Q.1 Explain different types of tests used for selection.

Types of Tests The main types of selection test as described below are intelligence, personality, ability, aptitude and attainment tests. A distinction can be made between psychometric tests and psychometric questionnaires. As explained by Toplis et al (1991), a psychometric test such as one on mental ability has correct answers so that the higher the score, the better the performance. Psychometric questionnaires such as personality tests assess habitual performance and measure personality characteristics, interests, values or behaviour. With questionnaires, a high or low score signifies the extent to which a person has a certain quality and the appropriateness of the replies depends on the particular qualities required in the job to be filled. Intelligence tests: Tests of intelligence such as Raven¶s Progressive Matrices measure general intelligence (termed µg¶ by Spearman (1927), one of the pioneers of intelligence testing). Intelligence is defined by Toplis et al (1991) as µthe capacity for abstract thinking and reasoning¶. The difficulty with intelligence tests is that they have to be based on theory of what constitutes intelligence and then have to derive a series of verbal and non-verbal instruments for measuring the different factors or constituents of intelligence. But intelligence is a highly complex concept and the variety of theories about intelligence and the consequent variations in the test instruments or batteries available make the choice of an intelligence test a difficult one. For general selection purpose, an intelligence test that can be administered to a group of candidates is the best, especially if it has been properly validated, and it is possible to relate test score to µnorms¶ in such a way as to indicate how the individual taking the test compares with the rest of the population, in general or in a specific area. Personality tests: Personality tests attempt to assess the personality of candidates in order to make predications about their likely behaviour in a role. Personality is an allembracing and imprecise term that refers to the behaviour of individuals and the way it is organized and co-ordinated when they interact with the environment. There are many different theories of personality and,

unimaginative. persevering. co-operative. or lazy. One of the most generally accepted ways of classifying personality is the five-factor model. careful. outgoing. µconscientiousness¶. quiet. defining a trait as a fairly independent but enduring characteristic of behaviour that all people display but to differing degrees. or apprehensive. Conscientiousness ± hardworking. intolerant. As summarized by McCrae and Costa (1989). hostile. using the factor analysis technique to identify distinct traits and to indicate how associated groups of traits might be grouped loosely into µpersonality types¶. These µbig five¶. These include selfreport personality questionnaires and other questionnaires that measure interests. broad. . tense. talkative and active (extraversion). diffident. this model defines the key personality characteristics. uncooperative. Self-report personality questionnaires are the ones most commonly used. Emotional stability ± resilient. reliable. complacent. inward. narrow -minded. underconfident. assertive. as Roberts (1997) calls them. but can be helpful when selecting apprentices and trainees. dependent. independent. These observations are analyzed statistically.minded. or reserved. or blinkered. likeable. confident. are: Extraversion/introversion ± gregarious.consequently. µInterest¶ questionnaires are sometimes used to supplement personality tests. or rude. was very effective. Agreeableness ± courteous. relaxed. values or work behaviour.looking. tolerant. devise scales to measure these. They assess the preferences of respondents for particular types of occupation and are therefore most applicable to vocational guidance. and then obtain ratings on these examples of behaviour by people who know each other well. many different types of personality tests. restrained (introversion). Trait theorists identify examples of common behaviour. Research cited by Roberts (1997) has indicated that these factors are valid predictors of work performance and that one factor in particular. They usually adopt a µtrait¶ approach.

The tests should have been developed by a reputable psychologist or test agency on the basis of extensive research and field testing and they must meet the specific needs of the user.¶ Personality tests can provide interesting supplementary information about candidates that is free from the biased reactions that frequently occur in face-to-face interviews. they (psychometric tests) can be used well or badly.orientation. But it would be foolish to dismiss all the evidence of the value of personality assessment in selection on the basis of some misuse. But they have to be used with great care.39. this was based on a rag-bag of tests. independence. They commented: µWe see precious little evidence of personality tests predicting job performance. Certainly the majority of applied psychologists feel the balance of the evidence supports the use of personality inventories. Smith¶s (1988) studies based on modern self-report questionnaire revealed an average validity coefficient of 0. verbal. Aptitude tests: . orderliness and goal. many developed for clinical use and some using µprojective¶ techniques such as the Rorschach inkblots test. achievement.µValue¶ questionnaires attempt to assess beliefs about what is µdesirable or good¶ or what is µundesirable or bad¶. Personality questionnaires were shown to have the low validity coefficient of 0. The questionnaires measure the relative prominence of such values as conformity. But as Saville and Sik (1992) point out. Specific work behaviour questionnaires cover behaviour such as leadership or selling. which is reasonably high. perceptual or mechanical ability. Ability tests: Ability tests measure job-related characteristics such as number. A vigorous attack was launched on personality tests by Blinkorn and Johnson (1990). decisiveness. the interpretation of which relies on a clinician¶s judgment and is therefore quite out of place in a modern selection procedure.15 on the basis of research conducted by Schmitt et al (1984).¶ But Fletcher (1991) responded: µLike any other selection procedure.

