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**electric and magnetic ﬁelds
**

3.1 Polarization

The terrestrial environment is characterized by dielectric media (e.g., air, water)

which are, for the most part, electrically neutral, since they are made up of neutral

atoms and molecules. However, if these atoms and molecules are placed in an

electric ﬁeld they tend to polarize. Suppose that when a given neutral molecule

is placed in an electric ﬁeld E the centre of charge of its constituent electrons

(whose total charge is −q) is displaced by a distance −r with respect to the centre

of charge of its constituent atomic nuclei. The dipole moment of the molecule is

deﬁned p = q r. If there are N such molecules per unit volume then the electric

polarization P (i.e., the dipole moment per unit volume) is given by P = Np.

More generally,

P(r) =

¸

i

N

i

'p

i

`, (3.1)

where 'p

i

` is the average dipole moment of the ith type of molecule in the vicinity

of point r, and N

i

is the average number of such molecules per unit volume at r.

It is easily demonstrated that any divergence of the polarization ﬁeld P(r)

gives rise to an eﬀective charge density ρ

b

in the medium. In fact,

ρ

b

= −∇P. (3.2)

This charge density is attributable to bound charges (i.e., charges which arise

from the polarization of neutral atoms), and is usually distinguished from the

charge density ρ

f

due to free charges, which represents a net surplus or deﬁcit of

electrons in the medium. Thus, the total charge density ρ in the medium is

ρ = ρ

f

+ρ

b

. (3.3)

It must be emphasized that both terms in this equation represent real physical

charge. Nevertheless, it is useful to make the distinction between bound and

free charges, especially when it comes to working out the energy associated with

electric ﬁelds in dielectric media.

84

Gauss’ law takes the diﬀerential form

∇E =

ρ

0

=

ρ

f

+ρ

b

0

. (3.4)

This expression can be rearranged to give

∇D = ρ

f

, (3.5)

where

D =

0

E +P (3.6)

is termed the electric displacement, and has the same dimensions as P (dipole

moment per unit volume). The divergence theorem tells us that

S

DdS =

V

ρ

f

dV. (3.7)

In other words, the ﬂux of D out of some closed surface S is equal to the total

free charge enclosed within that surface. Unlike the electric ﬁeld E (which is the

force acting on unit charge) or the polarization P (the dipole moment per unit

volume), the electric displacement D has no clear physical meaning. The only

reason for introducing it is that it enables us to calculate ﬁelds in the presence

of dielectric materials without ﬁrst having to know the distribution of polarized

charges. However, this is only possible if we have a constitutive relation connecting

E and D. It is conventional to assume that the induced polarization P is directly

proportional to the electric ﬁeld E, so that

P =

0

χ

e

E, (3.8)

where χ

e

is termed the electric susceptibility of the medium. It follows that

D =

0

E, (3.9)

where

= 1 +χ

e

(3.10)

is termed the dielectric constant or relative permittivity of the medium. (Likewise,

0

is termed the permittivity of free space.) It follows from Eqs. (3.5) and (3.9)

that

∇E =

ρ

f

0

. (3.11)

85

Thus, the electric ﬁelds produced by free charges in a dielectric medium are anal-

ogous to those produced by the same charges in a vacuum, except that they are

reduced by a factor . This reduction can be understood in terms of a polarization

of the atoms or molecules of the dielectric medium that produces electric ﬁelds

in opposition to that of given charge. One immediate consequence is that the

capacitance of a capacitor is increased by a factor if the empty space between

the electrodes is ﬁlled with a dielectric medium of dielectric constant (assuming

that fringing ﬁelds can be neglected).

It must be understood that Eqs. (3.8)–(3.11) are just an approximation which

is generally found to hold under terrestrial conditions (provided that the ﬁelds are

not too large) for isotropic media. For anisotropic media (e.g., crystals) Eq. (3.9)

generalizes to

D =

0

E, (3.12)

where is a second rank tensor known as the dielectric tensor. For strong elec-

tric ﬁelds D ceases to vary linearly with E. Indeed, for suﬃciently strong elec-

tric ﬁelds neutral molecules are disrupted and the whole concept of a dielectric

medium becomes meaningless.

3.2 Boundary conditions for E and D

When the space near a set of charges contains dielectric material of non-uniform

dielectric constant then the electric ﬁeld no longer has the same form as in vac-

uum. Suppose, for example, that the space is occupied by two dielectric media

whose uniform dielectric constants are

1

and

2

. What are the matching condi-

tions on E and D at the boundary between the two media?

Imagine a Gaussian pill-box enclosing part of the boundary surface between

the two media. The thickness of the pill-box is allowed to tend towards zero, so

that the only contribution to the outward ﬂux of D comes from its ﬂat faces.

These faces are parallel to the bounding surface and lie in each of the two media.

Their outward normals are dS

1

(in medium 1) and dS

2

, where dS

1

= −dS

2

.

Assuming that there is no free charge inside the disk (which is reasonable in the

86

limit where the volume of the disk tends towards zero), then Eq. (3.7) yields

D

1

dS

1

+D

2

dS

2

= 0, (3.13)

where D

1

is the electric displacement in medium 1 at the boundary with medium

2, etc. The above equation can be rewritten

(D

2

−D

1

)n

21

= 0, (3.14)

where n

21

is the normal to the boundary surface, directed from medium 1 to

medium 2. If the ﬁelds and charges are non time varying then Maxwell’s equa-

tions yield ∇∧E = 0, which give the familiar boundary condition (obtained by

integrating around a small loop which straddles the boundary surface)

(E

2

−E

1

) ∧ n

21

= 0. (3.15)

In other word, the normal component of the electric displacement and the tan-

gential component of the electric ﬁeld are both continuous across any boundary

between two dielectric materials.

3.3 Boundary value problems with dielectrics - I

Consider a point charge q embedded in a semi-inﬁnite dielectric

1

a distance d

away from a plane interface which separates the ﬁrst medium from another semi-

inﬁnite dielectric

2

. The interface is assumed to coincide with the plane z = 0.

We need to ﬁnd solutions to the equations

1

∇E =

ρ

0

(3.16)

for z > 0,

2

∇E = 0 (3.17)

for z < 0, and

∇∧ E = 0 (3.18)

87

A A

q q

P

/

/ d d

R

1

2

R

ε ε

1 2

z = 0

z ->

everywhere, subject to the boundary conditions at z = 0 that

1

E

z

(z = 0

+

) =

2

E

z

(z = 0

−

), (3.19a)

E

x

(z = 0

+

) = E

x

(z = 0

−

), (3.19b)

E

y

(z = 0

+

) = E

y

(z = 0

−

). (3.19c)

In order to solve this problem we will employ a slightly modiﬁed form of the

well known method of images. Since ∇∧E = 0 everywhere, the electric ﬁeld can

be written in terms of a scalar potential. So, E = −∇φ. Consider the region

z > 0. Let us assume that the scalar potential in this region is the same as that

obtained when the whole of space is ﬁlled with the dielectric

1

and, in addition to

the real charge q at position A, there is a second charge q

**at the image position
**

A

**(see diagram). If this is the case then the potential at some point P in the
**

region z > 0 is given by

φ(z > 0) =

1

4π

0

1

q

R

1

+

q

R

2

, (3.20)

where R

1

=

ρ

2

+ (d −z)

2

and R

2

=

ρ

2

+ (d +z)

2

, when written in terms of

cylindrical polar coordinates (ρ, ϕ, z). Note that the potential (3.20) clearly is a

88

solution of Eq. (3.16) in the region z > 0. It gives ∇E = 0, with the appropriate

singularity at the position of the point charge q.

Consider the region z < 0. Let us assume that the scalar potential in this

region is the same as that obtained when the whole of space is ﬁlled with the

dielectric

2

and a charge q

**is located at the point A. If this is the case then the
**

potential in this region is given by

φ(z < 0) =

1

4π

0

2

q

R

1

. (3.21)

The above potential is clearly a solution of Eq. (3.17) in the region z < 0. It gives

∇E = 0, with no singularities.

It now remains to choose q

and q

**in such a manner that the boundary
**

conditions (3.19) are satisﬁed. The boundary conditions (3.19b) and (3.19c) are

obviously satisﬁed if the scalar potential is continuous at the interface between

the two dielectric media:

φ(z = 0

+

) = φ(z = 0

−

). (3.22)

The boundary condition (3.19a) implies a jump in the normal derivative of the

scalar potential across the interface:

1

∂φ(z = 0

+

)

∂z

=

2

∂φ(z = 0

−

)

∂z

. (3.23)

The ﬁrst matching condition yields

q +q

1

=

q

2

, (3.24)

whereas the second yields

q −q

= q

. (3.25)

Here, use has been made of

∂

∂z

1

R

1

z=0

= −

∂

∂z

1

R

2

z=0

=

d

(ρ

2

+d

2

)

3/2

. (3.26)

89

Equations (3.24) and (3.25) imply that

q

= −

2

−

1

2

+

1

q, (3.27a)

q

=

2

2

2

+

1

q. (3.27b)

The polarization charge density is given by ρ

b

= −∇ P, However, inside

either dielectric P =

0

χ

e

E, so ∇P =

0

χ

e

∇E = 0, except at the point charge

q. Thus, there is zero polarization charge density in either dielectric medium. At

the interface χ

e

takes a discontinuous jump,

∆χ

e

=

1

−

2

. (3.28)

This implies that there is a polarization charge sheet on the interface between

the two dielectric media. In fact,

σ

pol

= −(P

2

−P

1

)n

21

, (3.29)

where n

21

is a unit normal to the interface pointing from medium 1 to medium

2 (i.e., along the positive z-axis). Since

P

i

=

0

(

i

−1)E = −

0

(

i

−1)∇φ (3.30)

in either medium, it is easy to demonstrate that

σ

pol

= −

q

2π

2

−

1

1

(

2

+

1

)

d

(ρ

2

+d

2

)

3/2

. (3.31)

In the limit

2

1

, the dielectric

2

behaves like a conducting medium (i.e.,

E → 0 in the region z < 0), and the polarization surface charge density on the

interface approaches that obtained in the case when the plane z = 0 coincides

with a conducting surface.

The above method can clearly be generalized to deal with problems involving

many point charges in the presence of many diﬀerent dielectric media whose

interfaces form parallel planes.

90

z = 0

z = b

E E E

0 0 1

ε

3.4 Boundary value problems with dielectrics - II

Consider a plane slab of dielectric lying between z = 0 and z = b. Suppose that

this slab is placed in a uniform z-directed electric ﬁeld of strength E

0

. What is

the ﬁeld strength E

1

inside the slab?

Since there are no free charges and this is a one-dimensional problem, it is

clear from Eq. (3.5) that the electric displacement D is the same in both the

dielectric slab and the vacuum region which surrounds it. In the vacuum region

D =

0

E

0

, whereas D =

0

E

1

in the dielectric. It follows that

E

1

=

E

0

. (3.32)

In other words, the electric ﬁeld inside the slab is reduced by polarization charges.

As before, there is zero polarization charge density inside the dielectric. However,

there is a uniform polarization charge sheet on both surfaces of the slab. It is

easily demonstrated that

σ

pol

(z = b) = −σ

pol

(z = 0) =

0

E

0

−1

. (3.33)

In the limit 1, the slab acts like a conductor and E

1

→0.

91

Let us now generalize this result. Consider a dielectric medium whose dielec-

tric constant varies with z. The medium is assumed to be of ﬁnite extent and

is surrounded by a vacuum, so that (z) → 1 as [z[ → ∞. Suppose that this

dielectric is placed in a uniform z-directed electric ﬁeld E

0

. What is the ﬁeld

E(z) inside the dielectric?

We know that the electric displacement inside the dielectric is given by D(z) =

0

(z) E(z). We also know from Eq. (3.5) that, since there are no free charges

and this is a one-dimensional problem,

dD(z)

dz

=

0

d[(z)E(z)]

dz

= 0. (3.34)

Furthermore, E(z) →E

0

as [z[ →∞. It follows that

E(z) =

E

0

(z)

. (3.35)

Thus, the electric ﬁeld is inversely proportional to the dielectric constant inside

the dielectric medium. The polarization charge density inside the dielectric is

given by

ρ

b

=

0

dE(z)

dz

=

0

E

0

d

dz

¸

1

(z)

. (3.36)

3.5 Boundary value problems with dielectrics - III

Suppose that a dielectric sphere of radius a and dielectric constant is placed in

a z-directed electric ﬁeld of strength E

0

(in the absence of the sphere). What is

the electric ﬁeld inside and around the sphere?

Since this is a static problem we can write E = −∇φ. There are no free

charges, so Eqs. (3.5) and (3.9) imply that

∇

2

φ = 0 (3.37)

everywhere. The boundary conditions (3.14) and (3.15) reduce to

∂φ

∂r

r=a

−

=

∂φ

∂r

r=a

+

, (3.38a)

92

∂φ

∂θ

r=a

−

=

∂φ

∂θ

r=a

+

. (3.38b)

Furthermore,

φ(r, θ, ϕ) →−E

0

r cos θ (3.39)

as r →0. Here, (r, θ, ϕ) are spherical polar coordinates centred on the sphere.

Let us search for an axisymmetric solution, φ = φ(r, θ). Since the solutions

to Poisson’s equation are unique, we know that if we can ﬁnd such a solution

which satisﬁes all of the boundary conditions then we can be sure that this is the

correct solution. Equation (3.37) reduces to

1

r

∂

2

(rφ)

∂r

2

+

1

r

2

sinθ

∂

∂θ

sinθ

∂φ

∂θ

= 0. (3.40)

Straightforward separation of the variables yields

φ(r, θ) =

∞

¸

l=0

(A

l

r

l

+B

l

r

−(l+1)

)P

l

(cos θ), (3.41)

where l is a non-negative integer, the A

l

and B

l

are arbitrary constants, and P

l

(x)

is a solution to Legendre’s equation,

d

dx

¸

(1 −x

2

)

dP

l

dx

+l(l + 1) P

l

= 0, (3.42)

which is single-valued, ﬁnite, and continuous in the interval −1 ≤ x ≤ +1. It

can be demonstrated that Eq. (3.42) only possesses such solutions when l takes

an integer value. The P

l

(x) are known as Legendre polynomials (since they are

polynomials of order l in x), and are speciﬁed by Rodrigues’ formula

P

l

(x) =

1

2

l

l!

d

l

dx

l

(x

2

−1)

l

. (3.43)

Since Eq. (3.42) is a Sturm-Liouville type equation, and the Legendre polynomi-

als satisfy Sturm-Liouville type boundary conditions at x = ±1, it immediately

93

follows that the P

l

(cos θ) are orthogonal functions which form a complete set in

θ-space. The orthogonality relation can be written

1

−1

P

l

(x)P

l

(x) dx =

2

2l + 1

δ

ll

. (3.44)

The Legendre polynomials form a complete set of angular functions, and it

is easily demonstrated that the r

l

and the r

−(l+1)

form a complete set of radial

functions. It follows that Eq. (3.41), with the A

l

and B

l

unspeciﬁed, represents a

completely general axisymmetric solution of Eq. (3.37) which is well behaved in

θ-space. We now need to ﬁnd values of the A

l

and B

l

which are consistent with

the boundary conditions.

