BRITISH STANÐARÐ

BS 6399-2:
199?
1ncorporo/ing
AnenJnen/ Ao. 1 onJ
CorrigenJun Ao. 1
Correc/eJ onJ
reprin/eJ June 2002
IoudInu Iov buI!dInus
Puvt 2: Code oI µvu¢tI¢e Iov wInd !ouds
ICS 9l.080.0l
NO COPYING WITHOUT BSI P£RMISSION £XC£PT AS P£RMITT£D BY COPYRIGHT IAW
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BS 6399-2:199?
ThIs IrIfIsh Sfnndnrd, hnvIng
boon propnrod undor fho
dIrocfIon of fho IuIIdIng nnd
CIvII IngInoorIng Socfor
Ionrd, wns pubIIshod undor fho
nufhorIfv of fho Sfnndnrds
Ionrd nnd comos Info offocf on
l5 JuIv l99?
ISI 3l JuIv 2002
IIrsf pubIIshod (ns CI 4)
Þovombor l944
IIrsf rovIsIon
(ns CI 3:Chnpfor V)
Augusf l952
InrfInI socond rovIsIon
(ns CI3:Chnpfor V:Inrf l)
Ðocombor l96?
CompIofIon of socond rovIsIon
(ns CI 3:Chnpfor V:Inrf 2)
JuIv l9?0
IubIIshod ns IS 6399-2
Augusf l995
Socond odIfIon JuIv l99?
Tho foIIowIng ISI roforoncos
roInfo fo fho work on fhIs
sfnndnrd:
CommIffoo roforonco I/525/l
Ðrnff for commonf 96/l03699 ÐC
ISBN 0 5B0 2?44? 0
CommIttees vesµonsIb!e Iov tLIs
BvItIsL Stunduvd
Tho propnrnfIon of fhIs IrIfIsh Sfnndnrd wns onfrusfod bv TochnIcnI
CommIffoo I/525, IuIIdIngs nnd cIvII ongInoorIng sfrucfuros, fo SubcommIffoo
I/525/l, AcfIons (IondIngs) nnd bnsIs of dosIgn, upon whIch fho foIIowIng bodIos
woro roprosonfod:
IrIfIsh ConsfrucfIonnI SfooIwork AssocInfIon !fd.
IrIfIsh Iron nnd SfooI Iroducors AssocInfIon
IrIfIsh Mnsonrv SocIofv
Concrofo SocIofv
Ðopnrfmonf of fho InvIronmonf (IuIIdIng !osonrch IsfnbIIshmonf)
Ðopnrfmonf of fho InvIronmonf (Iroporfv nnd IuIIdIngs ÐIrocfornfo)
Ðopnrfmonf of Trnnsporf (HIghwnvs Agoncv)
InsfIfufIon of SfrucfurnI IngInoors
ÞnfIonnI Houso-buIIdIng CouncII
!ovnI InsfIfufo of IrIfIsh ArchIfocfs
SfooI ConsfrucfIon InsfIfufo
Amendments Issued sIn¢e µub!I¢utIon
Amd. Þo. Ðnfo Commonfs
l3392 2? Mnrch 2002 IndIcnfod bv n sIdoIIno In fho mnrgIn
l4009
CorrIgondum Þo.l
3l JuIv 2002 Corrocfod IIguro 40.
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BS 6399-2:199?
ISI 3l JuIv 2002
I
Contents
Ingo
CommIffoos rosponsIbIo InsIdo fronf covor
Ioroword Iv
SocfIon l. ConornI
l.l Scopo l
l.2 InformnfIvo roforoncos l
l.3 ÐofInIfIons l
l.4 MnIn svmboIs 3
l.5 OufIIno of procoduro for cnIcuInfIng wInd Ionds 5
l.6 ÐvnnmIc cInssIfIcnfIon 9
l.? SIfo oxposuro 9
l.8 ChoIco of mofhod ll
SocfIon 2. Sfnndnrd mofhod
2.l Sfnndnrd wInd Ionds l3
2.2 Sfnndnrd wInd spoods l8
2.3 Sfnndnrd prossuro cooffIcIonfs 30
2.4 IxfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs for wnIIs 30
2.5 IxfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs for roofs 36
2.6 InfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs 53
2.? Irossuro cooffIcIonfs for oIomonfs 55
2.8 Iroo-sfnndIng wnIIs, pnrnpofs nnd sIgnbonrds 56
SocfIon 3. ÐIrocfIonnI mofhod
3.l ÐIrocfIonnI wInd Ionds 6l
3.2 ÐIrocfIonnI wInd spoods 65
3.3 ÐIrocfIonnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs ?0
3.4 HvbrId combInnfIons of sfnndnrd nnd dIrocfIonnI mofhods 9?
Annox A (normnfIvo) Þocossnrv provIsIons for wInd funnoI fosfIng 98
Annox I (InformnfIvo) ÐorIvnfIon of oxfromo wInd InformnfIon 98
Annox C (InformnfIvo) ÐvnnmIc nugmonfnfIon l0l
Annox Ð (normnfIvo) IrobnbIIIfv fncfor nnd sonsonnI fncfor l03
Annox I (InformnfIvo) TorrnIn cnfogorIos nnd offocfIvo hoIghf l05
Annox I (InformnfIvo) Cusf ponk fncfor l0?
Annox C (normnfIvo) TopogrnphIc IocnfIon fncfor l09
IIguro l IIowchnrf IIIusfrnfIng oufIIno procoduro 6
IIguro 2 InsIc dofInIfIons of buIIdIng dImonsIons 8
IIguro 3 ÐvnnmIc nugmonfnfIon fncfor C
r
l0
IIguro 4 SIzo offocf fncfor C
n
of sfnndnrd mofhod l6
IIguro 5 ÐofInIfIon of dIngonnI of Iondod nrons l?
IIguro 6 InsIc wInd spood V
b
(In m/s) l9
IIguro ? ÐofInIfIon of sIgnIfIcnnf fopogrnphv 20
IIguro 8 ÐofInIfIon of fopogrnphIc dImonsIons 2l
IIguro 9n TopogrnphIc IocnfIon fncfor e for hIIIs nnd rIdgos 23
IIguro 9b TopogrnphIc IocnfIon fncfor e for hIIIs nnd rIdgos 24
IIguro l0n TopogrnphIc IocnfIon fncfor e for cIIffs nnd oscnrpmonfs 25
IIguro l0b TopogrnphIc IocnfIon fncfor e for cIIffs nnd oscnrpmonfs 26
IIguro ll ÐIvIsIon of buIIdIngs bv pnrfs for ovornII Ionds 29
IIguro l2 Kov fo wnII prossuro dnfn 3l
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BS 6399-2:199?
II ISI 3l JuIv 2002
Ingo
IIguro l3 TvpIcnI oxnmpIos of buIIdIngs wIfh ro-onfrnnf cornors
nnd rocossod bnvs 32
IIguro l4 IxnmpIos of fIush IrroguInr wnIIs 33
IIguro l5 Kovs for wnIIs of Insof sforov 34
IIguro l6 Kov for fInf roofs 3?
IIguro l? Kov fo onvo dofnIIs for fInf roofs 38
IIguro l8 Kov for Insof sforov 39
IIguro l9 Kov for monopIfch roofs 4l
IIguro 20 Kov for duopIfch roofs 42
IIguro 2l Kov for hIppod roofs 45
IIguro 22 Kov for mnnsnrd nnd muIfIpIfch roofs 46
IIguro 23 Kov for muIfI-bnv roofs 48
IIguro 24 Kov for froo-sfnndIng cnnopv roofs 52
IIguro 25 !oducfIon fncfor for Iongfh of oIomonfs 56
IIguro 26 Kov for froo-sfnndIng wnIIs nnd pnrnpofs 5?
IIguro 2? ShoIfor fncfor for foncos, wnIIs nnd pnrnpofs 58
IIguro 28 Kov for sIgnbonrds 58
IIguro 29 WInd dIrocfIons for n rocfnnguInr-pInn buIIdIng 62
IIguro 30 Kov fo ovornII Iond P 64
IIguro 3l Kov for vorfIcnI wnIIs of buIIdIngs ?l
IIguro 32 Kov fo vorfIcnI gnbIo wnIIs ?4
IIguro 33 Kov for wnIIs of buIIdIngs wIfh ro-onfrnnf cornors ?6
IIguro 34 Kov for wnIIs of buIIdIngs wIfh rocossod bnvs ??
IIguro 35 Kov fo gonornI mofhod for fInf roofs ?8
IIguro 36 IxnmpIos of zonos of fInf roof of nrbIfrnrv pInn shnpo 80
IIguro 3? AddIfIonnI zonos nround Insof sforov 83
IIguro 38 Kov for monopIfch roofs 86
IIguro 39 SvmmofrIos for pIfchod roofs 88
IIguro 40 Kov for duopIfch roofs 90
IIguro 4l Kov for hIppod roofs 93
IIguro 42 Kov fo muIfI-bnv roofs 96
IIguro I.l ÐIspIncomonf hoIghf nnd offocfIvo hoIghf l06
IIguro I.l Cusf ponk fncfor g
f
l08
TnbIo l IuIIdIng-fvpo fncfor K
b
9
TnbIo 2 ÐvnnmIc prossuro o
s
(In In) l4
TnbIo 3 VnIuos of dIrocfIon fncfor S
d
2?
TnbIo 4 Incfor S
b
for sfnndnrd mofhod 28
TnbIo 5 IxfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs C
po
for vorfIcnI wnIIs 3l
TnbIo 5n Þof prossuro cooffIcIonfs for ovornII Iond 32
TnbIo 6 IrIcfIonnI drng cooffIcIonfs 35
TnbIo ? IxfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs C
po
for wnIIs of
cIrcuInr-pInn buIIdIngs 35
TnbIo 8 IxfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs C
po
for fInf roofs of buIIdIngs 38
TnbIo 9 IxfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs C
po
for monopIfch roofs
of buIIdIngs 43
TnbIo l0 IxfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs C
po
for duopIfch roofs
of buIIdIngs 43
TnbIo ll IxfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs C
po
for hIppod roofs
of buIIdIngs 44
TnbIo l2 !oducfIon fncfor for muIfI-bnv roofs 4?
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BS 6399-2:199?
ISI 3l JuIv 2002
III
Ingo
TnbIo l3 Þof prossuro cooffIcIonfs C
p
for froo-sfnndIng
monopIfch cnnopv roofs 50
TnbIo l4 Þof prossuro cooffIcIonfs C
p
for froo-sfnndIng duopIfch
cnnopv roofs 5l
TnbIo l5 !oducfIon fncfors for froo-sfnndIng muIfI-bnv cnnopv roofs 5l
TnbIo l6 InfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs C
pI
for oncIosod buIIdIngs 54
TnbIo l? InfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs C
pI
for buIIdIngs wIfh
domInnnf oponIngs 54
TnbIo l8 InfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs C
pI
for opon-sIdod buIIdIngs 55
TnbIo l9 InfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs C
pI
for opon-foppod
vorfIcnI cvIIndors 55
TnbIo 20 Þof prossuro cooffIcIonfs C
p
for Iong oIomonfs 55
TnbIo 2l Þof prossuro cooffIcIonfs C
p
for froo-sfnndIng wnIIs
nnd pnrnpofs 56
TnbIo 2ln !oducfIon fncfors x for froo-sfnndIng wnIIs nnd pnrnpofs 5?
TnbIo 22 Incfors S
c
nnd S
f
6?
TnbIo 23 Adjusfmonf fncfors T
c
nnd T
f
for sIfos In fown forrnIn 68
TnbIo 24 Cusf ponk fncfor g
f
69
TnbIo 25 VnIuos of L
o
nnd S
h
?0
TnbIo 26 IxfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs C
po
for vorfIcnI wnIIs of
rocfnnguInr-pInn buIIdIngs ?l
TnbIo 2? !oducfIon fncfors for zono A on vorfIcnI wnIIs of
poIvgonnI-pInn buIIdIngs ?2
TnbIo 28 IxfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs C
po
for vorfIcnI gnbIo
wnIIs ndjnconf fo non-vorfIcnI wnIIs nnd roofs ?3
TnbIo 29 IxfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs C
po
for wIndwnrd-fncIng
non-vorfIcnI wnIIs ?5
TnbIo 30 IxfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs C
po
for fInf roofs wIfh
shnrp onvos 80
TnbIo 3l !oducfIon fncfor for zonos A fo Ð, H fo J nnd Q fo S
of fInf roofs wIfh pnrnpofs 8l
TnbIo 32 IxfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs C
po
for fInf roofs wIfh
curvod onvos 8l
TnbIo 33 IxfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs C
po
for fInf roofs wIfh
mnnsnrd onvos 82
TnbIo 34 IxfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs C
po
for pIfchod roof
zonos A fo J 85
TnbIo 35 IxfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs C
po
for pIfchod roof
zonos K fo S 89
TnbIo 36 IxfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs C
po
for nddIfIonnI
zonos T fo Y of hIppod roofs 94
TnbIo 3? InfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs C
pI
for opon-sIdod buIIdIngs 96
TnbIo Ð.l VnIuos of sonsonnI fncfor l04
TnbIo C.l TopogrnphIc IocnfIon fncfor, e, for hIIIs nnd rIdgos
from IIguro 9n lll
TnbIo C.2 TopogrnphIc IocnfIon fncfor, e, for hIIIs nnd rIdgos
from IIguro 9b ll2
TnbIo C.3 TopogrnphIc IocnfIon fncfor, e, for cIIffs nnd oscnrpmonfs,
downwInd of crosf from IIguro l0n ll3
TnbIo C.4 TopogrnphIc IocnfIon fncfor, e, for cIIffs nnd oscnrpmonfs,
downwInd of crosf from IIguro l0b ll4
!Isf of roforoncos ll5
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BS 6399-2:199?
Iv ISI 3l JuIv 2002
Iovewovd
ThIs Inrf of fhIs IrIfIsh Sfnndnrd hns boon propnrod bv SubcommIffoo I/525/l,
AcfIons (IondIngs) nnd bnsIs of dosIgn, nnd suporsodos IS 6399-2:l995.
