INSECT STING An insect is a bug.

An insect bite or sting is a red lump in the skin that sometimes has a tiny hole in the center. Sometimes the insect leaves a stinger in your skin. Most bites or stings are not a problem. If you are allergic (uhler-jik) to bug bites/stings, you may have swelling, rash, itching, or even trouble breathing. These allergic symptoms are caused by a chemical called histamine (histuh-meen). Causes: An insect bite or sting can come from many different insects. Some insects that bite people are mosquitoes, fleas, ticks, chiggers, or bedbugs. Ants, bees, wasps, spiders, or other insects also bite or sting people. Signs and Symptoms: You may see or feel a red lump, pain, swelling, itching, or a rash. You may also have a headache or feel dizzy. Sometimes you will have an upset stomach or vomit (throw up). Very serious problems are chest pain, a tight feeling in your throat or chest, and trouble breathing. This is called anaphylaxis (an-ih-fuh-lak-sus) or allergic shock. It usually starts within minutes after the bite or sting and can be life-threatening. Also some insect stings and bites can cause infection (in-fek-shun) or nerve problems. Care: • Take the stinger out by scraping it off with your fingernail, edge of a credit card, or a knife blade. Do •

not squeeze it. Gently wash the area where the stinger was with soap and water. Ticks must be removed as soon as possible to try and keep you from getting diseases caused by tick bites. To remove the tick: ○ ○ First, clean the tick bite site with rubbing alcohol. Grasp the tick as close to the skin as possible. Pull it straight out and up with tweezers or with fingertips protected by a tissue or cloth. Pull gently until the tick lets go. Do not twist the tick or jerk it suddenly because this may break off the tick's head or mouth parts. Do not crush the tick or touch it with your bare hands. Flush the tick down the toilet Do not put a hot match, petroleum jelly, or fingernail polish on the tick. It is not helpful and, it may be dangerous. After the tick is removed, clean the area of the bite. Then, wash your hands with soap and water. Put a cold, wet towel on the bite/sting for 10 to 20 minutes out of every hour. This will help lessen swelling and itching. Soak a clean washcloth in cold water, wring it out, and put it on the bite/sting. After 24 to 48 hours, a warm compress may be soothing and will help to lessen the swelling. Try keeping the area of the bite or sting raised on pillows. This may also help lessen swelling

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learn to take shots to stop these problems. You can buy these shots in a special emergency kit with a prescription from your caregiver.and improve the blood flow. • Do the following to keep from getting bitten or stung again. Do not wear hair spray. Ask your caregiver how and when to take these shots. and sleeve cuffs. Using Oil of Citronella (usually candles or coils) outdoors may help keep mosquitoes away. and shoes. perfumes. perfumes. tender. Do not wear bright-colored or flower-print clothing. and shoes. ○ ○ ○ Empty any standing water and wash container with soap and water every 2 days. bottom of pant legs. These are signs of infection. You have a fever (increased body temperature). or colognes (after shave). You have belly (abdominal) cramping. This is an emergency! CONTACT A CAREGIVER IF: • • • None of the above helps. Put a "tick and flea collar" on pets. ○ To lessen pain. use insect repellent on skin and clothing when going outside. a paste made of water and either meat tenderizer or baking soda may be rubbed on the bite or sting for 5 minutes. Wear long sleeves. and swollen beyond the area of the bite or sting. Put insect repellent on skin that is showing when going outside. warm. Put screens on all open windows and doors. put insect repellent at the top of your boots. Do's and Don'ts: To keep from getting bitten or stung again. or colognes (after shave). The area becomes red. call your caregiver to tell him/her. vomiting (throwing up) or diarrhea. Also do not wear hair spray. Call 911 or 0. You have been bitten by a tick. pants. When you use this medicine. Do not leave food around because it may attract insects. ○ ○ • Go to the hospital right away if you have trouble breathing or a tight feeling in your chest or throat. These shots have a medicine in them called epinephrine (eh-pihnef-rin). or your symptoms do not improve with treatment. If bug bites and stings cause you to have trouble breathing or chest pain. It may help the bite or sting heal faster. • • ○ . Also. pants. ○ Do not wear bright-colored or flower-print clothing when you plan to spend time outdoors. Wear long sleeves.

Animals that bite without a reason. venom (poison) may also be released into the skin. and bats. He will also look for other problems or signs of infection. wolves. A bite from a wild animal often occurs when people have wild animals for pets. foxes. Beavers. Farm animals: Animal bites may also be caused by farm animals. The animal may need to be caught or watched to see if it is sick. neck. off. bats. Your caregiver will need to know if you were bitten by one of these animals. porcupines. and had past surgeries. Your caregiver will also need to know if you have other health problems. What causes an animal bite? • • Pets: Animal bites are often caused by a pet dog or cat. squirrels. You may also develop a fever. It may or may not be on purpose. and body parts. Ask your caregiver for more information on snake bites. This may happen on the head. including the area around it. is also important. Rabies is a very serious disease and can lead to death if it is not treated. He will check to see if the skin is broken or not and how deep the wound is. Ask your caregiver for more information about rabies if you have questions or concerns. Other signs are the animal was acting strangely or was foaming at the mouth. You may have bleeding. such as tetanus. He will ask if something was done to cause the animal to attack. it may become infected. How well you move and feel things in your injured body part may be tested. or body organs. Sometimes. nerves. birds. foxes. It may sometimes lead to severe loss of blood. cats.ANIMAL BITE An animal bite is any wound that you get from coming into contact with an animal's teeth. blood vessels. bruise. woodchucks. or swelling on the bitten area. and snakes may also cause bite injuries. bones. can be a sign that the animal has rabies. Knowing what vaccinations (shots) you have received. . How is an animal bite diagnosed? • History: Your caregiver will need to know when and how you were bitten. lions. puncture (hole). tissues. pain. are taking medicines. The bite may crush or cause a deep wound and may injure the muscles. Pus may develop inside the wound and the area may become red and tender. raccoons. face. such as being scared. skunks. weasels. raccoons. Wild or zoo animals: These include monkeys. The wound may be an abrasion (scrape). such as pigs or horses. ○ Rabies: Animals that can spread rabies include dogs. skunks. When a snake bites. deer. or trouble moving the bitten area. your skin may also get deformed when the bones are broken or the tissues are completely bitten • Physical exam: Caregivers will look closely at your injury. or feel warm when touched. or laceration (tear). If the bite breaks your skin. or any part of the body. • What are the signs and symptoms of an animal bite? There may be a cut. or bears.

