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Utilization of Olive Husks for Energy Generation:

A Feasibility Study
Final Report - SENRAC Grant 9/00


Dr. Bassam Dally

Department of Mechanical Engineering
The University of Adelaide


A/P Peter Mullinger

Department of Chemical Engineering
The University of Adelaide

This document shall only be copied in full

17 Pages

Prepared for
South Australian State Energy Research Advisory Committee

27 March 2002

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Published by

Dr Bassam Dally
Department of Mechanical Engineering
University of Adelaide
SA, 5005, Australia

Limitation of Liability:

All endeavours are made to prevent errors during the preparation of this document. Accordingly,
you accept this disclaimer and acknowledge that no promise, representation or warranty has been
made or given by the authors in relation to the benefits, accuracy, reliability or any other
consequences from the use of the results of this study.

Users of this report are obliged to ensure its safekeeping, to use the information in it for the sole
purpose of research, and not to disclose or exploit that information without the written permission
of Dr. Bassam Dally

This work is copyright. Except as provided for by Australian copyright law, no part of this work
may be reproduced without the written permission of Dr. Bassam Dally

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1. Executive Summary 4

2. Recommendations 5

3. Objectives and Progress Assessment 6

3.1 Objectives 6
3.2 Progress Assessment 6
3.3 Methodology 6

4. Background 7

5. Scope for Olive Residues Utilization 9

6. Conversion to Energy 11

6.1 Extraction Techniques 11

6.2 Gasification 12
6.3 Briquetting 13
6.4 Firing or Co-Firing 13

7. Findings and Conclusions 15

8. References 16

Appendix A 17

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1. Executive Summary
Utilization of agricultural residues is becoming an important issue in the
sustainability of certain agricultural industries and in satisfying the social and
environmental expectations and governmental regulations. South Australia has
two main agricultural industries in which the residues are under utilized namely:
the wine and olive industries. The olive industry has been established in South
Australia since the beginning of the twentieth century. However, only in the last
decade has the industry reached a commercially viable size. Substantial number
of new olive groves were planted and up to date and accurate information on the
number of trees and their distribution in South Australia is scarce. A rough
estimate of the number of olive trees in South Australia puts it at 2-3 millions. The
residue from olive oil production constitutes more than 80% by mass of the olives
collected. This residue contains vegetable water, pulp and stone from the olives.
Currently, this residue is under utilized and in the majority of cases used as
mulch or dumped in landfills. An attractive feature of the solid component of the
residue is the calorific value. This solid residue is quite dense (515 kg/m3) and has
a heating value of 20 MJ/kg. Such a source has the potential of producing 250,000
MWh of electricity per annum in South Australia alone. There are three main
avenues by which this renewable energy source can be utilized. The first avenue
is via gasification, where hydrocarbon gas is extracted from the solid by steam or
microorganism. The resulting gas can be used in many combustion systems such
as boilers, furnaces and gas engines. However the confidence in the gasification
technology is quite low and the initial setup cost is very high. The second avenue
is via agglomeration of the residues into fuel blocks to be transported and utilized
as solid fuel, also known as briquetting. This is a relatively low cost process except
that the olive residue has low compression strength and shattering index which
requires the addition of another bonding agents for it to become usable. In
addition, such fuel is used in small scale uncontrolled systems which results in
high emission of pollutants. The third avenue is via direct firing of the olive
residue or co-firing with coal. Direct firing of olive residues is an attractive option
except that more research is yet required to fully understand the burning
characteristics of such fuel. Also the quantities available will only allow for a
small scale power generation plants which are not efficient. Co-firing of olive
residues with coal seems to be the most cost effective approach. Olive residues
have similar density, heat release and general burning characteristics as that of
coal. Research has shown that blending olive residues with coal is an attractive
approach where efficiency is maintained, emissions are reduced and it requires
minimal modification to the feeding system. Pilot scale experiments are needed in
order to optimize the blending ratios and fully quantify the emission and
efficiency of the systems under these conditions. In South Australia the power
generation plant at Port Augusta is an ideal site for such an idea to succeed. This
will help such industry to meet the regulatory requirements of generating 2% of
its power via a renewable energy source and will help solve the problem of
residues for olive growers. Hence, a serious look at the technicality of this
approach is timely and warranted.

