserve NASA the In after permawere

telescope Voyager original that missions plans would the for a have five canto in to than prewas live each to other of

Results: The designed Tour"

two-spacecraft to replace of the planets

low-power the Neptune the

After

encounter, entire Mission project

"Grand used outer celed send 1977. explore ceded equipped four

renamed Interstellar 1998, nonessential turned

complex during

spacecraft the late and

to explore 1970s. instead and

(VIM). years were

planets the two The the them. with plan

NASA proposed Saturn designed detail 11) that

twenty-one instruments seven 2001, from per JPL and had 14 July

in 1972

spacecraft two two

to Jupiter were

off, leaving By 1 June kilometers kilometers NASA's

instruments the spacecraft Earth second continues fields/particles 2001, out finally an of blasted 2000 and (relato

spacecraft gas giants (Pioneers of the

operating. billion

in more 10 and two color

the two Pioneers Each

traveling tive to

at 15.75 the regular For shock Sun).

spacecraft TV to take

slow-scan

receiye data. immense the outer

ultraviolet on wave that on

example,

12 January

television images from also carried an extensive record data magnetic, about the

the planets, and suite ofinstrnments lunar, original and

atmospheric, planets. The

heliosphere

design

_Deep

Space Chronicle

__

Thisicture p ofNeptune produced the whole images throughgreen orange was from last planet taken the and filters onthe Voyager 2 narrow-angle The camera. images taken were atarange of7.1million kilometersthe from planet, 4 days nd a 20hours closest before approach. picture the The shows Great Spot itscompanion Dark and bright smudge; west the on the limb, fast-movingfeature Scooter the darkpot visible. clouds bright called and little s are These wereeen s topersistaslong s for a Voyager's could cameras resolve Northfthese, them. o abright bandimcloud s ilartothe polar may be seen. Years later, when the Hubbb telescope was focused on the planet, these south streak
atmospheric features had changed, indicating that Neptune's atmosphere is dynamic. the spacecraft was based on that of the older plutogeneralowing phere Pioneer February the Voyager because asteroid Jovian range planet; 1 was of belt a launched faster than after route, Voyager it exited It began 1978 from the at the fol2, but the its a Jovian year was indicated more that Jupiter's than and atmosthe 10 into March, than 30

Mariners. nium tors oxide (RTGs)

Power

was

provided at the

by three

turbulent in the 1973

during 1974. crossed On

radioisotope mounted

thermoelectric

flybys 1979, moon

end of a boom.

spacecraft and

system,

in early (less Jupiter. Ganymede,

it had

already

discovered ring Io,

a thin circling

kilometers past

thick)

Flying and 1

earlier

its twin. in April kilometers

Amalthea, (in that up

Europa,

imaging of 265

mission million sent back

Callisto returned opening

order)

on 5 March, photos new of their world

Voyager terrain, for plan-

spectacular a completely

images

by January

1977

etary was yellow, eight space, most) the ered Voyager was at on

scientists. Io, where and

The

most

interesting showed world with material most (if not bodies also and with 1979

find

The

spacecraft was Pressure was 1.6

found composed and

that of

the 90

Moon's percent at -180 the ° C,

images brown

a bizarre at least into the in

atmosphere nitrogen. surface

orange, active making geologically system. new l's 12:05

temperature and

volcanoes it one The moons,

spewing of the

atmospheres

active

planetary

respectively. Saturn was 1980

Voyager at 23:45

l's closest approach to UT on 12 November kilometers.

solar two

spacecraft Thebe

discovMetis. Jupiter

at a range

of 124,000

closest

encounter

Following headed system eral

the encounter on a trajectory

with

Saturn,

Voyager the solar

1

UT on 5 March

at a range

escaping

of 280,000

kilometers.

at a speed

of about plane Sun's

3.5 AU per year, north, motion specific The Mission have been exploration relative

35 ° to

out of the ecliptic Following completed April with October would of the as not Saturn the Jupiter encounter, course Voyager on 1 9 direction stars.

to the

in the gen-

of the Because

a single

correction

nearby ments directed

of the and

requirewas not official (VIM), called of of

1979 in preparation Saturn. A second 1979 ensured

for its rendezvous correction on 10 that moon the Titan. spacecraft Its flyby 1979 was

for the Titan to Uranus

flyby, the spacecrafft Neptune.

goal of the Voyager as the dual 1989, solar Voyager since the

Interstellar flights NASA's the

hit Saturn's system as five of ring

in November its previous new moons

is to extend system beyond

spectacular 1 found consisting

encounter. and of "G-ring"), on that its a ring bands, and either the the

neighborhood limits possibly data limits of the Sun's beyond. on

Voyager system discovered found side rings Titan, and moons water target 05:41 4,000

the outer sphere Specific heliopause Sun's the seven Voyager larly

planets of

to the outer and the and

thousands (the satellites

influence, include boundary, field,

a new "shepherding"

goals

collecting outer the

the

of the flow of are on regu1998, human-

of the well

F-ring defined.

satellites During

keep flyby,

magnetic solar wind.

outward

As with that continue Earth. the

Voyager remain

2, there operational data

spacecraft Rhea.

photographed Mimas, Based Enceladus, on

Saturn's Tethys, data, incoming largely most Voyager at showed hid the

moons Dione, all the of

instruments 1 and to

to transmit On 17

back

February distant it

appeared ice. was UT Perhaps Titan, on 12

to be

composed interesting 1 passed a range a

Voyager made

1 became object in

most

the which Images November

existence from at Sun.

when Earth.

surpassed 2001, from per

at of thick

Pioneer Voyager Earth second

10's range 1 was and relative traveling

By 1 June kilometers kilometers

12.033 to the

billion 17.25

kilometers. that

atmosphere

completely

surface.

1978
157)
Pioneer Nation: Venus 1 U.S. 160} Venus Pioneer Mass: 582 orbit Venus kg NASA (AC-50 ARC / Atlas two 20 1978 / Results: Orbiter 15) 16) 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft Mission Launch 13) 14) radio occultation and experiment solar corona atmospheric turbulence drag internal experiment 17) celestial The mechanics Venus experiment project the comprised and a basic orbiter, period the surface an in Pioneer experiment experiment distribution density

measurements

Design and Management: Vehicle: Atlas-Centaur

no. 5030D) Launch 13:13:00 Date and Time: May UT / launch complex 36A

spacecraft of Venus. bus.

to explore Both Pioneer to spend Venus package. around was two a 6.5-month 23.4 orbits that low at the the radar

atmosphere used 1, the

surface cylindrical was orbit

spacecraft Venus mapping The orbiter

Launch Site: ETR Scientific 1)

designed around a radar orbit after period within

an extended

Instruments: charged-particle analyzer retarding potential

using elliptical 1978 orbital altered hours--a orbit's meters)

entered The which desired allow 150 each allowed map between

Venus

on 4 December initial was 24 the kiloEarth sciof 73 ° that spherthe

2) 3)

charged-particle thermal Langrnuir electron probe

mass

spectrometer

journey. hours, to the would (about time

temperature

4) 5)

neutral-particle cloud system

mass

spectrometer

maneuver high and

photopolarimeter/imaging

points same

to occur from to of the and

6)

temperature radiometer

sounding

infrared

day. entists most north of

Data

mapper surface

produce Venusian 63 ° south

a topographical latitude The data

7) 8) 9) 10) 11)

magnetic magnetometer solar surface electric transient experiment wind

field

fluxgate analyzer

at a resolution indicated and more identified Maxwell above

plasma

75

kilometers. was much Earth.

radar field

mapper experiment burst

Venus ical

smoother The orbiter

than

gamma-ray

highest which surface. clearing

point on Venus as rises 10.8 kilometers Infrared in the

Montes, the mean revealed over the a

12)

gas

and

plasma

environment

observations planet's atmosphere

experiment

1978

north photos the Cameras lightning spacecraft any, radar was after cessible May phase apsis

pole. showed clouds also

In

addition, dark

ultraviolet that

light covered

Results: Pioneer Venus (316.5 probes, data into and it impact. 1978, diameter about Four small from

Venus

2, the

twin

to Pioneer probe small

markings visible almost the that

1, comprised kilograms), all of which during Venus. not

a main and three

bus,

a large identical

in

the detected in

hemisphere. continuous The little, mapping 1981, years inacIn final periuntil if

were

designed atmospheric

to collect entry

activity confirmed field.

atmosphere. Venus has the

independent Each designed probe to was

shaped

like a cone past surface

magnetic was

Although

survive correction

switched again

off on 19 March in 1991, the thirteen previously of the 1 began

After Pioneer large

a course Venus probe

on 16 August the 1.5-meter1978, the planet. the three at

reactivated launch,

2 released

to explore portions Venus

on 16 November from released million

southern 1992, of its Pioneer

planet. the its

11.1 million days later,

kilometers the bus 9.3

mission, 150 and

maintaining 250 kilometers last

probes Venus. All

while five

kilometers reached the 1978, Using the atmossur304.0 per as hour. ° a

between

components on

propellant was as received its

depletion. at 19:22 orbit The soon

The

transmission 1992,

Venusian with the

atmosphere large probe of air drag

9 December first.

UT on 8 October no longer

entering and

decaying

permitted burned in sucwas

combination large phere face probe until at

a parachute, the Venusian and

communications. the atmosphere

spacecraft after, mission eight months.

descended it impacted north

through on the latitude

ending that

a

cessful planned 158)

fourteen-year to last only

4.4 °

longitude Transmissions The three probes utes

at a speed

of 32 kilometers

ceased at impact 76-centimeter-diameter in the atmosphere

expected. small minrapidly benefit probes Day for high three but their

Pioneer Venus 2 Nation: U.S. (61) 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft Venus Pioneer impact Venus Multiprobe NASA (AC-51 ARC /Atlas

arrived of the the

within

bigger

one and

descended without two the

through

atmosphere Amazingly,

of parachutes.

of three

Mass: 904 kg

Mission Design and Management: Launch Vehicle: Atlas-Centaur no. 5031D) Launch Date and lime: 8 August 07'.33UT Launch Site: ETR Scientific Bus: 1) 2) 3) neutral ion mass differential ometry 4) 5) Large 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Small 1) 2t 3) mass

survived the hard Probe transmitted 67.5 minutes before and suffered

impact. The so-called data from the surface succumbing power depletion. to the All failures,

temperatures 1978 / 36A small none main were (North spectrometer long baseline interferlongitude tude main and bus, probes

instrument

significant missions. 59.3 ° north Probe); (Day

enough Their latitude

to jeopardize landing and

/ launch complex

coordinates 4.8 ° longitude and 317.0 ° latiThe the

Instruments:

31.3 ° south Probe);

latitude

and

28.7 ° south Probe). up in

spectrometer

56.7 ° longitude meanwhile, at an altitude after data on the

(Night burned

experiment propagation turbulence experiment experiment

atmosphere about provided from the

of 120 kilometers-other probes--and regions. that is almost Below between Data 10

atmospheric atmospheric probe: neutral solar mass flux

1.5 hours key

higher

probes

indicated there

spectrometer

and tion

50 kilometers, in the

no conveclayer at

radiometer

atmosphere. the

a haze appears

gas chromatograph infrared cloud radiometer particle size spectrometer experiment

30 kilometers, relatively 159) ISEE-3 experiment Nation: U.S. (62) 0bjective(s): Comet clear.

atmosphere

to be

atmospheric probes atmospheric cloud net particles flux

structure (each): structure experiment radiometer

Earth-Sun

L1 Libration flyby, lunar

Point, flybys

Giacobini-Zinner

Deep Space Chronicle

Spacecraft: ISEE-C
Spacecraft Mass: 479 kg GSFC no. Mission Design and Management: NASA 633) Launch Date and Time'. 12 August 15:12 Launch Scientific 1) 2) 3) 4) UT Site: ETR / launch complex 17B Instruments: solar wind plasma experiment 1978 / Launch Vehicle: elta 2914 (no. 144 /Thor D

December meters), encounter this point,

1983 ISEE-3 the the

at

a range

of only

120

kiloto At the On

was sent on a trajectory Comet Giacobini-Zinner. spacecraft Cometary 1985 was Explorer renamed (ICE}.

International 11 September within becoming comet. on the The 7,862 the

at 11:02

UT, ICE comet's to fly

passed core, past data that of a

kilometers first

of the

spacecraft returned confirming "dirty to 40.2 side

spacecraft tail,

excellent theories snowballs"

comet's are ICE

magnetometer low-energy medium-energy experiment cosmic-ray experiment

comets ice, with motion. ters cosmic-ray experiment wind

essentially material flew also sunward 1986 ICE and

surface

sleeting million

off during kilomeHalley on solar orbit infor-

cosmic-ray

of the data.

of Comet

5) 6) 7) 8) 9)

high-energy plasma protons cosmic-ray x-rays and waves

28 March

provided

upstream

experiment

remains

in heliocentric to return

experiment electrons electrons experiment experiment

at about mation

1 AU; until

it continued authorized 1997.

NASA on

termination On 10 August of Earth, for If it

of operations 2014, where analysis ICE it will

5 May

101 radio 111 plasma 12) 13) Results: International designed tion built ESA were range After was with the built to and the first the

mapping

experiment experiment experiment

return

to the

vicinity be

composition

could

possibly

captured impacts. the

high-energy ground-based experiment ISEE-3 was

cosmic-rays solar the studies third

of its exterior NASA will

for dust donate

is recovered, to the of three (ISEE) in cooperaNASA while 160) Venera 11 Nation: USSR 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft Mission Lavochkin 1 1.5 the are not orbit first wind its priSpace the tail 4) 5) 6) 7) Launch

spacecraft

Smithsonian

Institution

for display.

Sun-Earth operated European and second. by

Explorers NASA

Space third The

Agency.

(96) Venus flyby and landing

spacecraft, three

spacecraft a wide space. ISEE-3 Point a point where the Sun

4V-1 (no. 360) Mass: 4,450 kg NPO

simultaneously

investigate in interplanetary November 1978,

of phenomena launch, successfully Sunward on 20

Design and Management:

placed side from

at Libration of Earth, Earth, and

Vehicle: 8K82K / Blok DM

+ Blok no. 3L)

DM

(Proton-K

(L1) on the million

no. 296-01

kilometers forces

gravitational exactly only around spacecraft approaching mary Flight and mission Center first second the

of Earth

Launch Date and Time: 9 September 03:25:39 UT Launch Site: NIIP-5 Instruments: bus: plasma Konus spectrometer gamma-ray gammadetector and / launch site

1978 81L

/

counterbalanced. first spacecraft Point, monitor ISEE-3 1981,

ISEE

3 became into the

to be put but the also

Scientific Flyby 1) 2) 3)

a Libration to Earth. in

solar

completed Goddard

but Earth's

scientists through position the into 1982,

proposed to intercept spacecraft into the survey

sending magnetic

Sneg-2MZ detector ultraviolet magnetometer solar wind

x-ray

burst

spacecraft

spectrometer detectors detectors

a comet. to use ISEE-3 tail

By 10 June its thrusters completed and gas detected that was

began geotail.

to move the first

cosmic-ray

deep

of Earth's

Lander: 1) 2) 3J 4) imaging Sigma mass system gas chromatograph

a huge ejected

plasmoid from after Moon Earth's

of electrified magnetosof on five 22

phere. complex

Subsequently, flybys of the

a series (the last

spectrometer spectrometer

gamma-ray

5) Groza lightning detector 6) temperature andpressureensors s 7t nephelometer 8) anemometer 9) optical pectrophotometer s 10)remote soilcollector 111 x-rayfluorescence aerosol cloud analyzer 121 Arakhisx-ray fluorescence spectrometer anddrill Results: Venera 11wasoneof twoidentical probestheotherbeing ( Venera 2)thatfol1 lowedup on the highly successful Soviet missions Venus 1975. to in Veneras 1and 1 12differedfromtheir predecessors principally in the fact eachcarried a flyby bus/lander combination instead the preof vious orbiter/lander combination. Engineers revertedto the flyby combination artly p because oftheweight limitations ofthe1978 launch window,but also because flyby probes ffordedetter a b transmission timefor landers.Several f the scientificinstruo mentswerealsomodifiedandnewones added. Venera 11arrived atVenus ftertwo a course corrections 16September on and17 December On23December the 1978. 1978, landerseparated fromthe flybyprobe and enteredheVenusiantmosphere t a twodays later.The landerprobesafelylandedon Venus 03:24UT on 15 December at 1978 andthenrelayed 95minutes datafrom of the surface. Landing coordinates were14 ° south latitude and299 °longitude. Thepoint ofcutoff asdetermined w bytherange ofvisibility of the flyby probe.A soil-drilling instrument ollected c soilfor chemical and physicalanalysis, ut soil analysiswas b unsuccessful because thesoilwasnotproperlydeposited an examination to container foranalysisprobably ( duetoleaking airthat disturbed thesoil).Thelander lso a failedto takecolorpanoramas theVenusianurof s face duetoafailureofthelenscoversfthe o camerasystemto open.While extensive atmospheric datawas later released, the Soviets ave h publishedelatively r little data fromsurface easurements. m Theflybyprobe entered heliocentricrbit afterflyingpast o theplanet t arange a of35,000ilometers. k 161)
Venera 12

Nation: USSR 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft Lavochkin Launch

(97) Venus flyby and landing

4V-1 (no. 361) Mass: 4,461 kg

Mission Design and Management: NPO Vehicle: 8K82K / Blok + Blok DM iProton-K

no. 296-02 Launch 02:25:13 Launch

DM no. 4LI 1978 81P /

Date and Time: 14 September UT Site: NIIP-5 / launch site

ScJentJtic Instruments: Flyby 1) 2) 3) bus: plasma Konus detector 4) 5) 6) 7) ultraviolet spectrometer Sneg-2MZ spectrometer gamma-ray gammadetector and x-ray burst

magnetometer solar wind detectors cosmic-ray detectors

Lander: 11 21 3i 41 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) imaging Sigma mass system gas chromatograph

spectrometer spectrometer detector and pressure sensors

gamma-ray Groza

lightning

temperature nephelometer anemometer optical remote x-ray analyzer Arakhis trometer x-ray and 12 was

spectrophotometer soil collector fluorescence cloud fluorescence drill the identical successfully performed 21 September its twin, sister craft aerosol spec-

Results: Venera to Venera Venus, course December prior probe lander velocity formed that The on to the

11. Launched spacecraft on As

towards two and two the mid14 days flyby the at a and perto

corrections 1978. the

with

planetary its lander.

encounter,

released entered

On 21 December, atmosphere per second

the Venusian

of 11.2 kilometers a descent profile Veneras touched 1978 Landing and its twin. data after earlier safely

ahnost 9 and down

identical

of the lander

10 in 1975. at 03:30 UT

21 December an hour. from

a descent

lasting were about 7° 800 the

about south

coordinates From the

latitude

294 ° longitude,

kilometers probe

ground, 110

relayed

for a record

minutes,

_Deep

Space

Chronicle

although fered delivery two

like

Venera

11,

the

spacecraft its soil

sufsample the soil lens

effectively useless. at then

rendering The flyby of data

the probe

color passed

imaging by the after mission

system planet perand

major

failures: failed

instrument

to deposit analysis; failed

a range its entered

35,000

kilometers orbit.

appropriately covers on the

for scientific imaging system

and

forming

transmission

to release,

heliocentric

Deep Space Chronicle

........

