Introduction

Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skills of an employee for performing the job assigned to him. It is a short-term process. After an employee is selected, placed and introduced in an organization he must be provided with training facilities so that he can perform his job efficiently and effectively.

Development is a long-term educational process utilizing an organized and systematic procedure by which managerial personnel learn conceptual and theoretical knowledge for general purpose. It covers not only those activities which improve job performance but also those activities which improves the personality of an employee.

Training and personal development is an important method for a business to improve the performance of employees. Training is the most important and established function of the personnel programme is to impart training to the new comers. In the modern world of technological changes, the need for training employees is being increasingly recognized so as to keep employees in touch with the new developments, and technology. Every organization must have a systematic training programme otherwise employees will try to learn the job by trial and error method which can prove to be dangerous.

Trained workers will operate machines carefully, reduce scrap and wastes It is important that a business provides training that is consistent with the business Strategy. The main steps in developing a training strategy are to Identify the skills and abilities needed by

employees Draw up an action plan to show how investment in training and development will help meet business goals and objectives Implement the plan, monitoring progress and training effectiveness

If training is so important, why do some businesses invest so little in it?
Ideally training should be seen as an investment in the future of the business. It takes time for the effects of training to impact business performance. Some businesses are reluctant to spend on training because:

- They fear employees will be poached by competitors (who will then benefit from the training) - A desire to minimize short-term costs - They cannot make a justifiable investment case.

TRAINING CRITERIA
Management can discover training need of employees by taking following steps: 1. Sometimes employee performance is below the standard, training is immediately required for such employees. 2. Sometimes certain production problems indicate training needs. These indicators include frequent accidents, low productivity and poor quality, higher production cost, excessive gossip, higher rate of labor turnover and absenteeism, excessive grievance etc.

3. By conducting interviews and giving questionnaires, views of employees and excessive can be obtained regarding training needs. 4. The expansion of business in futures, installation of new plants, new technology etc., require planning of manpower training in advance so that requirements of new job are met well in time. In case of small scale organization, training will be given by a supervisor or a skilled man, whereas in large organizations, there will either be a full time training officer on training department. The training methods may be:

i. Lecture method if trainees number is large. ii. Recitation method (if trainees are few) which include question and answer technique. iii. Demonstration method. iv. Conference group and discussion method

What training cannot solve
It is tempting to think that training is the solution to many if not all business problems. However, there are some things that training can rarely solve: these include:

- Poor management (although management training might help!) - Poor job design - Ineffective or inefficient equipment, production organization - Recruitment

NEED FOR TRAINING
Training is necessary for existing and new employees. Training increases the skill of the employees. New machines, new tools, new methods and need for increasing the productivity make training still more important.

Training programme should not be started as a fashion by copying other organization as it would simply be wastage of money. The training programme should be undertaken only if the need for the same is felt. Such a need can be assessed for job descriptions. Interviews and records of comparative performance may also indicate need for training.

The factors which usually indicate for training are given below: 1. Chances of frequent accidents. 2. Low quality output. 3. Higher production cost. 4. Employees feeling absence of pride in job resulting in carelessness and gossip. 5. Ignorance of objectives.

and facilities required. which is exactly what happens when people don¶t exhibit the right amount of fortitude in planning on a broad basis. Thus you work simultaneously from the total and then go in cycles. action and reappreciation. something is often not better than nothing. and precise specifications for each part of training task. skill. a plausible strategy for attaining them. Engaging resources only in lines of action for which training is a significant variable is one of the first professional responsibilities of a trainer and training. This includes a judgement of whether adequate conditions exist for the likely success of a training programme. Relating these demands clear goals. The process spirals appreciation. institutions and behaviors. For futile training programmes. Everything is more important in time than anything else. are concerned with design of policies. of course. In this respect training is like a manufacturing process. Contrary to the popular saying.TRAINING STRATEGY All occupations engaged in converting raw materials into preferred goods. it is necessary to consider four strategic issues: . including the resources of time. for ³something´ may convey a mistaken sense of movement and progress toward a good when in reality no ground has prepared.