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2. Recommendation and Future Direction

This report has found that the olive residues are not utilized in South Australia to
their full potential. The quantities produced are expected to peak in the next five
to ten years and a strategy to better utilize such resource needs to be devised for
the benefit of the farmers and the energy generation industry alike. Co-firing olive
residues with coal could significantly contribute to the target of producing 2% of
electricity from renewable sources. For this to be achieved, a pilot scale trial needs
to be commissioned where olive residues are co-fired with coal. In this trial
quantitative and accurate data on efficiency, emission and blend ratio can be
collected. Once this data is available, olive residues can be readily utilized in Port
Augusta power station. It is expected that transport cost and initial setup will be
minimal when compared to the cost of other renewable energy resources, few of
which are readily available in South Australia.

On the facilitation side, it is anticipated that governmental funding sources will be

needed for such trials and also for raising the awareness of farmers and power
generation industry on the potential of utilizing this source. In addition more
effort should go into collecting up to date and accurate information on the scale
and distribution of olive trees in South Australia. Such information will make it
possible to better plan alternative approaches depending on the location and
expected quantities of the olive residues.

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3. Objectives and Progress Assessment

3.1 Objectives

This project had the following objectives:

(i) Collect information on the use of olive husks in the booming olives
industry in South Australia in particular and in Australia in general;
(ii) Assess the economic benefits of the current use of olive husks and evaluate
the overall potential for improvement over the status quo;
(iii) Research the economic feasibility of three main approaches to enhance the
utilization of these residuals namely the Gasification, Briquetting and
firing or co-firing in existing plants;
(iv) Develop a strategy to initiate research and development program which
will lead to technology development of either of the above processes for
the use in the industry.

3.2 Progress Assessment

All objectives mentioned above where addressed in this report. The extent by
which they were achieved varies due to the lack of accurate and up to date
information on the scale of the olive industry, distribution of the olive groves in
South Australia and financial information on the real value of the residues. This
problem with information gathering stems from the facts that the authors of this
report assumed that they will be given access to information, whenever available,
on the industry and its current practices. The information was to be collected from
governmental departments and growers associations. However, this access was
not granted and in the majority of cases up to date information did not exist. This
resulted in semi-quantitative and up to date information about the utilization of
the residues and shifted the focus of the report into the technical aspect of the
approaches considered in this work.

3.3 Methodology

The information used in this report was gathered from a variety of sources and is up to
date. The authors gathered information from experts in the area, operators of large mills
and owners of large scale olive groves. In addition many scientific and technical
publications were used in writing this report. Worth noting that the National Bioenergy
Atlas, which contains information about many crops and vegetation around Australia
and is available via the web, did not have any information about olive groves.

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4. Background

Renewable energy has been proposed as a means to reduce the impact of fossil
fuel burning and to level and ultimately reduce the greenhouse gasses emitted to
the atmosphere. The term Renewable Energy can incorporate many sources of
energy including wind power, ocean waves, hydroelectric power and Biomass.
The overall objective of utilizing Renewable energy is to find long term viable
alternatives to current practice of burning fossil fuels and to devise systems which
are more efficient and environmentally friendly. In the majority of cases the cost
factor and availability have limited the mass use of these resources. This cost
comprises of initial investment in new plants and on going cost of operating such
plants. However, public pressure and environmental concerns are leading
governments around the world to legislate and devise strategies to achieve some
balance between financial constraints and social pressure. Worth noting, that the
problem is global and international protocols and agreements have been under
negotiation for more than a decade. The latest of such protocols is the Kyoto
Protocol (1997) which has a global focus and to which Australia is a signatory.
Australia’s obligation, in Kyoto, was set to limit greenhouse gas emission to 8%
above 1990 levels by the year 2008 to 2012 [Grant, 2002]. As part of the measures
to achieve these targets the Commonwealth Government has introduced the
Mandatory Renewable Energy Target of 9500 GWh by the year 2010. This in turn
implied that the power generation industry has to produce 2% of its electricity via
the renewable energy route. The government however also allowed for trading of
such credit points to encourage development of small renewable energy plants
and to ensure that they remain financially viable. It also puts pressure on fossil
fuel based power generation industry to produce new schemes to meet the 2%

