Batch production system planning and control

Batch Production Planning and Control
In general the planning of batch processing requires the solution of three problems: 1. Determination of batch sizes i.e. the quantity of items or customers to be processed at one time. 2. Batch sequencing, i.e. the determination of the order in which batches of different items or customers will be processed. 3. Batch scheduling, i.e. the timing of the processing of batches of items or customers. The critical problem in batch production is a question of control, i.e. that of ensuring that orders progress as planned. Batch production is often undertaken for a customer delivery promise, whereas mass production plans can be made because of fewer products and the use of specially designed equipment. Here, deviations from plans can mostly be caused by mechanical breakdowns. With batch production, interaction between jobs is less certain, as is the completion time of each operation (since time is not standardised, variations in element times occur). Problems regarding batch production can occur for a multiplicity of reasons such as machine breakdown, quality problems (need for re-working), material movement (causing loss or damage), operator performance (varies because of the manufacture of different batches), variable queuing time and tooling availability. 1. Determination of batch sizes Batch quantities which are too large will result in high stock levels and cause a large amount of capital to be tied up in stock which might otherwise be invested elsewhere. Additionally, unduly high stock levels will incur other costs, such as the cost of stock-keeping, insurance, depreciation, etc. on the other hand, batch quantities which are too small will result in both low stock levels, which may be insufficient to meet large fluctuations in demand, and also the frequent processing of small batches, each time incurring costs associated with set-up, ordering etc. The problem then is to determine the optimal batch size that minimises total costs; consequently we must consider the following: a. Stock holding b. Processing c. Set-up and preparation of machines and equipment. These are reflected in a formula which gives us the µminimum cost batch size¶ (E.O.Q.) or (E.B.Q.).

From this we can see that the bigger the batch size. Since the T. Batch quantities within this production range are considered as acceptable. One might agree that other criteria for batch size determination should be adopted. it still suffers certain shortcomings. The minimum cost batch size and its associated total cost are shown in the following diagram. the total variable cost is not terribly sensitive to deviations from optimal batch size.EBQ = ¥ 2Cs R ²²C1 Where EBQ ± process batch quantity Cs ± set-up and preparation costs per batch C1 ±stock holding costs per item per unit of time R ± consumption rate per unit of time (usage rate) This formula assumes a static and deterministic situation.C. many computer programmes have included these additional data. In the diagram above management will be willing to process batch sizes which fall between the production range of Q1 and Q2. maximisation of rate of return. curve is fairly flat in the region of minimum cost. Although the compromise on the optimal batch size is acceptable. we can derive the total cost. However. therefore to adopt a batch size which differs slightly from the optimal without incurring substantially increased costs. Because of the frequent difficulty of accurately establishing costs such as Cs C1. i. in a paint-manufacturing process it is desirable to manufacture lighter colours . since a minimum cost batch size can be determined without reference to selling cost or profit. set-up and preparation costs will decrease as the batch increases. 2. Eilon has developed a procedure for the determination of an acceptable processing range which is dependent upon knowing the allowable increase in the total variable costs of production. and indeed many other treatments of the batch size determination problem exist which depend upon criteria such as profit maximisation of µreturn¶ (ratio of profit to cost of production). the higher would be the stock holding costs. It is possible. The batch size corresponding to the minimum total cost will be the optimal batch size. For example. etc. Batch sequencing: Very often the order or sequence in which the different items are to be processed will be determined either by the process itself or by the setting-up or preparation requirement for each item. one in which both processing and consumption rates are known and constant. no mention has been made to the selling price of items. For example.e. By adding these two costs together.