Let us divide space into the regions r ≤ a and r > a. In the former region

φ(r, θ) =

∞

¸

l=0

A

l

r

l

P

l

(cos θ), (3.45)

where we have rejected the r

−(l+1)

radial solutions because they diverge unphys-

ically as r →0. In the latter region

φ(r, θ) =

∞

¸

l=0

(B

l

r

l

+C

l

r

−(l+1)

)P

l

(cos θ). (3.46)

However, it is clear from the boundary condition (3.39), and Eq. (3.43), that the

only non-vanishing B

l

is B

1

= −E

0

. This follows since P

1

(cos θ) = cos θ. The

boundary condition (3.38b) (which integrates to give φ(r = a

−

) = φ(r = a

+

) for

a potential which is well behaved in θ-space) gives

A

1

= −E

0

+

C

1

a

3

, (3.47)

and

A

l

=

C

l

a

2l+1

(3.48)

for l = 1. Note that it is appropriate to match the coeﬃcients of the P

l

(cos θ)

since these functions are orthogonal. The boundary condition (3.38a) yields

A

1

= −E

0

−2

C

1

a

3

, (3.49)

94

and

l A

l

= −(l + 1)

C

l

a

2l+1

(3.50)

for l = 1. Equations (3.48) and (3.50) give A

l

= C

l

= 0 for l = 1. Equations (3.47)

and (3.49) reduce to

A

1

= −

3

2 +

E

0

, (3.51a)

C

1

=

−1

+ 2

a

3

E

0

. (3.51b)

The solution is therefore

φ = −

3

2 +

E

0

r cos θ (3.52)

for r ≤ a, and

φ = −E

0

r cos θ +

−1

+ 2

E

0

a

3

r

2

cos θ (3.53)

for r > a.

Equation (3.52) is the potential of a uniformz-directed electric ﬁeld of strength

E

1

=

3

2 +

E

0

. (3.54)

Note that E

1

< E

0

provided that > 1. Thus, the electric ﬁeld strength is re-

duced inside the dielectric sphere due to partial shielding by polarization charges.

Outside the sphere the potential is equivalent to that of the applied ﬁeld E

0

plus

the ﬁeld of a point electric dipole, located at the origin and pointing in the z-

direction, whose dipole moment is

p = 4π

0

−1

+ 2

a

3

E

0

. (3.55)

This dipole moment can be interpreted as the volume integral of the polarization

P over the sphere. The polarization is

P =

0

( −1) E

1

ˆ z = 3

0

−1

+ 2

E

0

ˆ z. (3.56)

95

Since the polarization is uniform there is zero polarization charge density inside

the sphere. However, there is a polarization charge sheet on the surface of the

sphere whose density is given by σ

pol

= P ˆ r (see Eq. (3.29) ). It follows that

σ

pol

= 3

0

−1

+ 2

E

0

cos θ. (3.57)

The problem of a dielectric cavity of radius a in a dielectric medium with

dielectric constant and with an applied electric ﬁeld E

0

parallel to the z-axis

can be treated in much the same manner as that of a dielectric sphere. In fact, it

is easily demonstrated that the results for the cavity can be obtained from those

for the sphere by making the transformation → 1/. Thus, the ﬁeld inside the

cavity is uniform, parallel to the z-axis, and of magnitude

E

1

=

3

2 + 1

E

0

. (3.58)

Note that E

1

> E

0

provided that > 1. The ﬁeld outside the cavity is the

original ﬁeld plus that of a z-directed dipole, located at the origin, whose dipole

moment is

p = −4π

0

−1

2 + 1

a

3

E

0

. (3.59)

Here, the negative sign implies that the dipole points in the opposite direction to

the external ﬁeld.

3.6 The energy density within a dielectric medium

Consider a system of free charges embedded in a dielectric medium. The increase

in the total energy when a small amount of free charge δρ

f

is added to the system

is given by

δU =

φδρ

f

d

3

r, (3.60)

where the integral is taken over all space and φ(r) is the electrostatic potential.

Here, it is assumed that the original charges and the dielectric are held ﬁxed, so

96

that no mechanical work is performed. It follows from Eq. (3.5) that

δU =

φ∇δDd

3

r, (3.61)

where δD is the change in the electric displacement associated with the charge

increment. Now the above equation can also be written

δU =

∇(φδD) d

3

r −

∇φδDd

3

r, (3.62)

giving

δU =

φδDdS −

∇φδDd

3

r, (3.63)

where use has been made of Gauss’s theorem. If the dielectric medium is of ﬁnite

spatial extent then we can neglect the surface term to give

δU = −

∇φδDd

3

r =

EδDd

3

r. (3.64)

This energy increment cannot be integrated unless E is a known function of D.

Let us adopt the conventional approach and assume that D =

0

E, where the

dielectric constant is independent of the electric ﬁeld. The change in energy

associated with taking the displacement ﬁeld from zero to D(r) at all points in

space is given by

U =

D

0

δU =

D

0

EδDd

3

r, (3.65)

or

U =

E

0

0

δ(E

2

)

2

d

3

r =

1

2

0

E

2

d

3

r, (3.66)

which reduces to

U =

1

2

EDd

3

r. (3.67)

Thus, the electrostatic energy density inside a dielectric is given by

W =

ED

2

. (3.68)

This is a standard result which is often quoted in textbooks. Nevertheless, it is

important to realize that the above formula is only valid in dielectric media in

which the electric displacement D varies linearly with the electric ﬁeld E.

97

3.7 The force density within a dielectric medium

Equation (3.67) was derived by considering a virtual process in which true charges

are added to a system of charges and dielectrics which are held ﬁxed, so that no

mechanical work is done against physical displacements. Let us now consider

a diﬀerent virtual process in which the physical coordinates of the charges and

dielectric are given a virtual displacement δr at each point in space, but no free

charges are added to the system. Since we are dealing with a conservative system,

the energy expression (3.67) can still be employed, despite the fact that it was

derived in terms of another virtual process. The variation in the total electrostatic

energy δU when the system undergoes a virtual displacement δr is related to the

electrostatic force density f acting within the dielectric medium via

δU = −

fδr d

3

r. (3.69)

If the medium is moving with a velocity ﬁeld u then the rate at which electrostatic

energy is drained from the E and D ﬁelds is given by

dU

dt

= −

fud

3

r. (3.70)

Let us now consider the energy increment due to both a change δρ

f

in the

free charge distribution and a change δ in the dielectric constant, caused by the

displacements. From Eq. (3.67)

δU =

1

2

0

D

2

δ(1/) + 2DδD/

d

3

r, (3.71)

or

δU = −

0

2

E

2

δ d

3

r +

EδDd

3

r. (3.72)

Here, the ﬁrst term represents the energy increment due to the change in dielec-

tric constant associated with the virtual displacements, whereas the second term

corresponds to the energy increment caused by displacements of the free charges.

The second term can be written

EδDd

3

r = −

∇φδDd

3

r =

φ∇δDd

3

r =

φδρ

f

d

3

r, (3.73)

98

where surface terms have been neglected. Thus, Eq. (3.72) implies that

dU

dt

=

φ

∂ρ

f

∂t

−

0

2

E

2

∂

∂t

d

3

r. (3.74)

In order to arrive at an expression for the force density f we need to express

the time derivatives ∂ρ/∂t and ∂/∂t in terms of the velocity ﬁeld u. This can be

achieved by adopting a dielectric equation of state; i.e., a relation which gives the

dependence of the dielectric constant on the mass density ρ

m

. Let us assume

that (ρ

m

) is a known function. It follows that

D

Dt

=

d

dρ

m

Dρ

m

Dt

, (3.75)

where

D

Dt

≡

∂

∂t

+u∇ (3.76)

is the total time derivative (i.e., the time derivative in a frame of reference which is

locally co-moving with the dielectric.) The hydrodynamic equation of continuity

of the dielectric is

∂ρ

m

∂t

+∇(ρ

m

u) = 0, (3.77)

which implies that

Dρ

m

Dt

= −ρ

m

∇u. (3.78)

It follows that

∂

∂t

= −

d

dρ

m

ρ

m

∇u −u∇. (3.79)

The conservation equation for the free charges is written

∂ρ

f

∂t

+∇(ρ

f

u) = 0. (3.80)

Thus, we can express Eq. (3.74) in the form

dU

dt

=

¸

−φ∇(ρ

f

u) +

0

2

E

2

d

dρ

m

ρ

m

∇u +

0

2

E

2

∇

u

d

3

r. (3.81)

99

Integrating the ﬁrst term by parts and neglecting any surface contributions, we

obtain

−

φ∇(ρ

f

u) d

3

r =

ρ

f

∇φud

3

r. (3.82)

Likewise,

0

2

E

2

d

dρ

m

ρ

m

∇ud

3

r = −

0

2

∇

E

2

d

dρ

m

ρ

m

ud

3

r. (3.83)

Thus, Eq. (3.81) becomes

dU

dt

=

¸

−ρ

f

E +

0

2

E

2

∇ −

0

2

∇

E

2

d

dρ

m

ρ

m

ud

3

r. (3.84)

Comparing with Eq. (3.70), we see that the force density inside the dielectric is

given by

f = ρ

f

E −

0

2

E

2

∇ +

0

2

∇

E

2

d

dρ

m

ρ

m

. (3.85)

The ﬁrst term in the above equation is the standard electrostatic force density.

The second term represents a force which appears whenever an inhomogeneous

dielectric is placed in an electric ﬁeld. The last term, known as the electrostriction

term, gives a force acting on a dielectric in an inhomogeneous electric ﬁeld. Note

that the magnitude of the electrostriction force depends explicitly on the dielectric

equation of state of the material, through d/dρ

m

. The electrostriction term gives

zero net force acting on any ﬁnite region of dielectric if we can integrate over a

large enough portion of the dielectric that its extremities lie in a ﬁeld free region.

For this reason the term is frequently omitted, since in the calculation of the total

forces acting on dielectric bodies it usually does not contribute. Note, however,

that if the electrostriction term is omitted an incorrect pressure variation within

the dielectric is obtained, even though the total force is given correctly.

3.8 The Clausius-Mossotti relation

Let us now investigate what a dielectric equation of state actually looks like.

Suppose that a dielectric medium is made up of identical molecules which develop

100

a dipole moment

p = α

0

E (3.86)

when placed in an electric ﬁeld E. The constant α is called the molecular polar-

izability. If N is the number density of such molecules then the polarization of

the medium is

P = Np = Nα

0

E, (3.87)

or

P =

N

A

ρ

m

α

M

0

E, (3.88)

where ρ

m

is the mass density, N

A

is Avogadro’s number, and M is the molecular

weight. But, how does the electric ﬁeld experienced by an individual molecule

relate to the average electric ﬁeld in the medium? This is not a trivial question

since we expect the electric ﬁeld to vary strongly (on atomic length-scales) inside

the dielectric.

Suppose that the dielectric is polarized with a mean electric ﬁeld E

0

which is

uniform (on macroscopic length-scales) and directed along the z-axis. Consider

one of the molecules which constitute the dielectric. Let us draw a sphere of ra-

dius a about this particular molecule. This is intended to represent the boundary

between the microscopic and the macroscopic range of phenomena aﬀecting the

molecule. We shall treat the dielectric outside the sphere as a continuous medium

and the dielectric inside the sphere as a collection of polarized molecules. Ac-

cording to Eq. (3.29) there is a polarization surface charge of magnitude

σ

pol

= −P cos θ (3.89)

on the inside of the sphere, where (r, θ, ϕ) are spherical polar coordinates, and

P = P ˆ z =

0

( − 1)E

0

ˆ z is the uniform polarization of the dielectric. The

magnitude of E

z

at the molecule due to the surface charge is

E

z

= −

1

4π

0

σ

pol

cos θ

a

2

dS, (3.90)

where dS = 2πa

2

sinθ dθ is a surface element of the sphere. It follows that

E

z

=

P

2

0

π

0

cos

2

θ sinθ dθ =

P

3

0

. (3.91)

101

It is easily demonstrated that E

θ

= E

ϕ

= 0 at the molecule. Thus, the ﬁeld at

the molecule due to the surface charges on the sphere is

E =

P

3

0

. (3.92)

The ﬁeld due to the individual molecules within the sphere is obtained by

summing over the dipole ﬁelds of these molecules. The electric ﬁeld at a distance

r from a dipole p is

E = −

1

4π

0

¸

p

r

3

−

3(pr)r

r

5

. (3.93)

It is assumed that the dipole moment of each molecule within the sphere is the

same, and also that the molecules are evenly distributed throughout the sphere.

This being the case, the value of E

z

at the molecule due to all of the other

molecules within in the sphere,

E

z

= −

1

4π

0

¸

mols

¸

p

z

r

3

−

3(p

x

xz +p

y

yz +p

z

z

2

)

r

5

, (3.94)

is zero, since

¸

mols

x

2

=

¸

mols

y

2

=

¸

mols

z

2

=

1

3

¸

mols

r

2

(3.95)

and

¸

mols

xy =

¸

mols

yz =

¸

mols

zx = 0. (3.96)

It is easily seen that E

θ

= E

ϕ

= 0. Hence, the electric ﬁeld at the molecule due

to the other molecules within the sphere vanishes.

It is clear that the net electric ﬁeld seen by an individual molecule is

E = E

0

+

P

3

0

. (3.97)

This is larger than the average electric ﬁeld E

0

in the dielectric. The above

analysis indicates that this eﬀect is ascribable to the long range (rather than the

102

short range) interactions of the molecule with the other molecules in the medium.

Making use of Eq. (3.88) and the deﬁnition P =

0

( −1)E

0

, we obtain

−1

+ 2

=

N

A

ρ

m

α

3M

. (3.98)

This is called the Clausius-Mossotti relation. This formula is found to work pretty

well for a wide class of dielectric liquids and gases. The Clausius-Mossotti relation

yields

d

dρ

m

=

( −1)( + 2)

3ρ

m

. (3.99)

3.9 Dielectric liquids in electrostatic ﬁelds

Consider the behaviour of an uncharged dielectric liquid placed in an electrostatic

ﬁeld. If p is the pressure in the liquid when in equilibrium with the electrostatic

force density f, then force balance requires that

∇p = f. (3.100)

It follows from Eq. (3.85) that

∇p = −

0

2

E

2

∇ +

0

2

∇

E

2

d

dρ

m

ρ

m

=

0

ρ

m

2

∇

E

2

d

dρ

m

. (3.101)

We can integrate this equation to give

p

2

p

1

dp

ρ

m

=

0

2

¸

E

2

d

dρ

m

2

−

¸

E

2

d

dρ

m

1

, (3.102)

where 1 and 2 refer to two general points in the liquid. Here, it is assumed that

the liquid possesses an equation of state, so that p = p(ρ

m

). If the liquid is

essentially incompressible (ρ

m

· constant) then

p

2

−p

1

=

0

ρ

m

2

¸

E

2

d

dρ

m

2

1

. (3.103)

103

Finally, if the liquid obeys the Clausius-Mossotti relation then

p

2

−p

1

=

¸

0

E

2

2

( −1)( + 2)

3

2

1

. (3.104)

According to Eqs. (3.54) and (3.104), if a sphere of dielectric liquid is placed

in a uniform electric ﬁeld E

0

then the pressure inside the liquid takes the constant

value

p =

3

2

0

E

2

0

−1

+ 2

. (3.105)

It is clear that the electrostatic forces acting on the dielectric are all concentrated

at the edge of the sphere and are directed radially inwards; i.e., the dielectric is

compressed by the external electric ﬁeld. This is a somewhat surprising result

since the electrostatic forces acting on a rigid conducting sphere are concentrated

at the edge of the sphere but are directed radially outwards. We might expect

these two cases to give the same result in the limit → ∞. The reason that

this does not occur is because a dielectric liquid is slightly compressible and is,

therefore, subject to an electrostriction force. There is no electrostriction force

for the case of a completely rigid body. In fact, the force density inside a rigid

dielectric (for which ∇ u = 0) is given by Eq. (3.85) with the third term (the

electrostriction term) missing. It is easily seen that the force exerted by an electric

ﬁeld on a rigid dielectric is directed outwards and approaches that exerted on a

rigid conductor in the limit →0.

As is well known, when a pair of charged (parallel plane) capacitor plates are

dipped into a dielectric liquid the liquid is drawn up between the plates to some

extent. Let us examine this eﬀect. We can, without loss of generality, assume

that the transition from dielectric to vacuum takes place in a continuous manner.

