SEMINAR REPORT ON ADVANCED ACCIDENT PREVENTION SYSTEM

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Seminar Report submitted in partial fulfillment of requirements for the award of
B.TECH IN ELECTRONICS AND TELECOMMUNICATION OF

BIJUPATNAIKUNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ORISSA

Submitted by: DEBIDUTTA PATTANAIK REGD NO : Under the guidance of:

DEPARTMENT OF ELETRONICS & TELECOMMUNICATION CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that Debidutta Pattanaikbearing registration No- 0701206296 is a bonafide student of final year,7th semester of electronics and telecommunication This seminar report entitled ³ADVANCE VEHICLE ACCIDENT PREVENTION SYSTEM´ is presented successfully by her towards partial fulfillment of Btech engineering in ENTC,Engg under BPUT.

Seminar in charge

Guide

HOD(ENTC)

ACKNOWLE GE ENT

Fir t of all I woul li e to expre

my si cere gratitude to our Alma mater,

AJAY BINAYA INSTITUTE OF TEC NOLOGY that gave me such a great opportunity. I would li e to thank the Head of the Department of Electronics, Prof. Subu Beherafor his advice throughout the seminar. I extend my deepest sense of gratitude to Lecturer B.Biswal, for his sincere effort as a seminar guide. Now I would like to thank all the teachers of the college and my entire batch mates for their support and encouragement. I truly admire my parents for their constant encouragement and enduring support, which is inevitable for the success of my venture. Above all, I thank God almighty abiding kind blessings forever.

DEBIDUTTA PATTANAIK ENTC B 7TH SEM REGD NO- 0701206366

AB T ACT
Incidentally, India holds the dubious distinction of registering the highest number of road accidents in the world. According to the experts at the National Transportation Planning and Research Centre (NTPRC) the number of road accidents in India is three times higher than that prevailing in developed countries. The number of accidents for 1000 vehicles in India is as high as 35 while the figure ranges from 4 to 10 in developed countries. The principle behind the solution is that we assume an automobile in motion as a system by itself that consists of the car engine, the mechanics, the electronics and an independent entity, the driver. The dynamics of vehicle motion is mostly dependent on the driver who is responsible for actions of vehicle move ment, control and navigation. The root of this problem lies with the driver and the actions of vehicle control is dependent on an abstract quantity, the ³attitude of the driver´ behind the wheels.

To tackle this problem, we create a ³machine´ entity, the Advance Vehicle Accident Prevention System. It is an embedded intelligence implanted into the automobile, a cognitive system that gives the vehicle some sort of an entity. The primary function of this entity is to assess driving attitude by keeping a watch on the driver stability both mental and physical, observing the driving patterns to arrive at a decision through a decision making process and to infer whether it¶s a dangerous driving or a safe one and thereafter take a corrective action.

CONTENT

1. INT ODUCTION

01 02

2.Road Accident Statistics In India 3.Major Reasons Of Road Accidents03

4. The Ultimate Solution For Zero Vehicle Accident
1. Vehicular communication systems 05 2. Intelligent speed adaptation or intelligent speed advice (ISA) 3. Adaptive cruise control 12 4. Electronic brake force distribution14 5. Pre-crash System 15 08

6. Driver drowsiness detection17 7. Advanced front-lighting system (AFS) 8. Night vision19 9. Ecall20 18

5.Refference 21

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INTRODUCTION

Every year more than 1.17 million people die in road crashes around theworld. The majority of these deaths, about 70 percent occur in developing countries.India overtook China to top the world in road fatalities in 2006 and has continued to pull steadily ahead, despite a heavily agrarian population, fewer people than China and far fewer cars than many Western countries. While road deaths in many other big emerging markets have declined or stabilized in recent years, even as vehicle sales jumped, in India, fatalities are skyrocketing up 40 percent in five years to more than 118,000 in 2008, the last figure available. A lethal brew of poor road planning, inadequate law enforcement, a surge in trucks and cars, and a flood of untrained drivers have made India the world's road death capital.

The principle behind the solution is that we assume an automobile in motion as a system by itself that consists of the car engine, the mechanics, the electronics and an independent entity, the driver. The dynamics of vehicle motion is mostly dependent on the driver who is responsible for actions of vehicle movement, control and navigation. The root of this problem lies with the driver and the actions of vehicle control is dependent on an abstract quantity, the ³attitude of wheels. The driver behind the

Equipped with latest Sensors, vehicular network, Global Positioning system, Night vision Cameras The Aim is to secure our lives and minimize the road accidents to zero.