bearing in mind that in different situations it may be necessary to achieve different objectives. 3. An example of the two-facility. If this is Ai put that job first (or nearest first). 2. a. ± job sequencing problem and its solution using this procedure is shown below: Job Ai Bi Sequence . The objective in such a case is usually to minimise the total through-put time. Select shortest time (or remaining time). each individual batch requires processing through a number of operations on a series of facilities.B) and no passing. the basic question to be answered is ± in what order should jobs be assigned to facilities. the only problems to be solved are the desirable length of the complete manufacturing cycle (i. 4. but beyond that.first and darker colours later. If this is Bi put that job last (or nearest last). Sequencing This relates to a situation where all the jobs to be processed are known and available and processing is done on a series of facilities. Johnson¶s rule: A sequencing algorithm for two facilities and µ µ jobs can be developed where µ µ jobs are to be processed on each of two facilities (A and B) with the same order (A. However. The solution procedure includes: 1. It is important to distinguish two basic classes of problem which involve firstly sequencing and secondly dispatching. Delete this job from the table. no exact solution procedures exists. the time required to manufacture one batch of all the products) and the frequency of the cycles. In certain cases the algorithm may be extended to a three machine sequence. No mathematical solution has been developed for solving the sequencing problem. 5. In intermittent batch production. thus: Let Ai > O (I ± «n) Bi ± the same for facility B The objective is to minimise through-put time.e. Johnson developed on algorithm to solve a simple problem comprising a number of jobs processed through two facilities. Return to 1. Here. In such cases.

With dispatching. Static rules are those in which the value of the priority function does not change with time. shortest processing time first. but dynamic rules will be calculated more frequently. Dynamic rules on the other hand give a priority value which changes with time. The principal method of job dispatching is by means of priority rules rather than rigorous mathematical rules. depending on progress. a. its priority rule is changing continually. static and dynamic. and therefore more costly to operate. here the priority rule is changing. b. to decrease the amount of work-in-progress. (ii) Minimisation of the number of late jobs. An example would be the slack time per remaining operation: [due date ± time now] ± remaining processing time. Priority rules may be classified into two distinct classes. (iii) Minimisation of average through-put time. In practice priority values will be calculated on a daily or weekly basis. for example: (i) Minimisation of facility idle time. E. Long operation followed by short is good to end sequence. earliest due date first. b. the objective is to attempt to gain the best use of capacity. Dispatching Dispatching problems arise where a queue of jobs is processed by a single facility and moreover.A B C D E F 5 4 6 7 2 3 1 5 5 6 6 4 Adopted 6 3 5 4 1 2 These six jobs should be sequenced in the order: E F B D C A A simple rule one can adopt is: Short operation followed by a long operation is good to start sequence. . Priority value depends on ³time now´ and will need to be continually modified. one normally operates within different and often conflicting objectives. Relative priorities of jobs change. the objectives would be to provide good customer service. Although one date is fixed. further jobs may join the queue as time proceeds.g. as time passes and some work is carried on that job.

The most popular priority rules are: a. which is quicker but usually simplifies the situation by making numerous assumptions.No facility may process more than one job at a time. c. b. e. . Average number of jobs in the system: Sum of flow time totals ²²²²²²²²² Total processing time c. .The effectiveness of a chosen priority can only be assessed by putting the rule into practice and judging with regard to the three criteria described earlier. Earliest due date ± the job with the earliest due date is proceeded first.g. could be time-consuming and also expensive if a poor rule were chosen. . Average completion time Sum of flow time totals ²²²²²²²²² No of jobs b. Average job lateness: Total of late days ²²²²²²± No of jobs The effectiveness of a chosen priority can only be assessed by putting the rule into practice and judging with regard to certain criteria. Longest processing time. . Whether one should choose a particular role rather than another normally depends on the objective one is chasing.Operations once started must be completed. First come first served ± the first job/customer arriving at the work centre is processed first. Shortest processing time ± load first the job which occupies least time.Three measures of efficiency: a.The operation times (including set-up) for all jobs are known and are independent of processing order: . d. An alternative is therefore simulation. This however.

many packages involve the use of a factor or factors which may be varied by the user and tested until the desired results are obtained. but are in a position to use more complex formulae than the manual systems.Machines and labour are available in known quantities. Most computer aided despatching systems make use of priority rules. .. . . .Transport between facilities is neglected.Operations must be carried out in a predetermined order. Moreover.The µsplitting¶ of batches is not permitted.

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