CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

A. Background of the Study In English foreign language teaching, reading is one of the most important factors in assessing a learner¶s linguistic competence. Reading is a receptive language process. It is the process of recognition, interpretation, and perception of written or printed materials. Reading proficiency plays a great role in understanding a written statement accurately and efficiently. Reading serves as an important tool in every field of professional service. Children are prepared for reading at an early age by listening to stories, being read to, and interacting with adults and others about the stories they hear. This is done not with the main purpose of preparing a child for reading but as a way that parents and others interact with, give affection for, and entertain and educate children. The interaction involves asking questions about what is going to happen in the story, getting the child to complete sentences in a known story, talking about the interesting and scary parts of the story, and generally having fun. The first reading problem is the child lacks the ability to group words into thought units which are necessary for comprehension and fluency. He is

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2 handicapped in attempting to identify news word by use of context clues, because the vocabulary load of unknown words is too great. Here, there are several causes of this problem. The children have limited reading experience in their daily life. This problem also occurred because the child over use of alphabet and phonic methods in beginning of instruction. These following suggestions are suggested by reading specialist in order to overcome this problem. Firstly, the teacher should use basic reader at easy level of difficulty to make the child easy to understand the text. Secondly, the teacher should use workbook pages that emphasize word recognition rather than making analysis on the text. Visual analysis skills are important for interpreting, analyzing and manipulating visually, presented information accurately and quickly. But some children tend to consistently make mistakes in specific part word such as at the initial part, middle part or at the end of the word. Here the causes of visual analysis skills difficulty. Firstly, the child has limited knowledge of vowel sounds of word. It can make the child a little bit of confusing. Secondly, the child has faulty approach to word recognition such as letter by letter spelling or sounding. According to the reader expertise, he suggested several techniques in order to overcome this problem. Firstly, the teacher should use discovery technique with groups of words having the same affixes whether it is prefixes or suffixes. He also suggests to rewriting sentences

3 where the child are given a number of sentences containing words with prefixes or suffixes then the teacher asks them to identify the word with a prefix and rewrite each sentences with a new word or phrase to give the same idea. The students must be able to apply phonic analysis to both easy and difficult words. The purpose of these phonic skills is the recognition of unknown words in meaningful context. Students confused phonic sound and words that students read cause it do not know the meaning of the word is contextually. This problem arises when students are unable to associate sounds with letters that read the words. The problems of decoding thus become more severe. The possible causes of this problem are lacks auditory acuity, lack of phonic training, child was not ready for phonics training and deficiencies in instruction where child learned sounds of letters and

memorized rules without being shown how to apply them. Here there are some suggestion activities to overcome this problem which are the teacher needs to guide formulation of generalizations in child¶s own words and note exceptions to those phonetics generalization. For example, teacher teaches phonetic families derived from sight word already in child¶s vocabulary. Guessing at words is defined as a reader saying a word without regard to any decoding elements contained in the word or passage being read orally. But in this problem, some child is unable to use meaning suggested by the

4 story or sentence to anticipate new or unfamiliar words. The ineffective use of context clues forces the child to analyze carefully many words that should be identified with a minimum inspection. This slows down his reading. The possible causes of this problem are the child is not exposed or lack of training in using clues, the teacher does not make use contextual instruction and the last one is the material that provided by the teacher is too difficult to understand. Recommendations for this problem are if the student guesses at phonetically regular one-syllable words, administer a Phonics Assessment and provide help where needed according to the results of the test. If the student guesses at words of more than one syllable, administer a Structural Analysis Assessment and, again, give the student instruction on those aspects of structural analysis in which she is weak. Because an inability to use context clues can cause the student to guess at both one-syllable and multi syllable words, testing for the student¶s ability to use context clues is also recommended. Secondly, while the student is reading orally, the teacher should call attention to the words at which she guesses. At the same time, the student should be taught how to systematically attack unknown words. The most effective way to do this is by teaching the student to use the word-attack strategy and the last but not least is the word-attack strategy teaches students