An effective training strategy therefore focuses on making training an effective instrument of action in the field. and organizational competencies required to manage present and future tasks and situations. and skills required for the change it desires. in turn. What are the changes to be effected? Once this question is answered. in turn. it is setting appropriate goals for training. are strictly the business of the training system. group. skill. has helped to pinpoint those which can be developed through systematic training. Training is well spin off action projects. and facilities will be needed for this particular training? In other words.1. understanding. Planning training specifications. Action perspective training is a systematic attempt to develop the human resources individual. Training and action are therefore closely linked. The training system. The organization has specified the new knowledge. After the overall action strategy. . highlight new gaps in competencies to be filled through training. what training designs and methods to use. How this is to be done. Responsibility is reversed when the time comes for defining training specifications. Goal setting. these follow: what number and types of people require training. Action perspective in training strategy. what are training specifications? 3. that is. and what resources of time. as these projects develop they then. This is the very core of its job. 2.

among others. often with a view to peaking at a particular time. people who believe it may be beneficial to them can choose to practice relaxation training. training means gaining the physical ability to perform and survive in combat. in an attempt to increase their ability to relax or deal with stress. In military use. and how to survive capture by the enemy. or autogenic training. Some physical training programs focus on raising overall physical fitness. and learning the many skills needed in a time of war.[1] While some studies have indicated relaxation training is useful for some medical conditions. . See military education and training. outdoor survival skills. autogenic training has limited results or has been the result of few studies. For psychological or physiological reasons. These include how to use a variety of weapons.Types of training Physical training Physical training concentrates on mechanistic goals: training-programs in this area develop specific skills or muscles.

The system automatically generates new programs based on members of the population that perform the best. use a system of feedback based on "fitness functions" to allow computer programs to determine how well an entity performs a task. known as a ³population´ of programs. observing how well they perform the intended task. including genetic programming and other methods of machine learning. Evolutionary algorithms. Artificial-intelligence feedback Researchers have developed training-methods for artificial-intelligence devices as well. allowing robots to adapt to new situations and to changes in themselves. The methods construct a series of programs. or discipleship in Christianity. Researchers have also developed robots that can appear to mimic simple human behavior as a starting point for training. due to wear or damage.[2] In robotics. heart. such a system can continue to run in real-time after initial training. These new members replace programs that perform the worst. training may refer to the purification of the mind. .Religion and spirituality In religious and spiritual use. Note for example the institutionalized spiritual training of Threefold Training in Buddhism. for example. The procedure repeats until the achievement of optimum performance. and then automatically test them for "fitness". understanding and actions to obtain a variety of spiritual goals such as closeness to God or freedom from suffering.

a more intensive method of training that involves a close working relationship between an experienced employee and the trainee .where the trainee is given several jobs in succession.Job rotation .on the job As the name implies. Training .Coaching .g. showing the trainee how to do the job . The most common methods of on the job training are: Demonstration / instruction. technique or approach which a trainer uses in teaching.METHODS OF TRAINING What is a training method? A training method is the process. to gain experience of a wide range of activities (e. a graduate management trainee might spend periods in several different departments) . on the job training involves employees training at their place or work.

i.which gives them exposure to other parts of the business and allow them to take part in new activities.Employees may feel more at ease being taught or supervised by people they know rather than complete strangers at an external training course .Projects . with equipment they are familiar with and people they know can help they gain direct experience to a standard approved by the employer .Managers or supervisors can assess improvement and progress over a period of time and this makes it easier to identify a problem intervene and resolve problems quickly .Training an employee in their own working environment..employees join a project team .Employees may find that they have more confidence if they are supervised and guided as they feel they are doing the job right .Generally more cost effective .e. Most successful project teams are "multidisciplinary" on the job training .Less disruptive to the business . employees are not away from work .

in the accountancy profession. as the employee is still working as they are learning .Revision courses (e.As training progresses and the employee begins to feel more confident. Off the job training courses might be run by the business' training department or by external providers. This is often also referred to as "formal training". this confidence would allow them to work at a higher standard and ultimately be more productive .On the job training is also productive. The main types of off the job training courses are: .Training "on-the-job" provides an opportunity to get to know staff they might not normally talk to off the job Off the job training involves employees taking training courses away from their place of work. student employees are given blocks of around 5-6 weeks off on pre-exam courses) .g.Distance learning / evening classes ..Day release (where the employee takes time out from normal working hours to attend a local college or training centre) .

e.Self-study.Sponsored courses in higher education . employees are not away from work .. six months) before returning to work .where the employee spends a longer period of time at college (e.given that attendance at external courses can involve heavy cost) Advantages of on the job training Generally more cost effective .Training an employee in their own working environment.Block release courses .which may involve several weeks at a local college . computer-based training (an increasingly popular option . with equipment they are familiar with and people they know can help they gain direct experience to a standard approved by the employer .i.Sandwich courses .g.Less disruptive to the business .