1981
162) Venera 13 Nation: USSR Objective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft Lavochkin Launch Launch 06:04 Launch Scientific Flyby 1) 2) 3) 4) Vehicle: 8K82K / Blok + Blok DM (Proton-K 1981 / (98) Venus 4V-1M flyby and landing 13) Results: heavy towards 1970s The from / launch site 200P Venera set 10) 11) 12) accelerometer humidity prop probe seismometer Venera Venus Venus (after Soviets on 13/14 the 13 was one of the probes Soviet and Union Venera site third pair of sensor soil mechanical/electrical

(no. 760) kg

Mass: 4,363

Mission Design and Management: NPO

flyby/lander by the 9/10 the Venus Venera picked

launched in the 11/12).

no. 311-01 UT

DM no. 5L)

landing passed Orbiter had as

for Venera The

Date and Time: 30 October

13 based

information combination (such

on by NASA vehicle. an improved

Pioneer

Site: NIIP-5 Instruments: bus: magnetometer cosmic-ray solar detector wind

of instruments

the

spectrophoand the mass soil on 10 the on the

tometer,

the gas chromatograph, including two midcourse and 21 1981 13 lander a

spectrometer), detector detectors gamma-ray burst sampler. November Venera 27 Venusian After

redesigned corrections 1982, its parent entered

February from capsule and

Signe-2MS3

separated The

February

1982. atmosphere data

Lander: 1) x-ray drill 2) x-ray aerosols 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) imaging pressure mass Groza-2 gas system and temperature sensors fluorescence spectrometer for fluorescence spectrometer and

began the the flyby planet

relaying probe, after After lander a a set UT were The addiplanned tern89.5

atmospheric which continued

back

to

to fly past

36,000-kilometer-range roughly down on 1-hour-long on the Venusian 1982. latitude

encounter. descent, surface Landing and the

at 03:57:21 coordinates

1 March

spectrometer lightning detector

7.5 ° south probe tional lifetime perature

303 ° longitude. for another beyond The probe the

continued 127

to transmit far

chromatograph

minutes,

nephelometer spectrophotometer

of 32 minutes. and pressure

found and

to be 465°C

atmospheres, the (using on attempts red,

respectively. at green, 11 color and and

Venera surface blue 12 filters) and color

13 repeated photography that failed by of eight field of soil. on to ter-

9) 10) 11) 12) 13)

spectrophotometer accelerometer humidity prop probe seismometer 14 was identical carried way to its out 1981, indicate twin, three on 25 and sensor

Veneras

succeeded photographs

soil mechanical/electrical

relaying

to Earth

the first

the surface successive orange-brown Successful Veneras restrial content. orbit. part Comet 163) Venera 14 Nation: USSR 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft Lavochkin Launch

of Venus. panoramas angular soil 11 and

Venera

13 returned a

showing rocks and

Results: Venera Venera midcourse 14 November February one of the 1982. 13. The

loose failed

spacecraft on the

analysis 12) showed basalt with

(which

corrections 1981,

to Venus:

soil similar a high entered on

23 November sources was have incorrect jeopardized

leucitic The

potassium heliocentric 1982 Halley's as

Russian

that

flyby

module was fbr fired the

corrections and lander could

t probably the mis-

Its engine of a test flyby.

10 June

the

first)

anticipated

sion. The parent began. an

probe

separated before

from the

its flyby cycle at actiThe of 47 fell to as safe a

on 3 March The probe's

1982 main

entry opened thus

parachute kilometers, instruments. at an

altitude the

of 62 to 63 atmospheric was released and the using medium. 1982

vating (99) Venus 4V-1M flyby and landing parachute kilometers, the tact

altitude lander

760-kilogram only The and the probe surface continued Landing

(no. 761) kg NPO DM (Proton-K 1981 /

surface with

atmosphere made with at 07:00:10

Mass: 4,363.5

retarding on 3 March

conUT

Mission Design and Management: Vehicle: 8K82K / Blok + Blok

the Venusian

57 min-

utes were about landing

of

transmissions. latitude

coordinates

no. 311-02 05:31 launch UT

DM no. 6L)

13.25 ° south 1,000 site. color

and 310 ° longitude, from its the twin, of its Venera Venera surroundI cubic 13 14

Launch Date and Time: 4 November

kilometers As with

Site: NIIP-5

/ launch

site

200L

returned ings

photographs a soil sample from the

Scientific Instruments: Flyby 1) 2) 3) 41 bus: nmgnetometer cosmic-ray solar wind detector detectors gamma-ray burst

and examined taken Soil off from then was

(about

centimeter sample). sealed was series sample with fluorescence spectrometer and

a 30-millimeter-deep in a chamber and a the environment through air final until chamber it was spectrowere 13 site: The at heliodata on a

deposited outside

progressively by was deposited

transferred blowing in of only its 30°C.

Signe-2MS3 detector

of chambers a temperature by the

Lander: 1) x-ray drill 2) x-ray aerosols 3) 4) 5) 6) 7/ 8) imaging pressure mass Groza-2 gas system and temperature sensors fluorescence spectrometer for

Here

examined meter. 470°C flyby range centric

x-ray and than

fluorescence pressure

Temperature higher and 93.5 probe,

outside

considerably

at the Venera respectively. passed and to Venus entered

atmospheres,

meanwhile, kilometers continuing flares.

of 36,000 orbit, x-ray

spectrometer lightning detector

provide

solar change

It pertbrmed 1982.

one trajectory

chromatograph

on 14 November

nephelometer

_Deep

Space Chronicle

1983
164)
Venera 15 Nation: USSR 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft Lavochkin Launch Vehicle: 8K82K no. 321-01 02:38:39 / Blok UT / launch site 200L 165) radar system experiment Venera 16 Nation: USSR 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft Mission 16 were American a detailed a pair to extend Pioneer map 1 of about Soviet of the much a large of the cotof Lavochkin Launch launc!l Launch Scientific 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Vehicle: 8K82K / Blok + Blok I)M 1983 site (Proton-K / 02:32 200P UT no. 321-02 DM no. 9I,) (101) orbit DM + Blok no. 8L) DM (Proton-K (100) orbit Venus rections before Venus orbital meters orbit. NPO began north craft's area about the kg (on 10 June successfully at 03:05 UT 1983 and 1 October orbit October. x 65,000 1983) around Initial kiloentering on 10 1,000

parameters

were

4V-2 (no. 860) Mass: 5,250

at 87 ° inclination--that The six pole. orbit, from 115 spacecraft's days after mapping entering of the nature

is, a near-polar operations orbit over the

Mission Design and Management:

Because the

of the

spacethe

two orbiters latitude

mapped to the

only

30 ° north million was

pole--

Launch Date and Time: 2 ,June 1983 /

square completed

kilometers--before on 10 July 1984.

mission

Launch Site: NIIP-5 Scientific Instruments:

1) Polyus-V 2) Omega 3) Radio 4) infrared 5) cosmic-ray 6) solar Results: dedicated the Venus of the to studies Orbiter surface Venera radar begun wind

side-looking radiometric occultation spectrometer detectors detectors

Venus 4V-2

(no. 861) kg NPO

Mass: 5,300

Design and Management:

15 and Venera mappers by the in constructing down For

designed

Date and Time: 7 June Site: NIIP-5 / launch Instruments: Polyus-V Omega Radio infrared cosmic-ray solar wind side-looking radiometric occultation spectrometer detectors detectors

to a resolution these the missions, central

2 kilometers.

engineers earlier larger

lengthened Veneras solar (by batteries, radar lander

bus

radar system experiment

1 meter), and antenna on out

installed attached in the place earlier

side-looking descent craft, Venera

module 15 carried

space-

two midcourse

1983

Results: Venera UT on 14 October

16 arrived 1983

at Venus after en route 5 October six days orbit. 15 and with Rico, coverage the

at 06:22 course 1983. later Mapping comIt in

based an map order phere.

observations. East the German planet in

Both infrared

spacecraft

also

used to in

spectrometer wavelengths of the missions 10 July

corrections began its

on 15 June

and

infrared atlas"

its mapping

operations near-polar

to provide Although were of the 1984. to provide never

a "heat the

atmosof both 1984, at in

24-hour-period

primary by

resolution parable dish Soviet tudes

of both Veneras to that possible in Puerto provided than

16 was

spacecraft least one

fulfilled pair was

300-meter the lati-

still were out.

operational plans to change latitudes,

at Arecibo orbiters higher

although over

November its orbit these were

If there carried

coverage

of lower

30 ° , too far north

for Earth-

1984
166)
Vega 1 Nation: USSR Objective(s): landing, Spacecraft: Spacecraft Lavochkin Launch Vehicle: 8K82K / Blok + Blok DM (Proton-K (102) Venus atmospheric Comet (no. 901) kg flyby 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 1984 / 10) 11) / launch site 200L DM no. llL) entry and Bus: 1) 2) 3) imaging infrared ultraviolet, spectrometer shield penetration dust detectors dust neutral APV-V mass gas plasma detector system spectrometer visible, infrared imaging

Halley's 5VK

Mass: c. 4,920

Mission Design and Management: NPO

spectrometer mass spectrometer analyzer

energy

no. 329-01 Launch 09:16:24 Launch Scientific

energetic-particle magnetometer wave and plasma

analyzer

Date and Time: 15 December UT Site: NIIP-5 Instruments:

analyzers Vega deep had lander project space three modules balloons and, remaining entire among the misthe was Soviet major on (two by

Results: The perhaps mission goals: the each) using buses sion to surface in the the

twin-spacecraft most ambitious The mission advanced

Lander: 1) 2) 3) 4) Malakhit Sigma-3 VM-4 mass gas spectrometer

to date. place

chromatograph

of Venus, Venusian gravity, Comet cooperative (who vehicle) the German Federal

to deploy

hygrometer gamma-ray

atmosphere, to fly the Halley. The

GS-15-SCV spectrometer

Venusian past was the a

5) 6)

UV spectrometer BDRP-AM25 spectrometer x-ray and fluorescence drill

effort

Soviet and (East France, fWest

Union launch

provided and Poland,

spacecraft Bulgaria, Republic of Germany

Austria,

7) 8) 9)

ISAV

nephelometer/scatterometer and pressure sensors

Hungary,

Democratic Republic the before vehicles

temperature IFP aerosol

Germany), and the

Czechoslovakia,

analyzer

Balloon: 1) 2) 3) 4) temperature vertical wind and pressure sensors

Germany). to the ones balloon

Although used gondolas

]anders for

were

similar Venus, new

exploring comp]ete]y carried

anemometer

were that

nephelometer light level/lighting detector

French-made

American-French

nephelometers

to measure

aerosol distribution the atmosphere. in The 167) cometary probes, contained flyby which a120- Vega 2 kilogram scientificackage p forinvestigations, Nation: USSR (103) entry, wereprotected against high-velocity impacts 0bjective(s): Venus atmospheric from dustparticles. Afterasuccessful flightto Halley's Comet flyby Venus, ega1 released 1,500-kilogramSpacecraft: 5VK (no. 902) V its descent module 9 June1985,wo days Spacecraft Mass: 4,920 kg on t before atmospheric entry.At 61 kilometers Mission Design and Management: NPO altitude, asthelander escended, d it released Lavochkin thefirsthelium-inflated balloon itha Launch Vehicle: 8K82K + Blok DM (Proton-K plastic w hanging gondola underneath Masswas no. 325-02 / Blok DM no. 12L) it. around kilograms. 20.8 Astheballoonrifted Launch Date and Time: 21 December 1984 / d throughheVenusian t atmosphere (controlled 09:13:52 UT partlyby ballast),t transmitted i important Launch Site: NIIP-5 / launch site 200P dataontheatmosphere toa network f Scientific Instruments: back o Lander: tracking antennas Earth.Balloon suron 1 vivedfor46.5hours, ventually e terminating 1) Malakhit mass spectrometer 2) Sigma-3 gas chromatograph operationsecausef batteryfailure.The b o 3) VM-4 hygrometer landerset downsafelyon the groundat 03:02:54 UTon 11June1985 7.2 north at ° 4) GS-15-SCV gamma-ray spectrometer latitudeand177.8longitude, the night ° on 5) UV spectrometer side ofVenusn theMermaid lainnorthof i P 6) BDRP-AM25 x-ray fluorescence spectrometer and drill Aphrodite, andtransmitted fromthesurface for 56 minutes. avingdeployedefore H b it 7) ISAV nephelometer/scatterometer reached surface, soil sample the the drill 8) temperature and pressure sensors failedto complete soilanalysis, the its but 9) IFP aerosol analyzer Balloon: mass spectrometer returned important data.
1) temperature and pressure sensors 2) vertical wind anemometer TheVega busflewbyVenus t a range 1 a of 39,000 kilometers ndthenheaded its a for 3) nephelometer 4) light level/lighting detector encounter withHalley. Aftera courseorrecc Bus: tion on 10 February 1986,he spacecraft t 1) imaging system began formalstudies the comet its of on4 2) infrared spectrometer March, henit was14millionkilometers w 3) ultraviolet, visible, infrared imaging fromits target. uring D the3-hour ncounter e on6 March1986, thespacecraft approached spectrometer towithin8,889 kilometers (at07:20:06 UT)of 4) shield penetration detector 5) dust detectors Halley. Vega tookmorethan500pictures 1 viadifferent filtersasit flewthrough thegas 6) dust mass spectrometer cloud around thecoma. Although thespace7) neutral gas mass spectrometer craftwas batteredydust, one b n oftheinstru8) plasma energy analyzer ments weredisabled uringthe encounter. d 9) energetic-particle analyzer Vega1collected wealth a ofinformationn o 10) magnetometer Halley, includingataonitsnucleus, d itsdust 11) wave and plasma analyzers productionate,its chemical r composition, Results: Vega 2 was the sister spacecraft to and its rotationalrate.After subsequent Vega 1 and essentially performed a near-idenimaging sessions 7 and8 March1986, tical mission to its twin. The main lander on probe set down without problems at 03:00:50 Vega 1headed outtodeeppace. s UT on 15 June Aphrodite, Vega. latitude transmitted about 1985 1,500 in the northern region southeast of of kilometers were The

Landing and

coordinates 181.08 ° longitude. from the surface

6.45 ° south spacecraft

for 57 minutes.

_

_)eepi_poie

Chron,¢Je

_

....

_

.

-

....

i

Unlike collect

its twin, and

the Vega

2 lander a soil

was sample;

able

to the

at 07:20 craft meters was

UT two traveling second

days at

later

when

the of 76.8 than During

spacekiloVega the of the those to the coma 2 susthe pertwo

investigate identified found

a speed lower

experiment rock--rarely the data, explored spectrometer loon, released flew lecting hours through data of data lunar the by

an anorthosite-troctolite on Earth, According but present lander's oldest mass balin

per

(slightly per 2 took better

l's

79.2

kilometers Vega much

second). 700 resolution

highlands. area any was

to the the The

encounter, comet--of from the

images than due of the

probably vehicle.

Venera return entry Venusian

spacecraft's of this less transit. 80-percent (as compared instruments were no instrument further After 11 March mission orbit. dust

twin,

partly

did not upon the

any data. into the

The

presence during

outside Ironically, power loss

atmosphere, colfor 46.5

Vega during l's

atmosphere, survived

tained encounter cent}.

an

like its twin, transmission.

and

to Vega between partially on both imaging Vega

40 the

Seven

spacecraft After releasing on its its lander, its the flyby Halley. probe The on of the kilomewas 7 although pacitated. 10 and primary centric continued spacecraft March comet ters. 1986 from Vega flight to Comet

damaged, was sessions 2 finished out into incaon its helio-

initiated by taking a distance 2's closest

encounter 100 photos

1986, and

headed

of 14 million approach

to Halley

o

DeeP Space Chron!c!e ...........

"

1985
168) Sakigake Nation: Japan Objective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft (1) Halley's MS-T5 Mass: 138.1 kg (no. 1) 1985 / Comet flyby 1985, encounter Halley. vehicle Earth tions sions closest on kilometers / launch ion detector probe spacecraft was by and the (named first any the deep complex M1 after Earth the The to Sakigake (about was sent on a long-range with 7.6 million served scientists kilometers) as to spacecraft permit a reference eliminate contributransmisspacecraft's at 04:18 6.99 UT

atmospheric and to the variations from within the

ionospheric in Giotto's coma. The was it was Nearly Sakigake at a range more tail until 1995, distant

Mission Design and Management: ISAS Launch Vehicle: Mu-3S-I[ Launch Date and Time: 7 January 19:26 Launch 1) 2) 3) Results: Sakigake space apart States been been past UT Site: Kagoshima solar plasma The after spacecraft from (the launched to launch Halley. the two wind

approach from Halley

to Halley 1986, the when comet.