Consider the electrostatic pressure diﬀerence between a point A lying just above

the surface of the liquid in between the plates and a point B lying just above the

surface of the liquid well away from the capacitor where E = 0. The pressure

diﬀerence is given by

p

A

−p

B

= −

B

A

fdl. (3.106)

Note, however, that the Clausius-Mossotti relation yields d/dρ

m

= 0 at both A

and B, since = 1 in a vacuum (see Eq. (3.99) ). Thus, it is clear from Eq. (3.85)

104

that the electrostriction term makes no contribution to the line integral (3.106).

It follows that

p

A

−p

B

=

0

2

B

A

E

2

∇dl. (3.107)

The only contribution to this integral comes from the vacuum/dielectric interface

in the vicinity of point A (since is constant inside the liquid, and E = 0 in the

vicinity of point B). Suppose that the electric ﬁeld at point A has normal and

tangential (to the surface) components E

n

and E

t

, respectively. Making use of

the boundary conditions that E

t

and E

n

are constant across a vacuum/dielectric

interface, we obtain

p

A

−p

B

=

0

2

¸

E

2

t

( −1) +

2

E

2

n

()

1

d

2

, (3.108)

giving

p

A

−p

B

=

0

( −1)

2

¸

E

2

t

+

E

2

n

. (3.109)

This electrostatic pressure diﬀerence can be equated to the hydrostatic pressure

diﬀerence ρ

m

g h to determine the height h that the liquid rises between the plates.

At ﬁrst sight, the above analysis appears to suggest that the dielectric liquid

is drawn upward by a surface force acting on the vacuum/dielectric interface

in the region between the plates. In fact, this is far from being the case. A

brief examination of Eq. (3.104) shows that this surface force is actually directed

downwards. According to Eq. (3.85), the force which causes the liquid to rise

between the plates is a volume force which develops in the region of non-uniform

electric ﬁeld at the base of the capacitor, where the ﬁeld splays out between

the plates. Thus, although we can determine the height to which the ﬂuid rises

between the plates without reference to the electrostriction force, it is, somewhat

paradoxically, this force which is actually responsible for supporting the liquid

against gravity.

Let us consider another paradox concerning the electrostatic forces exerted in

a dielectric medium. Suppose that we have two charges embedded in a uniform

dielectric . The electric ﬁeld generated by each charge is the same as that in

vacuum, except that it is reduced by a factor . Therefore, we expect that the

force exerted by one charge on another is the same as that in vacuum, except

105

that it is also reduced by a factor . Let us examine how this reduction in

force comes about. Consider a simple example. Suppose that we take a parallel

plate capacitor and insert a block of solid dielectric between the plates. Suppose,

further, that there is a small vacuum gap between the faces of the block and each

of the capacitor plates. Let ±σ be the surface charge densities on each of the

capacitor plates, and let ±σ

p

be the polarization charge densities which develop on

the outer faces of the intervening dielectric block. The two layers of polarization

charge produce equal and opposite electric ﬁelds on each plate, and their eﬀects

therefore cancel each other. Thus, from the point of view of electrical interaction

alone there would appear to be no change in the force exerted by one capacitor

plate on the other when a dielectric slab is placed between them (assuming that

σ remains constant during this process). That is, the force per unit area (which

is attractive) remains

f

s

=

σ

2

2

0

. (3.110)

However, in experiments in which a capacitor is submerged in a dielectric liquid

the force per unit area exerted by one plate on another is observed to decrease to

f

s

=

σ

2

2

0

. (3.111)

This apparent paradox can be explained by taking into account the diﬀerence

in liquid pressure in the ﬁeld ﬁlled space between the plates and the ﬁeld free

region outside the capacitor. This pressure diﬀerence is balanced by internal

elastic forces in the case of the solid dielectric discussed earlier, but is transmitted

to the plates in the case of the liquid. We can compute the pressure diﬀerence

between a point A on the inside surface of one of the capacitor plates and a point

B on the outside surface of the same plate using Eq. (3.107). If we neglect end

eﬀects then the electric ﬁeld is normal to the plates in the region between the

plates and is zero everywhere else. Thus, the only contribution to the line integral

(3.107) comes from the plate/dielectric interface in the vicinity of point A. Using

Eq. (3.109), we ﬁnd that

p

A

−p

B

=

0

2

1 −

1

E

2

=

σ

2

2

0

1 −

1

, (3.112)

106

where E is the normal ﬁeld strength between the plates in the absence of dielectric.

The sum of this pressure force and the purely electrical force (3.110) yields a net

attractive force per unit area

f

s

=

σ

2

2

0

(3.113)

acting between the plates. Thus, any decrease in the forces exerted by charges

on one another when they are immersed or embedded in some dielectric medium

can only be understood in terms of mechanical forces transmitted between these

charges by the medium itself.

3.10 Magnetization

All matter is built up out of atoms, and each atom consists of electrons in mo-

tion. The currents associated with this motion are termed atomic currents. Each

atomic current is a tiny closed circuit of atomic dimensions, and may therefore

be appropriately described as a magnetic dipole. If the atomic currents of a given

atom all ﬂow in the same plane then the atomic dipole moment is directed normal

to the plane (in the sense given by the right-hand rule) and its magnitude is the

product of the total circulating current and the area of the current loop. More

generally, if j(r) is the atomic current density at the point r then the magnetic

moment of the atom is

m =

1

2

r ∧ j d

3

r, (3.114)

where the integral is over the volume of the atom. If there are N such atoms or

molecules per unit volume then the magnetization M (i.e., the magnetic dipole

moment per unit volume) is given by M = Nm. More generally,

M(r) =

¸

i

N

i

'm

i

`, (3.115)

where 'm

i

` is the average magnetic dipole moment of the ith type of molecule in

the vicinity of point r, and N

i

is the average number of such molecules per unit

volume at r.

Consider a general medium which is made up of molecules which are polar-

izable and possess a net magnetic moment. It is easily demonstrated that any

107

circulation in the magnetization ﬁeld M(r) gives rise to an eﬀective current den-

sity j

m

in the medium. In fact,

j

m

= ∇∧ M. (3.116)

This current density is called the magnetization current density, and is usually

distinguished from the true current density j

t

, which represents the convection

of free charges in the medium. In fact, there is a third type of current called a

polarization current, which is due to the apparent convection of bound charges.

It is easily demonstrated that the polarization current density j

p

is given by

j

p

=

∂P

∂t

. (3.117)

Thus, the total current density j in the medium is given by

j = j

t

+∇∧ M +

∂P

∂t

. (3.118)

It must be emphasized that all terms on the right-hand side of this equation

represent real physical currents, although only the ﬁrst term is due to the motion

of real charges (over more than atomic dimensions).

The Amp`ere-Maxwell equation takes the form

∇∧ B = µ

0

j +µ

0

0

∂E

∂t

, (3.119)

which can also be written

∇∧ B = µ

0

j

t

+µ

0

∇∧ M +µ

0

∂D

∂t

, (3.120)

where use has been made of the deﬁnition D =

0

E +P. The above expression

can be rearranged to give

∇∧ H = j

t

+

∂D

∂t

, (3.121)

where

H =

B

µ

0

−M (3.122)

108

is termed the magnetic intensity, and has the same dimensions as M (i.e., mag-

netic dipole moment per unit volume). In a steady-state situation, Stokes’s the-

orem tell us that

C

Hdl =

S

j

t

dS. (3.123)

In other words, the line integral of H around some closed curve is equal to

the ﬂux of true current through any surface attached to that curve. Unlike the

magnetic ﬁeld B (which speciﬁes the force e v ∧ B acting on a charge e moving

with velocity v) or the magnetization M (the magnetic dipole moment per unit

volume), the magnetic intensity H has no clear physical meaning. The only

reason for introducing it is that it enables us to calculate ﬁelds in the presence of

magnetic materials without ﬁrst having to know the distribution of magnetization

currents. However, this is only possible if we possess a constitutive relation

connecting B and H.

3.11 Magnetic susceptibility and permeability

In a large class of materials there exists an approximately linear relationship

between M and H. If the material is isotropic then

M = χ

m

H, (3.124)

where χ

m

is called the magnetic susceptibility. If χ

m

is positive the material is

called paramagnetic, and the magnetic ﬁeld is strengthened by the presence of

the material. If χ

m

is negative then the material is diamagnetic and the magnetic

ﬁeld is weakened in the presence of the material. The magnetic susceptibilities

of paramagnetic and diamagnetic materials are generally extremely small. A few

sample values are given in Table 1.

10

A linear relationship between M and H also implies a linear relationship

between B and H. In fact, we can write

B = µH, (3.125)

10

Data obtained from the Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, Chemical Rubber Company

Press, Baca Raton, FL

109

Material χ

m

Aluminium 2.3 10

−5

Copper −0.98 10

−5

Diamond −2.2 10

−5

Tungsten 6.8 10

−5

Hydrogen (1 atm) −0.21 10

−8

Oxygen (1 atm) 209.0 10

−8

Nitrogen (1 atm) −0.50 10

−8

Table 1: Magnetic susceptibilities of some paramagnetic and diamagnetic mate-

rials at room temperature

where

µ = µ

0

(1 +χ

m

) (3.126)

is termed the magnetic permeability of the material in question. (Likewise, µ

0

is termed the permeability of free space.) It is clear from Table 1 that the per-

meabilities of common diamagnetic and paramagnetic materials do not diﬀer

substantially from that of free space. In fact, to all intents and purposes the

magnetic properties of such materials can be safely neglected (i.e., µ = µ

0

).

3.12 Ferromagnetism

There is, however, a third class of magnetic materials called ferromagnetic ma-

terials. Such materials are characterized by a possible permanent magnetization,

and generally have a profound eﬀect on magnetic ﬁelds (i.e., µ/µ

0

1). Unfor-

tunately, ferromagnetic materials do not exhibit a linear dependence between M

and H or B and H, so that we cannot employ Eqs. (3.124) and (3.125) with

constant values of χ

m

and µ. It is still expedient to use Eq. (3.125) as the deﬁ-

nition of µ, with µ = µ(H), however this practice can lead to diﬃculties under

certain circumstances. The permeability of a ferromagnetic material, as deﬁned

by Eq. (3.125), can vary through the entire range of possible values from zero

to inﬁnity, and may be either positive or negative. The most sensible approach

is to consider each problem involving ferromagnetic materials separately, try to

110

Figure 2: Magnetization curve and relative permeability of commercial iron (an-

nealed)

determine which region of the B-H diagram is important for the particular case

in hand, and then make approximations appropriate to this region.

First, let us consider an unmagnetized sample of ferromagnetic material. If

the magnetic intensity, which is initially zero, is increased monotonically, then

the B-H relationship traces out a curve such as that shown in Fig. 2. This is

called a magnetization curve. It is evident that the permeabilities µ derived from

the curve (according to the rule µ = B/H) are always positive, and show a wide

range of values. The maximum permeability occurs at the “knee” of the curve.

In some materials this maximum permeability is as large as 10

5

µ

0

. The reason

for the knee in the curve is that the magnetization M reaches a maximum value

in the material, so that

B = µ

0

(H +M) (3.127)

111

-H H

B

R

C

Figure 3: Typical hysteresis loop of a ferromagnetic material

continues to increase at large H only because of the µ

0

H term. The maximum

value of M is called the saturation magnetization of the material.

Next, consider a ferromagnetic sample magnetized by the above procedure.

If the magnetic intensity H is decreased, the B-H relation does not follow back

down the curve of Fig. 2, but instead moves along a new curve, shown in Fig. 3,

to the point R. The magnetization, once established, does not disappear with

the removal of H. In fact, it takes a reversed magnetic intensity to reduce the

magnetization to zero. If H continues to build up in the reversed direction, then

M (and hence B) becomes increasingly negative. Finally, when H increases

again the operating point follows the lower curve of Fig. 3. Thus, the B-H curve

for increasing H is quite diﬀerent to that for decreasing H. This phenomenon is

known as hysteresis.

The curve of Fig. 3 is called the hysteresis loop of the material in question. The

value of B at the point R is called the retentivity or remanence. The magnitude

of H at the point C is called the coercivity. It is evident that µ is negative in the

112

second and fourth quadrants of the diagram and positive in the ﬁrst and third

quadrants. The shape of the hysteresis loop depends not only on the nature of the

ferromagnetic material but also on the maximum value of H to which the material

is subjected. However, once this maximum value, H

max

, becomes suﬃcient to

produce saturation in the material the hysteresis loop does not change shape with

any further increase in H

max

.

Ferromagnetic materials are used either to channel magnetic ﬂux (e.g., around

transformer circuits) or as sources of magnetic ﬁeld (permanent magnets). For

use as a permanent magnet, the material is ﬁrst magnetized by placing it in a

strong magnetic ﬁeld. However, once the magnet is removed from the external

ﬁeld it is subject to a demagnetizing H. Thus, it is vitally important that a

permanent magnet should possess both a large remanence and a large coercivity.

As will become clear later on, it is generally a good idea for the ferromagnetic

materials used to channel magnetic ﬂux around transformer circuits to possess

small remanences and small coercivities.

3.13 Boundary conditions for B and H

What are the matching conditions for B and H at the boundary between two

media? The governing equations for a steady state situation are

∇B = 0, (3.128)

and

∇∧ H = j

t

. (3.129)

Integrating Eq. (3.128) over a Gaussian pill-box enclosing part of the boundary

surface between the two media gives

(B

2

−B

1

)n

21

= 0, (3.130)

where n

21

is the unit normal to this surface directed from medium 1 to medium

2. Integrating Eq. (3.129) around a small loop which straddles the boundary

surface yields

(H

2

−H

1

) ∧ n

21

= 0, (3.131)

113

assuming that there is no true current sheet ﬂowing in this surface. In general,

there is a magnetization current sheet ﬂowing in the boundary surface whose

density is given by

J

m

= n

21

∧ (M

2

−M

1

), (3.132)

where M

1

is the magnetization in medium 1 at the boundary, etc. It is clear that

the normal component of the magnetic ﬁeld and the tangential component of the

magnetic intensity are both continuous across any boundary between magnetic

materials.

3.14 Permanent ferromagnets

Let us consider the magnetic ﬁeld generated by a distribution of permanent ferro-

magnets. Let us suppose that the magnets in question are suﬃciently “hard” that

their magnetization is essentially independent of the applied ﬁeld for moderate

ﬁeld strengths. Such magnets can be treated as if they contain a ﬁxed, speciﬁed

magnetization M(r).

Let us assume that there are no true currents in the problem, so that j

t

= 0.

Let us also assume that we are dealing with a steady state situation. Under these

circumstances Eq. (3.121) reduces to

∇∧ H = 0. (3.133)

It follows that we can write

H = −∇φ

m

, (3.134)

where φ

m

is called the magnetic scalar potential. Now, we know that

∇B = µ

0

∇(H +M) = 0. (3.135)

Equations (3.134) and (3.135) combine to give

∇

2

φ

m

= −ρ

m

, (3.136)

where

ρ

m

= −∇M. (3.137)

114

Thus, the magnetostatic ﬁeld H is determined by Poisson’s equation. We can

think of ρ

m

as an eﬀective magnetic charge density. Of course, this magnetic

charge has no physical reality. We have only introduced it in order to make

the problem of the steady magnetic ﬁeld generated by a set of permanent mag-

nets look formally the same as that of the steady electric ﬁeld generated by a

distribution of charges.

The unique solution of Poisson’s equation, subject to sensible boundary con-

ditions at inﬁnity, is well known:

φ

m

(r) =

1

4π

ρ

m

(r

)

[r −r

[

d

3

r

. (3.138)

This yields

φ

m

(r) = −

1

4π

∇

M(r

)

[r −r

[

d

3

r

. (3.139)

If the magnetization ﬁeld M(r) is well behaved and localized we can integrate

by parts to obtain

φ

m

(r) =

1

4π

M(r

)∇

1

[r −r

[

d

3

r

. (3.140)

Now

∇

1

[r −r

[

= −∇

1

[r −r

[

, (3.141)

so our expression for the magnetic potential can be written

φ

m

(r) = −

1

4π

∇

M(r

)

[r −r

[

d

3

r

. (3.142)

Far from the region of non-vanishing magnetization the potential reduces to

φ

m

(r) · −∇

1

4πr

M(r

) d

3

r

·

m r

4πr

3

, (3.143)

where m =

M d

3

r is the total magnetic moment of the distribution. This

is the scalar potential of a dipole. Thus, an arbitrary localized distribution of

115

magnetization asymptotically produces a dipole magnetic ﬁeld whose strength is

determined by the net magnetic moment of the distribution.