as the employee is still working as they are learning .As training progresses and the employee begins to feel more confident.Training "on-the-job" provides an opportunity to get to know staff they might not normally talk to .Employees may find that they have more confidence if they are supervised and guided as they feel they are doing the job right . this confidence would allow them to work at a higher standard and ultimately be more productive .On the job training is also productive.Employees may feel more at ease being taught or supervised by people they know rather than complete strangers at an external training course .Managers or supervisors can assess improvement and progress over a period of time and this makes it easier to identify a problem intervene and resolve problems quickly ..

Employee can focus on the training .Costs (transport.Opportunity to mix with employees from other businesses Disadvantages of off-the-job training: .Disadvantages of on the job training . examination fees.and not be distracted by work .Use of specialist trainers and accommodation .Teaching or coaching is a specialist skill in itself. this would mean that the training will not be done to a sufficient standard .The trainer may not be given the time to spend with the employee to teach them properly. course fees. accommodation) .The trainer may posses bad habits and pass these on to the trainee Advantages of off-the-job training: .Employee needs to be motivated to learn . materials. which would mean substandard training has been achieved and learning has only been half done .May not be directly relevant to the employee's job . unless the trainer has the skills and knowledge to train.

the trainee. Ideally. enable the trainees to apply and practice what they've been taught. How can a manager charged with training his or her employees choose an appropriate method? This article defines some of the most common training methods and reviews pros and cons for each one. Other factors affecting the choice of a training method include: -Age. and integrate performance with other skills and knowledge.There are many different ways to train. and the learning objective. the content. The method by which training is delivered often varies based on the needs of the company. Indeed. gender. or level of education of the trainees -Learning styles of the trainees -Number of trainees -Budget -Trainer's skills and training style Common group training methods include: . the method chosen will motivate employees to learn. the business¡¦ environment. The method should suit the audience. entire books have been written on the ways to deliver training. help employees prepare themselves for learning. and on the task being performed. help trainees retain and transfer what they have learned.

The methods are the tools the trainees will use when they became trainers. It is essential that the presentation of the module provide them with a base for effective training. on which the trainees can build by practicing to improve performance. visual aids. The trainer must be capable of demonstrating personally the methods of training selected for special attention.Methods of training . In this method. Yet. Communication is primarily one-way: from the instructor to the learner. it is also considered one of the least effective methods to use for adult learners. or posters to support the lecture. The trainer should spare no effort to make this module effective. one person (the trainer) does all of the talking. THE DIFFERENT METHODS OF TRAINING Lecture A lecture is the method learners often most commonly associate with college and secondary education. These methods are believed to be the most appropriate for use in training in food control practices including GMPs and HACCP. He or she may use handouts.The right method This module lends itself to a lively presentation by the trainer. It is acknowledged that case studies also have their use. question/answer. but considerable time is required in their preparation. .

It provides a lot of information quickly when it is less important that the trainees retain a lot of details. Cons: Does not actively involve trainees in training process. feeling. If the trainer is not skilled in the task being taught. touching. There also needs to be an adequate space for the training to take place. It engages several senses: seeing. conferences. The trainer shows trainees how to do something. hearing. demonstrations. Seminar Seminars often combine several group methods: lectures. . poor work habits can be learned by the trainee. Demonstration Demonstration is very effective for basic skills training.Pros: Less time is needed for the trainer to prepare than other methods. discussions. Pros: This method emphasizes the trainee involvement. Cons: It requires a great deal of trainer preparation and planning. The trainer may provide an opportunity for trainees to perform the task being demonstrated. The trainees forget much information if it is presented only orally.

The process invites employees to share their opinions and they are challenged to consider alternatives. Pros: Trainees often find it interesting to hear different points of view. Cons: Planning is time-consuming. More time is needed to conduct a seminar than is needed for many other methods. . Opinions generated at the conference may differ from the manager¡¦s ideas. Pros: There is a lot of trainee participation. seminar) to keep sessions interesting. The trainees build consensus and the trainer can use several methods (lecture. Conference The conference training method is a good problem-solving approach. Cons: It can be difficult to control a group. This is an excellent method for using outside resource people. The trainer can use many group methods as part of the seminar activity. causing conflict Panel A panel provides several points of view on a topic to seek alternatives to a situation.Pros: Group members are involved in the training. Panel members may have differing views but they must also have objective concerns for the purpose of the training. The trainer must have skill in conducting a seminar. A group considers a specific problem or issue and they work to reach agreement on statements or solutions. panel.