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ROAD ACCIDENT STATISTICS IN INDIA

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Major Reasons Of Road Accidents

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The Ultimate Solution For Zero Vehicle Accident : Advanced Vehicle Accident Prevention Systems´

Advanced Vehicle Accident Prevention Systems, consists of Several sub systems to help the driver in driving process. When designed with a safe Human-Machine Interface it should increase car safety and more generally road safety. Basically it acts as electronic co-driver and assist the human driver in driving. Besides it takes preventive action as when required depending upon situation.

The AVAPS Consists Of the following Subsystems 

Vehicular communication systems  Intelligent speed adaptation or intelligent speed advice (ISA)  Adaptive cruise control  Electronic brake force distribution  Pre-crash System  Driver drowsiness detection  Advanced front-lighting system (AFS)  Traffic sign recognition  Driver drowsiness detection  Night vision  Ecall

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Vehicular Communication System
Vehicular Communication Systems are an emerging type of networks in which vehicles and roadside units are the communicating nodes; providing each other with information, such as safety warnings and traffic information. As a cooperative approach, vehicular communication systems can be more effective in avoiding accidents and traffic congestions than if each vehicle tries to solve these problems individually. Generally vehicular networks are considered to contain two types of nodes; vehicles and roadside stations. Both are Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) devices. DSRC works in 5.9 GHz band with bandwidth of 75 MHz and approximate range of 1000m.The network should support both private data communications and public (mainly safety) communications but higher priority is given to public communications. Vehicular communications is usually developed as a part of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS). ITS seeks to achieve safety and productivity through intelligent transportation which integrates communication between mobile and fixed nodes. To this end ITS heavily relies on wired and wireless communications.

Motivation
The main motivation for vehicular communication systems is safety and eliminating the excessive cost of traffic collisions. According to World Health Organizations (WHO), road accidents annually cause approximately 1.2 million deaths worldwide; one fourth of all deaths caused by injury. Also about 50 million persons are injured in traffic accidents. If preventive measures are not taken road death is likely to become the third-leading cause of death in 2020 from ninth place in 1990.However the deaths caused by car crashes are in principle avoidable. US Department of Transport states that 21,000 of the annual 43,000 road accident deaths in the US are caused by roadway departures and intersection-related incidents. This number can be significantly lowered by deploying local warning systems through vehicular communications. Departing vehicles can inform other vehicles that they intend to depart the highway and arriving cars at intersections can send warning messages to other cars traversing that intersection. Studies show that in Western Europe a mere 5 km/hr decrease in average vehicle speeds could result in 25% decrease in deaths. Policing speed limits will be notably easier and more efficient using communication technologies. Although the main advantage of vehicular networks is safety improvements, there are several other benefits. Vehicular networks can help in avoiding congestion and finding better routes by processing real time data. This in return saves both time and fuel and has significant economic advantages.

Technical Specification
Two categories of draft standards provide outlines for vehicular networks. These standards constitute a category of IEEE standards for a special mode of operation of IEEE 802.11 for vehicular networks called Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE). 802.11p is an extension to 802.11 Wireless LAN medium access layer (MAC) and physical layer (PHY) specification. As of November 2006 Draft 1.3 of this standard is approved . 802.11p aims to provide specifications needed for MAC and PHY layers for specific needs of vehicular networks. 1609 is a family of standards which deals with issues such as management and security of the network:  1609.1 -Resource Manager: This standard provides a resource manager for WAVE, allowing communication between remote applications and vehicles.   1609.2 -Security Services for Applications and Management Messages 1609.3 -Networking Services: This standard addresses network layer issues in WAVE.

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1609.4 -Multi-channel Operation: This standard deals with communications through multiple channels.

The current state of these standards is trial-use. A vehicular communication networks which complies with the above standards supports both vehicular on -board units (OBU) and roadside units (RSU). RSU acts similar to a wireless LAN access point and can provide communications with infrastructure. Also, if required, RSU must be able to allocate channels to OBUs. There is a third type of communicating nodes called Public Safety OBU (PSOBU) which is a vehicle with capabilities of providing services normally offered by RSU. These units are mainly utilized in police cars, fire trucks, and ambulances in emergency situations. As mentioned before DSRC provides several channels (seven 10 MHz channels in North America) for communications. Standards divide the channels into two categories: a control channel and service channels. Control channel is reserved for broadcasting and coordinating communications which generally takes place in other channels. Although DSRC devices are allowed to switch to a service channel, they must continuously monitor the control channel. There is no scanning and association as there is in normal 802.11. All such operations are done via a beacon sent by RSUs in the control channel. While OBUs and RSUs are allowed to broadcast messages in the control channels, only RSUs can send beacon messages. In North America DSRC devices operate over seven 10 MHz channels. Two of the channels are used solely for public safety applications which means that they can only be used for communications of message with a certain priority or higher. .