5 to examine the words that both precede and follow a difficult or unknown word and sound out at least the first one or two sounds of the unknown word. This strategy teaches students to use both the context of the sentence and the letter sounds (or structural parts) of the unknown word. Thus, students learn to use more than just the first letter or syllable of the unknown word as the need arises. However, it is a common problem for some students to complain about having trouble with how to read efficiently. Students always feel confused about the main idea of the passage even if they can get a full mark to the questions following the passage. In addition, some teachers also find difficulties in increasing efficiency in reading classes. So, therefore some of approaches for teaching reading that teacher have to follow them and some of reading techniques. Reading comprehension is the heart and goal of reading, since the purpose of all reading is to gather meaning from the printed page. The decoding of the written word is a very important aspect of the reading act. Without being able to decode the written word, reading comprehension is impossible. This explains why some children can ³read´ without understanding what they are reading. There are possible causes of this problem such as lack of general reading ability, lack of training to gain meaning form print and the last is not interested in the materials because lack

6 of motivation and concentration. While the ways to overcome this problem are the child should be trained to gain the meaning from reading materials as soon as possible. They should be give practice in three levels of materials such as literal, interpretation, and assimilation. Normally developing children raised by caring adults develop speech and language abilities naturally and without effort. Learning to read is a different process because it involves learning about a symbolic system (writing) used to represent speech. Before children begin to learn to associate the written form with speech, they need learn the vocabulary, grammar and sound system of the oral language. There is a close connection between oral vocabulary, pronunciation and early reading ability. The ability to attend to the individual sounds within words (phonological and phonemic awareness) is also an oral skill that is closely associated with reading ability Phonological awareness refers to the ability to attend to the sounds of language as distinct from its meaning. Studies of both alphabetic an nonalphabetic languages show that phonological awareness is highly correlated with reading ability. For alphabetic languages, phonemic awareness is especially important because the letters of the alphabet map onto individual sound units (phonemes). Students who are able to attend to the individual phonemes in alphabetic languages are much more likely to learn the

7 alphabetic principle (how letters map onto phonemes) and, therefore, learn to recognize printed words quickly and accurately. For alphabetic languages, many studies have shown that phonemic awareness is closely associated with reading ability in the early and later years of schooling. Furthermore, reading instruction and phonological awareness mutually reinforce each other. Phonological awareness helps children to discover the alphabetic principle. At the same time, learning to read alphabetic script also develops phonological and phonemic awareness. For non-alphabetic languages, research has shown that phonological awareness is also associated with reading ability. Regardless of the writing system, there appears to be a universal phonological principle in reading. Fluency is important because it is closely related to comprehension. Fluency in reading means being able to read text accurately, quickly and with expression. Fluent readers can do this because they do not have problems with word recognition. As a result, they can focus on the meaning of a text. Recent research shows that fluency also depends on the ability to group words appropriately during reading. This means fluent readers recognize words quickly, but also know where to place emphasis or pause during reading. An essential part of the reading skill is the skill of being able to recognize written forms and to connect them with their spoken forms and their

8 meanings. This involves recognizing known words and also deciphering unfamiliar words. Many studies have shown that good readers have good vocabulary knowledge. In order to understand a text, readers need to know the meanings of individual words. They construct an understanding of the text by assembling and making sense of the words in context. Vocabulary knowledge is difficult to measure. It is, however, very important in learning to read and in future reading development. Words that are recognized in print have to match a reader¶s oral vocabulary in order to be understood. This is important for children who are developing oral proficiency, as well as for non-native speakers of a language. In later reading development, when students read to learn, they need to learn new vocabulary in order to gain new knowledge of specific subject matter. Comprehension is the process of deriving meaning from connected text. It involves word knowledge (vocabulary) as well as thinking and reasoning. Therefore, comprehension is not a passive process but an active one. The reader actively engages with the text to construct meaning. This active engagement includes making use of prior knowledge. It involves drawing inferences from the words and expressions that a writer uses to communicate information, ideas, and viewpoints. Recent studies have focused on how readers use their knowledge and reasoning to understand texts. The term µcomprehension strategies¶ is