Cons: It requires a great deal of preparation. The trainees recommend solutions based on the content provided. It is good for customer service and sales training. The results of the method can be difficult to evaluate. Pros: Trainees can learn possible results of certain behaviors in a classroom situation. Pros: A case study can present a real-life situation which lets trainees consider what they would do. . Trainers must be skilled and creative in helping the class learn from the situation. Role Playing During a role play. only a few people get to practice while others watch. It is possible to experiment with many different approaches to a situation without alienating any actual customers. They get an opportunity to practice people skills. Cons: A lot of time is spent making a single point. the trainees assume roles and act out situations connected to the learning concepts. Case Studies A case study is a description of a real or imagined situation which contains information that trainees can use to analyze what has occurred and why. It can present a wide variety of skills in which applying knowledge is important. In some role play situations.

the creation of a database. Simulations involve yet another learning style. The type of project will vary by business and the skill level of the trainee. and keeping trainees on track. It directly applies to jobs performed after training. as trainees are actively involved in the learning process. increasing the chance that trainees will retain what they have learned. . The trainer must be very skilled and make sure that trainees practice the skills correctly. It is a useful technique for skills development. The trainer must be creative and very skilled at leading discussions. Cons: Simulations are time-consuming. Simulations Trainees participate in a reality-based. making points. Only perfect practice makes perfect.Cons: Cases can be difficult to write and time-consuming to discuss. It might involve participation on a team. interactive activity where they imitate actions required on the job. or the forming of a new process. Pros: Training becomes more reality-based. Projects Projects require the trainees to do something on the job which improves the business as well as helps them learn about the topic of training.

Pros: It can take place before. It also helps the trainee get information regarding the business culture and organizational structure. trainees may think they are doing somebody else¡¦s work. Cons: Training can be interrupted if the mentor moves on. Trainees get first-hand experience in the topic of the training. When choosing from among these methods. and the investments available. Others will select a single method that works best for them and never vary. This system is sometimes known as a buddy system. Mentoring A mentor can tutor others in their learning. If a properly trained mentor is not chosen. It gives the trainee individual attention and immediate feedback. during. the environment. the trainee can pick up bad habits. Also. Many trainers will choose to combine methods or vary them. . a trainer is limited only by his or her creativity.Pros: This is a good training activity for experienced employees. or after a shift. Projects can be chosen which help solve problems or otherwise improve the operation. Mentors help employees solve problems both through training them in skills and through modeling effective attitudes and behaviors. Little time is needed to prepare the training experience. if they do not have an interest in the project or there is no immediate impact on their own jobs. it will be difficult to obtain and maintain their interest. the trainer must decide which one best suits the trainees. With so many options. Cons: Without proper introduction to the project and its purpose.

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and inter-team collaborations. It helps to expand the horizons of human intellect and an overall personality of the employees Productivity ± Training and Development helps in increasing the productivity of the employees that helps the organization further to achieve its long-term goal ‡ Team spirit ± Training and Development helps in inculcating the sense of team work. team spirit.Importance of Training and Development ‡ Optimum Utilization of Human Resources ± Training and Development helps in optimizing the utilization of human resource that further helps the employee to achieve the organizational goals as well as their individual goals. It helps in inculcating the zeal to learn within the employees . ‡ Development of skills of employees ± Training and Development helps in increasing the job knowledge and skills of employees at each level. It also helps the employees in attaining personal growth. ‡ Development of Human Resources ± Training and Development helps to provide an opportunity and broad structure for the development of human resources¶ technical and behavioral skills in an organization.