Applications
Vehicular communication networks will provide a wide range of applications with different characteristics. As these networks have not yet been implemented, a list of such applications is speculative and apt to change in the future (However safety, which is the main purpose of these networks, will most probably remain the most important applications). Furthermore some of these applications require technologies that are not available now. Ultimately we would like to delegate the full handling control of our cars to the vehicles themselves; somewhat similar to autopilot. The classifications of applications is not unique and many institutions involved in intelligent transportation systems propose their own set of applications and classifications. We classify the possible applications in the following categories 

  

Safety Traffic management Driver assistance systems Policing and enforcement

Safety
Providing safety is the primary objective of vehicular communication networks. Vehicles who discover an imminent danger such as an obstacle inform others. Electronic sensors in each car can detect abrupt changes in path or speed and send an appropriate message to neighbors. Vehicles can notify close vehicles of the direction they are taking so the drivers can make better decisions; a more advanced version of turn signals. In more advanced systems, at intersections

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the system can decide which vehicle has the right to pass first and alert all the drivers. Some of the immediate applications are:       Warnings on entering intersections. Warnings on departing the highways Obstacle discovery Sudden halts warnings Reporting accidents Lane change warnings

Traffic management
Traffic management is utilized by authorities to ease traffic flow and provide a real time response to congestions. Authorities may change traffic rules according to a specific situation such as hot pursuits and bad weather. Applications include:    Variable speed limits Adaptable traffic lights Accommodating ambulances, fire trucks, and police cars

Driver assistance systems
Roadside units can provide drivers with information which help them in controlling the vehicle. Even in the absence of RSUs, small transmitters may be able to issue warnings such as bridge or tunnel height or gate width:     Parking a vehicle Cruise control Lane keeping assistance Road sign recognition

Policing and enforcement
Police can use vehicular communications in several ways:     Surveillance Speed limit warnings Restricted entries Pull-over commands

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Intelligent speed adaptation or intelligent speed advice (ISA)
Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA), also known as Intelligent Speed Assistance, is any system that constantly monitors vehicle speed and the local speed limit on a road and implements an action when the vehicle is detected to be exceeding the speed limit. This can be done through an advisory system, where the driver is warned, or through an intervention system where the driving systems of the vehicle are controlled automatically to reduce the vehicle¶s speed. Intelligent speed adaptation uses information about the road on which the vehicle travels to make decisions about what the correct speed should be. This information can be obtained through use of a digital maps incorporating roadway coordinates as well as data on the speed zoning for that roadway at that location, through general speed zoning information for a defined geographical area (e.g., an urban area which has a single defined speed limit), or through feature recognition technology that detects and interprets speed limit signage. ISA systems are designed to detect and alert a driver when a vehicle has entered a new speed zone, when variable speed zones are in force (e.g., variable speed limits in school zones that apply at certain times of the day and only on certain days), and when temporary speed zones are imposed (such as speed limit changes in adverse weather or during traffic congestion, at accident scenes, or near roadwork¶s). Many ISA systems will also provide information about locations where hazards may occur (e.g., in hi h g pedestrian movement areas, railway level crossings or railroad grade crossings, schools, hospitals, etc.) or where enforcement actions is indicated (e.g., speed camera and red light camera locations). The purpose of ISA is to assist the driver in keeping to the lawful speed limit at all times, particularly as they pass through different speed µzones¶. This is particularly useful when drivers are in unfamiliar areas or when they pass through areas where variable speed limits are used. Most motorists do not appreciate the extra risks involved in travelling just a few km/h over the speed limit. Most think that the risk of a casualty crash is doubled if you are travelling at least 25 km/h over the speed limit. Research has found that that, in urban areas, the risk of a casualty crash is doubled for each 5 km/h over the limit. So travelling at 70 km/h in a 60 km/h zone quadruples the risk of a crash in which someone is hospitalized. As a result, it is estimated that about 10% of casualties could be prevented if the large group of motorists who routinely travel at up to 10 km/h over the limit were encouraged to obey the speed limits. About 20% of casualties could be prevented if all vehicles complied with the speed limits. Savings in fatal crashes would be larger. Minor" speeding therefore makes up a large proportion of preventable road trauma. It is difficult for enforcement methods alone to have an effect on this minor speeding. An added problem is that even motorists who want to obey the speed limits (to keep their life, license or livelihood) have difficulty doing so in modern cars on city roads. This is where an ISA system comes into its own