ThIs Inrf of IS 6399 Is onIv nppIIcnbIo fo sIfos In fho !K. Tho cIImnfo dopondonf
fncfors (for nIfIfudo, dIrocfIon, sonson nnd probnbIIIfv) hnvo boon cnIIbrnfod
spocIfIcnIIv for fho !K. WhIIo fho gonornI mofhodoIogv nnd prossuro cooffIcIonfs
gIvon In fhIs sfnndnrd mnv bo usod In ofhor wInd cIImnfos, If Is ossonfInI fo onsuro
fhnf fho roforonco wInd dnfn nro consIsfonf wIfh fho nssumpfIons In fhIs
sfnndnrd. Tho vnIuo of fho sIfo wInd spood V
s
shouId bo obfnInod from fho
roIovnnf mofooroIogIcnI nufhorIfv. Whon fho roforonco wInd spood for fho sIfo Is
gIvon ns n ponk gusf, fho hourIv monn vnIuo for fho sIfo mnv bo obfnInod bv
dIvIdIng fho ponk gusf bv fho fncfor In TnbIo 4, for fho roforonco forrnIn nnd
hoIghf nbovo ground. Whon roforonco wInd spoods nppIv fo IocnfIons ofhor fhnn
fho sIfo, oxporf ndvIco wIII gonornIIv bo noodod. If shouId nIso bo nofod fhnf
ndjusfmonfs fo pnrfInI fncfors on IondIng mnv bo nocossnrv dopondIng on:
n) fho probnbIIIfv fncfors ImpIIod In fho dnfn gIvon; nnd
b) whofhor or nof fho sIfo Is subjocf fo hurrIcnnos or fvphoons.
IS 6399-2:l995 wns n fochnIcnI rovIsIon of CI3:Chnpfor V:Inrf 2 (now
wIfhdrnwn) whIch Incorpornfod fho consIdornbIo ndvnncos mndo nnd oxporIonco
gnInod In wInd ongInoorIng sInco fhnf fImo.
Chnngos Infroducod bv Amondmonf l fo fhIs pnrf of IS 6399 IncIudo: cIosor
nIIgnmonf of fho prossuro cooffIcIonfs for pIfchod roofs In fho sfnndnrd mofhod
wIfh fhoso for fho dIrocfIonnI mofhod; chnngos fo fho prossuro cooffIcIonfs for
wnIIs IncIudIng fho InfroducfIon of nof prossuro cooffIcIonfs for osfImnfIng ovornII
Ionds on buIIdIngs; roducfIon fncfors for froo sfnndIng wnIIs nnd pnrnpofs
dopondIng on fhoIr Iongfh fo hoIghf rnfIos; cIonror foxf for fho cInuso donIIng wIfh
nsvmmofrv of wInd IondIng. OpporfunIfv hns nIso boon fnkon fo Incorpornfo
odIforInI chnngos fo somo cInusos for boffor cInrIfv.
Tho bnsIc wInd spood In fhIs IrIfIsh Sfnndnrd Is gIvon ns nn hourIv monn vnIuo;
fhIs dIffors from CI3:Chnpfor V:Inrf 2 In whIch If wns bnsod on n 3 s gusf vnIuo.
Howovor, fho hourIv monn bnsIc wInd spood Is subsoquonfIv convorfod Info n gusf
wInd spood for uso In dosIgn (bv n gusf ponk fncfor whIch fnkos nccounf of gusf
durnfIon fImo, hoIghf of sfrucfuro nbovo ground nnd fho sIzo of fho sfrucfuro). Tho
ndopfIon of fho hourIv monn vnIuo for fho bnsIc wInd spood Is for fochnIcnI
ronsons. IrImnrIIv If nIIows n moro nccurnfo fronfmonf of fopogrnphv, buf If nIso
provIdos fho sfnrfIng poInf for sorvIconbIIIfv cnIcuInfIons InvoIvIng fnfIguo or
dvnnmIc rosponso of fho sfrucfuro. Ifs uso Is nIso n movo fownrds hnrmonIznfIon
ns monn vnIuos (somofImos l0 mIn monns) nro offon fho bnsIs for wInd IondIng
cnIcuInfIons In Iuroponn nnd InfornnfIonnI Sfnndnrds.
Sfrucfuro fncfors nro usod fo chock whofhor fho rosponso of fho sfrucfuro cnn bo
consIdorod fo bo sfnfIc, In whIch cnso fho uso of fho cnIcuInfIon mofhods In fhIs
sfnndnrd Is npproprInfo. If fho rosponso Is found fo bo mIIdIv dvnnmIc fho
mofhods cnn sfIII bo usod buf fho rosuIfIng Ionds wIII nood fo bo nugmonfod.
Sfrucfuros whIch nro dvnnmIc wIII nIso bo IdonfIfIod buf fhoIr nssossmonf Is
oufsIdo fho scopo of fho sfnndnrd.
Two nIfornnfIvo mofhods nro gIvon:
n) n sfnndnrd mofhod, whIch usos n sImpIIfIod procoduro;
b) n dIrocfIonnI mofhod, from whIch fho sImpIIfIod mofhod wns dorIvod.
Tho sfnndnrd mofhod gonornIIv gIvos n consorvnfIvo rosuIf wIfhIn Ifs rnngo of
nppIIcnbIIIfv. CnIIbrnfIon hns shown fhnf Ionds on fvpIcnI buIIdIngs obfnInod bv
fho sfnndnrd mofhod nro nround l4 ° Inrgor fhnn obfnInod from fho dIrocfIonnI
mofhod. Tho dogroo of consorvnfIsm cnn bo much Inrgor cIoso fo fho ground nnd
In fowns, buf docronsos fo zoro nround l00 m nbovo fho ground.
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BS 6399-2:199?
ISI 3l JuIv 2002
v
In nddIfIon fo roducod consorvnfIsm, fho dIrocfIonnI mofhod nssossos fho IondIng
In moro dofnII, buf wIfh fho ponnIfv of Incronsod compIoxIfv nnd compufnfIonnI
offorf. Iocnuso of fhIs If Is nnfIcIpnfod fhnf fho sfnndnrd mofhod wIII bo usod for
mosf hnnd-bnsod cnIcuInfIons nnd fhnf fho dIrocfIonnI mofhod wIII bo
ImpIomonfod prIncIpnIIv bv compufor.
Irocoduros nro nIso gIvon fo onnbIo fho sfnndnrd offocfIvo wInd spood fo bo usod
wIfh fho dIrocfIonnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs nnd for fho dIrocfIonnI offocfIvo wInd
spoods fo bo usod wIfh fho sfnndnrd prossuro cooffIcIonfs.
CI3:Chnpfor V:Inrf 2 nIIowod for fho offocf of ground roughnoss, buIIdIng sIzo
nnd hoIghf nbovo ground bv n sIngIo fncfor. ThIs roquIrod fho cnIcuInfIon of
sopnrnfo wInd spoods for ovorv combInnfIon of roforonco hoIghf nbovo ground nnd
fho sIzo of fho Iondod nron. Howovor, n sImpIIfIcnfIon hns boon Infroducod In fho
sfnndnrd mofhod whIch InvoIvos fho cnIcuInfIon of onIv n sIngIo wInd spood for
onch roforonco hoIghf. Tho offocf of sIzo Is nIIowod for bv n sopnrnfo fncfor, C
n
.
IS 6399-2 nIso gIvos vnIuos for oxfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs for n gronfor rnngo
of buIIdIng confIgurnfIons fhnn dId CI3:Chnpfor V:Inrf 2.
ThIs now odIfIon Infroducos Annox C In whIch ompIrIcnI oqunfIons nro provIdod
fo onnbIo fho fopogrnphIc IocnfIon fncfor (e) fo bo cnIcuInfod. AIso gIvon nro fnbIos
whIch hnvo boon dorIvod dIrocfIv from fho oqunfIons whIch wIII bo usofuI ns nn
nccurncv chock fo fhoso wIshIng fo ImpIomonf fho oqunfIons Info compufor
soffwnro.
A IrIfIsh Sfnndnrd doos nof purporf fo IncIudo nII fho nocossnrv provIsIons of n
confrncf. !sors of IrIfIsh Sfnndnrds nro rosponsIbIo for fhoIr corrocf nppIIcnfIon.
Comµ!Iun¢e wItL u BvItIsL Stunduvd does not oI Itse!I ¢onIev ImmunIty
Ivom !euu! ob!IuutIons.
Summuvy oI µuues
ThIs documonf comprIsos n fronf covor, nn InsIdo fronf covor, pngos I fo vI,
pngos l fo ll5 nnd n bnck covor.
Tho ISI copvrIghf nofIco dIspInvod In fhIs documonf IndIcnfos whon fho
documonf wns Insf Issuod.
SIdoIInIng In fhIs documonf IndIcnfos fho mosf roconf chnngos bv nmondmonf.
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BS 6399-2:199?
ISI 3l JuIv 2002
l
Se¢tIon 1. Genevu! 1
1.1 S¢oµe
ThIs Inrf of IS 6399 gIvos mofhods for doformInIng fho gusf ponk wInd Ionds on buIIdIngs nnd compononfs
fhoroof fhnf shouId bo fnkon Info nccounf In dosIgn usIng oquIvnIonf sfnfIc procoduros.
Two nIfornnfIvo mofhods nro gIvon:
n) n sfnndnrd mofhod whIch usos n sImpIIfIod procoduro fo obfnIn n sfnndnrd offocfIvo wInd spood whIch
Is usod wIfh sfnndnrd prossuro cooffIcIonfs fo doformIno fho wInd Ionds for orfhogonnI dosIgn cnsos.
ÞOTI l ThIs procoduro Is vIrfunIIv fho snmo ns In CI3:Chnpfor V:Inrf 2.
b) n dIrocfIonnI mofhod In whIch offocfIvo wInd spoods nnd prossuro cooffIcIonfs nro doformInod fo dorIvo
fho wInd Ionds for onch wInd dIrocfIon.
Ofhor mofhods mnv bo usod In pInco of fho fwo mofhods gIvon In fhIs sfnndnrd, provIdod fhnf fhov cnn bo
shown fo bo oquIvnIonf. Such mofhods IncIudo wInd funnoI fosfs whIch shouId bo fnkon ns oquIvnIonf onIv
If fhov moof fho condIfIons dofInod In Annox A.
ÞOTI 2 WInd funnoI fosfs nro rocommondod whon fho form of fho buIIdIng Is nof covorod bv fho dnfn In fhIs sfnndnrd, whon fho
form of fho buIIdIng cnn bo chnngod In rosponso fo fho fosf rosuIfs In ordor fo gIvo nn opfImIzod dosIgn, or whon IondIng dnfn nro
roquIrod In moro dofnII fhnn Is gIvon In fhIs sfnndnrd.
SpocInIIsf ndvIco shouId bo soughf for buIIdIng shnpos nnd sIfo IocnfIons fhnf nro nof covorod bv fhIs
sfnndnrd.
Tho mofhods gIvon In fhIs Inrf of IS 6399 do nof nppIv fo buIIdIngs whIch, bv vIrfuo of fho sfrucfurnI
proporfIos, o.g. mnss, sfIffnoss, nnfurnI froquoncv or dnmpIng, nro pnrfIcuInrIv suscopfIbIo fo dvnnmIc
oxcIfnfIon. Thoso shouId bo nssossod usIng osfnbIIshod dvnnmIc mofhods or wInd funnoI fosfs.
ÞOTI 3 Soo roforoncos |l] fo |4] for oxnmpIos of osfnbIIshod dvnnmIc mofhods.
ÞOTI 4 If n buIIdIng Is suscopfIbIo fo oxcIfnfIon bv vorfox shoddIng or ofhor norooInsfIc InsfnbIIIfv, fho mnxImum dvnnmIc rosponso
mnv occur nf wInd spoods Iowor fhnn fho mnxImum.
1.2 InIovmutIve veIeven¢es
ThIs IrIfIsh Sfnndnrd rofors fo ofhor pubIIcnfIons fhnf provIdo InformnfIon or guIdnnco. IdIfIons of fhoso
pubIIcnfIons curronf nf fho fImo of Issuo of fhIs sfnndnrd nro IIsfod on fho InsIdo bnck covor, buf roforonco
shouId bo mndo fo fho Infosf odIfIons.
1.3 ÐeIInItIons
Ior fho purposos of fhIs IrIfIsh Sfnndnrd fho foIIowIng dofInIfIons nppIv.
1.3.1 WInd sµeed
1.3.1.1
busI¢ wInd sµeed
fho hourIv monn wInd spood wIfh nn nnnunI rIsk Qof boIng oxcoodod of 0.02, IrrospocfIvo of wInd dIrocfIon,
nf n hoIghf of l0 m ovor compIofoIv fInf forrnIn nf son IovoI fhnf wouId occur If fho roughnoss of fho forrnIn
wns unIform ovorvwhoro (IncIudIng urbnn nrons, InInnd Inkos nnd fho son) nnd oquIvnIonf fo fvpIcnI opon
counfrv In fho !nIfod KIngdom
1.3.1.2
sIte wInd sµeed
fho bnsIc wInd spood modIfIod fo nccounf for fho nIfIfudo of fho sIfo nnd fho dIrocfIon of fho wInd boIng
consIdorod (nnd fho sonson of oxposuro, If roquIrod)
ÞOTI In fho sfnndnrd mofhod onIv, offocfs of fopogrnphIc fonfuros nro IncIudod In fho sIfo wInd spood.
1.3.1.3
eIIe¢tIve wInd sµeed
fho sIfo wInd spood modIfIod fo n gusf spood bv fnkIng nccounf of fho offocfIvo hoIghf, sIzo of fho buIIdIng
or sfrucfurnI oIomonf boIng consIdorod nnd of pormnnonf obsfrucfIons upwInd
ÞOTI In fho dIrocfIonnI mofhod onIv: fho offocfs of fopogrnphIc fonfuros nro omIffod from fho sIfo wInd spood.
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BS 6399-2:199?