The employees get these feelings from leaders. ‡ Quality ± Training and Development helps in improving upon the quality of work and work life. relationship so that individual goals aligns with organizational goal. ‡ Image ± Training and Development helps in creating a better corporate image. subordinates. ‡ Health and Safety ± Training and Development helps in improving the health and safety of the organization thus preventing obsolescence. It helps to build good employee. It helps in creating the learning culture within the organization. . ‡ Morale ± Training and Development helps in improving the morale of the work force. ‡ Healthy work-environment ± Training and Development helps in creating the healthy working environment. ‡ Organization Climate ± Training and Development helps building the positive perception and feeling about the organization.‡ Organization Culture ± Training and Development helps to develop and improve the organizational health culture and effectiveness. and peers.

loyalty. Organization gets more effective decision making and problem solving. motivation. and other aspects that successful workers and managers usually display. ‡ Training and Development aids in organizational development i. ‡ Training and Development helps in developing leadership skills. trainer comes in a position to establish a relationship between objectives and particular segments of training. Trainer ± The training objective is also beneficial to trainer because it helps the trainer to measure the progress of trainees and make the required adjustments.e. .‡ Profitability ± Training and Development leads to improved profitability and more positive attitudes towards profit orientation. Also. better attitudes. It helps in understanding and carrying out organizational policies.

Trainee ± The training objective is beneficial to the trainee because it helps in reducing the anxiety of the trainee up to some extent. Thirdly. Not knowing anything or going to a place which is unknown creates anxiety that can negatively affect learning. Therefore. if the goal is set to be challenging and motivating. The objectives create an image of the training program in trainee¶s mind that actually helps in gaining attention. Secondly. which is the crucial factor to make the training successful. then the likelihood of achieving those goals is much higher than the situation in which no goal is Set. it helps in increase in concentration. it is important to keep the participants aware of the happenings. training objectives helps in increasing the probability that the participants will be successful in training. rather than keeping it surprise. Therefore. .

the objective of one training program is to deal effectively with customers to increase the sales. the training may not be designed appropriately. without any guidance. and training content accordingly to achieve those objectives. The training designer would then look for the training methods. Furthermore. such as verbal and non verbal language.Designer ± The training objective is beneficial to the training designer because if the designer is aware what is to be achieved in the end then he¶ll buy the training package according to that only. dealing in unexpected situation i. Training objective is an important to tool to judge the performance of participants. when there is a defect in a product or when a customer is angry. Since the objective is known. training equipments. Evaluator ± It becomes easy for the training evaluator to measure the progress of the Trainees because the objectives define the expected performance of trainees. . Therefore. Consider an example. planning always helps in dealing effectively in an unexpected situation.e. the designer will design a training program that will include ways to improve the interpersonal skills.

finance. then it is difficult to accept that such a company has effectively carried out HRM. production. senior management team is now increasing the role of training. Such concepts of HRM require careful planning as well as greater emphasis on employee development and long term education. etc depends on training for its survival. HR. . Training actually provides the opportunity to raise the profile development activities in the organization To increase the commitment level of employees and growth in quality movement (concepts of HRM). when training was considered to be futile. The training and development activities are now equally important with that of other HR functions. Gone are the days.Training and Human Resource Management The HR functioning is changing with time and with this change. training is an investment because the departments such as. If training is not considered as a priority or not seen as a vital part in the organization. resources. waste of time. and money. Now-a-days. marketing & sales. the relationship between the training function and other management activity is also changing.

The output can be tangible or intangible depending upon the organization¶s requirement.Training is now the important tool of Human Resource Management to control the attrition rate because it helps in motivating employees. And every system must have some output from these inputs in order to survive. and evaluating. achieving their professional and personal goals. A system approach to training is planned creation of training program. System Approach can be used to examine broad issues like objectives. technology. and aim. This approach uses step-by-step procedures to solve the problems. Out of this planned effort. It establishes a logical relationship between the sequential stages in the process of training need analysis (TNA). As a result training is given on a variety of skill development and covers a multitude of courses. formulating. one such basic model of five steps is system model that is explained below. etc. training is undertaken on planned basis. man. The System Approach views training as a sub system of an organization. delivering. .e. increasing the level of job satisfaction. material. functions. There are 4 necessary inputs i. Under systematic approach. An organization is a system and training is a sub system of the organization. THE TRAINING SYSTEM A System is a combination of things or parts that must work together to perform a particular function. time required in every system to produce products or services.

there are some internal and external forces. that poses threats and opportunities. therefore. The internal forces are the various demands of the organization for a better learning environment. and conduct of the training efforts.Organization are working in open environment i. The three model of training are: 1. need to be up to date with the latest technologies. Transitional model . Instructional System Development Model 3. form.e. trainers need to be aware of these forces which may impact on the content. System Model 2.