To put these issues in South Australia context, much of our 26,000 GW per year
electricity demand is produced using natural gas or coal. The authors are not
aware of any large-scale plants in South Australia that can produce energy using
renewable sources. One of the few sources of such energy in our state is
agriculture residue. These residues are usually under utilized and are used as
fertilizers or disposed of in landfill dumps. The wine and the olive industries are
two of the main agriculture industries that are booming in South Australia. Both
industries produce a huge amount of waste material, which in general are under
utilized. The waste from the wine industry contains high level of moisture and
acids, which makes it harmful to the environment and necessitates a post
processing stage before utilization. On the other hand the olive industry produces
Vegetable Water and Olive Husks which can be utilized with minimal extra cost.
In particular the solid material made of stones and pulp which has high calorific
value similar to coal and have similar density to that of coal. The olive residues, or
“cake” as it is sometimes called, have the potential to be used as a good source of
renewable energy. With the olive industry booming the quantities expected in the

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near future will create a storage and disposal problem for farmers and milling
plants and it is timely that a closer look at ways to utilize this potential resource is

In setting the objectives for this project the authors made an assumption, which
had compromised the extent of the project scope in fulfilling the objective listed in
section 3. It was assumed that governmental departments and growers
associations will be able to supply the authors with an indication about the size of
the olive industry and its distribution in South Australia. However, the authors
found that such information is not up to date and in many cases does not exist
and they faced difficulties collecting the information and accessing the databases.
This in return limited the economical scope of this investigation and instead this
report gives general, rather than specific, view of the industry scopes and
concentrate on the feasibility of the technology and possible implementation in
South Australia.

In this report we discuss the nature of the olive industry waste, its current
disposal methods and the potential of usage as a renewable energy source. The
report examines the feasibility of energy generation via three avenues namely:
gasification, briquetting and firing or co-firing in existing combustion plants. The
report provides recommendations and future direction statement.

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5. Scope for Olive Residues Utilization
The size of the olive industry in Australia is very difficult to establish. Estimates,
collected from individual sources including Olives Australia vary between 10 to
12 million trees this year (2002). The majority of these trees are two to five years
old and yet to mature. South Australia used to have the largest number of olive
trees in Australia but current trends show that Victoria, NSW and to some extent
Queensland have planted substantial number of olive trees during the last decade.
The number of trees in South Australia is believed to be in the range of 2 to 3
million trees [Burr, 2002]. On maturity olive trees can produce between 40 to 50 kg
of olives per annum. Estimates show that less than 10% of these olives are used as
table olives and the rest used for oil extraction. Using the lower estimate of
number of trees (2 million) and considering that 80% of the olives end up as waste
and that 10% of the olives are not crushed for oil one arrives at a production of
65,000 tons of waste on average every year.

Australian olive industry is just getting to the critical size where disposal and
utilization of by-products of this industry is becoming a real issue. Many potential
uses for this waste has been developed in the past, mainly in Mediterranean
countries, which produce more than 80% of the world’s oil [RIRDC M142P]. The
simplest approach, which has been utilised by Australians thus far, is to use the
waste as mulch and distribute it back in the olive groves. This approach usually
requires the least capital investment but also has the least cost benefit to the
farmer. Other avenues for utilisation include animal feed or high quality fertilizer
(which requires post processing to separate the stone from the pulp), extraction of
anti oxidants for pharmaceutical companies which is not likely to have the
potential to utilise the quantities mentioned above. Olive stones have also been
used to manufacture high resistant bricks and plastic containers or transformed to
activated carbon to use in the purification of liquids and gases.

The most attractive feature of olive waste is the heating value. The high heating
value of olive oil waste is compared with other common coals in table 1 below.

Fuel Type Gross heating value (MJ/kg) Source of information

(as received) (Dry mineral
matter free)
Olive Waste 13-14 22 Di Blasi, etc
Anthracite 28 - 30 35.8 Technical Data on Fuel
Bituminous coal 25 - 30 33 - 36 Technical Data on Fuel
Leigh Creek coal 13.7 - 15.4 19-22 ESTA Report July 1988
Victorian Lignite 7.3 - 11.5* 16 - 28 The Science of Victorian
Brown Coal
* Net wet heating value

Table 1 Comparison between the heating value of olive waste and various coals

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It can be seen that the heating value of olive waste is comparable with Leigh
Creek coal. For olive waste with 15% moisture content the calorific value is
approximately 14.6 MJ/kg.

Allowing for wastage in transport and handling, together with the relatively low
efficiency of typical small-scale power generation systems, it is estimated that
approximately 20-25% of the energy available in the olive waste could be realised
as electricity. On this basis 65,000 tonnes a year of waste could yield
approximately 250,000 MWh per annum.