Types Of ISA
The two types of ISA systems, passive and active, differ in that passive systems simply warn the driver of the vehicle travelling at a speed in excess of the speed limit, while active systems intervene and automatically correct the vehicle¶s speed to conform with the speed limit. Passive systems are generally driver advisory systems: They alert the driver to the fact that they are speeding, provide information as to the speed limit, and allow the driver to make a choice on what action should be taken. These systems usually display visual or auditory cues, such as auditory and visual warnings and may include tactile cues such as a vibration of the accelerator pedal. Some passive ISA technology trials have used vehicle modified to provide haptic feedback, wherein the accelerator pedal becomes more resistant to movement (i.e., harder to push down) when the vehicle travels over the speed limit. Active ISA systems actually reduce or limit the vehicle¶s speed automatically by manipulating the engine and/or braking systems. Most active ISA systems provide an override system so that the driver can disable the ISA, if ne cessary, on a temporary basis.

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An often unrecognized feature of both active and passive ISA systems is that they can serve as on-board vehicle data recorders, retaining information about vehicle location and performance for later checking and fleet management purposes.

Speed And Location Detection Technique
There are four types of technology currently available for determining local speed limits on a road and determining the speed of the vehicle. These are:     GPS Radio Beacons Optical recognition Dead Reckoning

Global Positioning (GPS ) Based Systems
GPS is based on a network of satellites that constantly transmit radio signals. GPS receivers pick up these transmissions and compare the signals from several satellites in order to pinpoint the receiver¶s location to within a few meters. This is done by comparing the time at which the signal was sent from the satellite to when it was picked up by the receiver. Because the orbital paths of the satellites are known very accurately, the receiver can perform a calculation based on its distance to several of the orbiting satellites and therefore obtain its position. There are currently 24 satellites making up the GPS network, and their orbits are configured so that a minimum of five satellites are available at any one time for terrestrial users. Four satellites is the minimum number of satellites required to determine a precise three-dimensional position. The popularity of GPS in current ISA and in car navigation systems may give the impression that GPS is flawless, but this is not the case. GPS is subject to a number of fundamental problems. Many of these problems relate to the accuracy of the determined position. The receiver still gets the signal from the satellites, but due to satellites' ephemeris uncertainties, propagation errors, timing errors, multiple signal propagation path, and receiver noises, the position given can be inaccurate. Usually these inaccuracies are small and range from five to ten meters for most systems, but they can be up to hundreds of meters. In most situations this may not matter, but these inaccuracies can be important in circumstances where a high speed road is located immediately adjacent to roads with much lower speed limits (e.g., residential streets). Furthermore, because GPS relies upon a signal transmitted from a satellite in orbit, it does not function when the receiver is underground or in a tunnel, and the signal can become weak if tall buildings, trees, or heavy clouds come between the receiver and the satellites. Current improvements being made to the GPS satellite network will help to increase GPS reliability and accuracy in the future but will not completely overcome the fundamental shortcomings of GPS. In order to be used for ISA systems, GPS must be linked to a detailed digital map containing information such as local speed limits and the location of known variable speed zones, e.g., schools. Advanced digital maps have the capacity for real-time updating to include information on areas where speed limits should be reduced due to adverse weather conditions or around accident scenes and road works.

Radio Beacons
Roadside radio beacons, or bollards, work by transmitting data to a receiver in the car. The beacons constantly transmit data that the car -mounted receiver picks up as it passes each beacon. This data could include local speed limits, school zones, variable speed limits, or traffic warnings. If sufficient numbers of beacons were used and were placed at regular intervals, they

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could calculate vehicle speed based on how many beacons the vehicle passed per second. Beacons could be placed in/on speed signs, telegraph poles, other roadside fixtures, or in the road itself. Mobile beacons could be deployed in order to override fixed beacons for use around accident scenes, during poor weather, or during special events. Beacons could be linked to a main computer so that quick changes could be made. The use of radio beacons is common when ISA systems are used to control vehicle speeds in off road situations, such as factory sites, logistics and storage centers, etc., where occupational health and safety requirements mean that very low vehicle speeds are required in the vicinity of workers and in situations of limited or obscured visibility.

Optical Recognition
So far, this technology has been focused solely on recognizing speed signs. However, other roadside objects, such as the reflective "cats eyes" that divide lanes could possibly be used. This system requires the vehicle to pass a speed sign or similar indicator and for data about the sign or indicator to be registered by a scanner or a camera system. As the system recognizes a sign, the speed limit data is obtained and compared to the vehicle¶s speed. The system would use the speed limit from the last sign passed until it detects and recognizes a speed sign with a different limit. If speed signs are not present, the system does not function. This is a particular problem when exiting a side road onto a main road, as the vehicle may not pass a speed sign for some distance.