what do they need to learn. employees requirement. The training should achieve the purpose of helping employee to perform their work to required standards. . The steps involved in System Model of training are as follows: 1. who needs training. to analyze the department. Analyze and identify the training needs i. etc The next step is to develop a performance measure on the basis of which actual performance would be evaluated.e. estimating training cost.System Model Training The system model consists of five phases and should be repeated on a regular basis to make further improvements. 2. job.

identifying the learning steps. Implementing is the hardest part of the system because one wrong step can lead to the failure of whole training program.3. Making necessary amendments to any of the previous stage in order to remedy or improve failure practices . 6. 4. Evaluating each phase so as to make sure it has achieved its aim in terms of subsequent work performance. sequencing and structuring the contents. 5. Develop. Design and provide training to meet identified needs. examining the training material. validating information to be imparted to make sure it accomplishes all the goals & objectives. selecting delivery method.This phase requires listing the activities in the training program that will assist the participants to learn. This step requires developing objectives of training.

This model is widely used now-a-days in the organization because it is concerned with the training need on the job performance. .Instructional System Development Model(ISD)Model Instructional System Development model was made to answer the training problems.

and delivering media for the types of training objectives to be achieved. The Instructional System Development model comprises of five stages: . sequencing the content.Training objectives are defined on the basis of job responsibilities and job description and on the basis of the defined objectives individual progress is measured. This model also helps in determining and developing the favorable strategies.

and the career and advancement opportunities available. Under this heading we are excluding promotions. NEW RECRUITS TO THE COMPANY These have a requirement for induction into the company as a whole in terms of its business activities and personnel policies and provisions.e. 2. the terms. the same department or function.BEST TIME TO IMPART TRAINING TO EMPLOYEE 1. i. he is dissimilar in that the promotion has brought him to a new level of supervisory or . or to dissimilar work under a different management. conditions and benefits appropriate to the particular employee. PROMOTIONS Although similar to the transferee in that there is a new job to be learned in new surroundings. which take people into entirely new levels of responsibility. TRANSFEREES WITHIN THE COMPANY These are people who are moved from one job to another. either within the same work area. 3.

The change is usually too important and difficult to make successfully to permit one to assume that the promotes will pick it up as he goes along and attention has to be paid to training in the tasks and the responsibilities and personal skills necessary for effective performance. NEW PLANT OR EQUIPMENT Even the most experienced operator has everything to learn when a computer and electronic controls replace the previous manual and electro-mechanical system on the process plant on which he works. as well as for technical service production control and others. There is no less a training requirement for the supervisors and process management. a note bringing the attention of all concerned the change is assume to be sufficient. when more thorough training is needed. there needs to be instruction on the change in the way of working in many instances. NEW PROCEDURES Mainly for those who work in offices in commercial and administrative functions but also for those who we workplace is on the shop floor or on process plant on any occasion on which there is a modification to existing paperwork or procedure for. but there are cases. say the withdrawal of materials from stores. . such as when total new systems in corporating IT up dates are installed. 4. 5. the control of customer credit the approval of expense claims.management responsibility.

RULES AND PRACTICES Changes in any one these are likely to be conveyed by printed note or by word of mouth by the manager to his subordinates. Even the simplest looking instruction may be regarded as undesirable or impracticable by whoever has to perform it he may not understand the purpose behind the change and lose confidence in a management which he now believes to be µmessing about¶. 7. although there is no movement of staff between the sections (i. Although the change in work content for each clerk and supervisor is defined clearly for each person in the new procedures. and where to direct problems and enquiries as they arise in the future. NEW RELATIONSHIP AND AUTHORITIES These can arise. the recognition of the accounts department can result in a realization of responsibilities between the section leaders of credit control. NEW STANDARDS. which is responsible for what.6.e. as a result of management decisions. there is nevertheless a need for each person to know where he stands in the new set up. no transfers). and this can be the most satisfaction way of dealing with the change from the point of view of getting those affected to understand their new responsibility. invoicing and customer records. in a number of ways. for it must be remembered that supervision and inspection and qualify control are continuously responsible for . or he may understand the purpose and have a better alternative to offer if it is not too late. 8. In examples. However not all changes under this heading can be left to this sort of handling. MAINTENANCE OF STANDARDS We are here concerned with maintenance of standards through training.