2 ISI 3l JuIv 2002
SocfIon l
1.3.2 Pvessuve
1.3.2.1
dynumI¢ µvessuve
fho pofonfInI prossuro nvnIInbIo from fho kInofIc onorgv of fho offocfIvo wInd spood
1.3.2.2
µvessuve ¢oeIII¢Ient
fho rnfIo of fho prossuro ncfIng on n surfnco fo fho dvnnmIc prossuro
1.3.2.3
extevnu! µvessuve
fho prossuro ncfIng on nn oxfornnI surfnco of n buIIdIng cnusod bv fho dIrocf ncfIon of fho wInd
1.3.2.4
Intevnu! µvessuve
fho prossuro ncfIng on nn InfornnI surfnco of n buIIdIng cnusod bv fho ncfIon of fho oxfornnI prossuros
fhrough porosIfv nnd oponIngs In fho oxfornnI surfncos of fho buIIdIng
1.3.2.5
net µvessuve
fho prossuro dIfforonco bofwoon opposIfo fncos of n surfnco
1.3.3 HeIuLt
1.3.3.1
u!tItude
n) whon fopogrnphv Is nof sIgnIfIcnnf: fho hoIghf nbovo monn son IovoI of fho ground IovoI of fho sIfo;
b) whon fopogrnphv Is sIgnIfIcnnf: fho hoIghf nbovo monn son IovoI of fho bnso of fho fopogrnphIc fonfuro.
1.3.3.2
buI!dInu LeIuLt
fho hoIghf of n buIIdIng or pnrf of n buIIdIng nbovo Ifs bnso
1.3.3.3
veIeven¢e LeIuLt
fho roforonco hoIghf for n pnrf of n sfrucfuro Is fho dnfum hoIghf nbovo ground for fho prossuro cooffIcIonfs
nnd Is dofInod wIfh fho prossuro cooffIcIonfs for fhnf pnrf
1.3.3.4
obstvu¢tIon LeIuLt
fho nvorngo hoIghf nbovo ground of buIIdIngs, sfrucfuros or ofhor pormnnonf obsfrucfIons fo fho wInd
ImmodInfoIv upwInd of fho sIfo
1.3.3.5
eIIe¢tIve LeIuLt
fho hoIghf usod In fho cnIcuInfIons of fho offocfIvo wInd spood doformInod from fho roforonco hoIghf wIfh
nIIownnco for fho obsfrucfIon hoIghf
1.3.4 IenutL
1.3.4.1
buI!dInu !enutL
fho Iongor horIzonfnI dImonsIon of n buIIdIng or pnrf of n buIIdIng
l)
1.3.4.2
buI!dInu wIdtL
fho shorfor horIzonfnI dImonsIon of n buIIdIng or pnrf of n buIIdIng
l)
l)
Ior compIox pInn shnpos, fhoso Iongfhs mnv bo doformInod from fho smnIIosf oncIosIng rocfnngIo or cIrcIo.
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BS 6399-2:199?
ISI 3l JuIv 2002
3
SocfIon l
1.3.4.3
¢vosswInd bveudtL
fho horIzonfnI oxfonf of n buIIdIng or pnrf of n buIIdIng normnI fo fho dIrocfIon of fho wInd
2)
1.3.4.4
InwInd deµtL
fho horIzonfnI oxfonf of n buIIdIng or pnrf of n buIIdIng pnrnIIoI fo fho dIrocfIon of fho wInd
2)
1.3.4.5
dIuuonu! dImensIon
fho Inrgosf dIngonnI dImonsIon of n Iondod nron, I.o. fho dImonsIon bofwoon fho mosf dIsfnnf poInfs on fho
porIphorv of fho nron
1.3.4.6
s¢u!Inu !enutL
n roforonco Iongfh doformInod from fho proporfIons of fho buIIdIng usod fo dofIno zonos ovor whIch fho
prossuro cooffIcIonf Is nssumod fo bo consfnnf
1.3.5 ÐIstun¢e
1.3.5.1
Iet¢L
fho dIsfnnco from fho sIfo fo fho upwInd odgo of onch cnfogorv of forrnIn, usod fo doformIno fho offocf of
forrnIn roughnoss chnngos
1.4 MuIn symbo!s
Ior fho purposos of fhIs Inrf of IS 6399 fho foIIowIng svmboIs nppIv.
2)
Ior compIox pInn shnpos, fhoso Iongfhs mnv bo doformInod from fho smnIIosf oncIosIng rocfnngIo or cIrcIo.
A Aron (2.1.3.5)
A
s
Aron swopf bv wInd (2.1.3.B)
o !nrgosf dIngonnI dImonsIon of fho Iondod nron onvoIopo (IIguro 5)
B CrosswInd brondfh of buIIdIng |IIguro 2b)]
I ScnIIng Iongfh usod fo dofIno Iondod nrons for prossuro cooffIcIonfs (2.4.1.3, 2.5.1.2)
C
n
SIzo offocf fncfor of sfnndnrd mofhod (2.1.3.4)
C
f
IrIcfIonnI drng cooffIcIonf (2.1.3.B)
C
p
Þof prossuro cooffIcIonf (2.1.3.3)
C
po
IxfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonf (2.1.3.1)
C
pI
InfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonf (2.1.3.2)
C
r
ÐvnnmIc nugmonfnfIon fncfor (1.6.1)
D InwInd dopfh of buIIdIng |IIguro 2b)]
J ÐInmofor of cIrcuInr cvIIndors (2.4.6)
G Cnp ncross rocossod bnv or woII (IIguro 34)
g
f
Cusf ponk fncfor (3.2.3.3)
H IuIIdIng hoIghf (IIguro 2), rIdgo hoIghf, onvos hoIghf or hoIghf of Insof or Iowor sforov
H
d
ÐIspIncomonf hoIghf (1.?.3.3, £.2)
H
o
IffocfIvo hoIghf (1.?.3)
H
r
!oforonco hoIghf (1.?.3)
H
o
ObsfrucfIon hoIghf (1.?.3, IIguro 2), or nvorngo hoIghf of roof fops of buIIdIngs or hoIghf of ofhor
pormnnonf obsfrucfIons upwInd of fho buIIdIng
/ Inrnpof hoIghf (2.5.1.4, IIguro l?), froo-sfnndIng wnII hoIghf (2.B.1.4, IIguro 23), or sIgnbonrd
hoIghf (2.B.2, IIguro 24)
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BS 6399-2:199?
4 ISI 3l JuIv 2002
SocfIon l
K
b
IuIIdIng-fvpo fncfor (1.6.1)
L IuIIdIng Iongfh (IIguro 2) or Iongfh of oIomonf bofwoon froo onds (2.?.3)
L
Ð
!ongfh of downwInd sIopo of fopogrnphIc fonfuro (2.2.2.2.5, IIguro 8)
L
o
IffocfIvo sIopo Iongfh of fopogrnphIc fonfuro (2.2.2.2.4)
L
!
!ongfh of upwInd sIopo of fopogrnphIc fonfuro (2.2.2.2.4, IIguro 8)
P Þof Iond (2.1.3.5)
P
f
IrIcfIonnI drng forco (2.1.3.B)
p Þof prossuro (2.1.3.3)
p
o
Irossuro on oxfornnI surfnco (2.1.3.1)
p
I
Irossuro on InfornnI surfnco (2.1.3.2)
Q AnnunI rIsk (probnbIIIfv) of fho bnsIc wInd spood boIng oxcoodod (2.2.2.4, 2.2.2.5,)
o ÐvnnmIc prossuro (3.1.2.1)
o
o
ÐvnnmIc prossuro of dIrocfIonnI mofhod for oxfornnI prossuros (3.1.2.2)
o
I
ÐvnnmIc prossuro of dIrocfIonnI mofhod for InfornnI prossuros (3.1.2.2)
o
s
ÐvnnmIc prossuro of sfnndnrd mofhod (2.1.2)
r !ndIus (IIguro l?)
S
n
AIfIfudo fncfor (2.2.2.2)
S
b
TorrnIn nnd buIIdIng fncfor (2.2.3.1)
S
c
Iofch fncfor (3.2.3.2)
S
d
ÐIrocfIon fncfor (2.2.2.3)
S
h
TopogrnphIc Incromonf (3.2.3.4)
S
p
IrobnbIIIfv fncfor (2.2.2.5)
S
s
SonsonnI fncfor (2.2.2.4)
S
f
TurbuIonco fncfor (3.2.3.2)
e TopogrnphIc IocnfIon fncfor (2.2.2.2)
T
c
Iofch ndjusfmonf fncfor (3.2.3.2)
T
f
TurbuIonco ndjusfmonf fncfor (3.2.3.2)
V
b
InsIc wInd spood (2.2.1, IIguro 6)
V
o
IffocfIvo wInd spood (2.2.3, 3.2.3)
V
s
SIfo wInd spood (2.2.2)
W IuIIdIng wIdfh (IIguro 2)
u WIdfh of wodgo In ro-onfrnnf cornors (IIguro 33)
X ÐIsfnnco of sIfo from crosf of fopogrnphIc fonfuro (2.2.2.2.5, IIguro 8)
X
o
SopnrnfIon dIsfnnco bofwoon buIIdIngs
Z HoIghf of crosf of fopogrnphIc fonfuro nbovo fho upwInd bnso nIfIfudo (IIguro 8)
n IIfch nngIo (from horIzonfnI) of roof (2.5) or non-vorfIcnI wnIIs (3.3.1.4)
µ Cornor nngIo of wnIIs (3.3.1.2)
A
S
SIfo nIfIfudo In mofros nbovo monn son IovoI (2.2.2.2)
A
T
AIfIfudo of upwInd bnso of fopogrnphIc fonfuro In mofros nbovo monn son IovoI (2.2.2.3)
x !oducfIon fncfor for Iongfh of oIomonfs (2.?.3)
c Avorngo sIopo of fho ground
c
o
IffocfIvo sIopo of fopogrnphIc fonfuro (2.2.2.2.4)
c
Ð
Tnngonf of downwInd sIopo of fopogrnphIc fonfuro (IIguro ?)
c
!
Tnngonf of upwInd sIopo of fopogrnphIc fonfuro (IIguro ?, 2.2.2.2.4)
o WInd dIrocfIon In dogroos onsf of norfh (2.2.2.3)
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BS 6399-2:199?
ISI 3l JuIv 2002
5
SocfIon l
1.5 Out!Ine oI µvo¢eduve Iov ¢u!¢u!utInu wInd !ouds
1.5.1 Tho oufIIno of procoduro Is IIIusfrnfod In fho fIowchnrf gIvon In IIguro l. ThIs shows fho sfngos of fho
sfnndnrd mofhod, fogofhor wIfh fho roIovnnf cInuso numbors, ns fho boxos oufIInod nnd connocfod bv fhIck
IInos. Tho sfngos of fho dIrocfIonnI mofhod nro shown ns boxos oufIInod wIfh doubIo IInos nnd nro dIrocfIv
oquIvnIonf fo fho sfngos of fho sfnndnrd mofhod. VnrIous Inpuf dnfn nro shown In boxos oufIInod wIfh sIngIo
IInos.
1.5.2 Tho wInd Ionds shouId bo cnIcuInfod for onch of fho Iondod nrons undor consIdornfIon, dopondIng on
fho dImonsIons of fho buIIdIng, dofInod In IIguro 2. Thoso mnv bo:
n) fho sfrucfuro ns n whoIo;
b) pnrfs of fho sfrucfuro, such ns wnIIs nnd roofs;
or
c) IndIvIdunI sfrucfurnI compononfs, IncIudIng cInddIng unIfs nnd fhoIr fIxIngs.
ÞOTI WInd Iond on n pnrfInIIv compIofod sfrucfuro mnv bo crIfIcnI nnd wIII bo dopondonf on fho mofhod nnd soquonco of
consfrucfIon.
( SoIIdIfv rnfIo of wnIIs or frnmos (2.B) or bIockngo rnfIo of cnnopIos (2.5.9, IIguro 24)
0 WInd dIrocfIon of dogroos from normnI fo buIIdIng fncos (IIguro 2) or nngIo nround porIphorv of
cIrcuInr-pInn buIIdIng (2.4.6)
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BS 6399-2:199?
6 ISI 3l JuIv 2002
SocfIon l
IIuuve 1 I!ow¢Luvt I!!ustvutInu out!Ine µvo¢eduve
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BS 6399-2:199?
ISI 3l JuIv 2002
?
SocfIon l
Notes to IIuuve 1
Stuue 1: ÐoformInos fho dvnnmIc nugmonfnfIon fncfor from
fho bnsIc goomofrIc nnd sfrucfurnI proporfIos of fho buIIdIng.
Stuue 6: HnvIng nssossod fho oxposuro of fho sIfo, fhIs sfngo
offors fho choIco bofwoon fho sfnndnrd mofhod nnd fho
dIrocfIonnI mofhod. Tho sfnndnrd mofhod gIvos consorvnfIvo
vnIuos for sfnndnrd orfhogonnI Iond cnsos, nnd n sImpIIfIod
mofhod for buIIdIngs up fo l00 m In hoIghf nnd for sIgnIfIcnnf
fopogrnphv. Tho dIrocfIonnI mofhod gIvos n moro procIso vnIuo
for nnv gIvon wInd dIrocfIon, pnrfIcuInrIv for sIfos In fowns, nnd
whoro fopogrnphv Is sIgnIfIcnnf. A sImpIo ruIo for nssossIng fho
sIgnIfIcnnco of fopogrnphv Is provIdod.
Stuue 2: ÐopondIng on fhIs vnIuo, n chock Is porformod on fho
IovoI of dvnnmIc oxcIfnfIon fo doformIno:
n) whofhor fho mofhods gIvon In fhIs Inrf of IS 6399 nppIv
nnd fho nssossmonf mnv procood; or
b) whofhor fho mofhods gIvon In fhIs Inrf of IS 6399 do nof
nppIv nnd fho buIIdIng shouId bo nssossod bv ono of fho
mofhods for dvnnmIc buIIdIngs (soo roforoncos |l] fo |4]) or
bv wInd funnoI fosfs (soo Annox A).