Attainment tests: Attainment tests measure abilities or skills that have already been acquired by training or experience. Aptitude test should be properly validated. A typing test is the most typical example. Q. A standard test or a test battery is then obtained from a test agency. The test is then given to employees already working on the job and the results are compared with a criterion.2 Describe the designing of an induction program Definition of Induction Induction is the process of receiving and welcoming employees when they first join a company and giving them the basic information they need to settle down quickly and happily and start work. It is easy to find out how many words a minute a typist can type and compare that with the standard required for the job. Induction has four aims: To smooth the preliminary stages when everything is likely to be strange and unfamiliar to the starter.Aptitude tests are job-specific tests that are designed to predict the potential an individual has to perform tasks within job. To establish quickly a favorable attitude to the company in the mind of the new employee so that he or she is more likely to stay. the test is then given to applicants. Many do-it. If the correlation between test and criterion is sufficiently high. usually managers¶ or team leaders¶ rating. This is a lengthy procedure. Alternatively. They can cover such areas as clerical aptitude. a follow-up study of the job performance of the applicants selected by the test is usually carried out. To validate the test further.yourself tests are worse than useless because they have not been properly validated. . mechanical aptitude and dexterity. but without it no real confidence can be attached to the result of any aptitude test. The usual procedure is to determine the aptitudes required by means of job and skills analysis. numerical aptitude. a special test is devised by or for the organization.

Cost of extra supervision and error correction. First impressions are important. As pointed out by Fowler (1996).500 a year. The first step in achieving commitment is to present the organization as one that is worth-working for and to ensure that this first impression is reinforced during the first weeks of employment. . employees are far more likely to resign during their first months after joining the organization.000-7. The costs can include: Recruitment costs of replacement. wants to stay with it and is prepared to work hard on behalf of the organization. Induction costs (training etc).To obtain effective output from the new employee in the shortest possible time. The cost for a professional employee could be 75 per cent of annual salary. as are the impact of the first four weeks of employment. To reduce the likelihood of the employee leaving quickly. Giving more attention to induction pays off. It is worth-making an effort to reduce that cost. total cost could amount to 90. If 15 out of 100 staff paid an average of 12. These costs can be considerable. Costs of temporary agency replacement. Why is induction important? Induction is important for the reasons given below: Reducing the cost and inconvenience of early leavers. For a support worker the cost could easily reach 50 per cent of pay.5 per cent of the payroll. Increasing commitment A committed employee is one who identifies with the organization. Gap between the employee¶s value to the company and the cost of the employee¶s pay and benefits.

documentation. values and attitudes. but it is a feature of introduction to the organization to which they should pay attention. and more this can be clarified from the outset.Clarifying the psychological contract The psychological contract consists of implicit. unwritten beliefs and assumptions about how employees are expected to behave and what responses they can expect from their employer. Accelerating progress up the learning curve New employees will be on a leaning cure ± they will take time to reach the required level of performance. as far as this is possible. formal induction courses and formal and informal training activities . Clearly. initial briefing. The extent to which employees can directly influence the quality of socialization may often be limited. during the induction arrangements described below. Socialization New employees are likely to settle in more quickly and enjoy working for the organization if the process of socialization takes place smoothly. introduction to the workplace. which are concerned with reception. the length of the learning curve and rates of learning vary. It is concerned with norms. Induction arrangements can indicate what the organization expects in terms of behavioural norms and the values that employees should uphold. . Induction provides an opportunity to inform people of µthe way things are done around here¶ so that misapprehensions are reduced even if they cannot be eliminated. The psychological contract provides the basis for the employment relationship. the better. but it is important to provide for it to take place in a planned and systematic manner from the first day to maximize individual contributions as quickly as possible. The social aspects of work relationships with colleagues ± are very important for many people.

Q. Q.5 What is the rationale of HR Valuation and Auditing . .4 Discuss HR Audit as an intervention.Explain Q.Q.3 Explain the hiring process.6 Discuss the application of HR Audit with reference to the case of a manufacturing industry.

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