It is often a good approximation to treat the magnetization ﬁeld M(r) as a

discontinuous quantity. In other words, M(r) is speciﬁed throughout the “hard”

ferromagnets in question, and suddenly falls to zero at the boundaries of these

magnets. Integrating Eq. (3.137) over a Gaussian pill-box which straddles one

of these boundaries leads to the conclusion that there is an eﬀective magnetic

surface charge density,

σ

m

= nM, (3.144)

on the surface of the ferromagnets, where M is the surface magnetization, and

n is a unit outward directed normal to the surface. Under these circumstances

Eq. (3.139) yields

φ

m

(r) = −

1

4π

V

∇

M(r

)

[r −r

[

d

3

r

+

1

4π

S

M(r

)dS

[r −r

[

, (3.145)

where V represents the volume occupied by the magnets and S is the bounding

surface to V . Here, dS is an outward directed volume element to S. It is clear

that Eq. (3.145) consists of a volume integral involving the volume magnetic

charges ρ

m

= −∇M and a surface integral involving the surface magnetic charges

σ

m

= nM. If the magnetization is uniform throughout the volume V then the

ﬁrst term in the above expression vanishes and only the surface integral makes a

contribution.

We can also write B = ∇∧ A in order to satisfy ∇B = 0 automatically. It

follows from Eqs. (3.121) and (3.122) that

∇∧ H = ∇∧ (B/µ

0

−M) = 0, (3.146)

which gives

∇

2

A = −µ

0

j

m

, (3.147)

since j

m

= ∇ ∧ M. The unique solution to Eq. (3.147), subject to sensible

boundary conditions at inﬁnity, is very well known:

A(r) =

µ

0

4π

j

m

(r

)

[r −r

[

d

3

r

. (3.148)

116

Thus,

A(r) =

µ

0

4π

∇

∧ M(r

)

[r −r

[

d

3

r

. (3.149)

If the magnetization ﬁeld is discontinuous it is necessary to add a surface

integral to the above expression. It is straightforward to show that

A(r) =

µ

0

4π

V

∇

∧ M(r

)

[r −r

[

d

3

r

+

µ

0

4π

S

M(r

) ∧ dS

[r −r

[

. (3.150)

It is clear that the above expression consists of a volume integral involving the

volume magnetization currents j

m

= ∇ ∧ M and a surface integral involving

the surface magnetization currents J

m

= M ∧ n (see Eq. (3.132) ). If the mag-

netization ﬁeld is uniform throughout V then only the surface integral makes a

contribution.

3.15 A uniformly magnetized sphere

Consider a sphere of radius a, with a uniform permanent magnetization M =

M

0

ˆ z, surrounded by a vacuum region. The simplest way of solving this problem

is in terms of the scalar magnetic potential introduced in Eq. (3.134). From

Eqs. (3.136) and (3.137), it is clear that φ

m

satisﬁes Laplace’s equation,

∇

2

φ

m

= 0, (3.151)

since there is zero volume magnetic charge density in a vacuum or a uniformly

magnetized magnetic medium. However, according to Eq. (3.144), there is a

magnetic surface charge density,

σ

m

= ˆ rM = M

0

cos θ, (3.152)

on the surface of the sphere. One of the matching conditions at the surface of

the sphere is that the tangential component of H must be continuous. It follows

from Eq. (3.134) that the scalar magnetic potential must be continuous at r = a,

so that

φ

m

(r = a

+

) = φ

m

(r = a

−

). (3.153)

117

Integrating Eq. (3.136) over a Gaussian pill-box straddling the surface of the

sphere yields

¸

∂φ

m

∂r

r=a+

r=a−

= −σ

m

= −M

0

cos θ. (3.154)

In other words, the magnetic charge sheet on the surface of the sphere gives rise

to a discontinuity in the radial gradient of the magnetic scalar potential at r = a.

The most general axisymmetric solution to Eq. (3.151) which satisﬁes physical

boundary conditions at r = a and r = ∞ is

φ

m

(r, θ) =

∞

¸

l=0

A

l

r

l

P

l

(cos θ) (3.155)

for r < a, and

φ

m

(r, θ) =

∞

¸

l=0

B

l

r

−(l+1)

P

l

(cos θ) (3.156)

for r ≥ a. The boundary condition (3.153) yields

B

l

= A

l

a

2l+1

(3.157)

for all l. The boundary condition (3.154) gives

−

(l + 1) B

l

a

l+2

−lA

l

a

l−1

= −M

0

δ

l1

(3.158)

for all l, since P

l

(cos θ) = cos θ. It follows that

A

l

= B

l

= 0 (3.159)

for l = 1, and

A

1

=

M

0

3

, (3.160a)

B

1

=

M

0

a

3

3

. (3.160b)

118

Thus,

φ

m

(r, θ) =

M

0

a

2

3

r

a

2

cos θ (3.161)

for r < a, and

φ

m

(r, θ) =

M

0

a

2

3

a

r

2

cos θ (3.162)

for r ≥ a. Since there is a uniqueness theorem associated with Poisson’s equation,

we can be sure that this axisymmetric potential is the only solution to the problem

which satisﬁes physical boundary conditions at r = 0 and inﬁnity.

In the vacuum region outside the sphere

B = µ

0

H = −µ

0

∇φ

m

. (3.163)

It is easily demonstrated from Eq. (3.162) that

B(r > a) =

µ

0

4π

¸

−

m

r

3

+

3(mr) r

r

5

, (3.164)

where

m =

4

3

πa

3

M. (3.165)

This, of course, is the magnetic ﬁeld of a magnetic dipole m. Not surprisingly,

the net dipole moment of the sphere is equal to the integral of the magnetization

M (which is the dipole moment per unit volume) over the volume of the sphere.

Inside the sphere we have H = −∇φ

m

and B = µ

0

(H +M), giving

H = −

M

3

, (3.166)

and

B =

2

3

µ

0

M. (3.167)

Thus, both the H and B ﬁelds are uniform inside the sphere. Note that the

magnetic intensity is oppositely directed to the magnetization. In other words,

the H ﬁeld acts to demagnetize the sphere. How successful it is at achieving

119

operating point

B

R

−µ

0

µ

= -2

H

C

B-H curve

-H

B

0

0

µ

0

Figure 4: Schematic demagnetization curve for a permanent magnet

this depends on the shape of the hysteresis curve in the negative H and posi-

tive B quadrant. This curve is sometimes called the demagnetization curve of

the magnetic material which makes up the sphere. Figure 4 shows a schematic

demagnetization curve. The curve is characterized by two quantities: the reten-

tivity B

R

(i.e., the residual magnetic ﬁeld strength at zero magnetic intensity)

and the coercivity µ

0

H

c

(i.e., the negative magnetic intensity required to demag-

netize the material: this quantity is conventionally multiplied by µ

0

to give it the

units of magnetic ﬁeld strength). The operating point (i.e., the values of B and

µ

0

H inside the sphere) is obtained from the intersection of the demagnetization

curve and the curve B = µH. It is clear from Eqs. (3.166) and (3.167) that

µ = −2 µ

0

(3.168)

for a uniformly magnetized sphere in the absence of external ﬁelds. The magne-

tization inside the sphere is easily calculated once the operating point has been

determined. In fact, M

0

= B −µ

0

H. It is clear from Fig. 4 that for a magnetic

material to be a good permanent magnet it must possess both a large retentivity

and a large coercivity. A material with a large retentivity but a small coercivity

120

is unable to retain a signiﬁcant magnetization in the absence of a strong external

magnetizing ﬁeld.

3.16 A soft iron sphere in a uniform magnetic ﬁeld

The opposite extreme to a “hard” ferromagnetic material, which can maintain a

large remnant magnetization in the absence of external ﬁelds, is a “soft” ferro-

magnetic material, for which the remnant magnetization is relatively small. Let

us consider a somewhat idealized situation in which the remnant magnetization

is negligible. In this situation there is no hysteresis, so the B-H relation for the

material reduces to

B = µ(B) H, (3.169)

where µ(B) is a single valued function. The most commonly occurring “soft”

ferromagnetic material is soft iron (i.e., annealed, low impurity iron).

Consider a sphere of soft iron placed in an initially uniform external ﬁeld

B

0

= B

0

ˆ z. The µ

0

H and B ﬁelds inside the sphere are most easily obtained

by taking the solutions (3.166) and (3.167) (which are still valid in this case),

and superimposing on them the uniform ﬁeld B

0

. We are justiﬁed in doing this

because the equations which govern magnetostatic problems are linear. Thus,

inside the sphere we have

µ

0

H = B

0

−

1

3

µ

0

M, (3.170a)

B = B

0

+

2

3

µ

0

M. (3.170b)

Combining Eqs. (3.169) and (3.170) yields

µ

0

M = 3

µ −µ

0

µ + 2µ

0

B

0

, (3.171)

with

B =

3µ

µ + 2µ

0

B

0

, (3.172)

121

where, in general, µ = µ(B). Clearly, for a highly permeable material (i.e.,

µ/µ

0

1, which is certainly the case for soft iron) the magnetic ﬁeld strength

inside the sphere is approximately three times that of the externally applied ﬁeld.

In other words, the magnetic ﬁeld is ampliﬁed inside the sphere.

The ampliﬁcation of the magnetic ﬁeld by a factor three in the high perme-

ability limit is speciﬁc to a sphere. It can be shown that for elongated objects

(e.g., rods), aligned along the direction of the external ﬁeld, the ampliﬁcation

factor can be considerably larger than this.

It is important to realize that the magnetization inside a ferromagnetic mate-

rial cannot increase without limit. The maximum possible value of M is called the

saturation magnetization, and is usually denoted M

s

. Most ferromagnetic mate-

rials saturate when they are placed in external magnetic ﬁelds whose strengths

are greater than, or of order, one tesla. Suppose that our soft iron sphere ﬁrst

attains the saturation magnetization when the unperturbed external magnetic

ﬁeld strength is B

s

. It follows from (3.170b) and (3.171) (with µ µ

0

) that

B = B

0

+ 2B

s

(3.173)

inside the sphere, for B

0

> B

s

. In this case, the ﬁeld ampliﬁcation factor is

B

B

0

= 1 + 2

B

s

B

0

. (3.174)

Thus, for B

0

B

s

the ampliﬁcation factor approaches unity. We conclude that

if a ferromagnetic material is placed in an external ﬁeld which greatly exceeds

that required to cause saturation then the material eﬀectively loses its magnetic

properties, so that µ · µ

0

. Clearly, it is very important to avoid saturating the

soft magnets used to channel magnetic ﬂux around transformer circuits. This sets

an upper limit on the magnetic ﬁeld strengths which can occur in such circuits.

3.17 Magnetic shielding

There are many situations, particularly in experimental physics, where it is de-

sirable to shield a certain region from magnetic ﬁelds. This can be achieved by

122

surrounding the region in question by a material of high permeability. It is vitally

important that a material used as a magnetic shield does not develop a permanent

magnetization in the presence of external ﬁelds, otherwise the material itself may

become a source of magnetic ﬁelds. The most eﬀective commercially available

magnetic shielding material is called Mumetal, and is an alloy of 5% Copper, 2%

Chromium, 77% Nickel, and 16% Iron. The maximum permeability of Mumetal

is about 10

5

µ

0

. This material also possesses a particularly low retentivity and

coercivity. Unfortunately, Mumetal is extremely expensive. Let us investigate

how much of this material is actually required to shield a given region from an

external magnetic ﬁeld.

Consider a spherical shell of magnetic shielding, made up of material of per-

meability µ, placed in a formerly uniform magnetic ﬁeld B

0

= B

0

ˆ z. Suppose

that the inner radius of the shell is a and the outer radius is b. Since there are

no free currents in the problem, we can write H = −∇φ

m

. Furthermore, since

B = µH and ∇ B = 0, it is clear that the magnetic scalar potential satisﬁes

Laplace’s equation, ∇

2

φ

m

= 0, throughout all space. The boundary conditions

are that the potential must be well behaved at r = 0 and r → ∞, and also that

the tangential and the normal components of H and B, respectively, must be

continuous at r = a and r = b. The boundary conditions on H merely imply that

the scalar potential φ

m

must be continuous at r = a and r = b. The boundary

conditions on B yield

µ

0

∂φ

m

(r = a−)

∂r

= µ

∂φ

m

(r = a+)

∂r

, (3.175a)

µ

0

∂φ

m

(r = b+)

∂r

= µ

∂φ

m

(r = b−)

∂r

. (3.175b)

Let us try the following test solution for the magnetic potential:

φ

m

= −

B

0

µ

0

r cos θ +

α

r

2

cos θ (3.176)

for r > b,

φ

m

=

β r +

γ

r

2

cos θ (3.177)

123

for b ≥ r ≥ a, and

φ

m

= δ r cos θ (3.178)

for r < a. This potential is certainly a solution of Laplace’s equation throughout

space. It yields the uniform magnetic ﬁeld B

0

as r → ∞, and satisﬁes physical

boundary conditions at r = 0 and inﬁnity. Since there is a uniqueness theorem

associated with Poisson’s equation, we can be certain that this potential is the

correct solution to the problem provided that the arbitrary constants α, β, etc.

can be adjusted in such a manner that the boundary conditions at r = a and

r = b are also satisﬁed.

The continuity of φ

m

at r = a and r = b requires that

β a +

γ

a

2

= δ a, (3.179)

and

β b +

γ

b

2

= −

B

0

µ

0

b +

α

b

2

. (3.180)

The boundary conditions (3.175) yield

µ

0

δ = µ

β −

2γ

a

3

, (3.181)

and

µ

0

−

B

0

µ

0

−

2α

b

3

= µ

β −

2γ

b

3

. (3.182)

It follows that

µ

0

α =

¸

(2µ +µ

0

)(µ −µ

0

)

(2µ +µ

0

)(µ + 2µ

0

) −2(a

3

/b

3

)(µ −µ

0

)

2

(b

3

−a

3

)B

0

,

(3.183a)

µ

0

β = −

¸

3(2µ +µ

0

)µ

0

(2µ +µ

0

)(µ + 2µ

0

) −2(a

3

/b

3

)(µ −µ

0

)

2

B

0

, (3.183b)

µ

0

γ = −

¸

3(µ −µ

0

)µ

0

(2µ +µ

0

)(µ + 2µ

0

) −2(a

3

/b

3

)(µ −µ

0

)

2

a

3

B

0

, (3.183c)

µ

0

δ = −

¸

9µµ

0

(2µ +µ

0

)(µ + 2µ

0

) −2(a

3

/b

3

)(µ −µ

0

)

2

B

0

. (3.183d)

124

Consider the limit of a thin, high permeability shell for which b = a + d,

d/a <1, and µ/µ

0

1. In this limit, the ﬁeld inside the shell is given by

B ·

3

2

µ

0

µ

a

d

B

0

. (3.184)

Thus, if µ · 10

5

µ

0

for Mumetal, then we can reduce the magnetic ﬁeld strength

inside the shell by almost a factor of 1000 using a shell whose thickness is only

1/100 th of its radius. Clearly, a little Mumetal goes a long way! Note, however,

that as the external ﬁeld strength, B

0

, is increased, the Mumetal shell eventually

saturates, and µ/µ

0

gradually falls to unity. Thus, extremely strong magnetic

ﬁelds (typically, B

0

>

∼

1 tesla) are hardly shielded at all by Mumetal, or similar

magnetic materials.