Stuue ?: ÐoformInos fho offocfIvo wInd spoods roquIrod bv
oIfhor mofhod. Tho offocfIvo wInd spood Is n gusf wInd spood
npproprInfo fo fho sIfo oxposuro nnd fho hoIghf of fho buIIdIng.
In fho sfnndnrd mofhod fhIs corrosponds fo n dnfum sIzo of
Iondod nron, whIIo In fho dIrocfIonnI mofhod fhIs corrosponds fo
fho sIzo of fho Iondod nron undor consIdornfIon.
Stuue 3: ÐoformInos fho bnsIc hourIv monn wInd spood from
fho mnp for fho !K.
Stuue 4: ÐoformInos n sIfo wInd spood, sfIII corrospondIng fo
fho hourIv monn wInd spoods nf n hoIghf of l0 m nbovo ground
In fho sfnndnrd oxposuro, from fho bnsIc wInd spood bv
nppIvIng corrocfIons for fho sIfo nIfIfudo, wInd dIrocfIon nnd
sonson. !p fo fhIs poInf, no nIIownnco for fho oxposuro of fho
pnrfIcuInr sIfo hns boon mndo nnd fho procoduro Is common
(oxcopf In Ifs fronfmonf of fho offocfs of fopogrnphv) fo bofh fho
sfnndnrd nnd dIrocfIonnI mofhod.
Stuue B: Convorfs fho offocfIvo wInd spood Info nn oquIvnIonf
dvnnmIc prossuro.
Stuue 9: SoIocfs prossuro cooffIcIonfs corrospondIng fo fho form
of fho buIIdIng. In fho sfnndnrd mofhod fhoso cooffIcIonfs
corrospond fo n numbor (usunIIv fwo or fhroo) of orfhogonnI
Iond cnsos, whIIo In fho dIrocfIonnI mofhod fhov corrospond fo
fho wInd dIrocfIons boIng consIdorod (usunIIv fwoIvo).
ÞOTI Tho dorIvnfIons of fho bnsIc wInd spood mnp, fho
ndjusfmonfs for sIfo nIfIfudo, wInd dIrocfIon nnd sonson nro
gIvon In Annox I.
Stuue 10: ÐoformInos fho wInd Ionds from fho dvnnmIc
prossuro, prossuro cooffIcIonfs, dvnnmIc nugmonfnfIon fncfor
nnd, In fho sfnndnrd mofhod, bv fho sIzo offocf fncfor, fo gIvo
fho chnrncforIsfIc wInd Iond for sfnfIc dosIgn.
Stuue 5: Assossos fho oxposuro of fho sIfo In forms of fho
forrnIn roughnoss nnd fho offocfIvo hoIghf. Throo cnfogorIos of
forrnIn roughnoss nro usod fo dofIno fho sIfo oxposuro. Tho
offocfIvo hoIghf doponds on fho dogroo of shoIfor provIdod bv
noIghbourIng buIIdIngs or ofhor pormnnonf obsfrucfIons.
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BS 6399-2:199?
8 ISI 3l JuIv 2002
SocfIon l
IIuuve 2 BusI¢ deIInItIons oI buI!dInu dImensIons
L
L
W1
2
W
L
W
1
2
H
H
1
H
2
θ
D
B
D
D
B
B
Wind
Wind
Wind
Plan
Orthogonal cases General cases
a) Fixed dimensions: length, width, height
b) Variable dimensions: crosswind breadth, inwind depth, wind angle
c) Displacement height and effective height
Wind
H
o
Profile of
displacement
height
o
H
r
H
e
H
d
0.8H
o
2H
o
6H
o
X
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BS 6399-2:199?
ISI 3l JuIv 2002
9
SocfIon l
1.6 ÐynumI¢ ¢!ussIII¢utIon
1.6.1 ÐynumI¢ uuumentutIon Iu¢tov
Tho mofhods of fhIs sfnndnrd ompIov oquIvnIonf sfnfIc Ionds fo roprosonf fho offocf of fIucfunfIng Ionds
whIch Is nppIIcnbIo onIv fo buIIdIngs whIch nro nof suscopfIbIo fo dvnnmIc oxcIfnfIon.
Tho sfnndnrd pormIfs oquIvnIonf sfnfIc Ionds fo bo usod for fho dosIgn of mIIdIv dvnnmIc sfrucfuros bv fho
InfroducfIon of n dvnnmIc nugmonfnfIon fncfor. Tho vnIuo of fhIs fncfor doponds upon fho ncfunI hoIghf H
of fho buIIdIng nbovo ground nnd on n buIIdIng-fvpo fncfor K
b
obfnInod from TnbIo l, for fho form of
consfrucfIon of fho buIIdIng.
Tho dvnnmIc nugmonfnfIon fncfor C
r
Is gIvon for fvpIcnI buIIdIngs In IIguro 3.
Tub!e 1 BuI!dInu-tyµe Iu¢tov K
b
ÞOTI Tho vnIuos of fho fncfors K
b
nnd C
r
hnvo boon dorIvod for fvpIcnI buIIdIng sfrucfuros wIfh fvpIcnI froquoncv nnd dnmpIng
chnrncforIsfIcs, undor fvpIcnI !K wInd spoods, wIfhouf nccounfIng for fopogrnphv or forrnIn roughnoss offocfs. Moro nccurnfo vnIuos
of fhoso fncfors mnv bo dorIvod usIng Annox C whon fho buIIdIng chnrncforIsfIcs nro nof fvpIcnI, or whon fho offocfs of fopogrnphv nnd
forrnIn roughnoss nood fo bo fnkon Info nccounf.
1.6.2 IImIts oI uµµ!I¢ubI!Ity
ThIs Inrf of IS 6399 doos nof nppIv whon fho vnIuo of dvnnmIc nugmonfnfIon fncfor oxcoods fho IImIfs
shown In IIguro 3. IuIIdIngs fnIIIng oufsIdo fhoso IImIfs shouId bo nssossod usIng osfnbIIshod dvnnmIc
mofhods.
ÞOTI Soo roforoncos |l] fo |4] for furfhor InformnfIon on nnnIvsIs of dvnnmIc sfrucfuros.
1.? SIte exµosuve
1.?.1 Genevu!
Tho sIfo wInd spood V
s
rofors fo n sfnndnrd opon counfrv oxposuro nf n hoIghf of l0 m nbovo ground. To
obfnIn fho offocfIvo wInd spood fho offocfs of vnrvIng ground roughnoss, fho hoIghf nnd dIsfnnco of
obsfrucfIons upwInd of fho sIfo nnd fho offocfs of fopogrnphv shouId bo fnkon Info nccounf.
1.?.2 Gvound vouuLness ¢uteuovIes
Throo cnfogorIos of forrnIn nro consIdorod:
n) eeo: fho son, nnd InInnd nrons of wnfor oxfondIng moro fhnn l km In fho wInd dIrocfIon whon cIosor
fhnn l km upwInd of fho sIfo;
b) coun/rx: nII forrnIn whIch Is nof dofInod ns son or fown;
c) /oun: buIIf up nrons nof Ioss fhnn 0.l km upwInd of fho sIfo wIfh nn nvorngo IovoI of roof fops nf Ionsf
H
o
= 5 m nbovo ground IovoI.
ÞOTI l Iormnnonf forosf nnd woodInnd mnv bo fronfod ns fown cnfogorv.
ÞOTI 2 TorrnIn cnfogorIos nro oxpInInod In moro dofnII In Annox I.
1.?.3 ReIeven¢e LeIuLt, eIIe¢tIve LeIuLt und dIsµ!u¢ement LeIuLt
1.?.3.1 Tho roforonco hoIghf H
r
Is dofInod for fho buIIdIng form In fho npproprInfo prossuro cooffIcIonf
fnbIos nnd dofInIfIon fIguros, buf cnn consorvnfIvoIv bo fnkon ns fho mnxImum hoIghf of fho buIIdIng nbovo
ground IovoI.
1.?.3.2 Tho offocfIvo hoIghf H
o
mnv bo consorvnfIvoIv fnkon ns fho roforonco hoIghf H
r
.
Tyµe oI buI!dInu
K
b
WoIdod sfooI uncInd fInmos 8
IoIfod sfooI nnd roInforcod concrofo uncInd frnmos 4
IorfnI shods nnd sImIInr IIghf sfrucfuros wIfh fow InfornnI wnIIs 2
Irnmod buIIdIngs wIfh sfrucfurnI wnIIs nround IIffs nnd sfnIrs onIv
(o.g. offIco buIIdIngs of opon pInn or wIfh pnrfIfIonIng)
l
Irnmod buIIdIngs wIfh sfrucfurnI wnIIs nround IIffs nnd sfnIrs wIfh nddIfIonnI
mnsonrv subdIvIsIon wnIIs (o.g. npnrfmonf buIIdIngs), buIIdIngs of mnsonrv
consfrucfIon nnd fImbor-frnmod housIng
0.5
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BS 6399-2:199?
l0 ISI 3l JuIv 2002
SocfIon l
1.?.3.3 IuIIdIngs or ofhor pormnnonf obsfrucfIons upwInd of fho sIfo dIspInco fho wInd upwnrds, provIdIng
shoIfor nonr fho ground.
Tho dIspIncomonf hoIghf H
d
Is gIvon bv:
n) H
d
= 0.8H
o
for X
o
2H
o
b) H
d
= l.2H
o
0.2X
o
for 2H
o
< X
o
< 6H
o
c) H
d
= 0 for X
o
6H
o
whoro
H
o
Is fho nvorngo IovoI of rooffops of fho buIIdIngs or hoIghf of ofhor pormnnonf obsfrucfIons upwInd
of fho sIfo, ns dofInod In IIguro 2c);
X
o
Is fho upwInd spncIng, ns dofInod In IIguro 2c).
Tho offocfIvo hoIghf H
o
Is doformInod from onch roforonco hoIghf H
r
, ns:
H
o
= H
r
H
d
; or
H
o
= 0.4H
r
,
whIchovor Is gronfor.
ÞOTI l In fho nbsonco of moro nccurnfo InformnfIon, fho obsfrucfIon hoIghf H
o
mnv bo osfImnfod from fho nvorngo numbor of
sforovs of upwInd buIIdIngs bv fnkIng fho fvpIcnI sforov hoIghf ns 3 m. Iurfhor guIdnnco Is gIvon In Annox I.
ÞOTI 2 IuIIdIngs or ofhor pormnnonf obsfrucfIons shouId oxfond nf Ionsf l00 m upwInd of fho sIfo nnd occupv nf Ionsf 8 ° of fho
fofnI nron wIfhIn n 30 socfor confrod on fho wInd dIrocfIon boIng consIdorod.
IIuuve 3 ÐynumI¢ uuumentutIon Iu¢tov C
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BS 6399-2:199?
ISI 3l JuIv 2002
ll
SocfIon l
1.?.3.4 AccoIornfod wInd spoods occur cIoso fo fho bnso of buIIdIngs whIch nro sIgnIfIcnnfIv fnIIor fhnn fho
nvorngo hoIghf of fho roof fops of fho surroundIng buIIdIngs. Whon consIdorIng Iow rIso buIIdIngs whIch nro
cIoso fo ofhor fnII buIIdIngs fho ruIos for offocfIvo hoIghf wIII nof nocossnrIIv Iond fo consorvnfIvo vnIuos
nnd spocInIIsf ndvIco shouId bo soughf.
1.B CLoI¢e oI metLod
1.B.1 Ior nII sfrucfuros whoro fho wInd IondIng cnn bo roprosonfod bv oquIvnIonf sfnfIc Ionds (soo 1.6), fho
wInd IondIng cnn bo obfnInod oIfhor bv fho sfnndnrd mofhod doscrIbod In SocfIon 2 or bv fho dIrocfIonnI
mofhod gIvon In SocfIon 3.
1.B.2 Tho sfnndnrd mofhod provIdos vnIuos of offocfIvo wInd spood fo bo usod wIfh fho sfnndnrd prossuro
cooffIcIonf (cInusos 2.3, 2.4 nnd 2.5) fo doformIno orfhogonnI Iond cnsos, corrospondIng fo fho wInd dIrocfIon
nofIonnIIv normnI or pnrnIIoI fo fho fncos of fho buIIdIng. Tho sfnndnrd mofhod usos n sImpIIfIod nIIownnco
for sIgnIfIcnnf fopogrnphv, ns dofInod In IIguro ?.
1.B.3 Tho dIrocfIonnI mofhod gIvos vnIuos of fho offocfIvo wInd spood for dIfforonf wInd dIrocfIons, fnkIng
Info nccounf fho forrnIn npproprInfo fo fho wInd dIrocfIon boIng consIdorod, fo bo usod wIfh fho dIrocfIonnI
prossuro cooffIcIonfs. If gIvos boffor osfImnfos of offocfIvo wInd spoods In fowns nnd for sIfos nffocfod bv
fopogrnphv.
1.B.4 Howovor, ns fho sfnndnrd mofhod gIvos consorvnfIvo vnIuos of bofh offocfIvo wInd spood
(boIow l00 m) nnd prossuro cooffIcIonf, If mnv somofImos bo npproprInfo fo uso n hvbrId combInnfIon of
bofh mofhods, oIfhor:
n) sfnndnrd offocfIvo wInd spoods wIfh dIrocfIonnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs; or
b) dIrocfIonnI offocfIvo wInd spoods wIfh sfnndnrd prossuro cooffIcIonfs.
CombInnfIon n) Is npproprInfo whon fho form of fho buIIdIng Is woII dofInod, buf fho sIfo Is nof; fho cnsos
of roIocnfnbIo buIIdIngs or sfnndnrd mnss-producod dosIgns nro fvpIcnI oxnmpIos. CombInnfIon b) Is
npproprInfo whon onIv fho sfnndnrd orfhogonnI Iond cnsos nro roquIrod, buf n boffor nIIownnco for sIfo
oxposuro Is dosIrod bocnuso fopogrnphv Is sIgnIfIcnnf nnd/or fho sIfo Is In n fown. Such hvbrId combInnfIons
shouId bo nppIIod onIv In nccordnnco wIfh 3.4.