Dead Rocking
Dead reckoning (DR) uses a mechanical system linked to the vehicle¶s driving assembly in order to predict the path taken by the vehicle. By measuring the rotation of the road wheels over time, a fairly precise estimation of the vehicle¶s speed and distance traveled can be made. Dead reckoning requires the vehicle to begin at a known, fixed point. Then, by combining speed and distance data with factors such as the angle of the steering wheel and feedback from specialized sensors (e.g., accelerometers, flux gate compass, gyroscope) it can plot the path taken by the vehicle. By overlaying this path onto a digital map, the DR system knows approximately where the vehicle is, what the local speed limit is, and the speed at which the veh icle is traveling. The system can then use information provided by the digital map to warn of upcoming hazards or points of interest and to provide warnings if the speed limit is exceeded. Some top -end GPSbased navigation systems currently on the market use dead reckoning as a backup system in case the GPS signal is lost. Dead reckoning is prone to cumulative measurement errors such as variations between the assumed circumference of the tyres compared to the actual dimension (which is used to calculate vehicle speed and distance traveled). These variations in the tyre circumference can be due to wear or variations in tyre pressure due to variations in speed, payload, or ambient temperature. Other measurement errors are accumulated when the vehicle navigates gradual curves that inertial sensors (e.g., gyroscopes and/or accelerometers) are not sensitive enough to detect or due to electromagnetic influences onmagnetic flux compasses (e.g., from passing under power lines or when travelling across a steel bridge) and through underpasses and road tunnels

Commercial Use
Strategic thinking in traffic safety acknowledges that Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), and in-vehicle technologies in particular, hold promise as safety measures to counter the risk of road crashes and the trauma arising from crashes. However, road safety practitioners have been hesitant in embarking on vigorous pursuit of emerging technologies in crash avoidance and occupant protection. This is perhaps best described as a combination of appropriate caution, bureaucratic reluctance, tinged perhaps with historical bias and lack of knowledge. It is recognized that it is difficult indeed to identify just which of a number of future or proposed technologies will prove to be viable, and to identify those future or proposed technologies that will not, as time progresses, result in significant commercial implementation. Perhaps it is because of

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such concerns that the development of ISA systems under research and development programs funded by governments has remained at the prototype or trial stages, despite positive experiences and strong endorsement of ISA technologies for more than a decade.

It is thus not surprising that the commercialization of ISA systems occurred outside of the mainstream traffic safety community and with only very limited governmental support. In Australia in 2007 two ISA products emerged in the marketplace and have since established commercial success. Some road safety researchers are surprised that Australia is leading the world with this technology.

Speed Alert is a passive ISA product marketed by Smart Car Technologies, based in Sydney NSW. It offers full national speed zoning information embedded within a GPS-based navigation system, providing drivers with information on speed limits and vehicle speed, as well as related information on locations such as schools, railway level crossings, speed camera sites, etc.. The software is easily affordable for both fleet and private drivers, typically selling for about A$200.

Speed Shield is an active ISA product marketed by Auto motion Control Systems, based in Melbourne, Vic. It offers speed zoning information embedded within a GPS -based navigation system, providing drivers with information on speed limits and vehicle speed and is combined with technology that intervenes and controls the vehicle speed to no faster than the posted speed limit for that section of roadway. The technology is generally transferrable across vehicle manufacturers and models, but must be configured for an individual make and model. As the cost is variable (estimated to be A$1±3,000 depending on vehicle type and number of vehicles to be fitted), its commercial use has tended to be into vehicle fleet operations rather than private owners.

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Adaptive cruise control
Autonomous u ise l i l . f t . i t t l i i l

Types
st t anradar-based systems; ever, laserLaser-based systems are si i fi antly l er in based A systems do not detect and track vehicles ell in adverse eather conditions nor do they track extremely dirty non-reflective) vehicles very ell. Laser based sensors must be exposed, the sensor a fairly-large black box) is typically found in the lower grille offset to one side of the vehicle. adar-based sensors can be hidden behind plastic fascias; however, the fascias may look different from a vehicle without the feature. or example, ercedes packages the radar behind the upper grille in the center; however, the ercedes grille on such appli cations contains a solid plastic panel in front of the radar with painted slats to simulate the slats on the rest of the grille. adar-based systems are available on many luxury cars as an option for approx. -3000 S /euro. Laser-based systems are available on some near luxury and luxury cars as an option for approx. 00-600 S /euro.