there is increasing evidence in current experience to suggest that this is the case in industrial employment. there is not much agreement on the next frequency and form that such retraining should take. . communications. employee appraisal. Add. Although it is generally agreed that some retraining from time to time.standards and exercise their own authorities to this end. THE MAINTENANCE OF MANAGEMENT SKILLS & STANDARDS Skills in supervising. But continuous training and performance monitoring is rare. does act as both a reminder and a stimulus. THE MAINTENANCE OF ADAPTABILITY Again. Some of these skills are seen to be critical to major developments in company organisation. there is the inference arising from the laboratory experiments of psychologists. despite the common knowledge that standards are as varied as human nature. and without the need to learn. culture. taking varied forms even for the on group of employees. employee empowerment and so on. leadership etc are important in all companies. of course. 9. of there is as yet little scientific knowledge on this subject which is of much use in industrial situations. Initial training in these skills is not uncommon in the largest companies on appointment into management and supervision. 10. whilst there is little scientific study of the loss of ability to learn new skills in those cases where people spend a long time without change.

The input from these stakeholders would be summarized and transferred into a master training Plan. and training council. The organization¶s strategic plans. Once an initial procedure was designed it was then evaluated and critiqued the top management. The major question that was asked by the designers of training program was. and other locations. manufacturers¶ locations. different units. ABC Company developed a training strategy for training its global sales force. Video contains live production plants. Then training content was designed. An important feature of the strategy was to create a master training plan for each year. objectives. .Case Study on Training Methods SALES TRAINING AT ABC COMPANY Few years ago. ³what results do we want from salespeople after the training program is over?´ Answer to this question becomes the objective of the training program. videos were made. and functional tactics would drive this plan. partner offices. clients¶ offices. suppliers. The videos took 3 to 6 months to produce.

such as. comparison with competitor¶s products. incentive plans on achieving targets. coaching on undesirable behavior. winners receiving the best salesperson award to motivate the sales force Representatives then watch video. product usage. market updates. system description.e. product description. Sales material. and refer to the material if faces any problem. When salespeople feel they have mastered the Around thousands of sales persons were getting a specific video training. how to deal in the situation of conflicts with customer.e. annual bonuses. applications. etc Policies and procedures. follow the directions. supplement skills developed during live courses Product information.Videos were used to train sales people in various areas. about customer profile. they would take an exam and call a tollfree number to transmit responses to exam y y y . etc Sales Process i. and computer integrated manufacturing applications. i. such as: y Market information i. The sales people were getting training material along with the video.e. about sales contests.

the reporting manager was notified.Salespeople who successfully passed an exam were factored into performance and merit reviews as well as promotional opportunities. These questions are: y In today¶s technological world. If the salesperson failed an exam again. is video still the best way to deliver training? y Is video the most effective way to achieve training objectives? y What role did cost of development. cost of delivery. and other constraints play in selection of video delivery system? . Those who couldn¶t pass the exam were asked to go through the material and video again before retaking the exam. This case gives rise to few important questions.

By institutional changes they meant facilitating institutions like appropriate policies. markets.In this angle economic development is economic growth plus something. the result of developing. Some economists emphasized the need for institutional changes to bring about structural transformation. The series of changes which animal and vegetable organisms undergo in their passage from the embryonic state to maturity.etc. Economists who looked at development from structural change angle defined economic development as economic growth with structural change in favor of non-agricultural activities. not a level. as a plan or method. . or a developed state. It is a path to archive certain goals. systems of governance. There is no consensus among economists as to what constitute economic development. Meaning Development is a process. attitudinal changes. or an image upon a photographic plate. from a lower to a higher state of organization. also. gradual advancement or growth through a series of progressive changes. a gradual unfolding process by which anything is developed.Development Definition: the act of developing or disclosing that which is unknown.

real-time Applications across the Internet. Allowing you to focus resources on the core features and functionality of your application. and give your remote applications the rich GUI interaction And speed of locally installed software ± without transferring a single line of application code to the client You do not have to learn any new skills to leverage Droplets. This saves Tremendous time and empowers you to focus your efforts on building robust. And. The Droplets Software Development Kit (SDK) has been designed to Simplify all aspects of network programming. And since all presentation code stays on the server. real -time software. It is based entirely on well-established Standards and languages. Standard Development Environment . A Single. the need to track per-user session state is eliminated. Simpler Network Programming Droplets make the building of distributed applications just as easy as the writing of local software. and the real-time interactivity of the Droplets GUI eradicates the Various problems associated with Web¶s ³Back´ button. All Networking code and multithreading issues are addressed ³out of the box´ by Droplets. Droplets Integrates seamlessly with industry standard technologies like Enterprise Java Beans (EJB) and XML based Web Services. there is no need to account in the code for legacy versions of the application client. and relieves developers of the complex aspects of network-based projects.The DropletsŒ platform enables developers to build and deploy a variety of powerful.