3.18 Magnetic energy

Consider an electrical conductor. Suppose that a battery with an electromotive

ﬁeld E

**is feeding energy into this conductor. The energy is either dissipated as
**

heat or is used to generate a magnetic ﬁeld. Ohm’s law inside the conductor gives

j

t

= σ(E +E

), (3.185)

where j

t

is the true current density, σ is the conductivity, and E is the inductive

electric ﬁeld. Taking the scalar product with j

t

, we obtain

E

j

t

=

j

2

t

σ

−Ej

t

. (3.186)

The left-hand side of this equation represents the rate at which the battery does

work on the conductor. The ﬁrst term on the right-hand side is the rate of Joule

heating inside the conductor. We tentatively identify the remaining term with

the rate at which energy is fed into the magnetic ﬁeld. If all ﬁelds are quasi-

stationary (i.e., slowly varying) then the displacement current can be neglected,

and the Amp`ere-Maxwell equation reduces to ∇ ∧ H = j

t

. Substituting this

125

expression into Eq. (3.186) and integrating over all space, we get

E

(∇∧ H) d

3

r =

(∇∧ H)

2

σ

d

3

r −

E(∇∧ H) d

3

r. (3.187)

The last term can be integrated by parts using the relation

∇(E ∧ H) = H(∇∧ E) −E(∇∧ H). (3.188)

The divergence theorem plus the Faraday-Maxwell equation yield

E(∇∧ H) d

3

r = −

H

∂B

∂t

d

3

r −

(E ∧ H)dS. (3.189)

Since E∧H falls oﬀ at least as fast as 1/r

5

in electrostatic and quasi-stationary

magnetic ﬁelds (1/r

2

comes from electric monopole ﬁelds, and 1/r

3

from magnetic

dipole ﬁelds), the surface integral in the above expression can be neglected. Of

course, this is not the case for radiation ﬁelds, for which E and H fall oﬀ like

1/r. Thus, the constraint of “quasi-stationarity” eﬀectively means that the ﬁelds

vary suﬃciently slowly that any radiation ﬁelds can be neglected.

The total power expended by the battery can now be written

E

(∇∧ H) d

3

r =

(∇∧ H)

2

σ

d

3

r +

H

∂B

∂t

d

3

r. (3.190)

The ﬁrst term on the right-hand side has already been identiﬁed as the energy

loss rate due to Joule heating. The last term is obviously the rate at which energy

is fed into the magnetic ﬁeld. The variation δU in the magnetic ﬁeld energy can

therefore be written

δU =

HδBd

3

r. (3.191)

This result is analogous to the result (3.64) for the variation in the energy of an

electrostatic ﬁeld.

In order to make Eq. (3.191) integrable, we must assume a functional relation-

ship between H and B. For a medium which magnetizes linearly the integration

can be carried out in much the same manner as Eq. (3.67), to give

U =

1

2

HBd

3

r. (3.192)

126

Thus, the magnetostatic energy density inside a linear magnetic material is given

by

W =

H B

2

. (3.193)

Unfortunately, most interesting magnetic materials, such as ferromagnets, exhibit

a nonlinear relationship between H and B. For such materials, Eq. (3.191) can

only be integrated between deﬁnite states, and the result, in general, depends on

the past history of the sample. For ferromagnets, the integral of Eq. (3.191) has

a ﬁnite, non-zero value when B is integrated around a complete magnetization

cycle. This cyclic energy loss is given by

∆U =

H dBd

3

r. (3.194)

In other words, the energy expended per unit volume when a magnetic material

is carried through a magnetization cycle is equal to the area of its hysteresis loop

as plotted in a graph of B against H. Thus, it is particularly important to ensure

that the magnetic materials used to form transformer cores possess hysteresis

loops with comparatively small areas, otherwise the transformers are likely to be

extremely ineﬃcient.

127

**Gauss’ law takes the diﬀerential form ρ ρf + ρ b ·E = = .
**

0 0

(3.4)

**This expression can be rearranged to give ·D = ρf , where D=
**

0E

(3.5) (3.6)

+P

is termed the electric displacement, and has the same dimensions as P (dipole moment per unit volume). The divergence theorem tells us that D·dS =

S V

ρf dV.

(3.7)

In other words, the ﬂux of D out of some closed surface S is equal to the total free charge enclosed within that surface. Unlike the electric ﬁeld E (which is the force acting on unit charge) or the polarization P (the dipole moment per unit volume), the electric displacement D has no clear physical meaning. The only reason for introducing it is that it enables us to calculate ﬁelds in the presence of dielectric materials without ﬁrst having to know the distribution of polarized charges. However, this is only possible if we have a constitutive relation connecting E and D. It is conventional to assume that the induced polarization P is directly proportional to the electric ﬁeld E, so that P =

0 χe E,

(3.8)

where χe is termed the electric susceptibility of the medium. It follows that D= where = 1 + χe (3.10) is termed the dielectric constant or relative permittivity of the medium. (Likewise, 0 is termed the permittivity of free space.) It follows from Eqs. (3.5) and (3.9) that ρf ·E = . (3.11)

0 0

E,

(3.9)

85

Thus, the electric ﬁelds produced by free charges in a dielectric medium are analogous to those produced by the same charges in a vacuum, except that they are reduced by a factor . This reduction can be understood in terms of a polarization of the atoms or molecules of the dielectric medium that produces electric ﬁelds in opposition to that of given charge. One immediate consequence is that the capacitance of a capacitor is increased by a factor if the empty space between the electrodes is ﬁlled with a dielectric medium of dielectric constant (assuming that fringing ﬁelds can be neglected). It must be understood that Eqs. (3.8)–(3.11) are just an approximation which is generally found to hold under terrestrial conditions (provided that the ﬁelds are not too large) for isotropic media. For anisotropic media (e.g., crystals) Eq. (3.9) generalizes to D = 0 ·E, (3.12) where is a second rank tensor known as the dielectric tensor. For strong electric ﬁelds D ceases to vary linearly with E. Indeed, for suﬃciently strong electric ﬁelds neutral molecules are disrupted and the whole concept of a dielectric medium becomes meaningless.

3.2

Boundary conditions for E and D

When the space near a set of charges contains dielectric material of non-uniform dielectric constant then the electric ﬁeld no longer has the same form as in vacuum. Suppose, for example, that the space is occupied by two dielectric media whose uniform dielectric constants are 1 and 2 . What are the matching conditions on E and D at the boundary between the two media? Imagine a Gaussian pill-box enclosing part of the boundary surface between the two media. The thickness of the pill-box is allowed to tend towards zero, so that the only contribution to the outward ﬂux of D comes from its ﬂat faces. These faces are parallel to the bounding surface and lie in each of the two media. Their outward normals are dS1 (in medium 1) and dS2 , where dS1 = −dS2 . Assuming that there is no free charge inside the disk (which is reasonable in the

86

limit where the volume of the disk tends towards zero), then Eq. (3.7) yields D1 ·dS1 + D2 ·dS2 = 0, (3.13)

where D1 is the electric displacement in medium 1 at the boundary with medium 2, etc. The above equation can be rewritten (D2 − D1 )·n21 = 0, (3.14)

where n21 is the normal to the boundary surface, directed from medium 1 to medium 2. If the ﬁelds and charges are non time varying then Maxwell’s equations yield ∧E = 0, which give the familiar boundary condition (obtained by integrating around a small loop which straddles the boundary surface) (E2 − E1 ) ∧ n21 = 0. (3.15)

In other word, the normal component of the electric displacement and the tangential component of the electric ﬁeld are both continuous across any boundary between two dielectric materials.

3.3

Boundary value problems with dielectrics - I

Consider a point charge q embedded in a semi-inﬁnite dielectric 1 a distance d away from a plane interface which separates the ﬁrst medium from another semiinﬁnite dielectric 2 . The interface is assumed to coincide with the plane z = 0. We need to ﬁnd solutions to the equations

1

·E =

ρ

0

(3.16)

for z > 0,

2

·E = 0 ∧E =0

(3.17) (3.18)

for z < 0, and

87

(3.z=0 ε2 R2 A / P R1 ε1 A / q d d z -> q everywhere. Let us assume that the scalar potential in this region is the same as that obtained when the whole of space is ﬁlled with the dielectric 1 and. in addition to the real charge q at position A. Since ∧ E = 0 everywhere. So. the electric ﬁeld can be written in terms of a scalar potential. when written in terms of cylindrical polar coordinates (ρ.19b) (3. E = − φ. Consider the region z > 0. subject to the boundary conditions at z = 0 that 1 Ez (z = 0+ ) = 2 Ez (z = 0− ). Note that the potential (3. In order to solve this problem we will employ a slightly modiﬁed form of the well known method of images. z).19c) Ex (z = 0+ ) = Ex (z = 0− ). ϕ. Ey (z = 0+ ) = Ey (z = 0− ). (3.20) clearly is a 88 . If this is the case then the potential at some point P in the region z > 0 is given by φ(z > 0) = 1 4π 0 1 q q + R1 R2 .19a) (3. there is a second charge q at the image position A (see diagram).20) where R1 = ρ2 + (d − z)2 and R2 = ρ2 + (d + z)2 .

2 R1 (3. with the appropriate Consider the region z < 0.17) in the region z < 0.22) The boundary condition (3.19c) are obviously satisﬁed if the scalar potential is continuous at the interface between the two dielectric media: φ(z = 0+ ) = φ(z = 0− ).19b) and (3. Here. use has been made of ∂ ∂z 1 R1 =− z=0 (3.23) The ﬁrst matching condition yields q+q 1 = q 2 .19) are satisﬁed. Let us assume that the scalar potential in this region is the same as that obtained when the whole of space is ﬁlled with the dielectric 2 and a charge q is located at the point A.19a) implies a jump in the normal derivative of the scalar potential across the interface: 1 ∂φ(z = 0+ ) = ∂z 2 ∂φ(z = 0− ) . (3.16) in the region z > 0.24) whereas the second yields q−q =q . ·E = 0.21) The above potential is clearly a solution of Eq. If this is the case then the potential in this region is given by φ(z < 0) = 1 4π 0 q . It gives singularity at the position of the point charge q. It gives ·E = 0. (ρ2 + d2 )3/2 (3.25) ∂ ∂z 1 R2 89 = z=0 d .solution of Eq. It now remains to choose q and q in such a manner that the boundary conditions (3. (3.26) . The boundary conditions (3. with no singularities. (3. (3. ∂z (3.

(3. In fact. and the polarization surface charge density on the interface approaches that obtained in the case when the plane z = 0 coincides with a conducting surface. σpol = −(P2 − P1 )·n21 .e. 90 . (3. the dielectric 2 behaves like a conducting medium (i. Thus.27b) 2 2 2+ 1 The polarization charge density is given by ρb = − · P .29) where n21 is a unit normal to the interface pointing from medium 1 to medium 2 (i. along the positive z-axis).Equations (3.30) in either medium. E → 0 in the region z < 0).. there is zero polarization charge density in either dielectric medium. ∆χe = 1 − 2. 2 2 3/2 1 ( 2 + 1 ) (ρ + d ) 2 (3. However. Since Pi = 0( i − 1)E = − 0 ( i − 1) φ (3. except at the point charge q. The above method can clearly be generalized to deal with problems involving many point charges in the presence of many diﬀerent dielectric media whose interfaces form parallel planes.31) In the limit 2 1 . so ·P = 0 χe ·E = 0.27a) (3.24) and (3. At the interface χe takes a discontinuous jump. inside either dielectric P = 0 χe E.25) imply that q q = − = − 2+ 2 1 1 q. q.28) This implies that there is a polarization charge sheet on the interface between the two dielectric media. (3.e.. it is easy to demonstrate that σpol = − q 2π − 1 d .

it is clear from Eq. (3. (3. there is a uniform polarization charge sheet on both surfaces of the slab. It is easily demonstrated that σpol (z = b) = −σpol (z = 0) = In the limit 0 E0 −1 . However. 91 .5) that the electric displacement D is the same in both the dielectric slab and the vacuum region which surrounds it. It follows that E1 = E0 . the electric ﬁeld inside the slab is reduced by polarization charges. Suppose that this slab is placed in a uniform z-directed electric ﬁeld of strength E 0 . In the vacuum region D = 0 E0 . the slab acts like a conductor and E 1 → 0.II Consider a plane slab of dielectric lying between z = 0 and z = b.33) 1. As before. there is zero polarization charge density inside the dielectric. What is the ﬁeld strength E1 inside the slab? Since there are no free charges and this is a one-dimensional problem. whereas D = 0 E1 in the dielectric.4 Boundary value problems with dielectrics .32) In other words.E0 E1 ε E0 z=0 z=b 3. (3.

(z) (3.38a) 92 . so that (z) → 1 as |z| → ∞. What is the electric ﬁeld inside and around the sphere? Since this is a static problem we can write E = − φ. dz E0 .36) = 0 E0 dz dz (z) 3. (3.14) and (3.9) imply that 2 φ=0 (3.5) that. There are no free charges.III Suppose that a dielectric sphere of radius a and dielectric constant is placed in a z-directed electric ﬁeld of strength E0 (in the absence of the sphere).34) Furthermore. E(z) → E0 as |z| → ∞.35) Thus. The polarization charge density inside the dielectric is given by dE(z) 1 d ρb = 0 . Consider a dielectric medium whose dielectric constant varies with z. so Eqs. It follows that E(z) = (3. What is the ﬁeld E(z) inside the dielectric? We know that the electric displacement inside the dielectric is given by D(z) = 0 (z) E(z). dD(z) = dz 0 d[ (z)E(z)] = 0.Let us now generalize this result. the electric ﬁeld is inversely proportional to the dielectric constant inside the dielectric medium. The boundary conditions (3. The medium is assumed to be of ﬁnite extent and is surrounded by a vacuum. Suppose that this dielectric is placed in a uniform z-directed electric ﬁeld E 0 .5) and (3. (3.5 Boundary value problems with dielectrics . (3. r=a+ (3. We also know from Eq.15) reduce to ∂φ ∂r = r=a− ∂φ ∂r .37) everywhere. since there are no free charges and this is a one-dimensional problem.

(3.38b) φ(r.∂φ ∂θ Furthermore.37) reduces to 1 ∂ ∂φ 1 ∂ 2 (rφ) + 2 sin θ r ∂r2 r sin θ ∂θ ∂θ Straightforward separation of the variables yields ∞ = 0.42) is a Sturm-Liouville type equation.41) where l is a non-negative integer. Since the solutions to Poisson’s equation are unique. θ). and Pl (x) is a solution to Legendre’s equation. (3. dx dx (3. dPl d (1 − x2 ) + l(l + 1) Pl = 0. we know that if we can ﬁnd such a solution which satisﬁes all of the boundary conditions then we can be sure that this is the correct solution. and continuous in the interval −1 ≤ x ≤ +1. = r=a− ∂φ ∂θ . Let us search for an axisymmetric solution.43) Since Eq. θ. (3. Here. (r.39) as r → 0. The Pl (x) are known as Legendre polynomials (since they are polynomials of order l in x). (3. φ = φ(r. and are speciﬁed by Rodrigues’ formula 1 dl 2 Pl (x) = l (x − 1)l .40) φ(r. θ. ﬁnite. ϕ) are spherical polar coordinates centred on the sphere.42) which is single-valued. it immediately 93 . Equation (3. and the Legendre polynomials satisfy Sturm-Liouville type boundary conditions at x = ±1. θ) = l=0 (Al rl + Bl r−(l+1) )Pl (cos θ). ϕ) → −E0 r cos θ (3. the Al and Bl are arbitrary constants. It can be demonstrated that Eq.42) only possesses such solutions when l takes an integer value. r=a+ (3. l 2 l! dx (3.

and it is easily demonstrated that the r l and the r −(l+1) form a complete set of radial functions. θ) = l=0 Al rl Pl (cos θ). The orthogonality relation can be written 1 Pl (x)Pl (x) dx = −1 2 δll . We now need to ﬁnd values of the Al and Bl which are consistent with the boundary conditions. (3.45) where we have rejected the r −(l+1) radial solutions because they diverge unphysically as r → 0. it is clear from the boundary condition (3.41). θ) = l=0 (Bl rl + Cl r−(l+1) )Pl (cos θ). (3. Let us divide space into the regions r ≤ a and r > a.38a) yields A1 = −E0 − 2 94 C1 . that the only non-vanishing Bl is B1 = −E0 . a3 (3.44) The Legendre polynomials form a complete set of angular functions. The boundary condition (3. Note that it is appropriate to match the coeﬃcients of the P l (cos θ) since these functions are orthogonal.follows that the Pl (cos θ) are orthogonal functions which form a complete set in θ-space. represents a completely general axisymmetric solution of Eq.48) a2l+1 for l = 1.46) However.37) which is well behaved in θ-space. (3.38b) (which integrates to give φ(r = a − ) = φ(r = a+ ) for a potential which is well behaved in θ-space) gives A1 = −E0 + and Al = Cl C1 . The boundary condition (3. (3. (3.43).47) (3. It follows that Eq.49) . with the A l and Bl unspeciﬁed. a3 (3. In the former region ∞ φ(r. 2l + 1 (3. This follows since P1 (cos θ) = cos θ. and Eq.39). In the latter region ∞ φ(r.