Co-operating Systems
adar-based A often feature a Pre-crash system, which warns the driver and/or provides brake support if there is a high risk of a collision. A in certain cars it is incorporated with a lane lso maintaining system which provides power steering assist to reduce steering input burden in corners when the cruise control system is activated. PS-aided A : the PS navigation system provides guidance in put to the A . n the motorway, the car in the front is slowing down, but with turn signal on and it is actually heading for

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a highway off-ramp. A conventional ACC would sense the car in front was decelerating and it would simply apply brakes accordingly. But with GPS-guided ACC takes into account the approaching highway exit and it simultaneously receives images from the camera attached to the rearview mirror on the front. The camera can detect the turn signal from the car ahead. So instead of braking, this new system continues uninterrupted, because it knows that the car in front will exit the lane.

Available Systems
Mitsubishi was the first automaker to offer a laser-based ACC system in 1995 on the Japanese Diamante. Marketed as "Preview Distance Control", this early system did not apply the brakes and only controlled speed through throttle control and downshifting. In August 1997, Toyota began to offer a "radar cruise control" system on the Celsior. Toyota further refined their system by adding "brake control" in 2000 and "low-speed tracking mode" in 2004. The low-speed speed tracking mode was a second mode that would warn the driver if the car ahead stopped and provide braking; it could stop the car but then deactivated.In 2006, Toyota introduced its "all-speed tracking function" for the Lexus LS 460. This system maintains continuous control from speeds of 0 km/h to 100 km/h and is designed to work under repeated starting and stopping situations such as highway traffic congestion. The Lexus division was the first to bring adaptive cruise control to the US market in 2000 with the LS 430's Dynamic Laser Cruise Control system. Mercedes introduced Distronic in late 1998 on the S-class. For 2006, Mercedes-Benz refined the Distronic system to completely halt the car if necessary (now called 'Distronic Plus' and offered on their E-Class and S-Class range of luxury sedans), a feature now also offered by Bosch as 'ACC plus' and available in the Audi Q7, the Audi Q5, 2009 Audi A6 and the new 2010 Audi A8. The Audi A4 is available with an older version of the ACC that does not stop the car completely. In an episode of Top Gear, Jeremy Clarkson demonstrated the effectiveness of the cruise control

system in the S-class by coming to a complete halt from motorway speeds to a round-about and getting out, all without touching the pedals. Jaguar began offering a system in 1999; BMW's Active Cruise Control system went on sale in 2000 on the 7-series and later in 2007, added a system called Stop-and-Go system to the 5series. Volkswagen and Audi introduced their own systems in 2002 through the radar manufacturer Auto cruise. In the United States, Acura first introduced Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) integrated with a Collision Mitigation Braking System (CMBS) in the late calendar year 2005 in the model year 2006 Acura RLas an optional feature. ACC and CMBS also became available as optional features in the model year the 2010 Acura MDX Mid Model Change (MMC) and the newly introduced model year 2010Acura ZDX.

Electronic brake force distribution

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Electronic brake force distribution (EBD or EBFD), Electronic brakeforce limitation (EBL) or Electronic brake assist (EBA) is an automobile brake technology that automatically varies the amount of force applied to each of a vehicle's brakes, based on road conditions, speed, loading, etc. Always coupled with anti-lock braking systems, EBD can apply more or less braking pressure to each wheel in order to maximize stopping power whilst maintaining vehicular control. Typically, the front end carries the most weight and EBD distributes less braking pressure to the rear brakes so the rear brakes do not lock up and cause a skid.In some systems, EBD distributes more braking pressure at the rear brakes during initial brake application before the effects of weight transfer become apparent.

How EBD Works
"The job of the EBD as a subsystem of the ABS system is to control the effective adhesion utilization by the rear wheels. The pressure of the rear wheels is approximated to the ideal brake force distribution in a partial braking operation. To do so, the conventional brake design is modified in the direction of rear axle over braking, and the components of the ABS are used. EBD reduces the strain on the hydraulic brake force proportioning valve in the vehicle. EBD optimizes the brake design with regard to: adhesion utilization; driving stability; wear; temperature stress; and pedal force." EBD may work in conjunction with ABS and Electronic Stability Control ("ESC") to minimize yaw accelerations during turns. ESC compares steering wheel angle to vehicle turning rate using a yaw rate sensor. "Yaw" is the vehicle's rotation around its vertical center of gravity (turning left or right). If the yaw sensor detects more/less yaw than the steering wheel angle should create, the car is under steering or over steering and ESC activates one of the front or rear brakes to rotate the car back into its intended course. For example, if a car is making a left turn and begins to under steer (the car plows forward to the outside of the turn) ESC activates the left rear brake, which will help turn the car left. The sensors are so sensitive, and the actuation is so quick that the system may correct direction before the driver reacts. ABS helps prevent wheel lock-up and EBD helps apply appropriate brake force to make ESC work effectively