9 sometimes used to refer to the process of reasoning. Good readers are aware of how well they understand a text while reading. Good readers also take active steps to overcome difficulties in comprehension. Students can be instructing in strategies to improve text comprehension and information use. Reading and learning are the two things that determine the success of a child during his school career. First he learns to read. Then he reads to learn. Because the child with reading problems and reading difficulties battles to read, he is therefore also hampered in the learning situation. The researcher have identified two major problems in reading that can cause a pupil may be left behind in their subjects. That is insufficient sigh vocabularies, inability to use context clues and inadequate comprehension skills. A reader reads a text to understand its meaning, as well as to put that understanding to use. A person reads a text to learn, to find out information, to be entertained, to reflect or as religious practice. The purpose for reading is closely connected to a person¶s motivation for reading. It will also affect the way a book is read. We read a dictionary in a different way from the way we read a novel. In the classroom, teachers need to be aware of their students¶ learning needs, including their motivation for reading and the purpose that reading has in their lives. Reading is useful for language acquisition provided that students more or less understand what they read, the more they read, the better they get at it.

10 Reading also has a positive effect on students¶ vocabulary knowledge, on their spelling and on their writing. As an English teacher we must make decision to choose language teaching method will be most effective. Especially in teaching reading, the researcher will propose a case of study that teach reading through Communicative Language Teaching Method (CLT) at grade eight of SMP PGRI 35 Serpong. In reading from various sources that are relevant, the researcher can make a conclusion that the process involves reading cognitive and experiences involving past. If someone has a problem in reading it will affect particularly in the daily life and always will be missed than students who do not have problems in reading. Teachers should be sensitive and wise in addressing this problem. Although various studies have been conducted expected at

addressing reading problems among school students but this problem still interfere with students at the school. Handle this problem immediately so that students do not feel ostracized and humility of their friends.

B. Identification of the Problem Based on previous background, the researcher would like to identify the problem, as follows:

11 1. How to teaching reading make positive effect on students¶ vocabulary knowledge, on their spelling and on their writing? 2. How can teacher do to motivate students improve their reading ability? 3. What are the goals of teachers who use the Communicative Language Teaching Method to improving reading ability? 4. How does reading have a positive effect on student¶s reading ability? 5. How significant is the influence of using the Communicative Language Teaching Method on students reading skill? 6. How to improve students¶ reading skill through Communicative Language Teaching Method more effective?

C. Limitation of the Problem Limitation of the problem and this thesis, the researcher would like to improving students¶ reading skill through Communicative Language Teaching Method at eighth grade of «««««««««...

D. Formulation of the Problem Based on the limitation of the problem above, the researcher formulates the study as follow: ³How does to improve student¶s reading skill through Communicative Language Teaching Method at eighth grade of SMP

12 ««««««?´ To know the result of improving their reading skill, the researcher uses the classroom action research.

E. Benefit of the Study The researcher would like to encourage English Teaching reading is would beneficial, by doing this research, the writer would like to hope that the result of this study could give some benefits. For the students, this research will give a motivation to learn English more easily and motivates and encourages students to practice reading English. It makes them enjoy expressing their feeling, ideas, opinion and even in messages and suggestions. Since it is fun activity, especially when the students use some media to practice in reading skill, it helps students to take part in practice. For the institution, in which this research was held in SMP ««««. this research will give an alternative method in improving English, especially in reading. The researcher hopes that this thesis can develop education institution to perform a language laboratory and library enrichment, teacher to use the approach and method properly in teaching reading to their students; it can be refer for English teacher in studying which guidelines of the better ways to achieve the successful English Study.

13 For the teacher at SMP «««««, the method and the technique from the research can be used for material of the study and for the researcher herself, this research will give much information about English especial in reading skill through Communicative Language Teaching Method, which is an important skill that must practiced in order to be fluently in English. The students of STKIP «««« can have a good reference and material of the study for their knowledge and someday they will make tries connected with learning reading. Then they may make some references of this thesis because this thesis can be put in the library of STKIP ««««« and everybody can read it.

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