11 March

million

six years flew by

encounter, 1992 two magnetic Sakigake ground

Scientific Instruments:

on 8 January After Earth's 1994), with on 15 the

of 88,790 flybys 1993 weekly was the signal

kilometers. through and July contact lost ground until 1999.

wave MS-T5 launch)

(in June telemetry although a beacon

magnetometer

maintained

November

launched Soviet German by NASA). Union

country United had had to fly out the

continued all contact was

to receive terminated

on 7 January

Helios Japan's modest

probes goal probe

a single

169) Giotto Organization: 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft European Halley's Giotto Mass: 960 kg Space Comet Agency flyby (1)

As part and

of a test mission

to prove operations

technologies actual Space launched T5, nearly mission, and this

of the of (ISAS) as MS-

the

country's

Institute

Astronautical test spacecraft to the

Sciences known "actual"

identical later. The by Mu-3S-II. on

vehicle spacecraft launch

Mission Design and Management: ESA Launch Vehicle: Ariane Launch 11:23:16 Launch UT Site: Kourou / ELA-1 1 (V14) 1985 /

launched was vehicle, corrections

spin-stabilized a new Japanese

launched the

Date and Time: 2 July

Following and

two 14

course

10 January

February

Scientific 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) Results: launched (ESA). designed any dust first spread the of other

Instruments; neutral ion dust dust plasma plasma mass mass impact mass spectrometer

Comet July meters. sive system comet. encounter

Grigg-Skjellerup 1992 at range Eight data on After on revealed fragment Grigg-Skjellerup The spacecraft at 02:40

at

15:30

UT

on

10

of approximately provided variety closest termination 1992, a Giotto 1999, second have during repeated 1999 of ever

200 kiloextencometary flyby of was ESA comet been of a the put scior

spectrometer spectrometer detector

experiments a wide this

phenomena

during

analysis analysis

1 experiment 2 experiment analyzer

formal 23 July that may

energetic-particle magnetometer optical color Giotto by Because to probe imaging was the the approach probe, it the

in hibernation. entists

In September

experiment system first deep space probe Agency was than two the and of

cometary panying in 1992. Space spacecraft Earth 219,000 170) S.isei Nation: Japan 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft

accom-

the encounter a flyby at range of of

European cylindrical closer was

UT on 1 July

kilometers.

to

Halley with

equipped

shields would the

separated bear impact thicker the

by 23 centimeters; shock over sheet. based on of impact areas

(2) Halley's Planet-A Comet flyby

energy rear was

larger The

second, the

design spin-

spacecraft

the

Mass:

139.5

kg (no. 2) 1985 /

stabilized launched rections 1986, a and

magnetospheric in 1977 and 1978. on 26 August 1986, to flyby trajectory from on The

Geos satellites After course cor12 February was comet's based Soviet 1986. put on core. upon Vega Closest at kilobefore due of to 1

Mission Design and Management: ISAS Launch Vehicle: Mu-3S-II Launch Date and Time: 18 August 23:33 Launch Scientific 1) 2) Results: launch), probes 1986 was tory orbit. an could around on 14 UT Site: Kagoshima Instruments: ultraviolet solar wind Planet-A was launched encounter. launched without The main the imaging experiment (named second towards The directly entering payload of Suisei two after Japanese during spacecraft space trajecwas that corona correction flew within on the system / launch complex M1

1985, Giotto the was the spacecraft

12 March

500-kilometer on 2 its

Data tracking and passed encounter 00:03:02 meters closest impact that gain

information probes. by Halley was

eventually

14 March

at a range

of 605 kilometers of 137.6 million

UT. At a range from Earth,

Halley

just telemetry

2

seconds stopped

cylindrical on a deep of the imaging

approach, with probably antenna

a heavy knocked out data minutes.

concentration the spacecraft's with was

dust high-

intermediate-Earth spacecraft system

of alignment transmission On a average, second

Earth. restored had

ultraviolet-based study the the comet.

Fortunately, within been 32 hit

huge After 1985, of the

hydrogen a course Suisei comet's

Giotto by

100

times

particles end of its was of dust. After the

November kilometers 1986

weighing encounter covered Giotto the

up to 0.001 with in at

grams. the

By the

152,400 8 March olet

nucleus ultravi-

Halley, least 2,000 ESA 26

spacecraft

at 13:06 of the gas

UT, returning

kilograms to The

images

20-million-kilometercoma. from Even the two at that the partithe to

returned

images decided

of Halley. redirect

diameter relatively spacecraft 2 cles, Halley it send each

hydrogen large was

encounter,

distance hit

comet, dust After decided elaborate the 1998,

vehicle was April

for a flyby put Course and

of Earth. in hibernation corrections 1986, flyby

spacecraft mode on

by at least

officially 1986.

1 millimeter

in diameter. in 1987, through ISAS an with

on

19 March, set on 2 July time that to

Encounter, the spacecraft for an

20 March,

21 March

however,

on a 22,000-kilometer 1990 Earth visit for a gravity-assist had a new been target: used

of Earth (the first

trajectory

encounter

Comet thira

Giacobini-Zinner teen series years after

on 24 November launch. Suisei

for such

a purpose)

performed between

Giotto

successfully

flew by

of trajectory

corrections

5 and

10April1987 orderosend onagravityin t it assist round a Earthon20August 992 1 ata rangeof 60,000 kilometers. Unfortunately, hydrazine furthercorrections for hadbeen depleted y22February 991. b 1 Theplanned

encounter Giacobini-Zinner with (aswellas a far-distance flybyofComet Tempel-Tuttle) hadtobecanceled on28February 998; 1 the cancellation formally ended themission.

_Deep

Space Chronicle

1988
171) Fobos 1 Nation: USSR Objective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft Lavochkin Launch Vehicle: 8K82K / Blok D-2 + Blok no. 2L) 1988 / site 200L D-2 (Proton-K (104) Mars 1F (no. flyby, 101) kg NPO 8) Phobos encounter 7) 6) 5) SOVIKOMS spectrometer TAUS HARP proton ion and and alpha-particle energy-mass charge

spectrometer electron

Mass: 6,220

spectrometer SLED energetic charged-particle

Mission Design and Management:

spectrometer Solar studies: 1) 2) 3) IPHIR TEREK RF-15 SUFR LILAS VGS solar solar x-ray photometer telescope/coronograph photometer spectrometer spectrometer spectrometer

no. 356-02

Launch Date and Time: 7 July 17:38:04 Launch Scientific UT Site: NIIP-5 Instruments: studies / launch

4) 5)

ultrasound gamma-burst gamma-burst

Planetary 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) VSK ISM GS-14 IPNM RLK

(on Orbiter): system

6)

videospectrometric infrared spectrometer

Results: Fobos 1 and 2 were part of an ambitious mission to Mars and its 27-kilometer-diameter moon Phobos that program comprised of the Lander was of the culmination of a Each for longland on conorbit of an and would

gamma-emission neutron radar detector

spectrometer

decade-long spacecraft term spectrometric studies Automated Phobos

development. Orbiter and that would

a Mars planet (DAS)

system laser mass

a Long-Term

LIMA-D analyzer

to study After Mars, sample

its geological each it spacecraft make

and climatic entered close

7)

DION

secondary

ion

mass

analyzer

ditions. around Phobos,

8) [SO optical Plasma studies: 1) 2) 3) 4) MAGMA FGMM APV-F ASPERA spectrometer

radiation magnetometer

spectrometer

would surface laser

flybys using

material

innovative also analyzer energy-mass deploy

onboard the

spectrometer, Laser beams

magnetometer plasma wave

Lander.

prepare Each carried thirteen

small spacecraft,

samples with

of material a newly experiments

for analysis. designed provided bus, by Space

scanning

twenty-four countries

and

the

European

Agency. 1performed Fobos a course correction en routeto Marson 16 July 1988. On 29
August command and 1988, due to a programming to turn offthe system (instead error, orientation of a routine speclost to lose a was issued stabilization

5)

SOVIKOMS spectrometer

energy-mass

charge

6) 7)

TAUS HARP

proton ion and

and

alpha-particle

spectrometer electron

command trometer). proper power. next

to switch As solar a

on the result, the

gamma-ray spacecraft began Fobos session to that at contact. entering and

spectrometer 8) Solar 1) 2) 3) 4) SLED energetic charged-particle

orientation was no word

and from

spectrometer studies: IPHIR RF-15 SUFR LILAS solar x-ray photometer photometer spectrometer spectrometer spectrometer mission as its twin payload on board, up to

There scheduled

1 at the on 2 estab1988, there The orbit eventu-

communications Continuing failed, officially and attempts on announced attempts without 1989) orbit.

September. lish the would contact Soviets

3 November

ultrasound gamma-burst

be no further flew

spacecraft (scheduled ally entered 172) Fobos 2 Nation:

by Mars January

5) VGS gamma-burst Results: Fobos 2 had the same Fobos I but had an additional "hopper" jumps surface orbiter course of the were

for 23

heliocentric

a 110-kilogram ten to 20-meter gather The

designed the on the

to make Phobos tiny

across data

surface Martian different out 1988 probfailed comAt 12:55 fired its

moon. USSR (105) Mars flyby, Phobos kg encounter

also had corrections two radio

a slightly Fobos

instrument two en route

complement.

2 caITied on 21 July major

0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft Lavochkin Launch

IF (no. 102) Mass: 6,220

and 23 January lems. when mands + Blok no. 1L) 1988 / site 200P D-2 (Proton-K One there

1989, despite

some

transmitters generated

Mission Design and Management: NPO Vehicle: 8K82K / Blok D-2

spuriously

in one channel

of its computer. the spacecraft Mars. x 81,214 four further was Phobos. of of the 860 and of put Fobos moon

UT on 29 January engine orbital ters to enter

1989, orbit were

no. 356-01

around 819 After

Initial kilomeorbital on an

Launch Date and Time: 12 July 17:01:43 Launch Scientific UT Site: NIIP-5 / launch Instruments: studies

parameters

at 1.5 ° inclination. its course

corrections, encounter

trajectory with photos

2 took on 23 28 1989 was

Planetary 1) 2) VSK KRFM

(on Orbiter): system

high-resolution February February (191 (at (320

videospectrometric infrared radiometer/

a range kilometers),

kilometers), 25 March its but lander

spectrometer 3) 4) ISM infrared spectrometer scanning infrared Thermoscan radiometer 5) 6) 7) GS-14 RLK gamma-emission radar system laser mass spectrometric

kilometers).

Release 1989,

scheduled during session a

for 4-5 April regularly at 15:58 UT, there A weak 18:03 The spacecraft signal nature

on 27 March, from the

planned was

communications no word

spacecraft. 17:51 and information. that Future the

was received there of the lost was signal all

between indicated

spectrometer

UT, but

no telemetry

LIMA-D analyzer

had

orientation. were lost of cause

attempts 1989.

to regain and the The

communication was declared probable

8)

DION

secondary radiation

ion

mass

analyzer

unsuccessful, on 15 April was failure

mission most

9) ISO Plasma 1) 2) 3) 4)

optical studies:

spectrometer

simultaneous

malfunctions computer that (due put the

in both to insufspace-

MAGMA FGMM APV-F ASPERA spectrometer

magnetometer magnetometer plasma wave analyzer energy-mass

channels ficiently craft into

of the onboard robust software)

an improper

tumble.

scanning

_Deep

Space Chronicle

........

1989
173) Magellan Nation: U.S. (63) Objective(s): Venus Spacecraft: Spacecraft orbit 1990. Orbital parameters at 85.5 ° inclination. orbit, outage 17-hour sent reset the Magellan lasting interruption up new system 15 suffered 15 were 297 x 8,463 after kilometers entering cations second kg JPL the ware Six days a communiAfter 21 August, softof such 1990, that moveof a

hours. on

Magellan Mass: 3,445

ground to

preventative in case

Mission Design and Management: NASA Launch Vehicle: STS-30R Atlantis Launch Date and Time: 4 May 18:47:00 UT Launch Site: ETR / launch Scientific Instruments: 1) 2) 3) synthetic gravimetry Magellan experiment Results: probe almost launched craft ture was radar Magellan launched eleven by was by years, the the the and first United it was Shuttle. use also The aperture radio 1989 /

anomalies. the radar spacecraft images

Beginning began of the

September terrain tectonic kilometers

returning Venusian

high-quality

complex

39B

showed ment,

evidence turbulent channels,

of vulcanism, surface and winds,

radar science occultation

lava (the under deep States the space in first

pancake-shaped its for first 243-day to rotate Venus of radar the surface. of data, from at first The

domes. cycle once on views

experiment

Magellan time

completed it took

Magellan's 1991, percent 1,200 gigabits missions

orbit) providing of the gigabits of data combined

mapping clear spacecraft

15 May of 83.7 returned the etary 900

far exceeding all NASA the cycle, time. planThe

Space to down

spaceaperof the of 120 by the UT on 5

designed (SAR) surface

a synthetic 70 percent

to map

spacecraft's beyond ended to 96 stereo and on the

second original

mapping goals 1992, cycle on of

already mission, coverage

Venusian to 300 STS-30R May One Stage trajectory three two 1989 hour

to a resolution was deployed at 01:01 bay

the

meters. crew from later,

Magellan and the released

15 January A third ended coverage focused and 1993). (in

raising that

percent. imaging finished

focused

on 1992

payload

of Atlantis. Upper on a After

13 September

a two-stage to send the with

Inertial spacecraft Venus.

at 98 percent. on Contact 1994 to obtaining was as

Further gravilost the after spacethe

(IUS_ to en route on 21

fired

investigations metric exercises 10:04 craft UT was data

rendezvous trajectory 1989

performing

aerobraking

corrections and 13 orbit March

(the first 1990),

May arrived

on

12 October

Magellan

in Venus

on 10 August

commanded

plunge

into

atmosphere togather erodynamic The instruments/experiments a data. to study the spacecraft burned upin theVenusian atmos- planet's atmosphere, satellites, and magnephere following the dayat about08:00 UT, tosphere. Galileo carried a 337-kilogram afteroneofthe mostsuccessful space probe designed to return data as it entered deep missions. Magellan foundthat at least85 the Jovian atmosphere to identify atmospercent f the Venusianurface covered pheric materials and conditions that cannot o s is withvolcanic flows. Despitehehighsurface be detected from outside. Because of limitat combination, temperatures (475°C) andhighatmospheric tions of a Space Shuttle/IUS pressures92 atmospheres), complete NASA decided to use a complex multiple( the lackof watermakes erosion extremely gravity-assist an scheme that required three slow process. result, urface Asa s features can flybys (two of Earth and one of Venus) on its persistorhundreds f ofmillions ofyears. way to Jupiter. The STS-34R crew released
the spacecraft the its 6.5 hours IUS after fired flew as it did of the gained the time UT detected elements also problem the thus launch; to send past 1990 planet 8,030 spacecraft at a range on an hour Galileo at

174)
Galileo Nation: U.S. (64) orbit two asteroids and Earth atmospheric flybys, flybys of Objective(s): Jupiter entry, Gaspra Spacecraft: Spacecraft Venus and flyby, Ida

later, on

two-stage way. UT Galileo

Venus

05:58:48 of 16,106 an

on 10 February survey

at a range (including kilometers flew 8 December of life in our home lunar on 11 antenna the its the an by

kilometers;

so, it conducted

extensive

imaging). per hour twice,

Having in at speed, the

Galileo Mass: 2,561 kg JPL

Earth

first

of 960

Mission Design and Management: NASA Launch Vehicle: STS-34R Atlantis Launch Date and Time: 18 October 16:53:40 UT complex

kilometers 1990, when

20:34:34

it clearly trace spacecraft A major when deploy, data asteroid fully of

traces on

1989 /

atmospheric planet. The 1991, to

conducted occurred eliminating during Becoming to fly the past

Launch Site: ETR / launch Scientific Instruments: Orbiter: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) imaging near-infrared ultraviolet system

39B

observations. April failed

high-gain

possibility mapping spectrometer flyby first asteroid, planet 22:37 provided the encounter a probe: flyby of UT of the

transmission Gaspra. object approached

spectrometer

humanmade Galileo

photopolarimeter-radiometer magnetometer energetic-particles plasma plasma heavy radio detector wave ion counter detector

minor

to a distance of 1,604 UT on 29 October 1991. much with data, Galileo the including then sped Earth-Moon at 303.1

kilometers at The encounter 150 images to its system, kilometers second with at 3.7 of

asteroid.

system entry

Earth

Atmospheric 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Results: deep result atmospheric neutral helium net flux

15:09:25 instrument kilometers speed. the

on 8 December per second extensive antenna, had to restructure antenna, of to

1992, its

adding cumulative

structure spectrometer

mass

Despite high-gain

attempts ground the

to salvage controllers mission to

abundance radiometer

detector

eventually use allow planned most ambitious was early probe. was the 1980s In a its 4.6for ten hardware flew on only the

nephe]ometer lightning/energetic-particles experiment Galileo, space of plans one of NASA's exploration dating back orbiter the

low-gain 70

which the

would

about

percent return

originally and

scientific

(using on Ida,

software Earth).

improvements asteroid, 1993 providing in

Galileo UT kilo-

projects, to the and orbiter

by a second 28 August thus

at 16:51:59 of 2,410 data as

at a range further July Jupiter, direct

to deploy final

a Jupiter

meters, planets. speeding

on minor it was

configuration, spacecraft months

Later, toward

1994, Galileo

meter-tall twenty-two

designed in Jovian

to operate orbit using

provided of

astronomers'

only

observations

This is an image of a small region of the thin, disrupted ice crust in the Conamara region of Jupiter's moon Europa. The lighter areas on the left of the image (actual color, white and bluel show areas that have been blanketed by a fine dust of ice particles ejected at the time of formation of the large crater Pwyll, approximately These craters were probably formed at the same time as the blanketing occurred, 1,000 kilome-

ters to the south. A few small craters of less than 500 meters in diameter can be seen associated with these regions. by large, intact blocks of ice thrown up in the impact explosion that formed Pwyll. The areas on the right (actual color, reddish brown) constitute an unblanketed surface that has been painted by mineral contaminants released from below the crust. The image covers an area approximately Jovian system in September and December 1996 and February 1997. carried and spread by water vapor

70 kilometers by 30 kilometers and com-

bines data taken by the Solid State Imaging system on the Galileo spacecraft during three of its orbits through the

Comet Jovian

Shoemaker-Levy atmosphere.