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BS 6399-2:199?
ISI 3l JuIv 2002
l3
Se¢tIon 2. Stunduvd metLod 2
2.1 Stunduvd wInd !ouds
2.1.1 WInd dIve¢tIon
2.1.1.1 Tho sfnndnrd mofhod roquIros nssossmonf for orfhogonnI Iond cnsos for wInd dIrocfIons normnI fo
fho fncos of fho buIIdIng, ns shown In IIguro 2b). Whon fho buIIdIng Is doubIv-svmmofrIc,
o.g. rocfnnguInr-pInn wIfh fInf, oqunI-duopIfch or hIppod roof, fho fwo orfhogonnI cnsos shown In IIguro 2b)
nro suffIcIonf. Whon fho buIIdIng Is sIngIv-svmmofrIc, fhroo orfhogonnI cnsos nro roquIrod, o.g. for
rocfnnguInr-pInn monopIfch buIIdIngs: wInd normnI fo hIgh onvos; wInd normnI fo Iow onvos; wInd pnrnIIoI
fo onvos. Whon fho buIIdIng Is nsvmmofrIc, four orfhogonnI cnsos nro roquIrod.
2.1.1.2 Ior onch orfhogonnI cnso, fho rnngo of wInd dIrocfIons 45 oIfhor sIdo of fho dIrocfIon normnI fo
fho buIIdIng fnco shouId bo consIdorod. Whon svmmofrv Is usod fo roduco fho numbor of orfhogonnI Iond
cnsos, bofh opposIng wInd dIrocfIons, o.g. 0 = 0 nnd 0 = l80 shouId bo consIdorod nnd fho moro onorous
dIrocfIon usod.
2.1.2 ÐynumI¢ µvessuve
2.1.2.1 Tho vnIuo of fho dvnnmIc prossuro o
s
of fho sfnndnrd mofhod Is gIvon bv
whoro
o
s
Is fho dvnnmIc prossuro (In In
3)
);
V
o
Is fho offocfIvo wInd spood from 2.2.3 (In m/s).
2.1.2.2 VnIuos of dvnnmIc prossuro o
s
for vnrIous vnIuos of V
o
nro gIvon In TnbIo 2.
2.1.3 WInd !oud
2.1.3.1 Erternul our[uce preooureo
Tho prossuro ncfIng on fho oxfornnI surfnco of n buIIdIng p
o
Is gIvon bv
2.1.3.2 1nternul our[uce preooureo
Tho prossuro ncfIng on fho InfornnI surfnco of n buIIdIng, p
I
, Is gIvon bv
o
s
= 0.6l3V
o
2
(l)
3)
l In = l Þ/m
2
p
o
= o
s
C
po
C
n
(2)
whoro
o
s
Is fho dvnnmIc prossuro from 2.1.2;
C
po
Is fho oxfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonf for fho buIIdIng surfnco gIvon In 2.4 nnd 2.5;
C
n
Is fho sIzo offocf fncfor for oxfornnI prossuros dofInod In 2.1.3.4.
p
I
= o
s
C
pI
C
n
(3)
whoro
o
s
Is fho dvnnmIc prossuro from 2.1.2;
C
pI
Is fho InfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonf for fho buIIdIng gIvon In 2.6;
C
n
Is fho sIzo offocf fncfor for InfornnI prossuros dofInod In 2.1.3.4.
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BS 6399-2:199?
l4 ISI 3l JuIv 2002
SocfIon 2
2.1.3.3 Net our[uce preooureo
Tho nof prossuro p ncfIng ncross n surfnco Is gIvon bv fho foIIowIng.
n) Ior oncIosod buIIdIngs
b) Ior froo-sfnndIng cnnopIos nnd buIIdIng oIomonfs
Tub!e 2 ÐynumI¢ µvessuve o
s
(In In)
2.1.3.4 Sixe e[[ect [uctor
Tho sIzo offocf fncfor C
n
of fho sfnndnrd mofhod nccounfs for fho non-sImuIfnnoous ncfIon of gusfs ncross
nn oxfornnI surfnco nnd for fho rosponso of InfornnI prossuros. VnIuos of sIzo offocf fncfor nro gIvon
In IIguro 4, dopondonf on fho sIfo oxposuro (soo 1.?) nnd fho dIngonnI dImonsIon o.
Ior oxfornnI prossuros fho dIngonnI dImonsIon o Is fho Inrgosf dIngonnI of fho nron ovor whIch Iond shnrIng
fnkos pInco, ns IIIusfrnfod In IIguro 5. Ior InfornnI prossuros nn offocfIvo dIngonnI dImonsIon Is dofInod
In 2.6 whIch Is dopondonf on fho InfornnI voIumo.
Ior nII IndIvIdunI sfrucfurnI compononfs, cInddIng unIfs nnd fhoIr fIxIngs, fho dIngonnI dImonsIon shouId
bo fnkon ns o = 5 m, unIoss fhoro Is ndoqunfo Iond shnrIng cnpncIfv fo jusfIfv fho uso of n dIngonnI Iongfh
gronfor fhnn 5 m.
2.1.3.5 Sur[uce loudo
Tho nof Iond P on nn nron of n buIIdIng surfnco or oIomonf Is gIvon bv:
!ond offocfs, for oxnmpIo bondIng momonfs nnd shonr forcos, nf nnv IovoI In n buIIdIng shouId bo bnsod on
fho dIngonnI dImonsIon of fho Iondod nron nbovo fho IovoI boIng consIdorod, ns IIIusfrnfod In IIguro 5c).
p = p
o
p
I
(4)
whoro
p
o
Is fho oxfornnI prossuro gIvon In 2.1.3.1;
p
I
Is fho InfornnI prossuro gIvon In 2.1.3.2.
p = o
s
C
p
C
n
(5)
whoro
o
s
Is fho dvnnmIc prossuro from 2.1.2;
C
p
Is fho nof prossuro cooffIcIonf for fho cnnopv surfnco or oIomonf gIvon In 2.5.9 nnd 2.?;
C
n
Is fho sIzo offocf fncfor for oxfornnI prossuros dofInod In 2.1.3.4.
V
o
+0 +1.0 +2.0 +3.0 +4.0 +5.0 +6.0 +?.0 +B.0 +9.0
m/s
l0 6l ?4 88 l04 l20 l38 l5? l?? l99 22l
20 245 2?0 29? 324 353 383 4l4 44? 48l 5l6
30 552 589 628 668 ?09 ?5l ?94 839 885 932
40 98l l 030 l 080 l l30 l l90 l 240 l 300 l 350 l 4l0 l 4?0
50 l 530 l 590 l 660 l ?20 l ?90 l 850 l 920 l 990 2 060 2 l30
60 2 2l0 2 280 2 360 2 430 2 5l0 2 590 2 6?0 2 ?50 2 830 2 920
P = pA (6)
whoro
p Is fho nof prossuro ncross fho surfnco;
A Is fho Iondod nron.
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BS 6399-2:199?
ISI 3l JuIv 2002
l5
SocfIon 2
2.1.3.6 Oterull loudo
Tho ovornII Iond P on n buIIdIng Is fnkon ns fho sum of fho Ionds on IndIvIdunI surfncos wIfh nIIownncos for
non-sImuIfnnoous ncfIon bofwoon fncos nnd for mIIdIv dvnnmIc rosponso.
Tho ovornII horIzonfnI Ionds nro gIvon bv
ÞOTI l Tho fncfor 0.85 nccounfs for fho non-sImuIfnnoous ncfIon bofwoon fncos.
ÞOTI 2 As fho offocf of InfornnI prossuro on fho fronf nnd ronr fncos Is oqunI nnd opposIfo whon fhov nro of oqunI sIzo, InfornnI
prossuro cnn bo Ignorod In fho cnIcuInfIon of ovornII horIzonfnI Ionds on oncIosod buIIdIngs on IovoI ground.
ÞOTI 3 In oqunfIon ? for confrIbufIon fo wnIIs mnv bo fnkon ns o
s
C
p
C
n
A, whoro C
p
Is fho nof prossuro
cooffIcIonf gIvon In TnbIo 5n.
Whoro fho combInnfIon of fho orfhogonnI Ionds Is crIfIcnI fo fho dosIgn, for oxnmpIo In dorIvIng sfrossos In
cornor coIumns, fho mnxImum sfrossos cnusod bv wInd In nnv compononf mnv bo fnkon ns 80 ° of fho sum
of fho wInd sfrossos rosuIfIng from onch orfhogonnI pnIr of Iond cnsos.
2.1.3.? Aovmmetric loudo
!nIoss spocIfIc prossuro cooffIcIonfs or guIdnnco nro gIvon for pnrfIcuInr forms of buIIdIng or oIomonf
|o.g. pIfchod roofs (soo 2.5.2 nnd 2.5.3), froo-sfnndIng cnnopIos (soo 2.5.9.1) nnd sIgnbonrds (soo 2.B.2)], nn
nIIownnco for nsvmmofrv of IondIng shouId bo mndo.
ÞOTI l Tho offocfs of nsvmmofrIc IondIng mnv bo nccounfod for bv roducIng fho dosIgn wInd Iond bv 40 ° on fhoso pnrfs of fho
sfrucfuro whoro fho offocf of fho Iond Is bonofIcInI.
ÞOTI 2 TorsIonnI offocfs on buIIdIngs mnv bo nccounfod for bv dIspIncIng fho Ionds on onch fnco horIzonfnIIv bv l0 ° of fho fnco
wIdfh from fho confro of fho fnco.
2.1.3.B 1rictionul druµ component
Whon dorIvIng ovornII forcos on fho buIIdIng (soo 2.4.5 nnd 2.5.10) fho confrIbufIon of fho frIcfIonnI forcos
P
f
|soo oqunfIon ?n)] shouId bo fnkon fo ncf In fho dIrocfIon of fho wInd nnd shouId bo nddod fo fho
confrIbufIon of fho normnI prossuro forcos from 2.1.3.6 usIng vocforInI summnfIon.
P = 0.85(ZP
fronf
ZP
ronr
) (l + C
r
) (?)
whoro
ZP
fronf
Is fho horIzonfnI compononf of surfnco Iond summod ovor fho wIndwnrd-fncIng wnIIs nnd roofs;
ZP
ronr
Is fho horIzonfnI compononf of surfnco Iond summod ovor fho Ioownrd-fncIng wnIIs nnd roofs;
C
r
Is fho dvnnmIc nugmonfnfIon fncfor from 1.6.1;
P
f
= o
s
C
f
A
s
C
n
(?n)
whoro
A
s
Is fho nron swopf bv fho wInd (soo 2.4.5 nnd 2.5.10)
C
f
Is fho frIcfIonnI drng cooffIcIonf (soo TnbIo 6)
P
fronf
P
ronr

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BS 6399-2:199?
l6 ISI 3l JuIv 2002
SocfIon 2
Key to !Ines on IIuuve 4
£IIe¢tIve LeIuLt
H
o
SIte In ¢ountvy: ¢!osest dIstun¢e to seu SIte In town: ¢!osest dIstun¢e to seu
(km) (km)
m 0 to < 2 2 to < 10 10 to < 100 100 2 to < 10 10 to < 100 100
2 A I I I C C C
> 2 fo 5 A I I I C C C
> 5 fo l0 A A I I A C C
> l0 fo l5 A A I I A I I
> l5 fo 20 A A I I A I I
> 20 fo 30 A A A I A A I
> 30 fo 50 A A A I A A I
> 50 A A A I A A I
IIuuve 4 SIze eIIe¢t Iu¢tov C
n
oI stunduvd metLod
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BS 6399-2:199?
ISI 3l JuIv 2002
l?
SocfIon 2
IIuuve 5 ÐeIInItIon oI dIuuonu! oI !ouded uveus
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BS 6399-2:199?
l8 ISI 3l JuIv 2002
SocfIon 2
2.2 Stunduvd wInd sµeeds
2.2.1 BusI¢ wInd sµeed
Tho googrnphIcnI vnrInfIon of bnsIc wInd spood V
b
shouId bo obfnInod dIrocfIv from IIguro 6.
ÞOTI Tho mofhod usod fo dorIvo fho bnsIc wInd spood from fho mofooroIogIcnI dnfn Is doscrIbod In Annox I.
2.2.2 SIte wInd sµeed
2.2.2.1 Cenerul
Tho sIfo wInd spood V
s
for nnv pnrfIcuInr dIrocfIon shouId bo cnIcuInfod from whoro
ÞOTI In consIdorIng fho rnngo of wInd dIrocfIons 45, In nccordnnco wIfh 2.1.1.2, fwo nppronchos nro possIbIo:
n) fho mosf onorous vnIuo of onch fncfor In oqunfIon 8 Is fnkon, IondIng fo n sIngIo consorvnfIvo vnIuo of V
s
;
b) nssossmonfs of V
s
nro mndo nf InforvnIs fhrough fho rnngo of dIrocfIon nnd fho Inrgosf vnIuo usod.
In prncfIco, opfIon b) wIII nof produco sIgnIfIcnnfIv Iowor vnIuos fhnn n) unIoss fho combInnfIon of IocnfIon, oxposuro nnd
fopogrnphv of fho sIfo Is unusunI.
V
s
= V
b
S
n
S
d
S
s
S
p
(8)
whoro
V
b
Is fho bnsIc wInd spood from 2.2.1;
S
n
Is nn nIfIfudo fncfor (soo 2.2.2.2);
S
d
Is n dIrocfIon fncfor (soo 2.2.2.3);
S
s
Is n sonsonnI fncfor (soo 2.2.2.4);
S
p
Is n probnbIIIfv fncfor (soo 2.2.2.5).
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B
S
I
BS 6399-2:199?
ISI 3l JuIv 2002
l9
SocfIon 2
CopvrIghf, IuIIdIng !osonrch IsfnbIIshmonf !fd
IIuuve 6 BusI¢ wInd sµeed V
b
(In m/s)
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B
S
I
BS 6399-2:199?