PreCrash System
A precrash system is a automobile safety system designed to reduce the severity of an accident. Most are also known as forward collision warning systems which use radar and sometimes laser

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sensors to detect an imminent crash. Depending on the system they may warn the driver, precharge the brakes, Inflats seats for extra support, moves the passenger seat to a better position, folds up the rear head rest for whip lash, retract the seat belts removing excess slack and automatically apply partial or full braking to minimize the crash severity

(2008 LS 600h forward PCS diagram, with radar (blue) and infrared (red) coverage)
Toyota Motor Corporation's Pre-Collision System (PCS), the first production forward warning collision system, is used on the manufacturer's Lexus and Toyota brand vehicles. It is aradarbased system which uses a forward facing millimeter-wave radar. When the system determines a frontal collision is unavoidable it preemptively tightens the seat belts removing any slack and precharges the brakes using brake assist to give the driver maximum stopping power instantly when the driver depresses the brake pedal. Toyota launched PCS in February 2003 on the redesigned Japanese domestic market Harrier and in August 2003 added an automatic partial pre-crash braking system to the Celsior. In September 2003, PCS made its first appearance in North America on the Lexus LS 430, becoming the first such system offered in the US.In 2004, Toyota advanced the system by adding to the radar a single digital camera to improve accuracy of collision forecast and warning, control levels, it was first available on the Crown Majesta. In 2006, the debut of the Lexus LS featured a further advanced version of the PCS; this newer version dubbed Advanced Pre-Collision System (APCS) added a twin-lens stereo camera located on the windshield and a more sensitive radar to detect for the first time smaller "soft" objects such as animals and pedestrians. A near-infrared projector located in the headlights allows the system to work at night. By using the LS's Adaptive Variable Suspension (AVS) and electric Variable Gear Ratio Steering (VGRS) the system can change the suspension damper firmness, steering gear ratios and torque assist to aid the driver's evasive steering measures in a system known as "Collision-avoidance Steering Support". The Lane Keep Assist system will make automatic steering adjustments to help ensure the vehicle maintains its lane in case the driver fails to react. Also unveiled for the 2007 model year, the world's first Driver Monitoring System was introduced on the Lexus LS, using a CCD camera on the steering column, this system monitors the driver's face to determine where the driver is looking. If the driver's head turns away from road and a frontal obstacle is detected the system will alert the driver using a buzzer and if necessary precharge the brakes and tighten the safety belts. A later version of the Driver Monitoring System

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found in 2008 on the Crown monitors the driver's eyes to detect the driver's level of wakefulness. This system is designed to work if the driver is wearing sunglasses and at night.

Toyota began using Night View on the JDM 2002 Toyota Land cruiser Cygnus and on the 2003 Lexus LX 470 available in US market. In 2008 Toyota added a pedestrian detection feature on the Crown which highlights pedestrians and presents them on an LCD display located in front of the driver.] The latest Crown also uses a GPS-navigation linked brake assist function. The system is designed to determine if the driver is late in decelerating at an approaching stop sign, it will then sound an alert and can also precharge the brakes to provide optimum braking force if deemed necessary. This system works in certain Japanese cities and r quires Japan specific e road markings which are detected by a camera. In March 2009 on the redesigned Crown Majesta, Toyota again further advanced the "PCS" adding a front-side millimeter-wave radar to detect potential side collisions primarily at intersections or when another vehicle crosses the center line. The latest version tilts the rear seat upward placing the passenger in a more ideal crash position if it detects a front or rear impact. This latest Crown also features a new rear center airbag.

Driver Drowsiness Detection
Techniques for Detecting Drowsy Drivers
Possible techniques for detecting drowsiness in drivers can be generally divided into the

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following categories: sensing of physiological characteristics, sensing of driver operation, sensing of vehicle response, monitoring the response of driver.

Monitoring P ysiological C aracteristics Among these methods, the techni ues that are best, based on accuracy are the ones based on
human physiological phenomena . his techni ue is implemented in two ways: measuring changes in physiological signals, such as brain waves, heart rate, and eye blinking; and measuring physical changes such as saggin posture, leaning of the driver¶s head and the g open/closed states of the eyes . he first techni ue, while most accurate, is not realistic, since sensing electrodes would have to be attached directly onto the driver¶s body, and hence be annoying and distracting to the driver. In addition, long time driving would result in perspiration on the sensors, diminishing their ability to monitor accurately. he second techni ue is well suited for real world driving conditions since it can be non -intrusive by using optical sensors of video cameras to detect changes.