9's

impact

with

the

of

Callisto). goals, extension January

Having NASA {later 2000}

fulfilled

the

mission's a twoyears Europa spacecraft Jupiter's of of to

original year

implemented extended four Galileo the of

Galileo's

atmospheric

entry

probe

was

finally spacefrom at 6.5 °

31

with

the which flybys

released on 13 July 1995, craft was still 80 million Jupiter. north 22:04 valuable into the The probe hit the

when the kilometers atmosphere

Mission conducted moons, scientific Europa 1997 2000), and and

(GEM),

during

numerous each encounter data. nine times four February These leight 1999 times

yielding included between and one (between Io three 1999, of Io, the

a wealth flybys December in January May times February

latitude and 4.4 ° west UT on 7 December 1995 data Jovian for 57 minutes

longitude at and returned as it plunged originally then later an

cauldron. craft Earth,

Data, and

Callisto

1999 (in

transmitted transmitted intense above pounds, second. its

to its parent back radiation to belt clouds, as high orbiter,

September 1999, On 198 back the

1999), November last

and

indicated kilometers organic meters

October 2000}. only sent the 2000, Galileo's year,

and

50,000 few

flyby from

Galileo surface photos On to end the

flew and yet of

Jupiter's and The winds Galileo at

comper fired

kilometers the highest active announced

as 640

resolution moon. plans to flight Galileo and (on the

meanwhile, on 8

volcanically NASA mission renaming

8 March extend of the Galileo

engine

00:27 first period began its

UT

December, satelSoon tours the a first 1996 on flybys 6

becoming lite. after, over planet encounter and ending Its

Jupiter's orbital

humanmade was planned 198 days. eleven exploring with 27 June Europa included

further the

Galileo

Millennium investigations with Saturn} the new the

Mission. of Cassini in Jupiter

coordinated its its environs way under flew the by to

twenty-two and its with with 1997

months, moons, beginning on of

spacecraft 2000. Mission, largest moon

Ganymede a (which flyby also

December

Earlier, Galileo in

Millennium the

November

Ganymede,

solar

This perspective puter from

view of Venus, generated data and

by comwith

Magellan

color<oded across

emissivity,

is a look westward

the Fortuna Mantes. The

Tessera toward tessera terrain Maxwell

the slopes of Maxwell of both Fortuna

and the slopes of parallel northof

is characterized

by roughly

south trending roughly ters), ence surface Maxwell

ridges. With a maximum elevation above the planetary mountain (which has a radius of 6,051 is the highest

11 kilometers

referkilome-

on Venus. is the

The circular

feature on the slope of Maxwell which

crater Cleopatra, mately Magellan 100

has a diameter of approxiBefore the high-resolution Cleopatra was

kilometers.

images

were available,

thought to be a volcanic feature because of its mountainous location and the visible lava flow emanating from the crater and flooding the foreground ever, clearly of an terrain. The Magellan blanket show an ejecta origin around the troughs of images, howcharacteristic Other features,

impact

Cleopatra. outflow

Venusian craters have associated

but these do not resemble the flow from Cleopatra. The difference conditions surface may be the result of unique and perhaps target

Ihigh elevation, temperatures

high sub-

if Maxwell

is still actively of Venus) or may simply be the consequence of the formation of

being supported

by activity

in the interior steep slope. at a range flyby 2000.

the crater on an unusually system, kilometers. same moon on 20 May

2000

of 809 of the

loop, Jovian

the

spacecraft

will

hurtle

back 2003.

into

the

It completed

a second

atmosphere

in December

on 28 December

In On 15 March mission flybys 2001), January 2002). with the by the than 2000, National for ending its continue field orbit imaging studies with shaped 2001, a third planet's NASA time extended by planning Callisto October Amalthea 25 May and and the the five (in 2001 (in 2001

its

six-year Galileo

exploration has (about discovered l0 percent

of far

the less

Jovian lightfound

system, ning

Galileo more May and

activity

of that

of the

moons:

in an equal helium same as

area

on Earth) in Jupiter Sun

than very

anticipated, nearly compared of Io's activity and the to sursince

Io (in August 2002), During Callisto, size

abundance in the

(24 percent resurfacing volcanic by ocean in 1979, under

November encounter moon craft meters, In about flew

25 percent), face the due Voyagers

extensive to continuing flew water has

a heavily the

cratered spacekilo-

of Mercury, at a scant previous National Academy the mission

evidence surcomand

surface any the

138

for a liquid face. pounds Galileo

Europa's organic Europa, also field

closer

encounter. Research of Sciences mission. in 2002, mas-

also

discovered Ganymede, has

on Callisto, Io. The internal intrinsic a "mini Jupiter's 2000, 14,000 the images

December of the plans finishing will magnetic a final

even the

spacecraft magnetic

discovered of a moon.

Council approved After Galileo sive After

first

Galileo

Ganymede's produces within March about

magnetic

field

actually

magnetosphere" huge

embedded By returned

of Jupiter's seven like

magnetosphere. had to Earth.

instruments. an elongated

spacecraft back

1990
175) Hiten/Hagomoro Nation: Japan Objective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft Mission (3) lunar Muses-A Mass: 197.4 flyby and kg ISAS (no. 5) 1990 / and lunar orbit subsatellite Muses-A maneuver of the successfully technique with release. on path On of its the demonstrated to enter Hagomoro Hiten, trajectory, proposed 1991, that first probe. on Hiten lunar was the use orbit, lost hand, the spaceby Earth a gravitymaneuver its eleventh Hiten swingby communication shortly continued orbital craig. assist per / launch complex M1 by flyby swung cosmic This dust detector Japanese the Moon spacecraft and release missince 1976. 176) Ulysses 0rganization/Nation: ESA and U.S. (1) orbit impacted Instruments: after

on the other simulating Geotail flew

Design and Management:

19 March

Launch Vehicle: Mu-3S-II 11:46 UT

at a range

of 126 kilometers slowed

during

Launch Date and Time: 24 January

maneuver second--the

it by 1.7 meters

aerobraking During

Launch Site: Kagoshima Scientific Hiten: 1) Results: was

a deep of the into

space Moon

15 February orbit 1993. and

1992,

lunar

eventually

on 10 April

two-module to fly past

designed

an orbiter. sion the

It was

the first

Japanese lunar Luna Space

lunar probe 24 in

and also the first flight of the

robotic

Soviet

0bjective(s): heliocentric Spacecraft: Ulysses

Muses-A

(for Mu-launched

Engineering

Satellite) was launched orbit that intersected launch, Hiten, and puter. designed the the returned optical The cosmic with spacecraft,

into a highly elliptical the Moon's orbit. After which data from On an was on renamed trajectory com1990, was jointly

Spacecraft Mass: 371 kg Mission Design and Management: ESA and NASA JPL Launch Vehicle: STS-41 Launch 11:47:16 Atlantis 1990 /

technical dust

navigation Germany. approached and

onboard

Date and Time: 6 October UT / launch complex

experiment

19 March

Launch Site: ETR

39B

spacecraft

the Moon then released named orbital

to a range a small Hagomoro parameters

Scientific Instruments: 1) 2) BAM GLG solar solar wind wind plasma ion experiment

of 16,472 12-kilogram into were lunar

kilometers orbiter orbit. x 9,000

satellite Initial

composition

experiment the 3) HED magnetic fields experiment

22,000

kilometers.

Although

This montage of the nine planets and four large moons of Jupiter in our solar system are set against color view of the Rosette Nebula. hydrogen, The light emitted from the Rosette Nebula

a falseof

results from the presence

oxygen, and sulfur. Mosl of the planetary changed composition/

images in this montage were obtained of the solar syslem.

by NASA's plane-

tary missions, which have dramatically 4t KEP neutral 5) LAN energetic-particle gas experiment low-energy

our understanding

the after

north ESA's

pole. the

Eventually, council Ulysses motor 15.4 had

thirteen had was sent

years originally on its

science mission,

charged-particle experiment and solar particles

approved way via

composition/anisotropy 6) SIM cosmic rays

a Shuttle/PAM-S velocity higher of the velocity was than Voyagers ever Ulysses of 1992. through the to the was Jupiter After and Sun.

combination. per by the and

Escape second, either fastest

kilometers been achieved

experiment 7) STO radio/plasma waves

or Pioneers, achieved passed at by within 12:02

experiment 8) 91) Results: growth Polar HUS GRU The of the Mission flying the ESA solar cosmic Ulysses abandoned (ISPM) over Sun built x-rays bursts dust and cosmic

a humanon 378,400 UT on period the Jovian 8

made 8 July

object. 1991,

After

a midcaurse

correction

gamma-ray

experiment experiment was involved solar poles an outSolar two to for was would it

kilometers February passing system, and on, space back Ulysses

mission that opposite in three a single Shuttle.

a seventeen-day studying headed From about in the Sun's

International

spacecraft

downwards mid-1993 region of pale, polarity polar to above of 6 June was

spacecraft investigate Eventually, launch designed use below pole,

dimensions. spacecraft

constantly by the

dominated by the by the 1994, latitude.

sauthern negative South 26

on the

Space

The

vehicle that

as indicated measured observations November 70 ° solar

constant magnetometer. from the

to fly a unique

trajectory Jupiter past the the

a gravity-assist the and elliptic then

from plane,

to take solar south

extended when

vehicle

above

elliptic

to fly over

It reached

a maximum

80.2 in September ° 1994.ts instruments I found thatthesolar indblows w faster t the a
south Flying 1995, regions 1995 pole than at the equatorial equator over the regions. on 5 March north polar up above Ulysses between (maximum to the of 200 extended 1995, Solar pass Orbit. over the solar passed

September made October announced most about that distant 11 time, a

2000 pass 2001. that

and over In Ulysses

January the October had burst years was at

2001, 2000, discovered yet from the on Ulysses September the

and pole

it in

northern

ESA the

gamma-ray light Sun

recorded, Earth. At of its June

19 June latitude Sun was

and

30 September The closest 1995 ESA at offion as made between the a 1

billion the

of 80.2°).

peak 5-6

approach a range cially October Second second

on 12 March kilometers. mission this portion spacecraft south pole

eleven-year Committee, 2000, from NASA mid-2001. agreed the end was

cycle. during to

ESA's

Science

Programme

million

a meeting the to 30

Ulysses's renaming The the

extend

mission 2004. plan by

of 2001

expected

to approve

t51

Deep SpaceChronicl

e

1992
177) Mars Observer Nation: U.S. (65) 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft Mars Mars orbit Observer kg JPL III (CT-4) 1992 / year polar and (687 orbit. climate days) from a 378 a suite geology, to fill in x 350-kilometer of instruments atmosphere, gaps in our 31 It carried Martian in order to investigate

knowledge minutes Stage an

of planetary after launch, fired the

evolution. new the with voyage

A mere

Mass: 2,573

Transfer spacecraft Mars. lasting

Orbit on a eleven entry fell 1993. contact,

Mission Design and Management: NASA Launch Vehicle: Titan

{TOS)

to boost

encounter

trajectory

After

Launch Date and Time: 25 September 17:05:01 Launch UT Site: ESMC / launch complex

725-million-kilometer months, just at two 01:00 vigorous Observer did not days the UT

prior spacecraft on

to planned suddenly August regain quiet. 22 to

40

into silent

Mars

orbit,

Scientific Instruments: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) imaging thermal pressure radiometer laser altimeter system emission modulator spectrometer infrared

Despite Mars

efforts remained reestablish program of five days

When

the as a

spacecraft result

command that was of silence, hope of

of a stored

designed mission

to do so in case

magnetometer/electron reflectometer gamma-ray radio Mars science balloon Observer spectrometer experiment relay was receiver designed to carry

planners finally gave up the mission. The results investigation one may have likely have proved cause been to

on salvaging a five-month but failure that could

6) 7) 8)

be inconclusive, catastrophic rupture

of the a fuel the line

Results: Mars out the

damaged the

spacecraft's into a spin.

electronics,

a high-resolution Red Planet over

photography the course

mission of of a Martian

throwing

vehicle

153

1994
178) Clementine Nation: U.S. (66} Objective(s): lunar orbit components launch, rary orbit the and ten spacecraft 3 February rocket Moon. science instruments. in After a tempotime the remained 1994, ignited After two and entered with until at which to send subsequent 15 February, an elliptical of 5 In the about surface; with 1.6 in their

a solid-propellant vehicle to flybys the

Spacecraft: Clementine Spacecraft NASA Launch Vehicle: Titan IIG (no. 23G-11) 1994 / Mass: 424 kg and Mission Design and Management: BMDO

Earth

on 5 February successfully on 19 February of 400

Clementine polar days orbit and

a period

a perilune two months, images

kilometers.

Launch Date and Time: 25 January 16:34 UT Launch Site: WSMC Instruments: ultravioleUvisib]e near-infrared long-wave camera camera infrared / SLC-4W Scientific 1) 2) 31 4) 5) 6) 7) 81 91

following million the first

it transmitted of the lunar

digital

process, look

it provided at polar the total

scientists lunar After orbits

landscape, completing around thrusters trajectory. 1620 at to its lunar

including mission orbit,

regions. over 297 fired

goals controllers

camera

Clementine's

high-resolution two star tracker laser bistatic gravity altimeter radar

camera cameras

on 3 May in August

to inject 1994 Due

it on a rendezvous with to the

asteroid problem a thruster the tumble Controllers flyby and

Geographos. experiment 14:39 fire telescope was U.S. over spacetwenty The Space was of UT and

a computer that caused

on 7 May use up

experiment

all propellant,

spacecraft at about were return

charged-particle was to Explorer also Science and built known the

put into with

an uncontrollable no spin the control. asteroid vicinity

Results: Clementine craft years launched /since

the Moon

first in June the

80 rpm forced the

to cancel

49

in as

1973). Deep

vehicle

to the

of Earth. further of took it into terminated supply the

A power diminished vehicle. control heliocentric in June levels no On of

spacecraft, Program designed lightweight imaging flown Clementine

supply the

problem operating

on 20 July capacity lunar gravity

Experiment to

(DSPSE), a set as

demonstrate such low-cost of

Eventually, Clementine orbit. The 1994 longer when allowed

technologies sensors by the carried for future

smallmissions Defense.

and propelled mission was falling clear power

Department fifteen advanced

flight-test

telemetry

exchange.

NASA's Galileo

spacecraft acquired

its highest resolution images of Jupiter's moon Io on 3 July 1999, during its green, and violet

closest pass to Io since orbit insertion in late 1995. This color mosaic uses the near-infrared, filters [slightly more than the visible range) of the spacecraft's camera and approximates

what the human eye

would see. Most of Io's surface has pastel colors, punctuated by black, brawn, green, orange, and red units near the active volcanic centers. A false-color version of the mosaic has been created to enhance the contrast oF the color variations, The improved resolution reveals smalr-scale color units that had not been recognized previously

and that suggest that the lavas and sulfurous deposits are composed of comptex mixtures. Some of the bright (whitish], high-latitude (near the top and bottom) deposits have an ethereal quality like a transparent covering of frost. Bright red areas were seen previously only as diffuse deposits. However, they are now seen to exist as both diffuse deposits and sharp linear features like fissures. Some volcanic centers have bright and colorful flows, perhaps due to f{ows of sulfur rather than silicate lava. in this region, bright, white material emanate from linear rifts and cliffs. Comparison can also be seen to

of this image to previous Galileo images reveals many changes

due to the ongoing volcanic activity. North is toward the top of the picture, and the Sun illuminates the surface from almost directly behind the spacecraft. poor for imaging topographic This illumination geometry is good for imaging color variations but

shading. However, some topographic shading can be seen here due to the comover parts

bination of relatively high resolution (1.3 kilometers per picture element) and the rugged topography of Io. The image is centered at 0.3 ° north latitude and 1375 ° west longitude.

The resolution is 1.3 kilometers kilometers by the Solid

per picture element. The images were taken on 3 July 1999 at a range oF about 130,000 State Imaging (SSI] system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft during its twenty-first orbit.

3

December data

1996,

DoD

announced that there was

that ice

10)

3-D

plasma

and

energetic-particle

Clementine in the

indicated

analyzer 11) 12) transient Konus gamma-ray gamma-ray spectrometer burst studies

bottom on the the

of a permanently lunar deposit cubic south to be pole.

shadowed Scientists

crater estimated 60,000

approximately in volume-is 4 football deep. This due to Results:

experiment Wind is part of the twelve-satellite Physics among the first the Czech of the of two

to 120,000

meters lake that

comparable fields estimate the nature

to a small area very data.

Inter-Agency (IASTP) United Republic, Program, States,

Solar-Terrestrial a joint Japan, to study system. Global the Wind (including project Russia, The

in surface was of the

and

5 meters

uncertain,

however,

and ESA

the behavior

solar-terrestrial 179) Wind Nation: U.S. (67) Objective(s): lunar flybys Wind Mass: 1,250 kg NASA 1994 GSFC / 7925-10 (no. D227) Spacecratt: Spacecraft orbit around L1 Libration Point, NASA-sponsored Program eight France wind's phere tics vehicles, instruments and

Geospace spacecraft one

Science carries each the from solar

Russia)

to investigate with in Wind Earth's order

encounters and ionosphere solar wind.

magnetosto determine characterisoperated orbit kilome"double

the origins of the in a unique around ters,

and three-dimensional initially figure-eight-shaped at 28,000 maintained Moon. Moon The between 1998 of Wind was 11,834 was Libration gravity

Mission Design and Management: Launch Vehicle: Delta Launch 09:31:00 Launch Scientific 11 Date and Time: 1 November UT Site: ESMC Instruments: WAVES experiment 2) 3) 4) three electron low-energy isotope radio and / launch

elliptical

Earth partially of the of the

x 1.6 million by regular

complex

17B

flybys" flybys and 1994,

closest on 27

of nineteen 1994 December By orbit" where approxiit began designed Wind's to 60 °) of

1 December

plasma

wave

17 November at the a range 1996, Earth-Sun

kilometers. in a "halo Point, are 1998, orbits plane. (up

matrix telescope

telescopes

November around the solar

suprathermal telescope

energetic-particle

and equal. into it

terrestrial On

mately experiment ion composition to move to take

17 November of"petal" elliptical the to and

5) 6)

solar solar

wind wind

a series out and of the below

spectrometer 7) 8) 9) high-mass-resolution suprathermal spectrometer two fluxgate magnetometers ion spectrometer composition

trips allowed that

above the

elliptic sample the studied.

spacecraft space been were

regions

interplanetary had not instruments

magnetosphere All of its 2001. in July

previously operational

:

Dee_Spacce-C nicie .. hp

.......