20 ISI 3l JuIv 2002
SocfIon 2
2.2.2.2 Altitude [uctor
2.2.2.2.1 Tho nIfIfudo fncfor S
n
shouId bo usod fo ndjusf fho bnsIc wInd spood V
b
for fho nIfIfudo of fho sIfo
nbovo son IovoI. Ifs cnIcuInfIon In fho sfnndnrd mofhod doponds on whofhor fopogrnphv Is consIdorod fo bo
sIgnIfIcnnf, ns IndIcnfod bv fho sImpIo crIforIn In IIguro ?. Whon fopogrnphv Is nof consIdorod sIgnIfIcnnf,
S
n
shouId bo cnIcuInfod usIng fho procoduro In 2.2.2.2.2. Whon fopogrnphv Is sIgnIfIcnnf, S
n
shouId bo
cnIcuInfod usIng fho procoduro In 2.2.2.2.3 for fho wInd dIrocfIon vIoIdIng fho Inrgosf vnIuo of S
n
, fvpIcnIIv
fho dIrocfIon wIfh fho sfooposf sIopo upwInd of fho sIfo.
2.2.2.2.2 Whon fopogrnphv Is nof consIdorod sIgnIfIcnnf S
n
shouId bo cnIcuInfod from
ÞOTI In fhIs cnso fho vnIuo of S
n
, bnsod on fho sIfo nIfIfudo, componsnfos for rosIdunI fopogrnphv offocfs.
IIuuve ? ÐeIInItIon oI sIunIII¢unt toµouvuµLy
S
n
= l + 0.00lA
S
(9)
whoro
A
S
Is fho sIfo nIfIfudo (In mofros nbovo monn son IovoI).
Topography significant
for shaded area
Topography significant
for shaded area
Wind
Wind
0.5 x slope length if < 0.3
1.6 x slope height if > 0.3
ψ
U
ψ
U
1.5 x slope length if < 0.3
5 x slope height if > 0.3
ψ
U
ψ
U
ψ
D
U
U
Downwind slope
> 0.05
ψ
D
Downwind slope
< 0.05
ψ
U
Upwind slope
> 0.05
ψ
U
Upwind slope
> 0.05
Z = slope
height
Z = slope
height
=
=
=
=
L = slope length
L = slope length
= base of
topography
Δ
T
= base of
topography
Δ
T
a) Hill and ridge (upwind slope > 0.05: downwind slope > 0.05)
b) Escarpment (0.3 > upwind slope > 0.05; downwind slope<0.05) and cliff (upwind slope > 0.3; downwind slope < 0.05)
_
_
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B
S
I
BS 6399-2:199?
ISI 3l JuIv 2002
2l
SocfIon 2
2.2.2.2.3 Whon fopogrnphv Is consIdorod sIgnIfIcnnf S
n
shouId bo fnkon ns fho gronfor of:
S
n
= l + 0.00lA
S
(l0)
whoro
A
S
Is fho sIfo nIfIfudo (In mofros nbovo monn son IovoI); or
S
n
= l + 0.00lA
T
+ l.2c
o
e (ll)
whoro
A
T
Is fho nIfIfudo of fho upwInd bnso of sIgnIfIcnnf fopogrnphv (In mofros nbovo monn son IovoI);
c
o
Is fho offocfIvo sIopo of fho fopogrnphIc fonfuro;
e Is n fopogrnphIc IocnfIon fncfor.
Key
L
Ð
!ongfh of fho downwInd sIopo In fho wInd dIrocfIon
S
SIfo nIfIfudo In mofros nbovo monn son IovoI
L
!
!ongfh of fho upwInd sIopo In fho wInd dIrocfIon
T
AIfIfudo of upwInd bnso of fopogrnphIc fonfuro
X HorIzonfnI dIsfnnco of fho sIfo from fho crosf
c
!
!pwInd sIopo Z/L
!
In fho wInd dIrocfIon
Z IffocfIvo hoIghf of fho fonfuro
c
Ð
ÐownwInd sIopo Z/L
Ð
In fho wInd dIrocfIon
IIuuve B ÐeIInItIon oI toµouvuµLI¢ dImensIons
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B
S
I
BS 6399-2:199?
22 ISI 3l JuIv 2002
SocfIon 2
2.2.2.2.4 Tho roIovnnf dImonsIons of fho fopogrnphv nro dofInod In IIguro 8. Two pnrnmofors, offocfIvo
sIopo c
o
nnd offocfIvo sIopo Iongfh L
o
nro dofInod In forms of fhoso dImonsIons bv fho foIIowIng.
n) Ior shnIIow upwInd sIopos 0.05 < c
!
< 0.3: c
o
= c
!
nnd L
o
= L
!
;
b) Ior sfoop upwInd sIopos c
!
0.3: c
o
= 0.3 nnd L
o
= Z/0.3.
2.2.2.2.5 VnIuos of fho fopogrnphIc IocnfIon fncfor e nro gIvon for hIIIs nnd rIdgos In IIguro 9n nnd IIguro
9b nnd for cIIffs nnd oscnrpmonfs In IIguro l0n nnd IIguro l0b. In rondIng fho vnIuo of e from fhoso fIguros,
fho IocnfIon wIfh rospocf fo fho crosf of fho fonfuro Is scnIod fo fho Iongfhs of fho upwInd L
!
or downwInd
L
Ð
sIopos ns foIIows:
n) upwInd of fho crosf (X < 0), fho horIzonfnI posIfIon rnfIo Is X/L
!
for nII fvpos of fopogrnphv;
b) downwInd of fho crosf (X > 0), fho horIzonfnI posIfIon rnfIo Is X/L
Ð
for hIIIs nnd rIdgos, nnd X/!
o
for
cIIffs nnd oscnrpmonfs.
In nII cnsos, fho hoIghf nbovo ground rnfIo Is H/L
o
. Tho bnsIs for fho dorIvnfIon of fho vnIuos In IIguro 9n
nnd IIguro 9b nnd IIguro l0n nnd IIguro l0b Is gIvon In Annox C.
ÞOTI In cnsos frnnsIfIonnI bofwoon hIIIs nnd rIdgos In IIguro 8n) nnd cIIffs nnd oscnrpmonfs In IIguro 8b), I.o. whon fho downwInd
sIopo Iongfh L
Ð
Is much Iongor fhnn fho upwInd sIopo Iongfh L
!
If mnv bo dIffIcuIf fo docIdo whIch modoI Is fho moro npproprInfo. In
fhIs cnso, n vnIuo of e mnv bo dorIvod from IIguro 9n nnd IIguro 9b nnd IIguro l0n nnd IIguro l0b, nnd fho smnIIor vnIuo usod.
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B
S
I
BS 6399-2:199?
ISI 3l JuIv 2002
23
SocfIon 2
I
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µ
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µ
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B
S
I
BS 6399-2:199?
24 ISI 3l JuIv 2002
SocfIon 2
I
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9
b

T
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µ
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µ
L
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¢

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¢
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B
S
I
BS 6399-2:199?
ISI 3l JuIv 2002
25
SocfIon 2
I
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1
0
u

T
o
µ
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v
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µ
L
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¢

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¢
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¢
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¢
!
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B
S
I
BS 6399-2:199?
26 ISI 3l JuIv 2002
SocfIon 2
I
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b

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µ
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µ
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¢
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B
S
I
BS 6399-2:199?
ISI 3l JuIv 2002
2?
SocfIon 2
2.2.2.3 Direction [uctor
Tho dIrocfIon fncfor S
d
mnv bo usod fo ndjusf fho bnsIc wInd spood fo produco wInd spoods wIfh fho snmo
rIsk of boIng oxcoodod In nnv wInd dIrocfIon. VnIuos nro gIvon In TnbIo 3 for nII wInd dIrocfIons In 30
InforvnIs (whoro fho wInd dIrocfIon Is dofInod In fho convonfIonnI mnnnor: nn onsf wInd Is n wInd dIrocfIon
of (o = 90 nnd bIows fromfho onsf fo fho sIfo). If fho orIonfnfIon of fho buIIdIng Is unknown or Ignorod, fho
vnIuo of fho dIrocfIon fncfor shouId bo fnkon ns S
d
= l.00 for nII dIrocfIons.
ÞOTI Whon fho dIrocfIon fncfor Is usod wIfh ofhor fncfors fhnf hnvo n dIrocfIonnI vnrInfIon, vnIuos from TnbIo 3 shouId bo
InforpoInfod for fho spocIfIc dIrocfIon boIng consIdorod, or fho Inrgosf fnbuInfod vnIuo In fho rnngo of wInd dIrocfIon mnv bo soIocfod.
Tub!e 3 Vu!ues oI dIve¢tIon Iu¢tov S
d
2.2.2.4 Seuoonul [uctor
Tho sonsonnI fncfor S
s
mnv bo usod fo roduco fho bnsIc wInd spood for buIIdIngs whIch nro oxpocfod fo bo
oxposod fo fho wInd for spocIfIc subnnnunI porIods, In pnrfIcuInr for fompornrv works nnd buIIdIngs durIng
consfrucfIon. VnIuos whIch mnInfnIn fho rIsk (probnbIIIfv) of boIng oxcoodod of Q= 0.02 In fho sfnfod porIod
nro gIvon In Annox Ð.
Ior pormnnonf buIIdIngs nnd buIIdIngs oxposod fo fho wInd for n confInuous porIod of moro fhnn 6 monfhs
n vnIuo of l.0 shouId bo usod for S
s
.
2.2.2.5 Prohuhilitv [uctor
A probnbIIIfv fncfor S
p
mnv bo usod fo chnngo fho rIsk of fho bnsIc wInd spood boIng oxcoodod from fho
sfnndnrd vnIuo of Q = 0.02 nnnunIIv, or In fho sfnfod subnnnunI porIod If S
s
Is nIso usod. IqunfIon Ð.l
gIvos S
p
, fogofhor wIfh n numbor of vnIuos for ofhor IovoIs of rIsk.
Ior nII normnI dosIgn nppIIcnfIons, whoro ndjusfmonfs for rIsk nro mndo fhrough fho pnrfInI fncfors, fho
sfnndnrd vnIuo of rIsk, Q = 0.02, Is usod nnd S
p
= l.0.
2.2.3 £IIe¢tIve wInd sµeed
2.2.3.1 Tho offocfIvo wInd spood V
o
shouId bo cnIcuInfod from:
ÐIve¢tIon ÐIve¢tIon Iu¢tov S
d
0 Þorfh 0.?8
30 0.?3
60 0.?3
90 Insf 0.?4
l20 0.?3
l50 0.80
l80 Soufh 0.85
2l0 0.93
240 l.00
2?0 Wosf 0.99
300 0.9l
330 0.82
360 Þorfh 0.?8
ÞOTI InforpoInfIon mnv bo usod wIfhIn fhIs fnbIo.
V
o
= V
s
S
b
(l2)
whoro
V
s
Is fho sIfo wInd spood obfnInod from 2.2.2, for fho rnngo 0 = 45 nround fho nofIonnI orfhogonnI
wInd dIrocfIons dofInod wIfh fho prossuro cooffIcIonf dnfn for onch form of buIIdIng;
S
b
Is fho forrnIn nnd buIIdIng fncfor obfnInod from 2.2.3.3.
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B
S
I
BS 6399-2:199?
28 ISI 3l JuIv 2002
SocfIon 2
2.2.3.2 Ior buIIdIngs wIfh hoIghf H gronfor fhnn fho crosswInd brondfh B for fho wInd dIrocfIon boIng
consIdorod, somo roducfIon In ovornII Ionds mnv bo obfnInod bv dIvIdIng fho buIIdIng Info n numbor of pnrfs
ns foIIows:
n) buIIdIngs wIfh hoIghf H Ioss fhnn or oqunI fo B shouId bo consIdorod fo bo ono pnrf, ns In IIguro lln);
b) buIIdIngs wIfh hoIghf H gronfor fhnn B buf Ioss fhnn 2B shouId bo consIdorod fo bo fwo pnrfs,
comprIsIng n Iowor pnrf oxfondIng upwnrds from fho ground bv n hoIghf oqunI fo B nnd nn uppor pnrf
whIch Is fho romnIndor, ns In IIguro llb);
c) buIIdIngs wIfh hoIghf H gronfor fhnn 2B shouId bo consIdorod fo bo muIfIpIo pnrfs, comprIsIng n Iowor
pnrf oxfondIng upwnrds from fho ground bv n hoIghf oqunI fo B, nn uppor pnrf oxfondIng downwnrds
from fho fop bv n hoIghf oqunI fo B, nnd n mIddIo rogIon bofwoon uppor nnd Iowor pnrfs whIch mnv bo
dIvIdod Info n numbor of horIzonfnI pnrfs, ns In IIguro llc).
Tho roforonco hoIghf H
r
for onch pnrf shouId bo fnkon ns fho hoIghf fo fho fop of fhnf pnrf. Tho dIngonnI
dImonsIon, o, shouId bo fnkon for fho Iondod nron boIng consIdorod.
2.2.3.3 Tho forrnIn nnd buIIdIng fncfor S
b
shouId bo obfnInod dIrocfIv from TnbIo 4 nnd fnkos nccounf of:
n) fho offocfIvo hoIghf H
o
doformInod from 1.?.3;
b) fho cIososf upwInd dIsfnnco of fho sIfo from fho son In fho rnngo of wInd dIrocfIon 0 = 45 nround fho
nofIonnI wInd dIrocfIon for fho orfhogonnI Iond cnso, ns dofInod wIfh fho prossuro cooffIcIonf dnfn for onch
form of buIIdIng;
c) whofhor fho sIfo Is In counfrv forrnIn or nf Ionsf 2 km InsIdo fown forrnIn.
ÞOTI Ior nII sIfos InsIdo fowns (oxcopf oxncfIv nf fho upwInd odgo or nf n dIsfnnco of 2 km from fho upwInd odgo) fho sImpIIfIcnfIons
of fho sfnndnrd mofhod produco n Inrgor vnIuo of S
b
fhnn fho dIrocfIonnI mofhod. If fho Ionds producod bv fho sfnndnrd mofhod nro
crIfIcnI fo fho dosIgn, fho uso of fho hvbrId combInnfIon gIvon In 3.4.2 shouId bo consIdorod.