that are left inside the skin will be removed carefully. A dye is used to help the arteries show up better on the pictures. Objects. such as pieces of teeth. joint.• Tests: Different tests may be done to check for other problems caused by the animal bite. Surgery: Your wound may be left open until it heals or may be closed right away using stitches (threads). You may also be given medicine to ease your symptoms. It is tested to see how your body is doing. water. ○ ○ • ○ • ○ • How is an animal bite treated? . Caregivers use the pictures to look for broken bones. The wound will be cleaned with soap. arm. Surgery to remove. This helps caregivers learn what kind of infection you have and what medicine is best to treat it. X-rays: These are pictures of your bones and tissues around your wound. ○ Blood tests: You may need blood taken for tests. dirt. Pictures may be taken using an x-ray. or neck area. You may also need surgery to repair a fracture (broken bone) or damaged blood vessel. Flushing with sterile (clean) water further cleans the wound. tendon. A neck brace may be needed if the bite is on the on the face. Oxygen or blood transfusion may be given for severe bite wounds. It also depends on how long you have had the injury and whether other body parts were affected. Supportive treatments: Ice or other cold packs may be applied on the bite area to help decrease swelling and bruising. Wound culture: This is a method to grow and identify the germs that may be in your wound. other injuries. Caregivers may drain the wound to clean out pus. Treatment will depend on what animal caused the injury. Ultrasound: An ultrasound is a simple test that looks inside of your body. or dead tissues from the open wound will be removed with debridement (surgical cleaning). • Wound cleaning: Foreign objects. It can give your caregivers more information about your health condition. and decrease the chances of infection. and antiseptics (germ-killing solutions). using a needle or catheter (tube) tip and large syringe. such as pain and swelling. or nerve. or rebuild the injured body part may also be done. or foreign objects. and the location and severity of the injury. head. Sound waves are used to show pictures of your organs and tissues on a TV-like screen. or a computed tomography (CT) scan. reconnect. Medicines: Your caregiver will give you antibiotic medicine to fight or stop infection. Angiography: This test looks for problems with the arteries in a part of the body. This helps wash away germs which may be in the wound. or the bend in your elbow. Tetanus or rabies shots and immune globulins may also be given. especially if the wound is near a joint or bone. You may need to have an x-ray. This is done under high pressure. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). You may need to have blood drawn more than once. The blood can be taken from a blood vessel in your hand.

Make noise and appear threatening to a bear that seems to be hunting. You may do this by swabbing the wound with a soft clean cloth or gauze. The infection may spread to other parts or organs of your body and may become life-threatening. or decreased ability to fight infection. The chances of successfully treating an animal bite are better when treated as soon as possible after the bite happens. Apply direct pressure on the wound using a clean cloth to stop or control bleeding. blood vessel problems. Infections. or caring for its young. Severe swelling of the injured area may occur which may cause blood supply problems and may lead to tissue death. Gently remove dirt and foreign objects seen in the wound area. preferably boiled or treated with germ-killing solutions. How can an animal bite be prevented? To prevent an animal bite: • • • • • • Do not disturb an animal that is eating. Cover the wound with a clean bandage. Do not raise it too high because it may cause more serious injury. Always read and follow sign posts. Consult your caregiver as soon as possible. Cleaning the wound may help decrease the risk of infection.What other problems can occur with an animal bite? Having an animal bite may be very painful and put you at risk of bleeding. You may put pillows under an injured leg when lying in bed. • • • ○ ○ ○ Slowly and carefully back off without making sudden or threatening gestures. Use mild soap to further clean the wound. Treat animals with respect. If you encounter a wild animal: ○ Do not make eye contact or stare directly at the animal. Play dead in the presence of a bear with cubs. Do notuse a tourniquet unless blood loss cannot be controlled by direct pressure. Keep the injured area from moving to decrease pain. such as rabies and tetanus. A sling may be used if the arm or hand is injured. A pepper spray may also be used. or have conditions that affect wound healing are at a higher risk of problems. These conditions include diabetes. You may also use a cleaning solution. What first aid should be done for an animal bite? • Flush the bitten area with clean water. Elevating the wound area will help decrease swelling. • • . may also occur. sleeping. such as one percent povidone solution or 40 to 70 percent alcohol. Do not pet a dog without letting it sniff you first. poor nutrition. Do not tease them. Make noise and avoid areas where wild animals often stay or are found. This may be done by placing a splint and bandage. Do not go near an animal that you are not familiar with. Wounds are more likely to become infected because of the germs present in the animal's mouth. Sit or lie down so the wound is raised above your heart. People who are too young or old. Do not run or scream in its presence.

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