1995
180 )
SOH0 0rganization/Nation: Objective{:-;): LI Spacecraft: Spacecraft Mission NASA Launch Atlas Launch 08:08:01 launch Scientific 1) Vehicle: Atlas-Centaur IIAS no. 8206 / Centaur IIAS II) 1995 / (AC-121 / ESA and U.S. (2) 11) Libration Point 12) 1,864 kg ESA and Resu!ts: Heliospherie twelve solar wind. scientists internal complex 36B emitted mosphere, SOHO Solar are and scientific atmosphere, Information to learn 10) GOLF quencies VIRGO ance MDI The global oscillations at low freexperiment variability of solar irradi-

experiment Michelson Doppler imager Solar (SOHO) to and carries study and the the particles. part the solar allows Sun's chroThe ESA-sponsored Observatory instruments helioseismology, from more and and the mission about dynamics, solar

SOHO Mass:

.-q,:_igi_-rod ._anagenm'lt:

Date anti Time: 2 December UT Site: ESMC/launch Instruments: SUMER radiation solar-ultraviolet experiment diagnostic

structure the corona,

Cluster

missions,

of ESA's (STSP),

Terrestrial ESA's

Science

Programme to the

contributions Physics three

Inter-Agency

2)

CDS

coronal

spectrometer 3) EIT extreme ultraviolet imaging

Solar Terrestrial NASA contributed SOHO support. as well About

(IASTP) program. instruments on operations launch, on

as launch two

and flight after placed from The

telescope 4} 5) UVCS LASCO ultraviolet white coronograph light/spectrometric

months

spectrometer coronograph 6} SWAN solar wind anisotropies

14 February 1996, SOHO was tance of 1.5 million kilometers the L1 Libration its first fully 1996. Point. image

at a disEarth at

spacecraft 1995 by two-

returned and was

on 19 December tbr operations its planned

commissioned SOHO finished

experiment 7) CELIAS analysis 8) COSTEP particle 9) ERNE charge, experiment suprathermal/energeticanalyzer energetic-particle analyzer elemenffisotope

16 April year and with months intensive to regain

study interior the

of the

Sun's

atmosphere, 1998.

surface,

in April

Communications for four but, after

spacecraft beginning search full

were

interrupted 1998,

on 24 June efforts, control

controllers by 16

managed September.

1995 --

"

Barring three instruments, thespacecraft was functional andwasdeclared fullyoperational once again bymid-October SOHO's 1998. original lifetimewasthreeyears(to 1998), but ESA andNASA jointlydecided toprolong the missiono2003, t thusenabling thespacecraft to compare the Sun's behavior during low
dark sunspot activity (1996) to the peak

(around tant

2000).

One has wind

of SOHO's been at the fields cells locating

most the

impororigin

discoveries solar

of the fast comb-shaped edges Sun's circling

corners

of honeythe the orbit,

magnetic bubbling SOHO

surrounding located in its near halo

of large poles.

remains

L1 once

every

six months.

1996
181) NEAR Nation: U.S. (68) multiple NEAR Mass: 805 kg NASA Applied (no. D232) 1996 / GSFC and Management: University 7925-8 asteroid flybys and probe magnetic to rely field). on The spacecraft cells is the first solar Mars for power On the during way to operations its primary flyby 1997. was the of the kilometers. that with beyond mission, of the The at orbit.

0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft

NEAR asteroid closest 12:56

performed 253 Mathilde to

a 25on 1,200 the 60 of

minute 27 June

approach UT.

Mission Design and Johns

kilometers encounter, percent 1,200 indicated is covered

During

Hopkins Laboratory

spacecraft minor The craters planet

photographed from a range information

Physics Launch Launch 20:43:27 Launch

Vehicle: Delta

collected and is less

Date and Time: 17 February UT Site: ESMC / launch complex

the 4.5-billion-year-old

asteroid dense than correcon 23

17B

previously tion January 540

believed. 1997, 1998

After NEAR

a midcourse flew by Earth

Scientific Instruments: 1) 2) 3) 4) MSI MAG NIS multispectral magnetometer near infrared spectrometer imager

on 3 July

at 07:23 The After

UT for a gravity-assist closest the approach Earth planned in the light was flyby misof an 1998

on its way encounter, sion profile

to Eros. NEAR's had

kilometers.

XRS-GRS spectrometer

x-ray/gamma-ray

previously

to be revised burn on 20

5) 6) Results: (NEAR) NASA's low-cost ence S-class kilometers composition alogy,

NLR radio Near is new (less

laser science Earth the

rangefinder and gravimetry Rendezvous flown under of sci-

aborted that

engine

December

prevented up was a with put

a critical Eros on

trajectory later

correction Instead, that originally the space1998

experiment Asteroid mission program, million) first

to meet NEAR afforded planned. craft first

a month a backup flyby new

trajectory than plan,

different of this Eros

Discovery than $150

a series planetary

As part flew past

on 23 December of 3,827 the center that

projects. with

NEAR's the

primary planet

goal was to ren433 355 data Eros (an million on its (miner-

at 18:41:23 (distance at which the planet found

UT at a range measured time and smaller the from

kilometers of mass), of the NEAR minor also

dezvous

minor

asteroid), from and

approximately Earth, and gather properties mass

it observed discovered than

about

60 percent

asteroid was that

physical internal

expected. has

morphology,

distribution,

asteroid

two medium-sized

NEAR Estimated

Impact Site

-20 °

-30 °

.40 °

300 °
January 25 2001, mosaic 1

290 °

280 °
_rA_'QT

270 °
_lffl_f_

260 °
[': ":'_" '? _'" _'_''_

This map projection craft's planned

of NEAR Shoemaker images shows locations and sizes of landmarks surrounding site. Diameters of craters are shown in red, and diameters of boulders

the space-

landing

are shown in

yellow. Diameters are given in units of meters (1 meter is about 3.3 feetI. Coordinates map are degrees south latitude and coordinates "footprint" boxes represent approximate

along the left side of the The six yellow meters

along the bottom are degrees west longitude. 1,000, 1,500, 2,000, 2,500, between

image size at 500,

and 3,000

above the surface

during descent. The spacecraft

will take pictures continuously

spots. The arrow

marks the estimated touchdown of about 25 kilometers.

site. The mosaic is made from images taken 25 January 2001 from an altitude

craters, similar more moved

a long to that trajectory into orbit

surface of Earth's

ridge, crust.

and

a density several finally UT on

July,

Eros

entered that from back

an

even the

lower vehicle After

orbit about

at 35 as ten

After NEAR at 15:33 later

kilometers 19 kilometers days,

brought

as close

adjustments, around roughly Eros

the surface. into

it moved NEAR surface,

a higher another to just actual

orbit. close

On 26 flyby

14 February intended. kilometers. object NEAR's permit were to

2000,

a year

than

October, of the In

performed this of time the

Orbital parameters NEAR was the orbit orbit scientific an has asteroid. been research before

were 321 x 366 first humanmade Through in 2000, stages to

5.3 kilometers. landing, the 2001 in the

anticipation

spacecraft down process,

conducted

a flyby

in January and,

shifted

to a range returned

of 2.7 kilometers more spectacular

programs. the landing

There on the

pictures.

a few problems For example, had to turn because

asteroid. trollers

on 13 May 2000, conoff the NEAR Infrared of an the an excessive was Later power in its 50 on 13

The on

historic 12

landing

phase 2001,

began when descent.

at 15:32 Eros fired

UT its

February to begin thruster

Spectrometer surge. operational kilometers

engines of four February, surface

controlled firings,

After

a total 12

By 30 April, orbit from at

spacecra_ altitude of Eros.

at 20:01:52 gingerly

UT on

of about

the spacecraft of Eros at

landed 1.6 meters

on the per

the center

a gentle

_Deep

Space Chronicle

This image Mars lobal from G Surveyor channeled ina small within ewton a large shows aprons crater N Crater, basin formed byanasteroid that robably impact p occurred than billionears Itisapproximately more 3 y ago. 287 kilometers The icture heretop) across. p shown ( highlightsnorth all fa specific, crater the w o smaller located inthe southwestern ofNewton (above). crater quarter Crater The ofinterest also was formed byanimpact; itis about kilometers which 7 across, isabouttimes than famous Crater 7 bigger the Meteor innorthern Arizona in North merica. north wall of the small crater has many narrow gullies eroded into it. These are to have been A The
formed by flowing water and debris. Debris transported with the water created lobed and finger-like deposits at the base of the crater wall where it intersects the floor (bottom center). Many of the finger-like deposits have small channels, indicating that a liquid--mosl likely water--flowed in these areas. Hundreds of individual water and

debris flow events might have occurred to create the scene shown here. Each outburst of water from higher up on the crater slopes would have constituted a competition among evaporation, mately month the renamed Shoemaker Eugene 182) Mars Global Surveyor Nation: U.S. (69) Objective(s): Mars to last Spacecraft: Spacecraft MGS Mass: 1,062.1 kg NASA JPL (no. D239) 1996 / orbit 160,000 after the in freezing, On and gravity. 14 March orbit, 2000, NASA NEAR geologist a

second. snapped the last

During a series one being Touchdown

its

entire

descent, 120 meters

NEAR from

images. entering NEAR honor

of 69 spectacular a mere was

photographs,

asteroid

spacecraft of renowned

surface.

in an area

just

outside

a saddle-shaped depression known as Himeros. Eros was 196 million miles from Earth at the time. Although the NEAR landing, spacecraft its was not

Shoemaker.

designed remained landing, that use

to survive operational. NASA

instruments after extension in order The was the

Immediately a ten-day days

approved

was lengthened the gamma-ray from ten

to fourteen

spectrometer. the 2001• times spacecraft During more and

transmission UT on NEAR been

at 00:00 mission, than had

Mission Design and Man,tgement: Launch Vehicle: Delta 7925

1 March collected

data

Launch Date and Time: 7 November 17:00:49 UT

originally

planned

returned

approxi-

1996

Launch Site:
1) 2) 3) 4)

ESMC Mars

/ launch orbital orbital

complex camera laser

17A

mation pelling liquid

on

the

Martian indicating

terrain, the surface

found presence

comof

Scientific Instruments: MOC MOLA TES

evidence water

at or near by NASA on

the

(formally 2000), and

Mars

altimeter

announced

22 June

thermal

emission

spectrometer

MAG/ER reflectometer

magnetometer/electron

photographed the that some believed During its mission, the north

infamous "face was an artificial the first Mars Global

on Mars" formation. Surveyor proaltimeter had

5) 6)

RS radio MR Mars spacecraft

science relay

experiment antenna for future

also

produced

three-dimensional laser

files of Mars's readings. By tens of

pole using the of

mid-2000, thousands Red Planet.

spacecraft high-resolution

Results: spacecraft gram

Mars

Global

Surveyor new Mars

was

the

first proa new

taken photos expected good tists

in NASA's was of Mars

Surveyor

of the to end continue

Operations 2001, allowed All as but

were the

that

designed American every The 1994) maximize

to inaugurate space

by 31 January systems mission. operational to continue the

generation explore 1996 to

probes months

to from

health to

of onboard

scien-

twenty-six Mars was

scientific of mid-

2005. in and

Surveyor intended returns

program to econoby involving

instruments 2001 April 183) and are

remain expected

(formulated mize a costs

to at least

2O02.

single

industrial Laboratory a flightworthy The five Mars

partner to vehicle Global

with design,

the build,

Jet and every Mars 8 / Mars-96 Nation: Russia 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft Lavochkin Launch Vehicle: 8K82K + Blok D-2 (Proton-K 1996 / (106) Mars M1 orbit and landing

Propulsion deliver two craft carried fell silent on 21

for Mars Surveyor similar

years. carries

spaceto those

instruments Mars After 1996

by the November Global

lost

Observer midcourse and entered 1997 after orbital mission panels launch, to place 20

probe March orbit engine

that 1997,

(no. 520) kg

in 1993.

corrections

Mass: 6,200

Mission Design and Management: NPO

Mars Mars tion were of its because fully mission braking in its designed change

Surveyor

around igni-

on 12 September at 01:17 UT. 258 x 54,021 planned

Initial kilometers.

parameters was delayed not

no. 392-02) Launch Date and Time: 16 November 20:48:53 Launch UT Site: GIIK-5 / launch site 200L

Commencement

two-year

one of its two solar deployed planners process intended to orbit. altered pass also over act soon to required orbit. as The the The after

(-Y) had

prompting the the panels brakes aerobraking orbit from an aerovehicle were to

Scientific Instruments: Orbiter: 1) ASPERA-C experiment 2) FONEMA energy-mass 3) 4) DYMIO mass omni omni ion non-scanning analyzer energy plasma energy-mass

reconfigure

solar

atmospheric modified planned

maneuver afternoon pass and and

ionosphere ionosphere

the equator the

to a nighttime by a year The 5) 6) 7)

spectrometer

delayed its

mission

MARIPROB spectrometers MAREMF magnetometer ELISMA SLED-2

shortened

projected aerobraking on

lifetime.

spacecraft's were with finally a major firing

revised completed burn

maneuvers 1999 A subMars orbit, forMars impresits movetracked infor-

electron wave

analyzer/ experiment

4 February engine. put

from

its main

complex

sequent Global

on 19 February into 1999,

finally

low-energy

charged-particle

Surveyor

a Sun-synchronous its mapping the early to send mission

spectrometer 8) 9) PGS precision cosmic gamma and spectrometer solar gammaLILAS-2 burst 10) EVRIS

and on 9 March mally Global sive data ment the began.

Despite

problems, back

Surveyor

began

spectrometer stellar oscillations

and images new orbit.

of Mars The

during spacecraft gathered

to its evolution

photometer 11) RADIUS-MD dosimeter

of a dust

storm,

o.

Deep Space Chronicle_ "

..........

_ .............

----

.........

12)

MORION-S instrument

science

data

acquisition

shell stations

that

was were and

to split to have then soil

open

after

landing. data days stations and

The daily

transmitted three The

13} ARGUS 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) Small 11

imaging

system mapping radiometer

(initially) 20 minutes have photos (each) impacted spectrometer meters meters released (between entering lifetime, nodes accelerometer launch load Blok

every session.

for about would taken

TERMOSCAN SVET SPICAM UVS-M LWR PFS mapping

each

spectrometer spectrometer spectrometer radar neutron Fourier spectrometer

studied on the

characteristics The meanwhile, surface to The reach orbiter two

multichannel ultraviolet

surface.

75-kilogram would have of 76 6 to have orbit after 8

penetrators, the per in Martian second depth. after and During

longwave infrared

at a speed about would Martian days

NEUTRON-S

PHOTON MAK

gamma

spectrometer mass spectrometer leach}:

them seven orbit). the of a vehicle

entering twenty-eight the

quadruple

autonomous MIS system meteorology

stations

mission's have The delivered

one-year served Proton-K the payof the Blok 8 into Fregat as

instrument

penetrators seismic

would network.

21 31 4)

DPI APX x-ray

three-component alpha-particle spectrometer

successfully orbit (after

proton

and

to Earth D-2 upper

the first

firing the

stage).

At that

point,

OPTIMIZM

seismometer/magne-

D-2 was an

to fire once orbit, module a Martian

again after would

to place which have sent

Mars the

tometer/inclinometer 5) 6) 1) 2) 3) 4) 51 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) PanCam DesCam TV camera MECOM PEGAS meteorological gamma-ray x-ray unit spectrometer spectrometer spectrometer spectrometer panoramic descent (each): camera phase camera

elliptical

propulsion craft Blok turely command precious 145.7 x Fregat from fired probes an the on

the spaceThe premaof a its of its

encounter however, 20 seconds shut

trajectory. down

Penetrators

D-2 engine, after only from

as thus

a result putting orbit 8 and

the

payload,

ANGSTREM ALPHA GRUNT NEUTRON-P

payload into an 171.1 kilometers. then D-2.

incorrect Mars

alpha/proton neutron accelermneters

module the tas Blok planned

automatically The latter seems

separated to have 8 in

earlier),

placing orbit that

Mars

TERMOZOND Kamerton IMAP-6

temperature seismometer

87 x 1,500-kilometer planetary at Mars the 8 probe time may in

deposited

Earth's

atmosphere. that in with debris Chile its or

magnetometer only in of the its Soviet/Russian twelve Martian The years mission lunar (1988 to investiatmosphere, entire two spacesmall to

Reports from Bolivia, nium arrive

suggested have fallen areas Mars

Results: Mars or planetary 2000), gate its craft was

8, the probe an

contaminating power source. orbit in Mars

plutoto 1997.

ambitious

8 was

scheduled

the evolution surface, and

on 23 September

interior. an

comprised stations, The two

orbiter, and two

184) Mars Pathfinder Nation: U.S. (70) Oblective(s): Mars Spacecraft: Spacecraft Launch Launch 06:58:07 Launch Mars landing Pathfinder kg NASA 1996 JPL / 7925 (no. D240) and roving operations

autonomous penetrators. carried optical surface period acting would years have tions The Martian

independent orbiter several Martian initial weeks orbiter Earth at 101 ° would staorbit. on the

three-axis for

stabilized pointing the an to four the two orbit orbiter autonomous entering landed an by

platforms

instruments and

for studying After three landers,

atmosphere. lasting to the

Mass: 870

in low orbit as a relay spent

Mission Design and Management: Vehicle: Delta Date and Time: 4 December UT Site: ESMC / launch

have

approximately

in a 250 x 18,000-kilometer mapping the two days would cushioned Mars. small before have The released four small

inclination

complex

17B

Scientific

Instruments: lander: imaging and wind system socks) (included mag-

to five stations surface,

Pathfinder 1) IMP nets

inflatable

In the summer 1997, the Mars Pathfinder excited of people around the globe as itstiny Rover,"Sojourner," setabout exploring the Red Planet.

2}

APXS

alpha/proton/x-ray

longitude southwest

in Ares of about the

Vallis,

about

19 kilometers target, per hnpact second; the

spectrometer 3) ASI/MET atmospheric package

original 10.5 meters several stop. the

speed

was

structure/meteorology Sojourner 1) 2) 3) 4) Results: mission imaging laser rover: system stripers (three

spacecraft coming to

bounced a complete

times The next

before day, on

cameras)

Pathfinder the Martian

deployed surface was the

Sojourner via landing

rover ramps.

accelerometers potentiometers Mars Pathfinder to send a lander rover to was and the an ambitious a separate, surface of misGlobal

Sojourner used During rover returned chemical tions near

first planet

wheeled of the

vehicle solar mission,

to be system. the meters,

on any its covered

other

eighty-three-day hundreds photographs, at sixteen The of

square and

remote-controlled Mars, sions. the second

550

performed loca-

of NASA's one month was main

Discovery after Mars on

analyses the lander

different

Launched

latter,

meanwhile, and 8.5

Surveyor, shorter earlier

Pathfinder seven-month arrival. The

sent

a slightly tbr as included known

transmitted million sure, the site high known lifetimes expected respectively, three and with contact 27 ners five was March was after Carl

more measurements

than

16,500

images

trajectory six-wheeled of traveling at top The

designed rover

of atmospheric and that windspeed. rocks Data at the

presfrom

spacecraft,

temperature, rover suggested

a 10.6-kilogram, Sojourner from timeter goal was the capable main per not

landing with type

500 of

meters 1 cen-

resembled silicon as

terrestrial content, andesite.

volcanic specifically Although and month

types a rock the

ship

speeds mission's

second. only

primary innovative,

planned were week, by Final UT on

to demonstrate but also

of Pathfinder to be these twelve one

Sojourner and one exceeded 10:23 mission for the

low-cost logical, pheric and JanuarN 1997), 1997. and

technologies, soil, data. magnetic After trajectory 3 February, Pathfinder The spacecraft then and slowed a parachute using deployed landed a

to return and

geoatmos-

property, seven-month corrections 6 May,

times times,

were was at

traverse (on 25 10 June

respectively.

four

Pathfinder 1997.

and

September" tried months, officially 1998. renamed the Sagan. late

Although contact

plannext

arrived entered by

at Mars the

on 4 July atmosphere retroon bags impact. 4 July ° west

to reestablish the highly

successful terminated Mars Memorial and

mission on Pathfinder Station 10

was

aerobraking, before bouncing landing before UT on and 33.52

declared After the landing, Sagan

rockets, the that 1997

surface had

cushioned 8 seconds at 16:56:55 latitude

astronomer

planetologist

Pathfinder

at 19.30 ° north

"

.....