Tub!e 4 Iu¢tov S
b
Iov stunduvd metLod
SIte In ¢ountvy ov uµ to 2 km Into town SIte In town, extendInu 2 km uµwInd Ivom tLe sIte
£IIe¢tIve LeIuLt
H
o
C!osest dIstun¢e to seu uµwInd £IIe¢tIve LeIuLt
H
o
C!osest dIstun¢e to seu uµwInd
km km
m 0.1 2 10 100 m 2 10 100
2 l.48 l.40 l.35 l.26 2 l.l8 l.l5 l.0?
5 l.65 l.62 l.5? l.45 5 l.50 l.45 l.36
l0 l.?8 l.?8 l.?3 l.62 l0 l.?3 l.69 l.58
l5 l.85 l.85 l.82 l.?l l5 l.85 l.82 l.?l
20 l.90 l.90 l.89 l.?? 20 l.90 l.89 l.??
30 l.96 l.96 l.96 l.85 30 l.96 l.96 l.85
50 2.04 2.04 2.04 l.95 50 2.04 2.04 l.95
l00 2.l2 2.l2 2.l2 2.0? l00 2.l2 2.l2 2.0?
ÞOTI l InforpoInfIon mnv bo usod wIfhIn onch fnbIo.
ÞOTI 2 Tho fIguros In fhIs fnbIo hnvo boon dorIvod from roforonco |5].
ÞOTI 3 VnIuos nssumo n dIngonnI dImonsIon o = 5 m.
ÞOTI 4 If H
o
> l00 m uso fho dIrocfIonnI mofhod of SocfIon 3.
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BS 6399-2:199?
ISI 3l JuIv 2002
29
SocfIon 2
IIuuve 11 ÐIvIsIon oI buI!dInus by µuvts Iov ovevu!! !ouds
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BS 6399-2:199?
30 ISI 3l JuIv 2002
SocfIon 2
2.3 Stunduvd µvessuve ¢oeIII¢Ients
2.3.1 Genevu!
2.3.1.1 Tho wInd forco on n buIIdIng or oIomonf shouId bo cnIcuInfod bv fho procoduro gIvon In 2.1.3 usIng
npproprInfo prossuro cooffIcIonfs fhnf nro dopondonf on fho shnpo nnd form of fho buIIdIng.
ÞOTI Tho sfnndnrd prossuro cooffIcIonfs mnv bo usod for buIIdIngs nnd oIomonfs of gonornIIv sImIInr shnpo. Whoro fho buIIdIng or
oIomonf shnpo fnIIs oufsIdo fho scopo of fho fnbuInfod prossuro cooffIcIonfs In 2.4 fo 2.5 or In 3.3, or whoro moro dofnIIod dnfn nro
roquIrod, prossuro cooffIcIonfs mnv bo obfnInod from wInd funnoI fosfs ns dofInod In 1.1.
2.3.1.2 Tho sfnndnrd oxfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs sof ouf In 2.4 nnd 2.5 nppIv fo buIIdIng sfrucfuros fhnf
nro prodomInnnfIv fInf fncod, nnd fo wnIIs of cIrcuInr-pInn buIIdIngs. Tho mnjorIfv of convonfIonnI
buIIdIngs, such ns cuboIdnI, or composod of cuboIdnI oIomonfs, wIfh dIfforonf roof forms such ns fInf,
monopIfch, duopIfch, hIppod nnd mnnsnrd, nro IncIudod.
Whoro consIdornbIo vnrInfIon of prossuro occurs ovor n surfnco If hns boon subdIvIdod Info zonos nnd
prossuro cooffIcIonfs hnvo boon provIdod for onch zono.
2.3.1.3 Whon cnIcuInfIng fho wInd Iond on IndIvIdunI sfrucfurnI compononfs nnd cInddIng unIfs nnd fhoIr
fIxIngs, If Is ossonfInI fo fnko nccounf of fho prossuro dIfforonco bofwoon opposIfo fncos of onch oIomonfs.
IxfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs nro gIvon In 2.4 nnd 2.5 nnd InfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs In 2.6 for uso wIfh
procoduros gIvon In 2.1.
2.3.1.4 Irossuro cooffIcIonfs nro gIvon for spocIfIc surfncos, or pnrfs of surfncos, of buIIdIngs or oIomonfs.
Whon fho procoduro of 2.1.3.5 Is nppIIod, fhov gIvo fho wInd Ionds ncfIng In n dIrocfIon normnI fo fhnf
pnrfIcuInr surfnco.
2.3.1.5 Ior corfnIn buIIdIngs n wInd Iond duo fo frIcfIonnI drng shouId bo fnkon Info nccounf
(soo 2.1.3.B, 2.4.5 nnd 2.5.10).
2.4 £xtevnu! µvessuve ¢oeIII¢Ients Iov wu!!s
2.4.1 Re¢tunuu!uv-µ!un buI!dInus
2.4.1.1 IxfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs for vorfIcnI wnIIs of rocfnnguInr pInn buIIdIngs nro gIvon In TnbIo 5,
dopondonf on fho proporfIons of fho buIIdIngs ns shown In IIguro l2.
2.4.1.2 VnIuos of prossuro cooffIcIonf for wIndwnrd nnd Ioownrd fncos nro gIvon In TnbIo 5 for buIIdIngs
wIfh D/H l nnd for buIIdIngs wIfh D/H 4 whoro D Is fho InwInd dopfh of fho buIIdIng, whIch vnrIos
wIfh fho wInd dIrocfIon boIng consIdorod (soo IIguro 2), nnd H Is fho hoIghf of fho wnII IncIudIng nnv
pnrnpof.
ÞOTI VnIuos of prossuro cooffIcIonf for InformodInfo D/H rnfIos mnv bo InforpoInfod.
2.4.1.3 Tho Iondod zonos on fho sIdo fnco shouId bo dIvIdod Info vorfIcnI sfrIps from fho upwInd odgo of fho
fnco wIfh fho dImonsIons shown In IIguro l2, In forms of fho scnIIng Iongfh I gIvon bv I = B or I = 2H,
whIchovor Is fho smnIIor, whoro B Is fho crosswInd brondfh of fho buIIdIng, whIch doponds on fho wInd
dIrocfIon boIng consIdorod |soo IIguro 2b)] nnd H Is fho hoIghf of fho wnII, IncIudIng nnv pnrnpof or gnbIo.
2.4.1.4 Whoro wnIIs of fwo buIIdIngs fnco onch ofhor nnd fho gnp bofwoon fhom Is Ioss fhnn I, funnoIIIng
wIII nccoIornfo fho fIow nnd mnko fho prossuro cooffIcIonf moro nognfIvo. VnIuos of prossuro cooffIcIonf for
fho sIdo fncos nro gIvon In TnbIo 5 for onch of fho cnsos donofod IsoInfod nnd funnoIIIng fo bo nppIIod ns
foIIows.
n) Whoro fho gnp bofwoon fho buIIdIngs Is Ioss fhnn I/4, or gronfor fhnn I, fho IsoInfod vnIuos shouId bo
usod;
b) whoro fho gnp bofwoon fho buIIdIngs Is gronfor fhnn I/4 nnd Ioss fhnn I:
l) oIfhor uso fho funnoIIIng vnIuos, consorvnfIvoIv;
or
2) fnko fho funnoIIIng vnIuos fo nppIv nf n gnp wIdfh of I/2 nnd fho IsoInfod vnIuos fo nppIv nf gnp
wIdfhs of I/4 nnd nf I, nnd InforpoInfo IInonrIv bofwoon fhoso vnIuos for fho ncfunI gnp wIdfh In fho
rnngo from I/4 fo I/2 or fho rnngo from I/2 fo I.
c) whoro fho fwo buIIdIngs nro shoIforod bv upwInd buIIdIngs such fhnf fho offocfIvo hoIghf for fho Iowor
of fho fwo buIIdIngs Is 0.4H
r
In nccordnnco wIfh 1.?.3.3, funnoIIIng mnv bo dIsrognrdod.
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BS 6399-2:199?
ISI 3l JuIv 2002
3l
SocfIon 2
2.4.1.5 Tho vnIuos In TnbIo 5 nro nIso vnIId for non-vorfIcnI wnIIs wIfhIn l5 of fho vorfIcnI. VnIuos oufsIdo
fhIs rnngo shouId bo obfnInod from 3.3.1.4.
2.4.2 Po!yuonu! buI!dInus
IxfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs for fho vorfIcnI wnIIs of buIIdIngs wIfh cornor nngIos ofhor fhnn 90 shouId
bo obfnInod usIng fho procoduros sof ouf In 3.3.1.2.
OvornII forcos mnv bo cnIcuInfod usIng fho prossuro cooffIcIonfs of TnbIo 5 fogofhor wIfh
oqunfIon 23 of 3.1.3.3.2.
Tub!e 5 £xtevnu! µvessuve ¢oeIII¢Ients C
po
Iov vevtI¢u! wu!!s
IIuuve 12 Key to wu!! µvessuve dutu
VevtI¢u! wu!! Iu¢e Sµun vutIo oI buI!dInu VevtI¢u! wu!! Iu¢e £xµosuve ¢use
D/H 1 D/H 4
Iso!uted Iunne!!Inu
WIndwnrd (fronf) +0.85 +0.6 SIdo Zono A l.3 l.6
!oownrd (ronr) 0.5 0.5 Zono I 0.8 0.9
Zono C 0.5 0.9
ÞOTI InforpoInfIon mnv bo usod In fho rnngo l < D/H < 4. Soo 2.4.1.4 for InforpoInfIon bofwoon IsoInfod nnd funnoIIIng.
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BS 6399-2:199?
32 ISI 3l JuIv 2002
SocfIon 2
Tub!e 5u Net µvessuve ¢oeIII¢Ients Iov ovevu!! !oud
2.4.3 BuI!dInus wItL ve-entvunt ¢ovnevs, ve¢essed buys ov Intevnu! we!!s
2.4.3.1 Tho oxfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs gIvon In TnbIo 5 shouId bo usod for fho vorfIcnI wnIIs of buIIdIngs
confnInIng ro-onfrnnf cornors or rocossod bnvs, ns shown In IIguro l3, subjocf fo fho foIIowIng.
n) Whoro fho ro-onfrnnf cornor or rocossod bnv rosuIfs In ono or moro upwInd wIngs fo fho buIIdIng,
shown shndod In IIguro l3n), IIguro l3b) nnd IIguro l3c), fho zonos on fho sIdo wnIIs nro dofInod usIng
fho crosswInd brondfh B = B
l
nnd B
3
nnd fho hoIghf H of fho wIng.
b) Tho zonos on fho sIdo wnIIs of fho romnIndor of fho buIIdIng nro dofInod usIng fho crosswInd
brondfh B = B
2
nnd fho hoIghf H of fho buIIdIng.
c) Tho sIdo wnIIs of ro-onfrnnf cornors nnd rocossod bnvs fncIng downwInd, for oxnmpIo fho downwInd
wIng of IIguro l3n), shouId bo nssumod fo bo pnrf of fho Ioownrd (ronr) fnco.
2.4.3.2 Ior InfornnI woIIs nnd rocossod bnvs In sIdo fncos |soo IIguro l3d)] whoro fho gnp ncross fho woII
or bnv Is smnIIor fhnn I/2 fho foIIowIng nppIv.
n) IxfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonf for fho wnIIs of n woII Is nssumod fo bo oqunI fo fho roof cooffIcIonf nf fho
IocnfIon of fho woII gIvon In cInuso 2.5;
b) IxfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonf for fho wnIIs of fho bnv Is nssumod fo bo oqunI fo fho sIdo wnII cooffIcIonf
nf fho IocnfIon of fho bnv.
Whoro fho woII or bnv oxfonds ncross moro fhnn ono prossuro zono, fho nron-nvorngo of fho prossuro
cooffIcIonfs shouId bo fnkon.
2.4.3.3 If fho gnp ncross fho woII or bnv Is gronfor fhnn I/2, fho oxfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs shouId bo
obfnInod from 3.3.1.5.
B/D D/H
1 4
0.5 l.2 l.0
l l.2 0.8
2 l.2 0.8
4 l.l 0.8
IIuuve 13 TyµI¢u! exumµ!es oI buI!dInus wItL ve-entvunt ¢ovnevs und ve¢essed buys
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BS 6399-2:199?
ISI 3l JuIv 2002
33
SocfIon 2
2.4.4 BuI!dInus wItL Ivveuu!uv ov Inset Iu¢es
2.4.4.1 1rreµulur [luoh [uceo
IxfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs for fho fIush wnIIs of buIIdIngs wIfh cornor cuf-oufs In oIovnfIon, ns
IIIusfrnfod In IIguro l4, whIch IncIudo, for oxnmpIo, buIIdIngs wIfh n Iowor wIng or oxfonsIon buIIf fIush
wIfh fho mnIn buIIdIng, shouId bo dorIvod ns foIIows.
n) Cu/-ou/ JounuinJ, ns In IIguro l4n) nnd IIguro l4c). Tho Iondod zonos on fho fnco shouId bo dIvIdod
Info vorfIcnI sfrIps from fho upwInd odgo of fho fnco wIfh fho dImonsIons shown In IIguro l2, In forms of
fho scnIIng Iongfh I, mnkIng no spocInI nIIownnco for fho prosonco of fho cufouf. Tho scnIIng Iongfh I Is
doformInod from fho hoIghf H nnd crosswInd brondfh B of fho wIndwnrd fnco.
b) Cu/-ou/ upuinJ, ns In IIguro l4b) nnd IIguro l4d). Tho Iondod zonos on fho fnco nro dIvIdod Info
vorfIcnI sfrIps ImmodInfoIv downwInd of fho upwInd odgos of fho uppor nnd Iowor pnrf of fho fnco formod
bv fho cuf-ouf. Tho scnIIng Iongfh I
l
for fho zonos of fho uppor pnrf Is doformInod from fho hoIghf H
l
nnd
crosswInd brondfh B
l
of fho uppor Insof wIndwnrd fnco. Tho scnIIng Iongfh I
2
for fho zonos of fho Iowor
pnrf Is doformInod from fho hoIghf H
2
nnd crosswInd brondfh B
2
of fho Iowor wIndwnrd fnco. Tho
roforonco hoIghf for fho uppor nnd Iowor pnrf Is fho rospocfIvo hoIghf nbovo ground for fho fop of onch
pnrf.