54) −1 +2 E0 3 2+ E0 r cos θ a3 cos θ r2 (3. located at the origin and pointing in the zdirection. (3.55) This dipole moment can be interpreted as the volume integral of the polarization P over the sphere.56) . The polarization is P = 0( ˆ − 1) E1 z = 3 95 0 −1 +2 ˆ E0 z . Equations (3.50) a2l+1 for l = 1.and l Al = −(l + 1) (3. a 3 E0 . Outside the sphere the potential is equivalent to that of the applied ﬁeld E 0 plus the ﬁeld of a point electric dipole.52) is the potential of a uniform z-directed electric ﬁeld of strength E1 = 3 E0 . Equations (3.51a) (3.52) = − = 3 2+ −1 +2 E0 .50) give A l = Cl = 0 for l = 1. Equation (3. (3.48) and (3. and φ = −E0 r cos θ + for r > a. the electric ﬁeld strength is reduced inside the dielectric sphere due to partial shielding by polarization charges.53) Note that E1 < E0 provided that > 1.47) and (3.51b) Cl (3. 2+ (3. (3. Thus.49) reduce to A1 C1 The solution is therefore φ=− for r ≤ a. whose dipole moment is p = 4π 0 −1 +2 a 3 E0 .

it is assumed that the original charges and the dielectric are held ﬁxed. 2 +1 (3. 3. the negative sign implies that the dipole points in the opposite direction to the external ﬁeld. (3.59) 2 +1 Here. (3. (3. It follows that r σpol = 3 0 −1 +2 E0 cos θ.29) ). so 96 . parallel to the z-axis.57) The problem of a dielectric cavity of radius a in a dielectric medium with dielectric constant and with an applied electric ﬁeld E 0 parallel to the z-axis can be treated in much the same manner as that of a dielectric sphere. and of magnitude E1 = 3 E0 . the ﬁeld inside the cavity is uniform. Thus.58) Note that E1 > E0 provided that > 1. Here.60) where the integral is taken over all space and φ(r) is the electrostatic potential. (3.Since the polarization is uniform there is zero polarization charge density inside the sphere. The ﬁeld outside the cavity is the original ﬁeld plus that of a z-directed dipole.6 The energy density within a dielectric medium Consider a system of free charges embedded in a dielectric medium. However. In fact. located at the origin. The increase in the total energy when a small amount of free charge δρ f is added to the system is given by δU = φ δρf d3 r. it is easily demonstrated that the results for the cavity can be obtained from those for the sphere by making the transformation → 1/ . whose dipole moment is −1 p = −4π 0 a 3 E0 . there is a polarization charge sheet on the surface of the sphere whose density is given by σpol = P ·ˆ (see Eq.

63) ·(φ δD) d3 r − φ·δD d3 r.64) This energy increment cannot be integrated unless E is a known function of D.that no mechanical work is performed. 97 . it is important to realize that the above formula is only valid in dielectric media in which the electric displacement D varies linearly with the electric ﬁeld E. It follows from Eq.65) (3.67) E ·D . where the dielectric constant is independent of the electric ﬁeld. (3. (3. the electrostatic energy density inside a dielectric is given by U= W = (3. (3.68) 2 This is a standard result which is often quoted in textbooks. (3. Now the above equation can also be written δU = giving δU = φ δD·dS − φ·δD d3 r.5) that δU = φ ·δD d3 r. (3.61) where δD is the change in the electric displacement associated with the charge increment. The change in energy associated with taking the displacement ﬁeld from zero to D(r) at all points in space is given by D D U= 0 δU = 0 0 E E ·δD d3 r. Let us adopt the conventional approach and assume that D = 0 E.66) or U= 0 δ(E 2 ) 3 1 d r= 2 2 0 which reduces to 1 E ·D d3 r. E 2 d3 r.62) where use has been made of Gauss’s theorem. (3. If the dielectric medium is of ﬁnite spatial extent then we can neglect the surface term to give δU = − φ·δD d3 r = E ·δD d3 r. (3. Nevertheless. 2 Thus.

73) 0 1 2 0 D2 δ(1/ ) + 2D·δD/ E 2 δ d3 r + d3 r. the ﬁrst term represents the energy increment due to the change in dielectric constant associated with the virtual displacements. caused by the displacements. The variation in the total electrostatic energy δU when the system undergoes a virtual displacement δr is related to the electrostatic force density f acting within the dielectric medium via δU = − f ·δr d3 r.70) Let us now consider the energy increment due to both a change δρ f in the free charge distribution and a change δ in the dielectric constant.3. . (3. Since we are dealing with a conservative system. (3. (3. the energy expression (3. From Eq. but no free charges are added to the system.7 The force density within a dielectric medium Equation (3.71) E ·δD d3 r.67) can still be employed. so that no mechanical work is done against physical displacements. (3.69) If the medium is moving with a velocity ﬁeld u then the rate at which electrostatic energy is drained from the E and D ﬁelds is given by dU =− dt f ·u d3 r.67) δU = or (3. Let us now consider a diﬀerent virtual process in which the physical coordinates of the charges and dielectric are given a virtual displacement δr at each point in space. whereas the second term corresponds to the energy increment caused by displacements of the free charges. The second term can be written δU = − E ·δD d3 r = − φ·δD d3 r = 98 φ ·δD d3 r = φ δρf d3 r.67) was derived by considering a virtual process in which true charges are added to a system of charges and dielectrics which are held ﬁxed. despite the fact that it was derived in terms of another virtual process.72) 2 Here. (3.

This can be achieved by adopting a dielectric equation of state. (3.where surface terms have been neglected. (3.76) Dt ∂t is the total time derivative (i.75) D ∂ ≡ + u· (3. a relation which gives the dependence of the dielectric constant on the mass density ρ m .e.e. i.79) ∂t dρm The conservation equation for the free charges is written ∂ρf + ∂t ·(ρf u) = 0.72) implies that dU = dt φ ∂ρf ∂ 0 − E2 ∂t 2 ∂t d3 r. (3. Dt dρm Dt where (3. (3.80) Thus.74) In order to arrive at an expression for the force density f we need to express the time derivatives ∂ρ/∂t and ∂ /∂t in terms of the velocity ﬁeld u. Eq. we can express Eq.77) ∂t which implies that Dρm = −ρm ·u. (3. Thus.74) in the form dU = dt −φ ·(ρf u) + 0 2 E2 d ρm dρm 99 ·u + 0 2 E2 ·u d3 r..) The hydrodynamic equation of continuity of the dielectric is ∂ρm + ·(ρm u) = 0. (3. (3. the time derivative in a frame of reference which is locally co-moving with the dielectric.78) Dt It follows that d ∂ =− ρm ·u − u· ..81) . Let us assume that (ρm ) is a known function. (3. It follows that d Dρm D = .

since in the calculation of the total forces acting on dielectric bodies it usually does not contribute. The electrostriction term gives zero net force acting on any ﬁnite region of dielectric if we can integrate over a large enough portion of the dielectric that its extremities lie in a ﬁeld free region. Note that the magnitude of the electrostriction force depends explicitly on the dielectric equation of state of the material. even though the total force is given correctly. (3. known as the electrostriction term.81) becomes dU = dt −ρf E + 0 2 E2 − 0 2 E2 d ρm dρm · u d3 r. we see that the force density inside the dielectric is given by d 0 0 (3. Eq. Suppose that a dielectric medium is made up of identical molecules which develop 100 . For this reason the term is frequently omitted.83) Thus.70). The second term represents a force which appears whenever an inhomogeneous dielectric is placed in an electric ﬁeld. however.Integrating the ﬁrst term by parts and neglecting any surface contributions. through d /dρ m . we obtain − φ ·(ρf u) d3 r = ρf φ·u d3 r. (3. The last term.8 The Clausius-Mossotti relation Let us now investigate what a dielectric equation of state actually looks like. 3. 0 2 E2 d ρm dρm ·u d3 r = − 0 2 E2 d ρm ·u d3 r. (3. + E2 f = ρf E − E 2 2 2 dρm The ﬁrst term in the above equation is the standard electrostatic force density. gives a force acting on a dielectric in an inhomogeneous electric ﬁeld. dρm (3. Note. (3.82) Likewise.84) Comparing with Eq.85) ρm . that if the electrostriction term is omitted an incorrect pressure variation within the dielectric is obtained.

The magnitude of Ez at the molecule due to the surface charge is Ez = − 1 4π 0 σpol cos θ dS. Consider one of the molecules which constitute the dielectric. NA is Avogadro’s number. M where ρm is the mass density. It follows that P Ez = 2 0 π cos2 θ sin θ dθ = 0 P . and M is the molecular weight. ϕ) are spherical polar coordinates. But. If N is the number density of such molecules then the polarization of the medium is P = N p = N α 0 E.87) NA ρ m α (3. We shall treat the dielectric outside the sphere as a continuous medium and the dielectric inside the sphere as a collection of polarized molecules.91) 101 . 3 0 (3. (3.29) there is a polarization surface charge of magnitude σpol = −P cos θ (3. θ. (3.90) where dS = 2πa2 sin θ dθ is a surface element of the sphere. a2 (3. According to Eq. where (r. P = Suppose that the dielectric is polarized with a mean electric ﬁeld E 0 which is uniform (on macroscopic length-scales) and directed along the z-axis. This is intended to represent the boundary between the microscopic and the macroscopic range of phenomena aﬀecting the molecule. The constant α is called the molecular polarizability.a dipole moment p = α 0E (3. and ˆ ˆ P = P z = 0 ( − 1)E0 z is the uniform polarization of the dielectric.88) 0 E.89) or on the inside of the sphere. Let us draw a sphere of radius a about this particular molecule. how does the electric ﬁeld experienced by an individual molecule relate to the average electric ﬁeld in the medium? This is not a trivial question since we expect the electric ﬁeld to vary strongly (on atomic length-scales) inside the dielectric.86) when placed in an electric ﬁeld E.

Hence.95) and xy = mols mols yz = mols zx = 0.96) It is easily seen that Eθ = Eϕ = 0. Thus.92) The ﬁeld due to the individual molecules within the sphere is obtained by summing over the dipole ﬁelds of these molecules. (3. − r3 r5 1 3 (3. the ﬁeld at the molecule due to the surface charges on the sphere is E= P . This being the case. the electric ﬁeld at the molecule due to the other molecules within the sphere vanishes. and also that the molecules are evenly distributed throughout the sphere. since x2 = mols mols mols 3(px xz + py yz + pz z 2 ) pz . The electric ﬁeld at a distance r from a dipole p is 3(p·r)r p 1 .94) y2 = mols z2 = r2 mols (3. 3 0 (3. 3 0 (3.93) − E=− 4π 0 r3 r5 It is assumed that the dipole moment of each molecule within the sphere is the same. (3. the value of Ez at the molecule due to all of the other molecules within in the sphere. The above analysis indicates that this eﬀect is ascribable to the long range (rather than the 102 .97) This is larger than the average electric ﬁeld E0 in the dielectric. 1 Ez = − 4π 0 is zero.It is easily demonstrated that Eθ = Eϕ = 0 at the molecule. It is clear that the net electric ﬁeld seen by an individual molecule is E = E0 + P .

The Clausius-Mossotti relation yields ( − 1)( + 2) d = .102) where 1 and 2 refer to two general points in the liquid. +2 3M (3.88) and the deﬁnition P = 0 ( − 1)E0 . 1 (3.100) 2 E2 + 0 2 E2 d ρm dρm = 0 ρm 2 E2 d dρm .103) . If p is the pressure in the liquid when in equilibrium with the electrostatic force density f . This formula is found to work pretty well for a wide class of dielectric liquids and gases.9 Dielectric liquids in electrostatic ﬁelds Consider the behaviour of an uncharged dielectric liquid placed in an electrostatic ﬁeld. Here. (3.85) that p=− 0 (3. 1 (3. then force balance requires that p = f.99) dρm 3ρm 3. (3. (3. it is assumed that the liquid possesses an equation of state.short range) interactions of the molecule with the other molecules in the medium. we obtain −1 NA ρ m α = . (3. If the liquid is essentially incompressible (ρm constant) then p2 − p 1 = 0 ρm 2 103 d E dρm 2 2 .101) We can integrate this equation to give p2 p1 dp 0 = ρm 2 E2 d dρm − E2 2 d dρm . so that p = p(ρ m ). Making use of Eq. It follows from Eq.98) This is called the Clausius-Mossotti relation.

e. subject to an electrostriction force. i. We can. since = 1 in a vacuum (see Eq.106) Note. 1 (3. the dielectric is compressed by the external electric ﬁeld. without loss of generality. The reason that this does not occur is because a dielectric liquid is slightly compressible and is. therefore. that the Clausius-Mossotti relation yields d /dρ m = 0 at both A and B. (3. Let us examine this eﬀect. In fact. (3. The pressure diﬀerence is given by B pA − p B = − A f ·dl. It is easily seen that the force exerted by an electric ﬁeld on a rigid dielectric is directed outwards and approaches that exerted on a rigid conductor in the limit → 0. when a pair of charged (parallel plane) capacitor plates are dipped into a dielectric liquid the liquid is drawn up between the plates to some extent.85) with the third term (the electrostriction term) missing. Consider the electrostatic pressure diﬀerence between a point A lying just above the surface of the liquid in between the plates and a point B lying just above the surface of the liquid well away from the capacitor where E = 0. the force density inside a rigid dielectric (for which · u = 0) is given by Eq. Thus.104) According to Eqs. if a sphere of dielectric liquid is placed in a uniform electric ﬁeld E0 then the pressure inside the liquid takes the constant value 3 2 −1 p= . As is well known.85) 104 . if the liquid obeys the Clausius-Mossotti relation then p2 − p 1 = 0E 2 2 ( − 1)( + 2) 3 2 . (3. (3.104).54) and (3..105) 0 E0 2 +2 It is clear that the electrostatic forces acting on the dielectric are all concentrated at the edge of the sphere and are directed radially inwards. This is a somewhat surprising result since the electrostatic forces acting on a rigid conducting sphere are concentrated at the edge of the sphere but are directed radially outwards. assume that the transition from dielectric to vacuum takes place in a continuous manner. (3. however.Finally.99) ). it is clear from Eq. We might expect these two cases to give the same result in the limit → ∞. There is no electrostriction force for the case of a completely rigid body. (3.