1996

• -"

Deep

Space

Chronicle

1997
185) ACE Nation: U.S. (71) 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft Mission Launch L1 Libration ACE Mass: 752 kg Design and Management: Vehicle: Delta 7920-8 NASA (no. D247) 1997 / GSFC Point borne Libration from Earth. to Sun energetic Point, particles about from the kilometers was ejected L1 1.4 million the the the Sun, Specifically, investigate to establish the spacecraft matter

launched from the

commonality Earth, ACE and also data the proand

and interaction Milky vides advanced ACE's complex ion mass 17A power anything wind spacecraft's nine that Way

among galaxy.

In addition, space of weather

real-time warning

Launch Date and rime: 14:39 UT Launch 1) Site: ESMC Instruments: SWIMS solar

25 August

geomagnetic have times After a

storms. collecting than the

instruments is 10 to 1O,000

/ launch

greater launch,

Scientific

previously Delta

flown. 2 launch

vehicle's

second the satelorbit. launch, around declared a prothe

spectrometer 2) SWlCS solar wind ion composition spectrometer 3) ULEIS ultra-low-energy isotope

stage reignited (for 4 hours) to insert lite into a 177 x 1.37-million-kilometer After ACE the reaching inserted L1 point. on to of ionic were the charge apogee itself The into a month its halo after orbit was 1998, lifetime. solar

spectrometer 4) SEPICA ionic 5) 6) 7) solar energetic-particle analyzer spectrometer isotope wind electron,

spacecraft

operational jected exception particle on ACE two-

21 January five-year SEPICA analyzer,

with

charge

With energetic-

SIS solar CRIS

isotope

cosmic-ray solar and alpha

all instruments 2001.

spectrometer SWEPAM proton, 8) EPAM particle

operational

as of June

monitor proton, and alpha-

186) Cassini/Huygens NationOrganization: 0bjective(s): Saturn Cassini U.S., ESA, orbit and and and Titan the ASI (1)

electron, monitor

9) MAG magnetometer 10_ RTSW real-time solar experiment Results: (ACE) The Advanced was

landing

wind

Spacecraft: Spacecraft

Huygens kg NASA JPL

Mass: 5,655

Composition designed

Explorer space-

spacecraft

to study

Mission Design and Management: and ESA

Launch Vehicle:
Titan 08:43 401 UT

Titan

401B-Centaur

(TC-21

/

past might

landing, return to Saturn months Venus kilometers, hour. Cassini and 1999 headed traverse, Masursky

scientists data after

hope

that

Huygens Cassini's

no. 4B-33) 1997 /

touchdown. four launch, 1988 26,280

Launch Date and Time: 15 October

trip Seven

includes after

gravity-assists. the spacecraft of

Launch Site: ESMC Scientific Instruments: Cassini: 11 VIMS

/ launch

complex

40

passed 284 per

on 26 April gaining performed 1999 of Earth

at a range kilometers flyby UT on

a second at 03:28

of 18 it of

visual

infrared

mapping

Venus meters August then the 2685 close 09:58 the

on 24 June one

at a range

of 600

kilo-

spectrometer 2/ 31 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) ISS imaging system RADAR instrument ion neutral plasma/radio plasma ultraviolet magnetospheric instrument dual technique mass wave spectrometer spectrometer

at a range to Jupiter. Cassini on

of 1,171 During passed by

kilometers; this the 2000, portion asteroid coming

23 January of 1.5 million

spectrometer spectrometer/imager imaging

to a distance UT. During asteroid's During 2000, observations probe. will

kilometers Cassini

at used and on 30

the size the

encounter, and Jupiter

its remote-sensing

instruments

to investigate dimensions encounter,

9) 10) 11) 1/

magnetmneter subsystem spectrometer structure

albedo. December neous Galileo trajectory encounter

RF instrument composite HASI

Cassini of be set Once past

performed the up planet Jupiter, for 2004. a

simultawith the Cassini's Saturn is

infrared

Huygens: atmospheric instrument 2) GCMS mass 3) 4) ACP DISR gas chromatograph neutral

beginning to go into eleven to be About on the 6 days

1 July

Cassini around

scheduled Saturn expected nation. orbit,

a 147-day later.

orbit

spectrometer aerosol descent collector/pyrolyser imager/spectral

Parameters

are

1.3 x 176 four

RS with after

a 17 ° inclientering will on

months 2004, probe The a closest

radiometer 5) 6) Results: result 1980s. involves Cassini, journey Huygens, ticipation which Titan, scheduled Cassini instruments imagers images) moons. design three its will SSP DWE The of plans The a which to surface Doppler science wind package experiment project from the with is the

November Huygens flybys. during with The of

Cassini continue

release its orbit

and orbiter

numerous by Titan mission

is expected 33 of its 63of 950 perform (including Rhea) and Mimes, is sched2008. probe on descent, parachute back to 27

Cassini-Huygens at NASA cooperative NASA-supplied is on dating project

to fly

number

early ESA

approach will moons and mission also

kilometers. close Iapetus, more and uled flybys distant Hyperion. to

spacecraft the other Dione,

spacecraft,

a 3.2-billion-kilometer orbit, and (with Space the moon. a lander, parof its

Enceladus, encounters The

Saturn by

with

Tethys,

supplied by Saturn's four-year will use the descend

ESA

major

orbiter's on

Italian into largest

Agency), During

end

formally the European

30

June

atmosphere

Meanwhile, will enter

Huygens

Titan's 2004. During will

atmosphere its 2.5-hour a main

mission a large

near

Saturn, of optical 300,000 its many with a by

November the

complement radar and up to

spacecraft

deploy

(including expected to explore The to both

for stabilization the orbiter to Earth.

while

it relays

data

return Saturn

for subsequent

transmission

back

and orbiter, is

3,132-kilogram of eleven years,

life RTGs.

powered probe,

187) Asiasat 3 / "HGS 1" Organization: Asia Satellite Co. (D orbit Telecommunications 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft geostationary Asiasat 1 kg

The will

335-kilogram determine properties and down to

during atmosmeasure profiles surface.

descent,

Titan's and pressure the

phere's winds, from 170

chemical temperature, kilometers the probe

Although

is not designed

to survive

Mass: 3,465

[)eePSpaceChr°_)cle

__ i_

i

i]_.-_

....

_

-

-

.

Mission Design and Management: Launch Vehicle: 8K82K DM3 + Blok no. 5L) 1997 / DM3 (Proton-

inally as little carefully 1998, 321,000

intended propellant planned controllers

geostationary as burns raised possible.

orbit Using

by

using eleven

K no. 394-01

/ Blok

beginning the orbit's with spacecraft around Using back this into

12 April apogee the twelfth was the sent to

Launch Date and Time: 24 December 23:19 UT / launch none was by the a 3

kilometers. on 7 May 1998, round as on close 13

Then, the trip May.

Launch Site: GIIK-5 Scientific Results: satellite, Satellite ended of the improper satellite kilometer by Asiasat. up Blok Instruments: Asiasat launched

site 81L communications Russians for Asia that

firing on its

a nine-day surface Asiasat By to 16 from mission in a After was 1998,

Moon, to gravity-

approaching assist, orbit. raised reduced lunar nated Moon. satellite June owned

as 6,200

kilometers a usable had

Telecommunications in an DM3 second ended orbit up and incorrect upper firing was orbit stage. of the written

Company, after Because Blok 203

3 hurtled May 1998, kilometers

a failure of the the

perigee and

been

42,000

inclination circumculmiof the the by 17 now HGS 1.

DM3,

51 ° to began four finally above

18 °. A second on 1 June engine and flyby

in a useless

x 36,000a loss subseHughes satellite)

off as

34,300-kilometer more

Insurance an (who vehicle

underwriters agreement also and built bring with the

firings, orbit satellite,

quently Global

signed Systems the

in a 24-hour 153 ° . The has been

to salvage

it to its orig-

by Hughes,

renamed

171

1998
188) Lunar Prospector Nation: U.S. 172) Objective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft Mission Launch lunar Lunar orbit Prospector kg NASA ARC (LM-004) 1998 / was water showed ice continued ice on investigation the Moon Lunar as into the signs by of the data of water polar strong global discovOn orbit highon found tons of lunar Clementine probe. an estimated in the Prospector's

six billion shadows also rock

trapped The

Mass: 300

regions. localized distribution ered 10 was

spacecraft fields; a tiny, Lunar of major of

detected the and

Design and Management: Vehicle: Athena-2

magnetic

mapped types; iron-rich

Launch Date and Time: 7 January 02:28:44 UT Launch Scientific 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Results: sion gram Site: WSMC / SLC-46 Instruments: MAG magnetometer reflectometer

signs December lowered

core.

1998,

Prospector's to perform maneuver

to 40 kilometers studies. 1999 and on A subsequent changed ended Lunar the

resolution 28 January kilometers mary ately lunar During find the third misprowas 189) Noz0mi Nation: Japan 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft 15 vehicle ogist Discovery spacecraft any experiment landed spectrometer

the orbit space

to 15 x 45 probe's prithe 1999. to The

ER electron GRS NS APS DGE (using Lunar

gamma-ray neutron alpha Doppler S-band Prospector as part

mission.

Prospector

was crater

deliberon

spectrometer particle gravity antenna) was spectrometer

a shadowed

surface the

at 09:52:02 descent, the

UT on 31 July spacecraft

failed

observable carried the

signature cremated

of water. remains lunar

of geolsurface.

selected

of NASA's The

Eugene

Shoemaker

to the

of low-cost to create and gravity

missions. the first After Prospector 105 were

designed tional rections, around Initial After January, tional nation. its one-year

complete of the two Moon

composiduring cororbit launch.

maps

mission. Lunar Moon

midcourse entered after

(4) Mars orbit, lunar flybys

the

hours

Planet-B Mass: 536 kg

parameters two further the 100-

92 x 153 kilometers. on 13 its and

corrections entered

Mission Design and Management: ISAS Launch Vehicle: M-5 (no. 3) Launch Date and Time: 3 July Launch Site: Kagoshima 1998 / 18:12 UT complex M-5

spacecraft

opera-

x 100-kilometer of most

orbit interest

at 90 ° inclito scientists

Perhaps

/ launch

Scientific 1) 2) 3) 4) 5_ 6)

Instruments: MIC MGF ESA ISA IMI EIS visible camera

mission may be

is planned extended on the

for two to state three of the

Earth to

years five

but years

magnetometer energetic energetic energetic high-energy electrons ions ion experiment

depending 190)

spacecraft.

experiment mass particles experiment

Deep Space 1 Nation: U.S. (73) 0bjective(s): asteroid DS 1 Mass: 489 kg JPL / 7326-9.5 (no. D261) 1998 flyby Spacecraft: Spacecraft

experiment 7) 8) TPA thermal PET electro, ion drift UVS experiment

ultraviolet

spectrometer 9) 101 11) 12) 13) 14) PWS sounder/HF waves counter waves experiment

Mission Design and Management: NASA Launch Vehicle: Delta Launch Date and Time: 24 October 12:08:00 UT complex

LFA plasma NMS MDC XUV USO science neutral dust

experiment spectrometer

gas mass

EUV spectrometer ultra-stable oscillator/radio experiment Japan's its was around is the of first fourth planetary to enter on 11 "deep space"

Launch Site: ESMC / launch Scientific Instruments: 1) MICAS miniature

17A

integrated

camera-spectrometer 2) PEPE tary Results: test future sions. nology New main Deep plasma exploration Space 1 (DS experinmnt technology 1) was designed to for misof techNASA's for plane-

Results: probe, The

Nozomi, was also

spacecraft. a highly October atmoswind

spacecraft orbit Its and to track

slated Mars to

elliptical 1999. phere and investigations

innovative

technologies

appropriate

mission

conduct upper the with

long-term solar

planet's

deep space and interplanetary It is the first in a new series demonstration Millennium goals are missions program. to test such The under

its interactions the from escape Mars'

trajectories thin

of oxygen The of the

spacecraft's as ion a

molecules spacecraft planet orbit perigee, of the apogee, neutral Although spacecraft ments Sweden, entering Earth, trajectory flybys of and

atmosphere. pictures its

technologies optical array,

is expected its x moons 47,500 will

to take from

propulsion, solar camera, a flyby power and

autonomous concentration an imaging asteroid A month

navigation, a miniature during (renamed on

operational During sensing close ions to and

300 Nozomi

kilometers. remote while study the by

spectrometer 1992 after KD

perform surface; will from built

of the

atmosphere the gas

and

9969

Braille).

launch, fired the

24

spacecraft escaping and a set the elliptical was Moon sent on involved

November Space xenon lion l's gas)

1998, ion

controllers

Deep by milran a as

planet. the

propulsion the from

system

(fueled was 4.8

designed carries from and an Nozomi that of the

Japan,

while

spacecraft Earth. and The

of fourteen Canada, States. orbit

instruGermany, Aider around

kilometers

engine

Japan,

continuously specific ten tional the 18 times

for 14 days of 3,100 than asteroid 1999 speed the

demonstrated as much with DS Braille of only kilometers asteroid flyby data

United parking two 24

impulse higher

seconds, possible 9669

convenby at 04:46 26 kiloper to col-

on an interplanetary gravity-assist and September kilometers), 1998/at velocity 1998

chemical near-Earth

propellants. at a range of 15.5

1 passed

UT on 29 July meters second. date. lected back found longest the on very at It a was

December of Earth meters). during rection more originally pletely rently arrive years

1998

(at 2,809

and one 1,003 kilo-

on 20 December Due the burns propellant planned reconfigured. in heliocentric in Mars after its orbit original to insufficient flyby and

closest taken and

imparted corused that

Photographs during to Earth Braille and the to

other

Earth

two trajectory

encounter following 2.2 be

were

transmitted DS at 1 its

on 21 December than

in the

few days.

intended, had to

Nozomi's be comcurto four

kilometers shortest. was

mission The orbit,

1 kilometer

at its

Once over an had Comet

spacecraft, is now planned 2003,

successful

primary 1999,

mission

18 September mission. DS

NASA

formulated the dormant plan

in December schedule.

extended been

Originally, 1 fly by the

A nominal

to make

_-[)-eep

Space Chronicle

"

"

-

Wilson-Harrington Comet Borrelly star 1999. to a in the ion

in January in September tracker Mission

2001 2001, failed

and but on

the the 11 the not of of 22 V of to oper-

(launched Lander Climate roughly and Mars's Mars serve After would pendent and water

in November (launched Orbiter the same in was time

1996) January designed as Mars

and

Mars 1999). to arrive

Polar Mars at

spacecraft's November manifest require Borrelly 1999,

planners that single 2001. By

revised would flyby the end

Polar

Lander of

include

a flyby

conduct

simultaneous climate, was

investigations and also relay surface.

star-tracker--a September engine ofDS to impart second.

atmosphere, Climate the lander's have mission vapor surface Orbiter

designed for the latter. mission,

to MCO indedust of the

1 had

expended delta way

as a communications three-month

kilograms 1,300 Borrelly, ating

of xenon meters it set per

a total On system had its

performed to monitor and take

a

two-year atmospheric

the record

for the

longest

time

for a propulsion 2000, the engine as part

in space. been oper-

daily an

pictures

By 17 August ating run. the per tact naling deep

planet's map such Mars' buried scheduled September near-circular kilometers of its

to construct changes. would history reserves. arrive and in

evolutionary hoped that

for 162 days On coma second of the with the space DS end 22 of Comet to

of an DS

eight-month 1 flew past

of climatic information climatic water to

Scientists aid and

September

2001,

in reconstructing provide evidence orbit its on of was 23

Borrelly

at 16.5 kilometers and terminated 2001, infrared consig-

obtain nucleus. 1 on to one

pictures NASA 18 December of the

The Mars

spacecraft

spectra

1999

attain

operational orbit at the 421 end

more history.

successful

Sun-synchronous by 1 December mapping Climate 1999. on would for

missions

in recent

After

main Mars

mission Orbiter relay

15 ,January have acted NASA

191) Mars Climate Orbiter Nation: U.S. 174) Objective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft Mars MCO Mass: 629 kg JPL 7427-9.5 (no. D264) 1998 / orbit

2001, as

a communications to Mars. four 1998, 1999. After

future the

missions performed December September on

launch, 25

spacecraft on and 21 15

midcourse 4 March, At 09:01 1999, the burn

corrections July, UT (received orbiter as

time) its The con-

Mission Design and Management: NASA Launch Vehicle: Delta Launch Date and Time: 11 December 18:45:51 Launch Scientific 1) 2) UT Site: ESMC Instruments: PMIRR infrared MARCI (two 3) Results: probe which UHF Mars in pressure radiometer Mars color imaging modulated / launch complex

23 September orbit insertion was passing were

began

Mars

planned.

spacecraft tact after

scheduled behind

to reestablish Mars, the that but

no further An

17A

signals

received indicated

from

spacecraft. the error sent into

investigation resulted commands system units its second orbit phere and without The intended and standard. system was the from from

failure due to

a navigational Earth being

in English the metric to miss altitude atmosaltitude

being error 140-

converted caused to

cameras) communications Climate Orbiter Mars the

the orbiter

150-kilometer the Martian

instead

fall into

NASA's

Surveyor Mars Global

program, Surveyor

at approximately burn up.