It is clear from the above that great benefits can be achieved in using this resource
for energy generation especially that the projected quantities are quite substantial
and should not be ignored. In analyzing the potential of this resource one needs to
take into consideration two important factors:

1. Olive trees have a two-year cycle and that crop is almost halved every
second year. This pattern is not necessarily consistent between all regions
and that may result in a more consistent supply year on year.

2. The oil extraction season usually lasts less than three months. This may
create a logistic problem of storage and transport.

However, these two factors are part of the nature of the industry and as long as
they are considered into any economic model they may not pause a problem.

Worth noting that in this section we restricted our analysis to waste generated
from oil extraction. The olive industry produces huge quantities of other waste
like leaves collected during the olive picking process and pruning waste. Both of
these materials can be also utilized and added to the residue from the olive oil
extraction waste.

This assessment illustrates the energy potential and gives an estimate of the
quantities produced in South Australia and hence warrants a serious
consideration of ways to utilize this resource for the benefit of the farmers, the
energy consuming industries and the general population. The potential various
ways that the energy in olive waste can be utilized are considered below.

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6. Conversion to Energy
Three main approaches are considered in this section, namely: gasification,
Briquetting and direct firing. Technical as well as economical consideration are
presented and discussed. It was almost impossible to give real dollar values to the
approaches considered due to the lack or accurate information on the quantities
and current real value of the residues. According to Mr Jim Smive of Viva
Australia, who owns many mills and one of the largest olive groves in South
Australia, olive residues cost farmers up to $15 a ton to dispose off. Hence in the
analysis the authors made the assumption that currently olive residues has not
got any real value. Instead a comparison of the cost and viability of the different
approaches mentioned above is made. This a conservative approach in order to
eliminate the uncertainty of the real value of the residues in different parts of
South Australia.

6.1 Extraction Techniques

The industrial olive-oil production process consists of three different stages:

milling, olive press-cake drying and vegetable oil refining. The oil extraction
process can be continuous or discontinuous as shown in Figure 1. Both processes
produce Dry-Kernel and waste water.

Figure 1 Schematic showing the oil extraciont processes

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The waste water from the traditional discontinuous process contains 13% solid by volume
while the continuous process results in waste water with 8% solids [Laforgia, 1997]. Two
different methods are also used for the continuous processing route. Those are the
2-Phase and 3-Phase techniques. In the 3-Phase technique 80% of the solid
residues contains less than 10% moisture while in the two-phase technique the
moisture content is above 40% and would require further treatment before it
could be used as a fuel. The majority of processing plants in Australia use the 3-
Phase technique. Worth noting that the rest of the solid material needs to be
separated from the waste water before it can be utilized.

The vaporisation of waste water has been suggested in the past [Laforgia, 1997].
This works around the principle of utilizing the solid part and the dry-kernel to
vaporize the waste water. Whilst this may be an attractive method of water
disposal, by eliminating the need for water treatment, much of the energy content
of the waste is utilised for evaporating the water. This reduces the potential
reduction in CO2 emissions that can be realised by using the olive waste for power
generation. Hence, a review of current disposal strategies of waste water and its
effect on the environment when compared to utilizing the solid byproduct for
water vaporization is warranted. Separation techniques that require minimal
energy input are currently being devised and will be available in the market soon
[Blackman, 2002].

6.2 Gasification

Gasification involves the release of hydrocarbon gases from solid material. It is

promoted as an attractive approach to increase thermal efficiency and reduce
emission of pollutant gases. The general problem with this approach has been the
lack in confidence in the technology and the commercial viability in the current
energy generation market [Knoef, 2000]. The gasification can be achieved by a
steaming process or via anaerobic biogas production using micro-organisms in
the process. In both methods the resulting gas contains mainly methane with
some residues of other gases which are released during the process including CO2
and CO. Such processes commonly occur in large scale residential waste fills. The
resulting gas is easily utilized either in boilers, furnaces or in gas engines. Some
technology issues regarding the fluctuation in the quality of the gas and change in
the gas composition need to be resolved before the gas can be used in combustion

The main drawback from such an approach is the high cost associated with initial
setup and operation of these facilities. Large scale steam plants are quite
expensive to setup and the cost effectiveness of the operation may be questioned
due to the seasonal nature of the industry. The biogas production can be attractive
for a small scale operation as set up cost can be small [Tekin, 2000]. The
temperature in the reactor needs to be effectively controlled in order to maximize
the gas production from the mix. The time scale for processing a batch is between
three to four weeks. If used locally, the mill needs to be modified to accommodate

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the new fuel. After the conversion of carbonaceous matter into biogas the problem
of disposing the residues remains valid. Such residue can be used as land fills or
fertilizer. Worth noting that the quality of the gas is quite good as it contains
around 80% methane by volume.