(3. this force which is actually responsible for supporting the liquid against gravity. and E = 0 in the vicinity of point B). A brief examination of Eq. Thus. although we can determine the height to which the ﬂuid rises between the plates without reference to the electrostriction force. According to Eq.107) The only contribution to this integral comes from the vacuum/dielectric interface in the vicinity of point A (since is constant inside the liquid. At ﬁrst sight. except 105 . In fact.106). the above analysis appears to suggest that the dielectric liquid is drawn upward by a surface force acting on the vacuum/dielectric interface in the region between the plates. Suppose that we have two charges embedded in a uniform dielectric .85). respectively. it is. except that it is reduced by a factor . the force which causes the liquid to rise between the plates is a volume force which develops in the region of non-uniform electric ﬁeld at the base of the capacitor.109) This electrostatic pressure diﬀerence can be equated to the hydrostatic pressure diﬀerence ρm g h to determine the height h that the liquid rises between the plates. this is far from being the case. we expect that the force exerted by one charge on another is the same as that in vacuum. (3.that the electrostriction term makes no contribution to the line integral (3. The electric ﬁeld generated by each charge is the same as that in vacuum. (3. we obtain pA − p B = giving pA − p B = 0 0 2 Et 2 ( − 1) + 2 En2 ( ) d 1 2 . Let us consider another paradox concerning the electrostatic forces exerted in a dielectric medium. Suppose that the electric ﬁeld at point A has normal and tangential (to the surface) components En and Et .104) shows that this surface force is actually directed downwards. It follows that pA − p B = 0 B 2 E2 A ·dl. Therefore. 2 (3. (3.108) E2 ( − 1) Et 2 + n . Making use of the boundary conditions that Et and En are constant across a vacuum/dielectric interface. somewhat paradoxically. where the ﬁeld splays out between the plates.

and their eﬀects therefore cancel each other. from the point of view of electrical interaction alone there would appear to be no change in the force exerted by one capacitor plate on the other when a dielectric slab is placed between them (assuming that σ remains constant during this process). The two layers of polarization charge produce equal and opposite electric ﬁelds on each plate. we ﬁnd that pA − p B = 0 2 1− 1 σ2 E = 2 0 2 1− 1 . the force per unit area (which is attractive) remains σ2 .109). Using Eq. (3.110) fs = 2 0 However.107). (3. (3. but is transmitted to the plates in the case of the liquid. Suppose. in experiments in which a capacitor is submerged in a dielectric liquid the force per unit area exerted by one plate on another is observed to decrease to σ2 fs = .that it is also reduced by a factor . We can compute the pressure diﬀerence between a point A on the inside surface of one of the capacitor plates and a point B on the outside surface of the same plate using Eq. further. 2 0 (3.107) comes from the plate/dielectric interface in the vicinity of point A. and let ±σp be the polarization charge densities which develop on the outer faces of the intervening dielectric block. Thus.111) This apparent paradox can be explained by taking into account the diﬀerence in liquid pressure in the ﬁeld ﬁlled space between the plates and the ﬁeld free region outside the capacitor. That is. Let us examine how this reduction in force comes about. Suppose that we take a parallel plate capacitor and insert a block of solid dielectric between the plates.112) 106 . that there is a small vacuum gap between the faces of the block and each of the capacitor plates. Let ±σ be the surface charge densities on each of the capacitor plates. the only contribution to the line integral (3. Consider a simple example. This pressure diﬀerence is balanced by internal elastic forces in the case of the solid dielectric discussed earlier. Thus. If we neglect end eﬀects then the electric ﬁeld is normal to the plates in the region between the plates and is zero everywhere else. (3.

If the atomic currents of a given atom all ﬂow in the same plane then the atomic dipole moment is directed normal to the plane (in the sense given by the right-hand rule) and its magnitude is the product of the total circulating current and the area of the current loop. (3. if j(r) is the atomic current density at the point r then the magnetic moment of the atom is 1 m= r ∧ j d3 r.10 Magnetization All matter is built up out of atoms. and may therefore be appropriately described as a magnetic dipole.where E is the normal ﬁeld strength between the plates in the absence of dielectric.. More generally.115) where mi is the average magnetic dipole moment of the ith type of molecule in the vicinity of point r. (3. The currents associated with this motion are termed atomic currents. Consider a general medium which is made up of molecules which are polarizable and possess a net magnetic moment.114) 2 where the integral is over the volume of the atom.e. If there are N such atoms or molecules per unit volume then the magnetization M (i. More generally.113) fs = 2 0 acting between the plates. The sum of this pressure force and the purely electrical force (3. Thus. 3. It is easily demonstrated that any 107 . the magnetic dipole moment per unit volume) is given by M = N m. and each atom consists of electrons in motion. M (r) = i Ni m i . Each atomic current is a tiny closed circuit of atomic dimensions. any decrease in the forces exerted by charges on one another when they are immersed or embedded in some dielectric medium can only be understood in terms of mechanical forces transmitted between these charges by the medium itself.110) yields a net attractive force per unit area σ2 (3. and Ni is the average number of such molecules per unit volume at r.

jm = ∧ M. In fact. ∂t (3.117) Thus. although only the ﬁrst term is due to the motion of real charges (over more than atomic dimensions). ∂t (3.116) This current density is called the magnetization current density. which represents the convection of free charges in the medium. (3. In fact.121) ∧ H = jt + ∂t where B H= −M (3. ∂t (3. The Amp`re-Maxwell equation takes the form e ∧ B = µ 0 j + µ0 which can also be written ∧ B = µ 0 jt + µ 0 ∧ M + µ0 ∂D . ∂t (3. The above expression can be rearranged to give ∂D .120) 0 ∂E . (3. which is due to the apparent convection of bound charges. It is easily demonstrated that the polarization current density j p is given by jp = ∂P . there is a third type of current called a polarization current. and is usually distinguished from the true current density jt .118) It must be emphasized that all terms on the right-hand side of this equation represent real physical currents.circulation in the magnetization ﬁeld M (r) gives rise to an eﬀective current density jm in the medium.119) where use has been made of the deﬁnition D = 0 E + P .122) µ0 108 . the total current density j in the medium is given by j = jt + ∧M + ∂P .

However. If χm is positive the material is called paramagnetic. Stokes’s theorem tell us that H ·dl = jt ·dS.124) where χm is called the magnetic susceptibility. FL 109 . Unlike the magnetic ﬁeld B (which speciﬁes the force e v ∧ B acting on a charge e moving with velocity v) or the magnetization M (the magnetic dipole moment per unit volume). this is only possible if we possess a constitutive relation connecting B and H. magnetic dipole moment per unit volume). Baca Raton.10 A linear relationship between M and H also implies a linear relationship between B and H..125) obtained from the Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. (3. In a steady-state situation. The only reason for introducing it is that it enables us to calculate ﬁelds in the presence of magnetic materials without ﬁrst having to know the distribution of magnetization currents. If χm is negative then the material is diamagnetic and the magnetic ﬁeld is weakened in the presence of the material. Chemical Rubber Company Press. the magnetic intensity H has no clear physical meaning. The magnetic susceptibilities of paramagnetic and diamagnetic materials are generally extremely small. 10 Data (3. In fact.11 Magnetic susceptibility and permeability In a large class of materials there exists an approximately linear relationship between M and H. If the material is isotropic then M = χm H. and has the same dimensions as M (i. A few sample values are given in Table 1.e. 3.is termed the magnetic intensity. the line integral of H around some closed curve is equal to the ﬂux of true current through any surface attached to that curve. and the magnetic ﬁeld is strengthened by the presence of the material.123) C S In other words. we can write B = µH. (3.

The most sensible approach is to consider each problem involving ferromagnetic materials separately.12 Ferromagnetism There is.. µ = µ 0 ).98 × 10−5 −2. however this practice can lead to diﬃculties under certain circumstances. The permeability of a ferromagnetic material. Such materials are characterized by a possible permanent magnetization. with µ = µ(H).126) is termed the magnetic permeability of the material in question.e..) It is clear from Table 1 that the permeabilities of common diamagnetic and paramagnetic materials do not diﬀer substantially from that of free space.e.Material Aluminium Copper Diamond Tungsten Hydrogen (1 atm) Oxygen (1 atm) Nitrogen (1 atm) χm 2.8 × 10−5 −0.0 × 10−8 −0. µ 0 is termed the permeability of free space. and may be either positive or negative. to all intents and purposes the magnetic properties of such materials can be safely neglected (i. (3.124) and (3. so that we cannot employ Eqs. (3. In fact.21 × 10−8 209.3 × 10−5 −0. (3. a third class of magnetic materials called ferromagnetic materials.50 × 10−8 Table 1: Magnetic susceptibilities of some paramagnetic and diamagnetic materials at room temperature where µ = µ0 (1 + χm ) (3. try to 110 . It is still expedient to use Eq. (Likewise. however. can vary through the entire range of possible values from zero to inﬁnity.125) with constant values of χm and µ. ferromagnetic materials do not exhibit a linear dependence between M and H or B and H. as deﬁned by Eq.2 × 10−5 6. µ/µ 0 1). Unfortunately.125). 3. and generally have a profound eﬀect on magnetic ﬁelds (i.125) as the deﬁnition of µ.

is increased monotonically. let us consider an unmagnetized sample of ferromagnetic material. The reason for the knee in the curve is that the magnetization M reaches a maximum value in the material. which is initially zero. In some materials this maximum permeability is as large as 10 5 µ0 . It is evident that the permeabilities µ derived from the curve (according to the rule µ = B/H) are always positive. First. 2. so that B = µ0 (H + M ) (3.Figure 2: Magnetization curve and relative permeability of commercial iron (annealed) determine which region of the B-H diagram is important for the particular case in hand. This is called a magnetization curve. The maximum permeability occurs at the “knee” of the curve. then the B-H relationship traces out a curve such as that shown in Fig. and then make approximations appropriate to this region.127) 111 . If the magnetic intensity. and show a wide range of values.

If the magnetic intensity H is decreased. then M (and hence B) becomes increasingly negative. The value of B at the point R is called the retentivity or remanence. Next. shown in Fig. The curve of Fig.B R -H C H Figure 3: Typical hysteresis loop of a ferromagnetic material continues to increase at large H only because of the µ0 H term. 2. 3. This phenomenon is known as hysteresis. If H continues to build up in the reversed direction. does not disappear with the removal of H. 3. once established. Thus. the B-H curve for increasing H is quite diﬀerent to that for decreasing H. it takes a reversed magnetic intensity to reduce the magnetization to zero. when H increases again the operating point follows the lower curve of Fig. The maximum value of M is called the saturation magnetization of the material. The magnetization. consider a ferromagnetic sample magnetized by the above procedure. but instead moves along a new curve. 3 is called the hysteresis loop of the material in question. It is evident that µ is negative in the 112 . In fact. Finally. to the point R. the B-H relation does not follow back down the curve of Fig. The magnitude of H at the point C is called the coercivity.

131) 113 .g. Ferromagnetic materials are used either to channel magnetic ﬂux (e. it is generally a good idea for the ferromagnetic materials used to channel magnetic ﬂux around transformer circuits to possess small remanences and small coercivities.130) (3. Thus. Hmax . For use as a permanent magnet. once the magnet is removed from the external ﬁeld it is subject to a demagnetizing H.129) Integrating Eq. around transformer circuits) or as sources of magnetic ﬁeld (permanent magnets). it is vitally important that a permanent magnet should possess both a large remanence and a large coercivity.13 Boundary conditions for B and H What are the matching conditions for B and H at the boundary between two media? The governing equations for a steady state situation are ·B = 0. (3. and ∧ H = jt . becomes suﬃcient to produce saturation in the material the hysteresis loop does not change shape with any further increase in Hmax . (3. once this maximum value. 3.. Integrating Eq. (3. As will become clear later on.128) over a Gaussian pill-box enclosing part of the boundary surface between the two media gives (B2 − B1 )·n21 = 0. However.second and fourth quadrants of the diagram and positive in the ﬁrst and third quadrants. the material is ﬁrst magnetized by placing it in a strong magnetic ﬁeld. (3.129) around a small loop which straddles the boundary surface yields (H2 − H1 ) ∧ n21 = 0. However. (3. The shape of the hysteresis loop depends not only on the nature of the ferromagnetic material but also on the maximum value of H to which the material is subjected.128) where n21 is the unit normal to this surface directed from medium 1 to medium 2.

132) where M1 is the magnetization in medium 1 at the boundary. (3. 3. (3.134) (3.121) reduces to ∧ H = 0. Equations (3. It follows that we can write H = − φm .133) (3.136) (3.134) and (3. speciﬁed magnetization M (r). Let us also assume that we are dealing with a steady state situation. etc. where φm is called the magnetic scalar potential. Let us suppose that the magnets in question are suﬃciently “hard” that their magnetization is essentially independent of the applied ﬁeld for moderate ﬁeld strengths. Let us assume that there are no true currents in the problem.135) combine to give 2 (3. (3. In general. there is a magnetization current sheet ﬂowing in the boundary surface whose density is given by Jm = n21 ∧ (M2 − M1 ).14 Permanent ferromagnets Let us consider the magnetic ﬁeld generated by a distribution of permanent ferromagnets. 114 . Under these circumstances Eq.assuming that there is no true current sheet ﬂowing in this surface. Now.135) φm = −ρm .137) where ρm = − ·M . we know that ·B = µ0 ·(H + M ) = 0. so that j t = 0. It is clear that the normal component of the magnetic ﬁeld and the tangential component of the magnetic intensity are both continuous across any boundary between magnetic materials. Such magnets can be treated as if they contain a ﬁxed.

140) 1 |r − r | =− . This is the scalar potential of a dipole.141) so our expression for the magnetic potential can be written φm (r) = − 1 4π · M (r ) 3 d r.Thus. Thus. We have only introduced it in order to make the problem of the steady magnetic ﬁeld generated by a set of permanent magnets look formally the same as that of the steady electric ﬁeld generated by a distribution of charges. 4πr3 (3. We can think of ρm as an eﬀective magnetic charge density.138) If the magnetization ﬁeld M (r) is well behaved and localized we can integrate by parts to obtain φm (r) = Now 1 4π M (r )· 1 |r − r | 1 |r − r | d3 r . this magnetic charge has no physical reality. |r − r | (3.143) where m = M d3 r is the total magnetic moment of the distribution.142) Far from the region of non-vanishing magnetization the potential reduces to φm (r) − 1 · 4πr M (r ) d3 r m· r . Of course. an arbitrary localized distribution of 115 . is well known: φm (r) = This yields φm (r) = − 1 4π ·M (r ) 3 d r. |r − r | (3. the magnetostatic ﬁeld H is determined by Poisson’s equation. (3. The unique solution of Poisson’s equation.139) 1 4π ρm (r ) 3 d r. (3. |r − r | (3. subject to sensible boundary conditions at inﬁnity.

Integrating Eq. It is clear that Eq. (3. It (3.137) over a Gaussian pill-box which straddles one of these boundaries leads to the conclusion that there is an eﬀective magnetic surface charge density. (3. In other words.147) ∧ (B/µ0 − M ) = 0. since jm = ∧ M . (3.145) V S where V represents the volume occupied by the magnets and S is the bounding surface to V .144) on the surface of the ferromagnets. (3.121) and (3.magnetization asymptotically produces a dipole magnetic ﬁeld whose strength is determined by the net magnetic moment of the distribution. and n is a unit outward directed normal to the surface.148) . (3. Here.139) yields φm (r) = − 1 4π ·M (r ) 3 1 d r + |r − r | 4π M (r )·dS . A = −µ0 jm . dS is an outward directed volume element to S.147). and suddenly falls to zero at the boundaries of these magnets. The unique solution to Eq. |r − r | (3.146) (3. It is often a good approximation to treat the magnetization ﬁeld M (r) as a discontinuous quantity. is very well known: A(r) = µ0 4π jm (r ) 3 d r.122) that ∧H = which gives 2 ·B = 0 automatically. If the magnetization is uniform throughout the volume V then the ﬁrst term in the above expression vanishes and only the surface integral makes a contribution. M (r) is speciﬁed throughout the “hard” ferromagnets in question. subject to sensible boundary conditions at inﬁnity. where M is the surface magnetization. (3.145) consists of a volume integral involving the volume magnetic charges ρm = − ·M and a surface integral involving the surface magnetic charges σm = n·M . Under these circumstances Eq. |r − r | 116 (3. We can also write B = ∧ A in order to satisfy follows from Eqs. σm = n·M .