57 kilometers

also included

1999
192) Mars Polar Lander/Deep Nation: U.S. Objective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft Mission (75) Mars MPL Mass: 583 kg NASA JPL 7425-9.5 (no. D265) 1999 / landing Space 2 carbon from dioxide the south local samples icecap pole. about The 1,O00 mission kilometers called for anataking was recording lyzing meteorological of polar images conditions, and

deposits, areas.

multispectral to have with would during prised complex and package imager 17B climate and voyage) 1.06 was that have

of local its mission

MPL

performed of the acted

simultaneously Orbiter, which relay itself com-

Design and Management:

Mars

Climate

Launch Vehicle: De]ta

as a communications operations. (for MPL power, the lander ground.

Launch Date and Time: 3 January 20:21:10 UT

its surface a bus

section

propulsion, outbound that The remote stood lander arm the thermal supposed 1999. After to its

Launch Site: ESMC / launch Scientific Instruments: 1) MVACS surveyor a) b) c) d) e) 21 3) Results: SSI Mars

communications and meters equipped into

during

a 290-kilogram tall with the on the

volatile

instrument stereo surface arm

a 2-meter-long and soil

to dig properties

terrain

investigate the was

RA robotic MET TEGA analyzer RAC robotic Mars light Polar Surveyor

of Martian at Mars entry, the

(using MPL

meteorology thermal arm and

package evolved gas

and evolved to arrive atmospheric

gas analyzer).

on 3 December about 10 minutes was panels (each) Mars make to

prior

camera imager and (MPL) that ranging was one

landing, cruise the

spacecraft and solar

jettison

MARDI LIDAR instrument The Mars Mars

descent detection Lander

stage two

and then Deep

release Space MPL conway for 2

3.572-kilogram Unlike to using

microprobes. was trolled to the scheduled landing surface.

Pathfinder, a completely all the scheduled with 2

of NASA's for a series sustained goal was tors Mars past tive

missions low-cost

called for

retro-rockets was 1999, Space and

of small, exploration

spacecraft MPL's two

Landing

of Mars. a lander Space

primary penetraof

21:03 later.

UT on 3 December planned two Deep Amundsen 1999), at a The

two-way

to deploy as Deep our

and

communications (renamed November the ground

to begin

20 minutes microprobes on 15

(known

2) on the surface on the The planet's

to extend and was present

knowledge water the

Scott would

resources.

objec-

meanwhile, speed

impact per

to explore

never-before-studied

of 200

meters

1999_

second lander's awas:

at about

50 to 85 seconds about was 100 designed

prior

to the

Results: fourth cost

Stardust of NASA's

is an

ambitious

mission,

the

touchdown Each penetrator

kilometers to obtain using an

Discovery missions

program (after NEAR,

of lowMars Its pricolthe

exploration and was

a small electric mission while 1 March was lost

sample drill was 2000. for

of subsurface analysis. to last would mission The

soil

Pathfinder, mary lect comet, During goal samples and

Lunar

Prospector). Comet the

microprobes' 36 hours, until MPL 6 no 16 with continue

to fly by the of dust return from the was grains.

Wild-2, coma of

expected

about contact

the lander

then

samples to collect

to Earth. samples on of

In the event,

flight,

Stardust dust to pertbrm which the

at 20:00 prior 1999, orbiting

UT on 3 December, entry. two the weeks, Mars

about With on

of

interstellar expect samples, from

Scientists analyses primitive solar the

minutes December Surveyor lander proved finally contact

to atmospheric for over used NASA Mars

Earth these

detailed represent time the

communications

Global of the search NASA

substances was using formed.

system samples

to look surface,

for signs but the 2000, to

Stardust

collected microporous as aerogel

on the fruitless.

Martian On lost the most

a low-density known on was the the

silica-based attached to and spaceand 28

17 January all attempts lander: failure, on 28 probable

substance panels preserve craft

terminated with the into that was the the

establish

spacecraft cometary into

to "soft-catch" materials. heliocentric corrections The orbit on

An independent whose March cause results 2000, of the signals the that Mars main the

investigation were fidlure when descent. the when engines lander 193) Stardust Nation: U.S. 0bjective(s): Spacecraft: Spacecraft released indicated

launched

publicly the generation

performed December and dust between 22

midcourse 1999 January' 22 and

18 January, Its and in first was 1 May

20 January, interstellar carried 2000. out After orbit, 11:13 UT kilo-

of spurious deployed falsely

2000. operation

lander's These

legs

during indicated

collection

signals had it was

February a year

spacecraft in fact

touched still shut

down down,

on The and

approximately Stardust (closest on flew approach

heliocentric for was at

descending.

by 2001

Earth to Earth

a gravity-assist of' 6,012

prematurely fell to the Martian

landscape.

15 January to send exercise Stardust Wild-2 will

at a range

meters) tion 2002. (76) comet Stardust Mass: 385 kg 7426-9.5 7 February (no. D266) 1999 / sample return Comet spacecraft ters

it on a second between is on July expected

sample-collecand to 2004, as December encounter when 150 speed from the

2 January as close

pass at second.

kilomeof 6.1

while

flying per

a relative Apart

kilometers

collecting

Mission Design and Management: Launch Vehicle: Delta Launch Date and lime: 21:04:15 Launch 1) 2) Scientific UT Site: ESMC Instruments: aerogel CIDA dust 3) 4) dust cometary analyzer navigation shield camera flux monitors collectors and interstellar / launch complex 17A

samples, Stardust will also of the comet's nucleus with meters. release Capsule Training 03:00 local On its 15 January spin-stabilized which over Range time. aircraft. the in The

take photographs a resolution of 30 Stardust will Return to descend Test and

2006,

Sample is expected

(SRC),

by parachute

U.S. Air Force Utah sample at will

approximately be recovered

by a chase

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Abbreviations
AFBMD ARC ASI AU Air Ames Force Ballistic Missile Center Agency unit Division Research

Appendix._.]

Italian Space astronomical

DoD DSPSE ESA ESMC ETR

Department Deep Space

of Defense Program Science Experiment

European Eastern Eastern Goddard Lavochkin Lavochkin

Space Space Test Space State

Agency and Missile Center

Range Flight Union Center Machine Building Plant

GSFC GSMZ

IASTP ISAS

Inter-Agency Institute

Solar-Terrestrial of Space and

Physics

(Program) Science

Astronautical

JPL

Jet

Propulsion

Laboratory

KSC

Kennedy

Space

Center

LaRC

Langley

Research

Center

NASA NEAR NIIP-5 NPO Lavochkin

National Near

Aeronautics Asteroid

and

Space

Administration

Earth

Rendezvous Range No. 5 (Baykonur) Association

Scientific-Research and Testing Lavochkin Scientific-Production

OKB-1

Experimental

Design

Bureau

No. 1

SETI SOHO SSI STL STSP TETR-B TsKBEM
V,S.

Search Solar Solid Space Solar

for Extraterrestrial and State Heliospheric Imaging

Intelligence Observatory

(system) Laboratories Programme

Technology Terrestrial

Science

Test

and

Training Design OKB-1 States )

Satellite Bureau of Experimental Machine Building

Central (formerly United

(of America)

USAF USSR UT

U.S. Air Force Union Universal of Soviet Time Socialist Republics (Soviet Union)

WSMC

Western

Space

and

Missile

Center

'

D_eepSpaceCh[°.n!c_!e_ ..

- ...................

i

...... L._-_

_-L.___II

i--i--_-

._Appendix 2
Lunar, Planetary,
Overall

and Deep Space "Firsts"

First

lunar

probe

attempt: 1 / 17 August escape 1958 velocity: 1959

U.S. / Able First probe USSR

to reach / Luna

1 / 2 January

First

probe USSR

to heliocentric / Luna

orbit: 1959

1 / 2 January

First

spacecraft USSR / Luna

to impact

on another

celestial 1959

body

(Moon):

2 / 14 September

First

spacecraft USSR / Luna

to fly by the

Moon: 1959

3 / 6 October

First

photographs USSR / Luna

of the

far

side

of the 1959

Moon:

3 / 6 October

First

Mars USSR

probe / [Mars]

attempt: / 10 October 1960

First

spacecraft U.S. / Mariner

to fly past

Venus

successfully: 1962

2 / 14 December

First

spacecraft U.S. / Mariner

to fly past

Mars

successfully: 1965

4 / 15 July

First

spacecraft USSR

to impact

another

planet 1966

(Venus):

/ Venera

3 / 1 March

First

spacecraft USSR / Luna

to make

a survivable 1966

landing

on the

Moon:

9 / 3 February

First

spacecraft USSR / Luna

to orbit

the

Moon: 1966

10 / 2 April

First

spacecraft U.S. / Lunar

to take Orbiter

pictures

of Earth

from 1966

the

Moon:

2 / 23 August

First

successful USSR

planetary

atmospheric 1967

entry

probe

(Venus):

/ Venera

4 / 18 October

First

]iftoff

from

the

Moon: 6 / 17 November mission: September 1968 1967

U.S. / Surveyor First successful USSR /Zond

circumlunar 5 / 14-21

First

transmission USSR / Venera

from the surface 7 / 15 December

of another 1970

planet

(Venus):

First

robotic USSR/Luna

spacecraft

to recover

and

return 1970

lunar

samples:

16/12-21 vehicle on the

September Moon:

First

wheeled USSR

/ Lunokhod

1 / 17 November

1970

First

spacecraft USSR / Mars

to impact

on Mars: 1971

2 / 27 November

First

spacecraft U.S. / Mariner

to enter

orbit

around

a planet 1971

(Mars):

9 / 14 November

First

spacecraft U.S. / Pioneer

to fly through 10 / out

the

asteroid

belts: 1973

in February

First

spacecraft to fly past Jupiter: U.S. / Pioneer 10 / 4 December

1973

First

spacecraft U.S. / Mariner

to use

gravity-assist

to change 1974

its trajectory:

10 / 5 February

(at Venus)

First

spacecraft to fly past Mercury: U.S. / Mariner 10 / 29 March 1974

First

spacecraft USSR

to transmit

photos

from 1975

the

surface

of another

planet

(Venus):

/ Venera

9 / 22 October

First

spacecraft USSR

to orbit

Venus: 1975

/ Venera

9 / 22 October

Firstspacecraft totakephotos nthesurfacefMars: o o U.S. Viking I / 20 July 1976 /
First spacecraft U.S. / ISEE-3 to orbit a libration point: 1978 / 20 November

First

spacecraft U,S. / Pioneer

to fly past

Saturn: 1979

11 / 1 September

First

spacecraft to leave the solar system: U.S. / Pioneer 10 / 13 June 1983

First

spacecraft U.S./ISEE-3

to fly past

a comet

(Comet 1985

Giacobini-Zinner):

/ 11 September

First

spacecraft U.S. / Voyager

to fly past

Uranus: 1986

2 / 24 January

First

spacecraft U.S. / Voyager

to fly past

Neptune: 1989

2 / 25 August to use Earth

First

spacecraft ESA / Giotto

for a gravity-assist:

/ 2 July

1990

First

spacecraft Japan / ttiten

to use

aerobraking 1991

to reduce

velocity:

/ 19 March

First

spacecraft to fly past an asteroid U.S. / Galileo / 29 October 1991

(Gaspra}:

First

spacecraft U.S. / Galileo

to enter Probe

Jupiter's

atmosphere: 1995

/ 7 December

First

spacecraft U.S. / Galileo

to orbit Orbiter

Jupiter: / 8 December 1995

First

wheeled

vehicle

on another / 5 July

planet 1997

(Mars):

U.S. / Sojourner

First

spacecraft U.S. / NEAR

to orbit

an asteroid 2000

(Eros):

/ 14 February

First

spacecraft U,S. / NEAR

to land

on an asteroid

(Eros}: 2001

Shoemaker

/ 12 February

Mercury First flyby: U.S. / Mariner 10 / 29 March 1974

....

Appendix

Venus

First

probe USSR

attempt: / [Venera] / 4 February 1961

First

successful flyby: U.S. / Mariner 2 / 14 December

1962

First

impact: USSR / Venera 3 / 1 March 1966

First

successful atmospheric entry: USSR / Venera 4 / 18 October

1967

First

soft-landing: USSR / Venera

7 / 15 December

1970

First

surface USSR

photos: / Venera 9 / 22 October 1975

First

orbiter: USSR / Venera 9 / 22 October 1975

Moon

First

lunar

probe

attempt: 1 / 17 August 1958

U.S. / Able

First

impact: USSR / Luna 2 / 14 September 1959

First

flyby: USSR / Luna

3 / 6 October

1959

First

photos USSR

of the / Luna

far side: 3 / 6 October 1959

First

survivable USSR / Luna

landing: 9 / 3 February 1966

First

orbiter: USSR / Luna from the 10 / 2 April Moon: 6 / 17 November mission: September 1968 1967 1966

First

liftoff

U.S. / Surveyor First successful USSR /Zond

circumlunar 5 / 14-21

First

robotic USSR/Luna

soil sample: 16/12-21 September 1970

Firstwheeled vehicle ontheMoon: USSRLunokhod / 1 / 17 November
Mars

1970

First

probe USSR

attempt: / [Mars] / 10 October 1960

First

successful U.S. / Mariner

flyby: 4 / 15 July 1965

First

spacecraft to orbit: U.S. / Mariner 9 / 14 November

1971

First

impact: USSR / Mars

2 / 27 November

1971

First

surface

photos: 1 / 20 July 1976

U.S. / Viking First wheeled

vehicle: / 5 July 1997

U.S. / Sojourner

Jupiter

First

flyby: U.S. / Pioneer

1O / 4 December

1973

First

atmospheric U.S. / Galileo

entry: Probe

/ 7 December

1995

First

orbiter: U.S. / Galileo Orbiter / 8 December 1995

Saturn

First

flyby: U.S. / Pioneer 11 / 1 September 1979

Uranus

First

flyby: U.S. / Voyager 2 / 24 January 1986

Neptune

First

flyby: U.S. / Voyager 2 / 25 August 1989

.............

Appendix 2

Deep Spa ce Ch!onicle

_

..............

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• E _ IL_:

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--Z

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..........
United States
Baker, Limited, Cart, David, 1999. M. H., et al. Viking Orbiter Views of Mars. Washington, ed. Jane's Space Directory, 1999-2000. Coulsdon,

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About the Author
AsifA. and Siddiqi educated and was in born in Dhaka, Bangladesh, the United Politics, in 1991. was published in Dhaka, Bangladesh Bangladesh, States. He His The award-winning Soviet Union (NASA 2000. An book and Challenge the to Apollo: Race, pubpoems, is currently Department a Ph.D. at candidate Carnegie in the Kingdom, the United

History University.

Mellon

Space was of

1945-1974 lished in

SP-2000-4408) earlier book

.............

Aboit!he

Autho r -

.

De;_p _poce Chron!de

....

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......
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What

They

Us. NASA

Tucker,

Tom.

The Eclipse

Prqject.

NASA

SP-2000-4523,

2000.

JncJex
Able1,9 AbleIVB,
Able Able 23, 26 APXS, alpha trometer, Ariel, ARGUS, 104, 109, 110, 129, 130 170 ACE, 169 Aristarchus, Armstrong, Asiasat Asiasat Range, 17, ASPERA, Atlantis, Taurus Buzz, 78 spectrometer, 67, 69 165 constellation, 97 Atlas, Uranus particle 165 moon, proton and x-ray spec120 165

VA, 26 VB, 27

imaging crater, Neil, 1, 170 3, 171 energy Space 24, 47 26, 27

system, 58 78

accelerometer, ACP, aerosol

collector/pyrolyser, Explorer,

Advanced Agena,

Composition

B, D, 31, 32, 44, 47, 66 U.S., Test and Training

Air Force, 178 Aldebaran, Aldrin, ALPHA,

mass Shuttle,

experiment, 143,145,

164 149

Atlas-Able, Atlas-Agena Atlas-Agena

alpha/proton

B, 33, 34, 41, 47, 48, 58 D, 58, 61, 63 61, 67, 69, 75, 76, 88, 93,

alpha-scattering Alphonsus, Amalthea, Ames crater, Jupiter

instrument, 48 moon, Center, 117, NASA

121,147 ARC, 102 104,

Atlas-Centaur, 47, 94, 105, 123 atomic Austria, Automatic hydrogen 133

Research

detector,

40, 41

aneroid barometer, 109, 110, 126 ANGSTREM, Apollo, Apollo Apollo Apollo Apollo Apollo Apollo x-ray

64, 65, 73, 74, 82, 87,

Interplanetary

Station,

AMS,

23

spectrometer,

165 Bean, Bulgaria, Alan L., 62, 63 133

4, 55, 56, 58, 61, 66, 71,101 8, 74 11, 61, 78 12, 61, 62, 63, 83 15, 90 16, 98 17, 102

Callisto, Cape

Jupiter Canaveral,

moon, Florida,

97,

117, 121,146, 7, 55

147

Cassini-Huygens, CDS, coronal

169, 9, 169, 170 diagnostic spectrometer, 159

CELIAS, harge, lement]isotope c e analysis experiment, 159 Centaur, 54,63,85 Centaur-Surveyor, 54
Challenge Space to Apollo: Race, The Soviet 9 29, 40, 41, Union and the 1945-1974, EIT,

74, 76, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 84, 85, 86, 90, 93, 96, 97, 98, 102, 104, 106, 108, 112, 113, 116, 119, 122, 123, 137, 146, 147, 174, 155, 178 56 ultraviolet imaging telescope, 157, 161, 169, 170, Eastman-Kodak, extreme 159 field 109, 124, 162, 110, 134, 165,

charged-particle traps, detector, 45, 54, 64, 94, 98, 102,123 Cherenkov Chryse CIDA, Effect, Planitia, cometary 178 103, 116, 176 178 and Sequencer, 155, 157, 19 111 and interstellar

electric ELISMA, Enceladus, dust anaEPAM,

detector, complex

68, 79 experiment, 117,170 and alpha particle 164

wave

Saturn electron, 169

moon, proton,

lyzer, Clementine, Comet Comet Control Conrad, Copernicus, cosmic dust

monitor, 173 ER, electron

reflectometer,

173 analyzer, 159

Borrelly, Wild-2, Computer Charles,

ERNE, Eros, CC&S, 76

energetic-particle 8, 161,163 Jupiter moon,

Jr., 62, 63 57, 58 43, 44, 68, 79, 103, 138,

Europa, 147 European 150, EVRIS,

8, 97,

117,

121,

146,

crater, detector,

Space 151,157, stellar

Agency, 160, oscillations

ESA, 170

124,

138,

149,

149, cosmic

174 emission receivers, detector, 102, 130, 131 counters, 50, 53, 54, 51 52, 68, 71, 79, 104, 107, 108,

photometer,

164

radio

Explorer Explorer Explorer

33, 56, 66 35, 65, 90 49, 103

cosmic-ray-anisotropy 81, 82, 115, cosmic-ray 65 cosmic-ray 120 Cosmic CRIS, telescope, 117,129,