Ot er Met ods
river operation and vehicle behavior can be implemented by monitoring the steering wheel movement, accelerator or brake patterns, vehicle speed, lateral acceleration, and late ral displacement. hese too are non-intrusive ways of detecting drowsiness, but are limited to vehicle type and driver conditions. he final techni ue for detecting drowsiness is by monitoring the response of the driver. his involves periodicallyrequesting the driver to send a response to the system to indicate alertness. he problem with this technique is that it will eventually become tiresome and annoying to the driver.

Advanced front-lig ting system (AFS)

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There has been a recent resurgence in interest in the idea of moving or optimi ing the headlight beam in response not only to vehicular steering and suspension dynamics, but also to ambient weather and visibility conditions, vehicle speed, and road curvature and contour. A task orce f under the E EKAorgani ation, composed primarily of European automakers, lighting companies and regulators began working to develop design and performance specifications for what is known as advanced front-lighting systems, commonly AFS. anufacturers such , Toyota, Skoda and Vauxhall/ pel have released vehicles equipped with A S since as B 003. ather than the mechanical linkages employed in earlier directional -headlamp systems, A S relies on electronic sensors, transducers and actuators. ther A S techniques include special auxiliary optical systems within a vehicle's headlamp housings. These auxiliary systems may be switched on and off as the vehicle and operating conditions call for light or darkness at the angles covered by the beam the auxiliary optics produce. A typical system measures steering angle an d vehicle speed to swivel the headlamps. The most advanced A S systems use PS signals to anticipate changes in road curvature, rather than simply reacting to them

(Symmetrical high beam illumination of road surface)

Nig t Vision

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Car eadlights are a narrow pencil-beam of light intended to look down the road a given distance .They can¶t illuminate the entire scene ahead without blinding oncoming drivers ,Sometimes this means you cannot see threats or obstacles on the road while driving at night . urther some when cars coming at the driver ,the driver somewhat blinded by the lights for a moment the driver cannot see the road edge as well and the driver may barely miss a pedestrian. i ght Vision system ses infrared Energy as a flood light because it cannot be seen by the human eye and thus it¶s not a problem for other drivers .Since it cannot be seen by the driver either special camera picks up the infra-red light and converts it to visible light on a dashboard display.

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The in-vehicle eCall is an emergency call generated either manually by the vehicle occupants or automaticallyvia activation of in-vehicle sensors after an accident. When activated, the in-vehicle eCall device will establish an emergency call carrying both voice and data directly to the most appropriate emergency response service,normally a 112 Public Safety Answering Point (PSAP). The voice call enables the vehicle occupants to communicatewith the trained PSAP operator. At the same time, a minimum set of data is sent to the PSAP operator containing information about the incident ² including time, precise location, the direction the vehicle was travelling and vehicle identification.The pan-European eCall service aims to be operative for all vehicles travelling within Europe irrespective of their country of origin.When fully deployed, an eCall system that provides accurate location data should lead to a higher efficiency of the rescue chain. This reduces the severity and consequences of accidents by providing faster medical care for road safety victims. The use of eCall has been estimated to decrease the number of severe road injuries and fatalities by 5-15%

eCall is a project of the European Commission intended to bring rapid assistance to motorists involved in a collision anywhere in the European Union. The projects aims to employ a hardware black box installed in vehicles that will wirelessly send airbag deployment and impact sensor information, as well as GPS coordinates to local emergency agencies. eCall builds on E112. As of 2009, the European Commission expects implementation by 2014. Many companies are involved with telematics technology to use in different aspects of eCall including in-vehicle systems, wireless data delivery, and public safety answering point systems. Standardization of communication protocols and human language issues are some of the obstacles. Prototypes have been successfully tested with GPRS and in-band signalling over cellular networks. At the same time proprietary eCall solutions that rely on SMS exist already today from car makers such as BMW, PSA and Volvo Cars. Once in active deployment, other telematic services are expected to explode s uch as route advisories and traffic information. The project also is supported by the European Automobile Manufacturers Association (ACEA), an interest group of European automobile, bus and truck manufacturers, and ERTICO, a nonprofit organization promoting the implementation of intelligent transportation systems and service providers in Europe. Many of the stakeholder companies involved with telematics technology have membership in ERTICO or ACEA. An advantage of this membership is increased ability to influence developing eCall standards.

REFFERENCE

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1. www.wikipedia.org 2. www.google.com 3. www.thinkingcars.com
4.

www.esafetysupport.org

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