JSP and Java.is gone. And Droplets interoperates with all firewall configurations and authenticated proxies . the threat of computer virus transmission is eliminated. for example). You can use any of the standard tools for debugging Java or C++. And the complexity of debugging Webbased applications . Since there is no code on the client. Among the revolutionary capabilities that .with no additional configuration. and developers need no new skills. allowing you for the First time to write Internet applications with the robust GUI toolkit classes that you have used for years with local software. SNMP monitoring and Kerberos authentication. Built-In Security and Firewall Compatibility The Droplets Platform also provides built-in security and HTTP tunneling capabilities. Straightforward Testing and Debugging Debugging distributed applications that leverage Droplets is just like debugging local software. your applications can access robust platform resources such as SSL encryption. eliminating the need for multi-language development efforts (HTML. there is no need to separately debug the application front-end. standard language of your choice (Java or C++). Since zero application code resides on the client machine. Development is thus greatly simplified. sharply reducing developer time and effort. as is required with applets. Real -Time Functionality Droplets provides developers with the tools to build a new generation of online applications that combine the real-time capabilities and GUI Toolkit interface of fat client software with the ubiquity and security of browser-based applications.Droplets allows you to work with the single.in which HTML is generated on the fly by one or more programming Languages . JavaScript. Through simple calls to our API. The Droplets API is a straightforward GUI toolkit based on Java¶s popular AWT package.

For example. If you go to the franchisor and buy one franchise at a time. Instead. These agreements allow for strong local support as wells tremendous investment opportunities to those who stake out a territory and then develop the area.Droplets puts in developers¶ hands are instant desktop alerts to the remote machine (even when the application is closed) and real-time Updates to the GUI with no user intervention Area Development Agreements allow for explosive growth opportunities in territories that have yet to be developed. Area development An area development agreement differs from a multiple single-unit relationship primarily because the franchisee agrees up front to open a specific number of locations during a defined period of time and within a specified area. it varies from company to company. you risk having to share the market with other franchisees from the system or risk that the franchisor will have sold all the available franchises before you are ready to purchase them. nothing is typical. suppose that you want to open ten outlets in your State. five years ² and the franchisor grants you exclusive rights for the development of locations in your area. Area development agreements are developed on an individual basis. This means you agree to open and operate the ten outlets over a defined period ² say. you enter into an area development agreement. . When it comes to applying the fee you pay for the development rights. Usually an Area developer will also operate an Individual franchise unit.

Desirability Having your employees participate in a career development program may make them more desirable to your competitors. usually can't afford the lag in production. . Disadvantage Accessibility Career development programs can be costly if employees from multiple locations have to meet at a central location. While this may not be a problem in some sectors. Loss of Productivity When your employees are participating in a career development program. others such as manufacturing. What you pay and how the franchisor applies the fee varies depending on the agreement. This may lead to the employee leaving your company and using the training you provided to help your competition. they aren't working. Most franchisor will usually use a formula when dealing with 10 or more outlets in the Area Development Agreement are considered. This can mean a decrease in production on the days of the program.As you identify each location. there is a way to get around this cost. However. You can hold career development meetings using virtual programs or conference calls. a 50% reduced fee of the initial franchise agreement is accepted. you usually sign a single-unit franchise agreement.

p.Time Frame while many career development programs are a good idea. 59). activities such as planning. Finally. . there are some instances where employees may know all of the information that is presented in the program. Since the individual feels more powerful. Some problems. may only be fully addressed by staffing changesA disadvantage of a leadership development program is that an individual could begin to gossip confidential information as well as could take advantage of having power. the individual may begin to make demands to co-workers. organizing. D'Amico believes that the leaders can be uncaring or unkind as a response would be to ignore and discount needs and wants of employees (2005. learning leadership skills may leave an individual to overlook the management skills as well. such as tardiness and laziness. at times an individual needs to be able to manage other skills in order to complete work. Case in point. This makes the program a waste of time and money. Moreover. Imposing authority among other employees can lead to resistance among employees. coordinating activities may be ignored as leading others now becomes a priority. While influencing people is important. Problem Solving A career development program won't solve all of the problems you have in your company. this may lead to leaking of confidential information in order for to still feel acceptance with lower level co-workers.

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