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Submission for Tutorial
Histogram is a graphical representation, showing visual representation of distributed data. It estimates the probability distribution of a continuous variable and the term was coined by Karl Pearson. A histogram consists of the tabular frequencies plotted on a graph; the total area is equal to the number of data. Normalized histogram is represented by showing the related frequencies. Histograms are used to plot the density of the data, estimating the “probability density function”. The total area of a histogram used for probability density is always normalized to 1. Example:
Submitted By Abhishek Kumar B.Tech. VII sem CSE (0702910005)
This method is usually useful with the images with backgrounds and foregrounds that are both bright or both dark. especially when the usable data of the image is represented by close contrast values. Submitted By Abhishek Kumar B. G is the number of gray levels and c(i) is the normalized cumulative histogram of the original image. subject to the constraint that single bins may not be split up. This transformation can be easily accomplished by recognizing that if instead of using an equally-spaced ideal histogram. This method can lead to better view of bone structures in x-ray images. The method usually increases the global contrast of the images. The best feature of Histogram Equalization is that it can be reversed back to original Histogram. That is. and to better detail in photographs that are over or under-exposed.c(i) Where. Histogram Equalization: In histogram equalization we are trying to maximize the image contrast by applying a gray level transform which tries to flatten the resulting histogram. Histogram equalization accomplishes spreading out the most frequent intensity values. Implementation of Histogram Equalization: Consider a discrete grayscale image.Tech. In order to implement Histogram Specification/matching we need to understand the concept of Histogram equalization. VII sem CSE (0702910005) Page 2 . In this way it is possible to impose an arbitrary histogram on any image.1]. The probability of an occurrence of a pixel of level i in the image is L is the total number of gray levels in the image. The gray level transform is a scaled version of the original image's cumulative histogram.Histogram Specification/Matching 2010 Submission for Tutorial Histogram specification is a technique that transforms histogram of one image into the histogram of another image. n being the total number of pixels in the image. and let ni be the number of occurrences of gray level i. and p being in fact the image's histogram. normalized to [0. the gray-level transform T is given by T[i] = (G-1).
a processed (output) image is obtained by mapping each pixel with level rk in the input image into a corresponding pixel with level sk in the output image. Example: Original image and Histogram. Submitted By Abhishek Kumar B. VII sem CSE (0702910005) Page 3 . Thus. The discrete version of transformation function is.Tech. The transformation (mapping) given is called Histogram Equalization. defined by: known as the image's accumulated normalized histogram.Histogram Specification/Matching 2010 Submission for Tutorial Let us also define c as the cumulative distribution function corresponding to p.
Histogram Specification/Matching: Histogram matching is a method in image processing of color adjustment of two images using the image histograms. atmospheric conditions or global illumination.Histogram Specification/Matching 2010 Submission for Tutorial Equalized Histogram and Image. Calculate the histogram of the image to be transformed. This can be accomplished by specifying a particular histogram shape. It can be used to normalize two images. VII sem CSE (0702910005) Page 4 . but by different sensors. It is useful sometimes to be able to specify the shape of the histogram that we wish the processed image to have. The technique can be implemented (theoretical approach) in the following steps: 1. Submitted By Abhishek Kumar B. 2. Provide the template histogram. The method used to generate a processed image that has a specified histogram is called histogram matching or histogram specification.Tech. or by calculating the histogram of a target image. when the images were acquired at the same local illumination (such as shadows) over the same location.
if the value of that pixel is rk. 5. map this value to its corresponding level sk. then map level sk into the final level zk. Use the equation to precompute a mapped level sk for each level rk. 4. VII sem CSE (0702910005) Page 5 . Use the precomputed values from Steps (2) and (4) for these mappings. Implementation (calculative approach): 1. 3. Map pixels from one bin to another according to the rules of histogram equalization. Obtain the Histogram of the given image. Obtain the transformation function G from the given pz(z) using 4. For each pixel in the original image.Tech. This is the idea cumulative sum (not the linear line as in histogram equalization). The primary rule is that the actual cumulative sum can be no less than the ideal (template) cumulative sum. 2. Submitted By Abhishek Kumar B.Histogram Specification/Matching 2010 Submission for Tutorial 3. Calculate the cumulative sum of the histogram of the image to be changed. Calculate the cumulative sum of the template histogram. Precompute zk for each value of sk using the iterative scheme defined in connection with equation 5.
in situations where a large number of images of the same kind are being processed. the same set of image operations would have the same results. it may be advantageous to make the histograms the same. This is almost always the case when processing images from modern medical devices such as CT. PET. VII sem CSE (0702910005) Page 6 . Submitted By Abhishek Kumar B. For example. MR. or multi.Tech. In this way.Histogram Specification/Matching 2010 Submission for Tutorial Example: Histogram specification always imposes a template histogram on an image. but the technique works best if the template histogram is already similar to the actual one.dimensional ultrasound.