6.3 Briquetting

Briquetting is a technique used to agglomerate a wide range of materials into a

more useable form. It has been widely used to upgrade coal dust and mine waste
and Victorian brown coal for use as barbecue fuel (Heat Beads). Different biomass
products have been considered for bio-briquetting including, cotton stalks, tea
waste, waste paper and wheat straw. In such an approach one needs to consider
five main issues namely: shatter index, compressive strength, water resistance,
combustion characteristics and emission of pollutants.

Some of the biomass products can be pressed together and have a good
compressive strength, shattering index and water resistance. However the
majority of biomass material needs a binding agent to hold it together and allows
handling and transport of the briquettes. Olive refuse has a low compressive
strength and shattering index even when milled down to 0.25mm diameter
particles. This strength decreases with amount of moisture in the refuse. Olive
refuse also has reasonable water resistance when compared to other biomass
products. This depends on the initial water content and the pressing pressure
[Yaman, 2000].

One way to improve the properties of briquettes from olive refuse is to add paper
waste, which contains fibrous material, and by this increase the shatter index
substantially. In addition, the waste paper has similar combustion characteristics
to that of olive refuse and will have minimal effect on the burning rate.

Emissions from the combustion of briquettes can vary substantially. Burning is

usually undertaken in a relatively uncontrolled environment and can be very
harmful to the environment. However, considering that the need for alternative
fuels will increase in the near future, briquettes offer a substantially better
alternative to coal.

6.4 Firing or Co-Firing

Direct combustion of olive residues seems to be a potentially attractive avenue of

utilization. Olive residues are quite dense, r=515 kg/m3 (5.5% moisture) and have
heat release very similar to common coal at around 20 MJ/kg. This raises the
possibility of co-firing of olive residues with coal. Mainly because it requires
minimal modification to existing systems and will not require substantial capital
investment by either the farmer or the power generation industry.

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Some research has emerged lately on the parameters that need to be considered
when co-firing with coal. Cliffe and Patumsawad [Cliffe, 2001], looked at the
effect of blending ratios on carbon combustion efficiency and CO emission when
fired in a fluidized bed. The olive residue used in this study had 50% moisture
content, which has the effect of reducing the overall thermal efficiency. They
found that a blending ratio of 10% (by mass) olive residues to 90% coal result in
33% reduction in CO emission and a slight drop in Carbon combustion efficiency
of less than 5%. They also found that the bed temperature dropped by 25°C when
compared to 100% coal firing. These effects are probably attributable to the water
content of the waste since the evaporating water will tend to gasify some of the
carbonaceous material.

Abu-Qudais [Abu-Qudais, 1996] investigated the combustion characteristics of

olive residues (with 6% moisture content) in a fluidized bed. He found that the
combustion efficiency ranges from 83 to 95% depending on the excess air

Robinson et al. [Robinson, 1998] looked at the interactions between coal and
biomass when co-fired in a pulverized coal burner. They found that there is a
potential for reduction in pollutant production, decrease ash deposition and a
decrease in effective CO2 emissions. They also noted that judicious choices of fuels
and operating conditions are required to accomplish these objectives.

Although the combustion characteristics of olive refuse are not dissimilar to that
of low to medium rank coals, where most of the mass is released between 500K to
650 K and char burnout occurs at ~1300K, care would need to be taken in
utilisation in any power station boiler. This is because in the modern electricity
market plant availability is the overriding concern. Furthermore, owing to the ash
content of the waste it could only be utilised in a boiler designed to handle ash
and equipped with dust collectors. In South Australia that probably restricts the
application of olive waste co-firing to Port Augusta power station.

Di Blasi et al, (Di Blasi, 1999a, 1999b, 1999c) looked at gasification, pyrolysis and
degradation kinetics of wood and agricultural residues. They investigated wood
chips, wheat straws, olive husks, grape residues and rice husks. They found that
char from olive husks have the least nitrogen and sulfur between all residues
considered. This in effects will result in the least emission of pollutants.

It is evident from the above discussion that the potential for direct burning of
olive residues is quite possible and it would entail quite substantial benefits if the
process is properly optimized. It is envisaged that a pilot scale trial of co-firing
with brown or black coal will help prove that such approach is quite feasible.