From Eqs. according to Eq.15 A uniformly magnetized sphere Consider a sphere of radius a. 3.Thus.150) V S It is clear that the above expression consists of a volume integral involving the volume magnetization currents jm = ∧ M and a surface integral involving the surface magnetization currents Jm = M ∧ n (see Eq.134). so that φm (r = a+ ) = φm (r = a− ). (3. (3. The simplest way of solving this problem is in terms of the scalar magnetic potential introduced in Eq. 2 φm = 0. However. A(r) = µ0 4π ∧ M (r ) 3 d r.136) and (3.144).134) that the scalar magnetic potential must be continuous at r = a. (3. with a uniform permanent magnetization M = ˆ M0 z . |r − r | (3. (3. |r − r | (3.149) If the magnetization ﬁeld is discontinuous it is necessary to add a surface integral to the above expression. there is a magnetic surface charge density. it is clear that φ m satisﬁes Laplace’s equation.153) 117 .152) on the surface of the sphere. It is straightforward to show that A(r) = µ0 4π ∧ M (r ) 3 µ0 d r + |r − r | 4π M (r ) ∧ dS .132) ). One of the matching conditions at the surface of the sphere is that the tangential component of H must be continuous.151) since there is zero volume magnetic charge density in a vacuum or a uniformly magnetized magnetic medium. (3. (3. (3. If the magnetization ﬁeld is uniform throughout V then only the surface integral makes a contribution. It follows from Eq.137). ˆ σm = r ·M = M0 cos θ. surrounded by a vacuum region. (3.

It follows that Al = B l = 0 for l = 1.157) for all l.153) yields Bl = Al a2l+1 for all l.160a) (3. the magnetic charge sheet on the surface of the sphere gives rise to a discontinuity in the radial gradient of the magnetic scalar potential at r = a.Integrating Eq. θ) = l=0 Bl r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ) (3. (3. and ∞ φm (r.154) ∂r r=a− In other words. and A1 B1 = = M0 . 3 M0 a3 .154) gives − (l + 1) Bl − lAl al−1 = −M0 δl1 l+2 a (3.159) 118 .160b) (3. θ) = l=0 Al rl Pl (cos θ) (3. (3.151) which satisﬁes physical boundary conditions at r = a and r = ∞ is ∞ φm (r. The boundary condition (3.136) over a Gaussian pill-box straddling the surface of the sphere yields r=a+ ∂φm = −σm = −M0 cos θ.156) for r ≥ a.155) for r < a. The most general axisymmetric solution to Eq. 3 (3. (3. since Pl (cos θ) = cos θ.158) (3. The boundary condition (3.

we can be sure that this axisymmetric potential is the only solution to the problem which satisﬁes physical boundary conditions at r = 0 and inﬁnity. is the magnetic ﬁeld of a magnetic dipole m. giving H=− and M . (3. both the H and B ﬁelds are uniform inside the sphere. m= Inside the sphere we have H = − φm and B = µ0 (H + M ).162) 3 r2 for r ≥ a. Since there is a uniqueness theorem associated with Poisson’s equation.Thus. the H ﬁeld acts to demagnetize the sphere. It is easily demonstrated from Eq.161) M0 a2 a cos θ (3.163) 4 3 πa M . of course. (3. θ) = In the vacuum region outside the sphere B = µ0 H = −µ0 φm . Note that the magnetic intensity is oppositely directed to the magnetization.164) (3. 3 (3. How successful it is at achieving B= 119 .162) that B(r > a) = where µ0 m 3(m·r) r . θ) = for r < a. In other words. − 3 + 4π r r5 (3.167) 3 Thus. Not surprisingly.165) 3 This. the net dipole moment of the sphere is equal to the integral of the magnetization M (which is the dipole moment per unit volume) over the volume of the sphere.166) 2 µ0 M . φm (r. φm (r. (3. and M0 a2 r cos θ 3 a2 (3.

In fact. The magnetization inside the sphere is easily calculated once the operating point has been determined.166) and (3.e. This curve is sometimes called the demagnetization curve of the magnetic material which makes up the sphere. Figure 4 shows a schematic demagnetization curve.168) for a uniformly magnetized sphere in the absence of external ﬁelds. The curve is characterized by two quantities: the retentivity BR (i.µ = -2 µ 0 B operating point BR B-H curve -H −µ0 HC 0 0 Figure 4: Schematic demagnetization curve for a permanent magnet this depends on the shape of the hysteresis curve in the negative H and positive B quadrant.e.. (3. the residual magnetic ﬁeld strength at zero magnetic intensity) and the coercivity µ0 Hc (i. It is clear from Fig. the values of B and µ0 H inside the sphere) is obtained from the intersection of the demagnetization curve and the curve B = µH. It is clear from Eqs.. M0 = B − µ0 H. A material with a large retentivity but a small coercivity 120 . 4 that for a magnetic material to be a good permanent magnet it must possess both a large retentivity and a large coercivity. The operating point (i.e.167) that µ = −2 µ0 (3. the negative magnetic intensity required to demagnetize the material: this quantity is conventionally multiplied by µ 0 to give it the units of magnetic ﬁeld strength)..

3. (3. The µ0 H and B ﬁelds inside the sphere are most easily obtained by taking the solutions (3.169) where µ(B) is a single valued function. Thus. for which the remnant magnetization is relatively small.166) and (3.170a) (3. 3 2 = B 0 + µ0 M .170) yields µ0 M = 3 with B= µ − µ0 µ + 2µ0 B0 . We are justiﬁed in doing this because the equations which govern magnetostatic problems are linear..is unable to retain a signiﬁcant magnetization in the absence of a strong external magnetizing ﬁeld. inside the sphere we have µ0 H B = B0 − 1 µ0 M . 3 (3.169) and (3.16 A soft iron sphere in a uniform magnetic ﬁeld The opposite extreme to a “hard” ferromagnetic material. In this situation there is no hysteresis.171) 3µ µ + 2µ0 B0 .167) (which are still valid in this case). Consider a sphere of soft iron placed in an initially uniform external ﬁeld ˆ B0 = B0 z .170b) Combining Eqs. low impurity iron). (3. so the B-H relation for the material reduces to B = µ(B) H. is a “soft” ferromagnetic material. Let us consider a somewhat idealized situation in which the remnant magnetization is negligible. (3. The most commonly occurring “soft” ferromagnetic material is soft iron (i. (3. and superimposing on them the uniform ﬁeld B0 . which can maintain a large remnant magnetization in the absence of external ﬁelds.e. annealed.172) 121 .

for B0 Bs the ampliﬁcation factor approaches unity.174) Thus. This sets an upper limit on the magnetic ﬁeld strengths which can occur in such circuits. it is very important to avoid saturating the soft magnets used to channel magnetic ﬂux around transformer circuits... Clearly. for a highly permeable material (i. the ampliﬁcation factor can be considerably larger than this. It follows from (3. the ﬁeld ampliﬁcation factor is Bs B =1+2 .170b) and (3. B0 B0 (3. rods).where. Most ferromagnetic materials saturate when they are placed in external magnetic ﬁelds whose strengths are greater than. It can be shown that for elongated objects (e. which is certainly the case for soft iron) the magnetic ﬁeld strength inside the sphere is approximately three times that of the externally applied ﬁeld. or of order. The maximum possible value of M is called the saturation magnetization. We conclude that if a ferromagnetic material is placed in an external ﬁeld which greatly exceeds that required to cause saturation then the material eﬀectively loses its magnetic properties. the magnetic ﬁeld is ampliﬁed inside the sphere. Suppose that our soft iron sphere ﬁrst attains the saturation magnetization when the unperturbed external magnetic ﬁeld strength is Bs . so that µ µ0 . It is important to realize that the magnetization inside a ferromagnetic material cannot increase without limit. µ/µ0 1. In other words. particularly in experimental physics. for B0 > Bs . one tesla. In this case. Clearly. This can be achieved by 122 . in general. µ = µ(B). 3. where it is desirable to shield a certain region from magnetic ﬁelds.e. and is usually denoted M s . aligned along the direction of the external ﬁeld. The ampliﬁcation of the magnetic ﬁeld by a factor three in the high permeability limit is speciﬁc to a sphere.173) inside the sphere.17 Magnetic shielding There are many situations.g.171) (with µ µ 0 ) that B = B0 + 2Bs (3.

The boundary conditions on H merely imply that the scalar potential φm must be continuous at r = a and r = b. The maximum permeability of Mumetal is about 105 µ0 .surrounding the region in question by a material of high permeability.175b) Let us try the following test solution for the magnetic potential: φm = − for r > b. ∂r = µ (3. Unfortunately. respectively. otherwise the material itself may become a source of magnetic ﬁelds. φm = β r + 123 α B0 r cos θ + 2 cos θ µ0 r γ cos θ r2 (3. The boundary conditions on B yield µ0 ∂φm (r = a−) ∂r ∂φm (r = b+) µ0 ∂r ∂φm (r = a+) . 77% Nickel. and 16% Iron. This material also possesses a particularly low retentivity and coercivity.176) (3. made up of material of perˆ meability µ. since B = µH and · B = 0. Since there are no free currents in the problem. we can write H = − φm . Let us investigate how much of this material is actually required to shield a given region from an external magnetic ﬁeld. placed in a formerly uniform magnetic ﬁeld B 0 = B0 z . 2 φm = 0.177) . it is clear that the magnetic scalar potential satisﬁes Laplace’s equation. must be continuous at r = a and r = b. It is vitally important that a material used as a magnetic shield does not develop a permanent magnetization in the presence of external ﬁelds.175a) (3. 2% Chromium. The most eﬀective commercially available magnetic shielding material is called Mumetal. Furthermore. The boundary conditions are that the potential must be well behaved at r = 0 and r → ∞. and is an alloy of 5% Copper. Consider a spherical shell of magnetic shielding. throughout all space. and also that the tangential and the normal components of H and B. Suppose that the inner radius of the shell is a and the outer radius is b. Mumetal is extremely expensive. ∂r ∂φm (r = b−) = µ .

180) (3. Since there is a uniqueness theorem associated with Poisson’s equation. (2µ + µ0 )(µ + 2µ0 ) − 2(a3 /b3 )(µ − µ0 )2 124 (3.181) =µ β− . 3 /b3 )(µ − µ )2 (2µ + µ0 )(µ + 2µ0 ) − 2(a 0 9µµ0 B0 . This potential is certainly a solution of Laplace’s equation throughout space.for b ≥ r ≥ a. (2µ + µ0 )(µ + 2µ0 ) − 2(a3 /b3 )(µ − µ0 )2 3(µ − µ0 )µ0 a 3 B0 . βb+ 2 =− b µ0 b The boundary conditions (3.183a) µ0 β µ0 γ µ0 δ = − = − = − 3(2µ + µ0 )µ0 B0 . β. and satisﬁes physical boundary conditions at r = 0 and inﬁnity.178) for r < a. The continuity of φm at r = a and r = b requires that γ β a + 2 = δ a. 3 /b3 )(µ − µ )2 (2µ + µ0 )(µ + 2µ0 ) − 2(a 0 (3. we can be certain that this potential is the correct solution to the problem provided that the arbitrary constants α. 2γ b3 (3.179) (3.183b) (3.183c) (3. and φm = δ r cos θ (3.183d) B0 2α − 3 µ0 b 2γ a3 . a and α γ B0 b + 2.182) . It yields the uniform magnetic ﬁeld B0 as r → ∞. etc. (3.175) yield µ0 δ = µ β − and µ0 − It follows that µ0 α = (2µ + µ0 )(µ − µ0 ) (b3 − a3 )B0 . can be adjusted in such a manner that the boundary conditions at r = a and r = b are also satisﬁed.

(3. if µ 105 µ0 for Mumetal. and µ/µ0 1.185) where jt is the true current density. Taking the scalar product with jt . is increased. a little Mumetal goes a long way! Note. In this limit.186) The left-hand side of this equation represents the rate at which the battery does work on the conductor. and E is the inductive electric ﬁeld. Substituting this 125 . we obtain jt 2 E ·jt = − E ·jt . that as the external ﬁeld strength. however. the Mumetal shell eventually saturates. The energy is either dissipated as heat or is used to generate a magnetic ﬁeld. Suppose that a battery with an electromotive ﬁeld E is feeding energy into this conductor. high permeability shell for which b = a + d. 3. slowly varying) then the displacement current can be neglected. The ﬁrst term on the right-hand side is the rate of Joule heating inside the conductor. the ﬁeld inside the shell is given by B 3 µ0 a B0 .184) Thus. B0 . If all ﬁelds are quasistationary (i. d/a 1. σ is the conductivity. Thus. We tentatively identify the remaining term with the rate at which energy is fed into the magnetic ﬁeld. Clearly.Consider the limit of a thin. extremely strong magnetic > ﬁelds (typically. or similar magnetic materials. Ohm’s law inside the conductor gives jt = σ(E + E ). and the Amp`re-Maxwell equation reduces to e ∧ H = jt . B0 ∼ 1 tesla) are hardly shielded at all by Mumetal. then we can reduce the magnetic ﬁeld strength inside the shell by almost a factor of 1000 using a shell whose thickness is only 1/100 th of its radius.e.. σ (3. 2 µ d (3. and µ/µ0 gradually falls to unity.18 Magnetic energy Consider an electrical conductor.

The variation δU in the magnetic ﬁeld energy can therefore be written δU = H ·δB d3 r. The total power expended by the battery can now be written E ·( ∧ H) d3 r = ( ∧ H)2 3 d r+ σ H· ∂B 3 d r.192) . (3. The last term is obviously the rate at which energy is fed into the magnetic ﬁeld.64) for the variation in the energy of an electrostatic ﬁeld.186) and integrating over all space.191) This result is analogous to the result (3. In order to make Eq.189) Since E ∧ H falls oﬀ at least as fast as 1/r 5 in electrostatic and quasi-stationary magnetic ﬁelds (1/r 2 comes from electric monopole ﬁelds. (3. Of course. ∂t (3. (3.expression into Eq. this is not the case for radiation ﬁelds. and 1/r 3 from magnetic dipole ﬁelds). (3. (3.187) The last term can be integrated by parts using the relation ·(E ∧ H) = H ·( ∧ E) − E ·( ∧ H). (3. to give U= 1 2 H ·B d3 r. we must assume a functional relationship between H and B. For a medium which magnetizes linearly the integration can be carried out in much the same manner as Eq. (3. 126 (3.67). the surface integral in the above expression can be neglected.191) integrable.190) The ﬁrst term on the right-hand side has already been identiﬁed as the energy loss rate due to Joule heating. the constraint of “quasi-stationarity” eﬀectively means that the ﬁelds vary suﬃciently slowly that any radiation ﬁelds can be neglected. for which E and H fall oﬀ like 1/r. Thus.188) The divergence theorem plus the Faraday-Maxwell equation yield E ·( ∧ H) d3 r = − H· ∂B 3 d r− ∂t (E ∧ H)·dS. we get E ·( ∧ H) d r = 3 ( ∧ H)2 3 d r− σ E ·( ∧ H) d3 r.

the energy expended per unit volume when a magnetic material is carried through a magnetization cycle is equal to the area of its hysteresis loop as plotted in a graph of B against H. For such materials.194) In other words. the magnetostatic energy density inside a linear magnetic material is given by H· B W = . most interesting magnetic materials.191) can only be integrated between deﬁnite states.Thus. depends on the past history of the sample. (3. This cyclic energy loss is given by ∆U = H · dB d3 r. (3. exhibit a nonlinear relationship between H and B. 127 . the integral of Eq. Thus.193) 2 Unfortunately. Eq. otherwise the transformers are likely to be extremely ineﬃcient. such as ferromagnets. For ferromagnets. (3. (3. in general. and the result. non-zero value when B is integrated around a complete magnetization cycle. it is particularly important to ensure that the magnetic materials used to form transformer cores possess hysteresis loops with comparatively small areas.191) has a ﬁnite.

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