85, 87, 91, 97,

gas-discharge

Faraday-cup 43, 44, 52, 68, 79, 94, Federal Fobos Rocket, cosmic-ray Luna 1, 21, 22 spectrometer, 169 Fobos

plasma

probe,

56, 65 FAA, 52

Aviation 1,141,142 2, 141,142 omni analyzer,

Administration,

isotope 133, 157

FONEMA, ion

non-scanning 164

energy-mass

Czechoslovakia,

Deep

Space DSPSE,

Program 155 1, 174 2, 177

Science

Experiment,

Galileo, Galileo

7, 8, 9, 145, Europa

146,

147,156, GEM, 146

170

Mission, moon,

Deep Deep Delta

Space Space 2, 169

Ganymede, 147 gas-analyzer

Jupiter

8, 97, 117,121,146,

cartridges, 129,

64, 65, 73, 97,102 130

Department DesCam, Dione, DWE, DPI,

of Defense, descent phase moon, wind

DOD, camera, 170

155 165

gas

chromatograph, 8 gas

Gaspra, GCMS,

Saturn Doppler three

122,

chromatograph 170 tube, 102 Republic, photon,

neutral

mass

experiment, aceelerometer, energy

170 165 mass spec-

spectrometer, Geiger-Mueller 51, 65, 94, Germany, 174

component omni ionosphere 164

counter,

25,

50,

DYMIO,

trometer,

Federal

West,

133,

149,

Giacobini-Zinner, Earth, 8, 13, 18, 19, 21, 23, 25, 26, 27, 29, 30, 35, 36, 39, 40, 42, 43, 44, 48, 49, 50, 51, 54, 55, 56, 58, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 70, 73, Giotto, comet, 137,

comet, 138

125,

138,

139

_. Deep-Space Chrontc ' le"

__

Goddard pace lightCenter, S F NASA GSFC, ISA, nergetic e ionsexperiment, 174 124 ISS,maging i system, 170 GOLF, global scillations lowfrequencies o at experiment, 159 Japan, 49,157,174 1 Grand Tour, ,7,120 6 JetPropulsionaboratorEPL,4,5,34,36, L J Grigg-Skjellerup, 138 comet, 43,144,163,169 GRUNT, accelerometers, 165 Jupiten 3,7,8,9,13,93,95,97,102,103,117, 120,121,122,145,146,147,150,156,170 Hagomoro, 149 s 165 Halley's Comet, 57,125,130,133, 34,135, Kamertoneismometer, 1 137,138 Kennedy Space enter, C JohnF.,NASA KSC, 5 HASI, Huygens atmosphericstructure instrument, 170 Kepler, crater, 50 Helios 1,108,115 Kohoutek, Comet 52 Helios 2,115 Kosmos, 13,51,54 159, Helios-B, 115 Kosmos 79,80 300, Hiten,Muses-A, 149 Kosmos 80 305, Hughes AircraftCompany, 67 Kosmos 82 359, Hughes lobal G Systems, 171 Kosmos 86 419, Hyperion, Saturn moon, 170 117, Kosmos 98 482, Iapetus, 170 117, IMAP-6, magnetometer, 165 InertialUpper tage, S IUS,143,145 infrared camera, 17,155 infraredradiometer, 57,58,76,86,88,103, 107, 10, 53, 76 1 1 1 infrared spectrometer, 131 infrared thermal mapper, 110 InstituteofMicrobiology, National Academy ofSciences, 34 Institute of Space and Astronautical Sciences, 137,138 ISAS, Inter-Agency Solar-TerrestrialPhysics Program, IASTP, Wind,157 windspeed recorder, 98 International Cometary Explorer, ICE,125 International Polar ission, Solar M ISPM, 50 1 International un-Earth S Explorers, ISEE, 124 Interplanetary Monitoring Platform,IMP, 108 Intrepid, 2,63 6 Io,Jupitermoon, 121,146, 117, 147 ionizationhamber, thrusters, c traps, densitometer, 25, 3,44, 9,50, 1, 4,64, 3, 21, 4 4 5 5 7 74,109, 10 1 LASCO, hite light/spectrometric w coronograph, 59 1 Lavochkin, designureau, b 53,64,76,77, 7 8 LIDAR,lightdetection ndranging a instrument,177 LILAS-2,cosmic and solargamma-burst spectrometer, 164 Luna,14,
Luna Luna Luna Luna Luna Luna Luna Luna Luna Luna Luna Luna Luna Luna Luna Luna 3,23,24 5,49 6,49 7,50 8,52 9,53 10,54 11,57 12,58 13,59 14,70 15,78 16,82,83,90,93,108 17,83,84 18,90,93 19,91

_

-

-

-

Deep Space Chronicle

Luna Luna Luna Luna Luna Lunar Lunar Lunar

20, 93 21,101,107 22,107 23, 108, 113, 116

Mars

Global 163, 164,

Surveyor, 167,

MGS,

6, 47, 178

50,

111,

176, 177, 164

Mars Mars

Observer, Pathfinder, 165, 166,

153,

Sagan 167, 178 MPL, Venus, Doppler

Memorial

Station,

6,

24, 116 Module, Orbiter, Prospector, LM, 62

Mars 4 173, 178

Polar

Landel.

176 123, 147 159 165

Maxwell MDI,

Montes,

Michelson

imager, unit,

MECOM, Mercury,

meteorological 13, 96, 106 package, 49,

Lunokhod Lunokhod LWR,

1, 83, 84, 91,101 2, 101,102, radar, 107 MET, meteorology detectors, 104, 107 moon. camera, 7,169 detector, spectrometer, 17, 121 174 177 57, 58, 61, 91, 94, 165 meteoroid 102,

longwave

MAG, magnetometer, 17, 21, 25, 29, 40, 41, 43, 44.45, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 56, 57, 58, 63, 64, 65, 66, 71, 86, 87, 91, 93, 98, 101, 103, 126, 157, Magellan, MAK, MARCI, Mare Mare Mare Mariner Mariner Mariner Mariner Mariner Mariner Mariner Mariner Mariner Mariner Mariner Mariner 104, 129, 105, 130, 107, 133. 173,174 144, 145,147 165 176 109, 137, 115, 138, 117, 145, 102, 123, 153,

Metis, MIC, Milky

Jupiter visible Way,

micrometeoroid

161,169, 4, 5, 143,

25, 56, 57, 58, 61, 63, 65, 66 Mimas, Miranda, MIS, Moon, Saturn Uranus moon, moon, 122, 170

quadruple Mars

mass color crater,

spectrometer, system, 115

120 system, 165 27, 33,

imaging

meteorology

instrument

Crisium, Serenitatis, Sirenum, 1, 4, 35

78, 108,

5, 13, 17, 18, 19, 21, 22, 23, 26,

crater, crater, 88

23, 101

34, 36, 40, 41, 42, 43, 48, 49, 50, 53, 54, 55, 58, 62, 63, 65, 66, 69, 70, 71, 75, 76, 78, 79, 81, 83, 84, 90, 91, 93, 98, 101, 102, 103, 106, 108, 113, 116, 122, 149, 157. 171 MORION-S, ment, MSI, science 165 data acquisition instru-

2, 4, 25, 35 3, 44 4, 5, 34, 44, 64 5, 45, 64, 65

multispectral Hiten, Mars 149

imager,

161

Muses-A, MVACS, 177

6, 76, 77, 89 7.76, 8, 88 9, 5, 88, 89, 90, 104 10, 96, 106 71H, Mariner H, 85, 86 89

volatile

and

climate

surveyor,

National National

Academy Aeronautics

of Sciences. and NASA, Space

NAS,

147

Administration,

3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 103, 108, 144, 163, 178, NAS, 147 111, 145, 164,

14, 18, 26, 27, 34, 35, 44, 45, 55, 61, 64, 65, 67, 68, 94, 97,102, 116, 146, 167, 122, 125, 129, 151,156, 157, 169, 170, 174, 137, 159, 176, 143, 160, 177, NRC, 178 NEAR, 163, 178

R, 34, 35 ionosphere 164 crater, U.S.S.R., 53 2, 9, 14, 86, 87, 88, 91, 103, plasma spectrom-

MARIPROB, eter, Marius, Mars,

National NavCam, Near

Research navigation Earth

Council, camera,

104, Mars,

105

Red Planet, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 13, 34, 26, 27, 36. 37, 40, 44, 45, 49, 50, 51, 75, 76, 77, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 93,103, 141, 177, 142, 178 Orbiter, imager, MCO, MARDI, 176 153, 164, 104, 105, 165, 166, 111,112, 174, 176,

Asteroid

Rendezvous, 8, 161,162,

NEAR-Shoemaker, nephelometer, Neptune, neutral 109, 126,

129,

130, 120 138,

134, 145

7, 9, 13, 97, 102,119, mass spectrometer, neutron

170,

174 165, 173

Mars Mars

Climate descent

NEUTRON-S, 177

spectrometer,

NIS, nearinfraredmapping spectrometer, radioaltimeter, 4,73,74,91,93,97,104, 6 145,161 107, 09, 13, 15, 53, 55 1 1 1 1 1 NixOlympia, 5,89 radio propagation detector, 79 NLR,laser angefinder, r 161 radiotelescope, 45,49,75,86, 7,103 40,41, 8 Nozomi, 174 radioisotopethermoelectricgenerators, RTGs, 121 radiometer, 76,77,87,102, 23 1 OceanfStorms, o 55,61,62 RADIUS-MD, dosimeter, 164 Oceanus Procellarum, 63 Ranger, II, 4,30,33, 4,36, 3,48 Block 3 4 Olympus Mons, 5,88,90 Ranger 1,31,32 OFFIMIZM, seismometer/magnetometer/ inclinometer, 165 Ranger 2,31,32 Ranger 4,34 PanCam, panoramic camera, 165 Ranger 5,36 PEGAS, gamma-ray spectrometer, 165 Ranger 6,41 penetrometer, 58,83,87,101 Ranger 7,43,47,48 PFS, infrared Fourier pectrometer, s 165 Ranger 8,47,48 Phoebe, Saturn moon, 17 1 Ranger 9,48 Phobos, 77,141 Reiner, crater, 3 5 photoelectric cellaspect indicator, 25,73,74 resistance thermometer, 64,73,74, 1, 2,97, 8 8 104, 05, 09, 10 1 1 1 photo-emulsion camera, 71 Rhea, Saturn moon, 170 122, PHOTON, gammapectrometer, s 165 a piezoelectric detector, 40,41, 5,50, 1, 4 robotic rm,RA,177 21, 4 5 5 robotic rmcamera, 177 a RAC, Pioneer 150 0,14, RTSW, real-timeolar indexperiment, s w 169 Pioneer 3,19 Russia, Soviet Union, 3,4,5,13, 4, 7,19, 1, 1 1 2 Pioneer 4,22 23, 4,25, 4, 6, 7,39, 0, 1,42, 3, 5, 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 Pioneer 5,25 48, 9,64, 5, 8,71, 8, 2, 3,86, 0, 3, 4 6 6 7 8 8 9 9 Pioneer 6,52,57,68 98,105, 09, 10, 13, 29, 33, 37, 42, 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 149, 57 1 Pioneer 7,52,57,68 Pioneer 8,52,57,68 Sagan, 167 Carl, Pioneer 9,52,71,95 Sakigake, 137 Pioneer 7,94,95,97,102, 08,120 10, 1 Sample eturn R Capsule, 178 SRC, Pioneer 7,102, 08, 20 11, 1 1 Saturn, ,8,9,13, 7,102, 17,120, 170 7 9 1 122, Pioneer Venus ,4,18,123, 24, 31,144 1 1 1 scintillationounter, c 21 Pioneer Venus ,4,124 2 Sea ofFertility, rater, c 90 plasma nalyzer, a 52,56,68,71,94,105, 08, 1 115, 23, 24, 25, 33,137,138, 1 1 1 1 145,157 Sea ofRains, crater, 58,84 Pluto, ,7,13 6 Sea ofTranquillity, 47,61 proportional counter, 25 Searchfor ExtraterrestrialIntelligence, SETI, 1 7 Pwyll, rater, 46 c 1 seismometer, single-axis, 33,130 SEPICA, energetic solar particle ioniccharge radiation densitometer, 59,87 analyzm. 169 radiation detector, 39,40,41,43,44,45,48, Eugene, 173 163, 49,50,51,53,56(dosimeters), 58,59, Shoemaker, 57, 61,63, 4, 6,71, 5,76, 7, 9, 0,81, 3, SIS, olarsotopepectrometer, 6 6 7 7 7 8 8 s i s 16 91,93,101, 07, 15 1 1 SLED-2,ow-energy l charged particlespectrometer, 164

Sojourner, 6,9,166, 67 1 SolarandHeliospehric Observatory, SOHO, 159, 60 1 solar lasma robe, p p 64
Solar solar Solid System wind Log, detector, 9, 14 81, 83, 97, 129, 131,137

thermal Thor-Able, Thor-Able Thor-Delta Thor-Delta Titan, Titania, Transfer Transvaal, Triton, Tycho,

and evolved 19 1, 17, 18,

gas analyzer,

TEGA,

177

E, 52, 56, 65, 66, 68, 71 L, 79 moon, 8, 117, 120 TOS, 26 153 122, 170

Saturn Uranus Orbit

State Imaging, 33, 39, 44, 45, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 53, 55, 56, 57, 58, 61, 65, 66, 67, 69, 71, 75, 76, 79, 83, 85, 86, 87, 91, 93, 102, 103, 107, 109, 110, 113, 115, 120, 129, 130, 134, 145, 153 101, 117,

moon, Stage,

South 7,120

Africa,

Soyuz, Space Space

98 Shuttle, Technology 8, 143, 145,150 24 165

crater,

69

Laboratories,

SPICAM, Sputnik, SSP,

multichannel 13, 18 science 178

spectrometer,

ULEIS, ultra-low-energy 169 ultraviolet and infrared

isotope

spectrometer,

spectrophotometer, 129, 101, 130 102, 103,

surface

package,

170

49, 64, 65, 75, 86, 87, 103, ultraviolet ll0, photometer, 138, 155 85, 94,

Stardust, stereo SUMER,

surface

imager,

SSI,

77, 78, 79, 80, 177 emitted radiation

solar-ultraviolet 159

ultraviolet spectrograph, spectrometer, 76, 77, 85, 88, 91, 97, 101_ 104, 109, 120, 124, 150, 125,133, 151 moon, U.S., 155, 120 134, 145, 153, 174

49, 117,

experiment, Sun,

6, 7, 8, 13, 21, 36, 53, 68, 103, 115,122, 147,150, 151,156,159, 2, 57, 70 3, 61, 62, 63, 65, 69 4, 13, 54, 55, 65 5, 67, 69 6, 68, 69 7, 69 138 mapping spectrometer, wind anisotropies 165

106, 108, 164, 169

Ulysses, Umbriel, United 137, Uranus,

Uranus States, 143,

Surveyor Surveyor Surveyor, Surveyor Surveyor Surveyor Susei, SVET,

3, 4, 6, 14, 33, 34, 43, 157 120, 122 spectrometer,

115,

7, 9, 13,119,

UVCS, ultraviolet 159 UVS-M, ultraviolet

coronograph

spectrometer,

165

Valles experiment, Van

Marineris, Allen, 18 29

5

SWAN, solar 159 Sweden, SWEPAM, alpha SWICS, eter, SWIMS, 169 synthetic 174

variometer, Vega, wind 169 ion composition spectromelectron, proton, and Vega Vega Venera, Venera Venera 133 1,134, 2, 134,

solar monitor, solar 169 solar wind

135, 135,

138 138 131,135

14, 39, 50, 51, 64, 65, 4, 74, 81 5, 74, 81 6, 74, 81 7, 81, 91, 97 8, 91, 97, 98 9, 109, 10, 110, 11,126, 12, 126, 13, 129, 110, 126 126 127, 130 130 130

wind

ion

mass

spectrometer,

aperture

radar,

SAR,

143,

Venera Venera

Taurus, Taurus

97 Mountains, sensors, mapping moon, moon, 101 17 radiometer, 117, 121 122, 170 165

Venera Venera Venera Venera Venera Venera

temperature TERMOSCAN, Tethys, Thebe, Saturn Jupiter

Venera 4,129 1 Venera 5,131 1 Venera 6,131 1 Venus, 3,4,5,8,24,25,29,34,35,40,42,43, 45,50,51,64,73,74,81,82,97,98,106, 109,123,124,125,126,129,130,131, 132,133, 143,144, 147,147, 134, 145, 170 Viking1,5,85,103, 11,112 1 Viking2,5,85,103, 11 1 Viking A,111
Viking B, 111 infrared mapping spectrometer, VIMS, visual 170 VIRGO, ment, Voyager, Voyager Voyager Voyager

variability 159 7, 118, Interstellar 147

of solar

irradiance

experi-

Mission, 117, 119,

VIM, 121, 120, 122,

120, 150

122

1, 7, 97, 102, 2, 7, 102, 117,

121,150

Webb, Weiler, Wilson,

crater, Edward,

82 6 9, 14 Comet, 176

Andrew,

Wilson-Harrington

XRS-GRS, 33, 53,

x-ray/gamma-ray 54, 57, 75, 153, 77, 161 83,

spectrometer, 87, 103, 109,

110, 133,134,

Ye-1, Ye-IA, Ye-2A, Ye-6, Ye-8,

22 22 25 39, 40, 41, 74, 75, 115 77, 48, 49, 50, 53, 54, 69, 78, 81, 90, 91, 93, 107 107,

101,

Zond, Zond Zond Zond Zond Zond Zond

14, 42, 70, 78, 98 1, 43 2, 45 3, 49, 57 6, 71, 72 7, 79 8, 83

--

Deep _poce Cl_ron!cl_--

_.

Deep ChrOndgy Spoce

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