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7. Findings and Conclusions

This report explored avenues and investigated feasibility of utilizing olive

industry residues for energy generation. Literature review and data gathering
were conducted in order to examine cost as well as technology issues. It is found
that the olive industry in South Australia and in Australia in general under utilize
the residues and in fact in the majority of cases these residues pose an extra
expense for storage and disposal.
Different ways to utilize the heating value of these residues were reviewed in this
report and analyzed in respect to the initial and operating cost and the potential
of use. It is found that direct firing of the olive residues or co-firing with coal is
quite a feasible and attractive proposition. The electrical energy potential of such
approach in South Australia alone is approximately 250,000 MWh per annum. The
properties of olive residues is very similar to that of coal and minimal
modification to existing plants is needed to incorporate olive residues into a
power station like the one in Port Augusta.
It is however important to optimize the operating conditions before incorporating
such fuel in a full scale operating plant. This can be achieved in a pilot trial where
issues such as efficiency, emission and blending ratios are optimized. It is also
recommended that an awareness campaign be instigated to help both olive and
energy generation industries to realize the potential of such renewable energy
It is also quite important for governmental bodies and industry associations to
collect and publish information about current scale and distribution of the olive
industry in South Australia. Such information will be extremely useful to growers
as well as other industries that are willing to interact for the mutual benefits of all.

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8. References
1. Abu-Quadais, M., Energy, Vol. 21, No. 3, pp. 173-178, 1996.
2. Blackman, S., Brigita Consulting, Private Communication, 2002.
3. Blaman Sarah, 2002, Brigita Consulting, Director, PO Box 273, Blackwood,
SA, 5051, Private Communication.
4. Cliffe, K. R. and Patumasawad, S., Waste Management, 21 (2001) 49-53.
5. Burr, M., 2002, an olive grower in SA and an author of “Australia Olives, a
Guide for Growers and Producers of Virgin Olive Oils”, PO Box 142,
Stepheney, SA, 5096, Private Communication.
6. Di Blasi, C. and Branca, C., The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering,
Volume 77, June 1999a.
7. Di Blasi, C., Signorelli, G. and Portoricco, G., Industrial Engineering and
Chemical Research, 1999b, 38, 2571-2581.
8. Di Blasi, C., Signorelli, G., Di Russo, C. and Portoricco, G., Industrial
Engineering and Chemical Research, 1999c, 38, 2216-2224.
9. Kiritsakis, A. K., “Olive Oil from the tree to the table”, 2nd edition, Food
and Nutrition Press, Inc. 1998.
10. Knoef, H.A.M., Fourth International Gasification Conference, 2000.
11. Lafrogia, D., Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 38, No. 18 pp. 1797-
1805, 1997.
12. Masghouni, M. and Hassairi, M., Biomass and Bioenergy, 18 (2000) 257-262.
13. McEvoy, D. G. and Gomez, E. E., “The Olive Industry, A Marketing
Study”, RIRDC Publication, No 99/86, 1999.
14. McEvoy, D. G., Gomez, E. E., McCarrol, A. and Sevil, J. “Potantial for
Establishing an Olive Industry in Australia”, RIRDC Publication, No 98/5,
15. RIRDC, “Research and Development Plan, Australian Olive Industry 1998-
2002”, RIRDC Publication, No 98/129, 1998.
16. Robinson, A. L., Junker, H., Buckley S. G., Sclippa, G. and Baxter, L. L.,
Twenty-seventh Symposium (International) on Combustion, The Combustion
Institute, 1998, pp.1351-1359.
17. Tekin, A. R. and Dagic, A. C., Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 30
(2000) 301-313.
18. Vitolo, S., Petarca, L. and Bresci, B., Bioresources Technology, 67 (1999) 129-
19. Werther J., Saenger M., Hartge, E.-U., Ogada T. and Siagi Z., Progress in
Energy and Combustion Science 26 (2000) 1-27.
20. Yaman, S., Sahan, M., Haykiri-acma, H. Sesen, K. and Kücükbayrak, S.,
Fuel Processing Technology, 68 (2000) 23-31.

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Appendix A: Grant 09/00 Expenditure Summary

Particulars Credits Expenditure

SENRAC Grant (#1/2) $1,833.33

SENRAC Grant (#2/2) $3,666.67
Salaries and Consumables $5,500

Total $5,500 $5,500


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