Tho prossuro cooffIcIonfs for zonos A, I nnd C mnv fhon bo obfnInod from TnbIo 5.
IIuuve 14 £xumµ!es oI I!usL Ivveuu!uv wu!!s
A
A
B
B
A B A B
A B
A B
C
C
C
C
C C
Wind Wind
Wind
Wind
H
=
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r
H
r
H
r
H
r
1
H
H
1
H
1
H
=
H
2
r
H
=
H
2
r
a) Cut-out downwind: tall part long
b) Cut-out upwind: tall part long
c) Cut-out downwind: tall part narrow d) Cut-out upwind: tall part narrow
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BS 6399-2:199?
34 ISI 3l JuIv 2002
SocfIon 2
2.4.4.2 Wullo o[ inoet otorevo
IxfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs for fho wnIIs of Insof sforovs, ns IIIusfrnfod In IIguro l5, shouId bo dorIvod
ns foIIows.
n) 1Jge of foce inee/ fron eJge of louer e/orex |soo IIguro l5n)]. Ior fho Insof wnIIs, provIdod fhnf fho
upwInd odgo of fho wnII Is Insof n dIsfnnco of nf Ionsf 0.2I
l
from fho upwInd odgo of fho Iowor sforov
(whoro I
l
Is fho scnIIng Iongfh for fho uppor sforov), fho Iondod zonos nro dofInod from fho proporfIons
of fho uppor sforov, nssumIng fho Iowor roof fo bo fho ground pInno. Howovor, fho roforonco hoIghf H
r
Is
fnkon ns fho ncfunI hoIghf of fho fop of fho wnII nbovo ground.
b) 1Jge of foce flue/ ui// eJge of louer e/orex |soo IIguro l5b)]. Whoro fho upwInd odgo of fho wnII Is
fIush, or Insof n dIsfnnco of Ioss fhnn 0.2I
l
from fho upwInd odgo of fho Iowor sforov, fho procoduro In
Ifom n) shouId bo foIIowod, buf nn nddIfIonnI zono I shouId bo IncIudod ns dofInod In IIguro l5b) wIfh nn
oxfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonf of C
po
= 2.0. Tho roforonco hoIghf for zono I shouId bo fnkon ns fho fop of
fho Iowor sforov Tho gronfor nognfIvo prossuro (sucfIon) doformInod for zono I or for fho zono A In
Ifom n), shouId bo usod.
Tho prossuro cooffIcIonfs for zonos A, I nnd C mnv fhon bo obfnInod from TnbIo 5.
ÞOTI I
l
Is scnIIng Iongfh of uppor sforov
n) Idgo of fnco Insof from odgo of Iowor sforov
ÞOTI I
2
Is scnIIng Iongfh of Iowor sforov
b) Idgo of fnco fIush wIfh odgo of Iowor sforov
IIuuve 15 Keys Iov wu!!s oI Inset stovey
> 0.2b
1
1
B
1
H
H
r
A
B
C Wind
2
b
/
3
r
H
A
B
C
E
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BS 6399-2:199?
ISI 3l JuIv 2002
35
SocfIon 2
2.4.5 IvI¢tIon-Indu¢ed !ouds on wu!!s
IrIcfIon forcos shouId bo cnIcuInfod for Iong wnIIs wIfh D > I whon fho wInd Is pnrnIIoI fo fho wnII. Tho
frIcfIonnI drng cooffIcIonf shouId bo nssumod fo ncf ovor nII zono C of such wnIIs, wIfh vnIuos ns gIvon
In TnbIo 6. Tho rosuIfIng frIcfIonnI forcos shouId bo nddod fo fho normnI forcos ns doscrIbod In 2.1.3.B.
Tub!e 6 IvI¢tIonu! dvuu ¢oeIII¢Ients
2.4.6 CIv¢u!uv-µ!un buI!dInus
Tho dIsfrIbufIon of oxfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonf nround fho porIphorv of n cIrcuInr-pInn buIIdIng Is gIvon
In TnbIo ?. Thoso prossuro cooffIcIonfs nro nIso nppIIcnbIo fo sIIos, fnnks, sfncks nnd chImnovs.
Tub!e ? £xtevnu! µvessuve ¢oeIII¢Ients C
po
Iov wu!!s oI ¢Iv¢u!uv-µ!un buI!dInus
Tyµe oI suvIu¢e IvI¢tIonu! dvuu ¢oeIII¢Ient
Smoofh surfncos wIfhouf corrugnfIons or rIbs ncross
fho wInd dIrocfIon
0.0l
Surfncos wIfh corrugnfIons ncross fho wInd dIrocfIon 0.02
Surfncos wIfh rIbs ncross fho wInd dIrocfIon 0.04
PosItIon on µevIµLevy SuvIu¢e vouuL ov wItL µvoje¢tIons SuvIu¢e smootL

H/J 10 H/J 2.5 H/J 10 H/J 2.5
0 +l.0 +l.0 +l.0 +l.0
l0 +0.9 +0.9 +0.9 +0.9
20 +0.? +0.? +0.? +0.?
30 +0.4 +0.4 +0.35 +0.35
40 0 0 0 0
50 0.5 0.4 0.? 0.5
60 0.95 0.8 l.2 l.05
?0 l.25 l.l l.4 l.25
80 l.2 l.05 l.45 l.3
90 l.0 0.85 l.4 l.2
l00 0.8 0.65 l.l 0.85
l20 0.5 0.35 0.6 0.4
l40 0.4 0.3 0.35 0.25
l60 0.4 0.3 0.35 0.25
l80 0.4 0.3 0.35 0.25
ÞOTI l InforpoInfIon mnv bo usod In fho rnngo 2.5 < H/J < l0.
ÞOTI 2 VnIId for dInmofors gronfor fhnn J = l m.
ÞOTI 3 Tho posIfIon on fho porIphorv nf = 40 whoro C
po
= 0 Is n rogIon whoro fho prossuro wIII chnngo rnpIdIv wIfh fImo,
duo fo fIucfunfIons In wInd dIrocfIon cnusod bv nfmosphorIc furbuIonco, ovor fho rnngo C
po
= 0.?. If Is fhoroforo fho rogIon wIfh
fho hIghosf rIsk of fnfIguo dnmngo fo cInddIng fIxIngs.
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BS 6399-2:199?
36 ISI 3l JuIv 2002
SocfIon 2
2.5 £xtevnu! µvessuve ¢oeIII¢Ients Iov vooIs
2.5.1 I!ut vooIs
2.5.1.1 Scope
Tho dnfn In fhIs socfIon shouId bo usod for nII roofs of pIfch n Ioss fhnn 5. Irossuro cooffIcIonfs nro gIvon
for fho orfhogonnI Iond cnsos nnd nro uppor bound vnIuos fo cnfor for nII wInd dIrocfIons 0 45 from
normnI fo fho onvos boIng consIdorod.
2.5.1.2 Louded xoneo
Tho roof shouId bo subdIvIdod Info zonos bohInd onch upwInd onvos/vorgo ns shown In IIguro l6 for n
rocfnnguInr roof. Tho Iondod zonos, shown In IIguro l6, nro dofInod In forms of fho scnIIng Iongfh I gIvon
bv I = B or I = 2H, whIchovor Is fho smnIIor, whoro B Is fho crosswInd brondfh of fho buIIdIng, whIch Is
oqunI fo W or L, dopondIng on fho wInd dIrocfIon boIng consIdorod, ns dofInod In IIguro l6n), nnd H Is fho
hoIghf of fho wnII, IncIudIng nnv pnrnpof.
2.5.1.3 1lut roo[o uith ohurp euteo
IxfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs for onch zono of fInf roofs wIfh shnrp onvos nro gIvon In TnbIo 8.
2.5.1.4 1lut roo[o uith purupeto
2.5.1.4.1 A pnrnpof nIong nnv onvos or odgo wIII roduco fho prossuro cooffIcIonfs for fho roof In fho IocnI
odgo nrons onIv. IxfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs for fInf roofs wIfh odgo pnrnpofs nro gIvon In TnbIo 8,
dopondonf upon fho rnfIo of fho hoIghf / of fho pnrnpof, dofInod In IIguro l?n), fo fho scnIIng Iongfh I.
2.5.1.4.2 !ondIng on fho pnrnpof wnIIs, IncIudIng fho offocfs of cornors whoro npproprInfo, shouId bo
doformInod ns for froo-sfnndIng wnIIs from 2.B.1.
2.5.1.5 1lut roo[o uith curted euteo
2.5.1.5.1 IxfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs for onch zono nro gIvon In TnbIo 8 nnd nro dopondonf on fho rnfIo
of fho rndIus r of fho onvos fo fho scnIIng Iongfh I, dofInod In 2.5.1.2, for fhnf onvos. Tho zonos sfnrf from
fho odgo of fho fInf pnrf of fho roof ns dofInod In IIguro l?b).
2.5.1.5.2 Tho prossuro on fho curvod onvos shouId bo IInonrIv InforpoInfod nround fho nrc bofwoon fho
ndjnconf wnII nnd roof prossuros.
2.5.1.6 1lut roo[o uith munourd euteo
2.5.1.6.1 IxfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs for onch zono nro gIvon In TnbIo 8 nnd nro dopondonf on fho pIfch
nngIo n of fho mnnsnrd onvos. Tho zonos sfnrf from fho odgo of fho fInf pnrf of fho roof ns dofInod In
IIguro l?c).
2.5.1.6.2 Tho prossuro on fho sIopIng mnnsnrd onvos shouId bo nssossod usIng fho procoduro In 2.5.4.
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BS 6399-2:199?
ISI 3l JuIv 2002
3?
SocfIon 2
IIuuve 16 Key Iov I!ut vooIs
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BS 6399-2:199?
38 ISI 3l JuIv 2002
SocfIon 2
Tub!e B £xtevnu! µvessuve ¢oeIII¢Ients C
po
Iov I!ut vooIs oI buI!dInus
I!ut vooI tyµe Zone
A B C Ð
Shnrp onvos 2.0 l.4 0.? 0.2
WIfh pnrnpofs //I = 0.05
//I = 0.l
//I 0.2
l.9
l.85
l.4
l.3
l.3
l.0
0.?
0.?
0.?
0.2
0.2
0.2
Curvod onvos r/I = 0.05
r/I = 0.l
r/I = 0.2
l.05
0.?5
0.55
l.2
0.8
0.55
0.4
0.3
0.3
0.2
0.2
0.2
Mnnsnrd onvos n = 30
n = 45
n = 60
0.95
l.2
l.35
l.0
l.3
l.25
0.3
0.4
0.6
0.2
0.2
0.2
ÞOTI l Ior roofs wIfh pnrnpofs or curvod onvos, InforpoInfIon mnv bo usod for InformodInfo vnIuos of //I nnd r/I.
ÞOTI 2 Ior roofs wIfh mnnsnrd onvos, InforpoInfIon bofwoon = 30 nnd = 60 mnv bo usod. Ior > 60 InforpoInfo bofwoon
fho vnIuos for = 60 nnd fho vnIuos for fInf roofs wIfh shnrp onvos.
ÞOTI 3 In zono Ð, whoro bofh posIfIvo nnd nognfIvo vnIuos nro gIvon, bofh vnIuos shouId bo consIdorod.
ÞOTI 4 VnIuos of cooffIcIonfs for ofhor wInd dIrocfIons nro gIvon In 3.3.2.
ÞOTI 5 Ior pIfchod roofs wIfh curvod or mnnsnrd onvos, fho vnIuos In fhIs fnbIo mnv bo compnrod wIfh fho npproprInfo vnIuos
In TnbIo 9, TnbIo l0 or TnbIo ll nnd fho Ionsf nognfIvo vnIuos usod.
IIuuve 1? Key to euve detuI!s Iov I!ut vooIs
h
H
H
r r
H
=
H
H
=
H
r
Roof zones
start from here
Roof zones
start from here
r
> b/10
α
a) Parapets b) Curved eaves c) Mansard eaves
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BS 6399-2:199?
ISI 3l JuIv 2002
39
SocfIon 2
2.5.1.? 1lut roo[o uith inoet otorevo
Ior fInf roofs wIfh Insof sforovs, dofInod In IIguro l8, oxfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs for bofh fho uppor roofs
nnd Iowor roofs shouId bo dorIvod ns foIIows.
n) Ior fho uppor roof fho npproprInfo procoduro of 2.5.1.3, 2.5.1.4, 2.5.1.5 or 2.5.1.6, dopondIng on fho
formof fho onvos, shouId bo usod, fnkIng fho roforonco hoIghf H
r
ns fho ncfunI hoIghf fo fho uppor onvos,
nnd H ns fho hoIghf of fho Insof sforov (from fho uppor onvos fo fho Iowor roof IovoI) for doformInIng fho
scnIIng Iongfh I.
b) Ior fho Iowor roof fho npproprInfo procoduro of 2.5.1.3, 2.5.1.4, 2.5.1.5 or 2.5.1.6, dopondIng on fho
form of fho onvos, shouId bo usod, whoro H
r
= H nnd Is fho ncfunI hoIghf of fho Iowor sforov, IgnorIng fho
offocf of fho Insof sforovs. Howovor, n furfhor zono nround fho bnso of fho Insof sforovs shouId bo
IncIudod, ns shown In IIguro l8, whoro I Is fho scnIIng pnrnmofor from 2.5.1.2 npproprInfo fo fho
roIovnnf wnIIs of fho Insof sforov. Tho prossuro cooffIcIonf In fhIs zono shouId bo fnkon ns fhnf of fho zono
In fho ndjnconf wnII of fho uppor sforov (ns doformInod from 2.4).
2.5.2 MonoµIt¢L und duoµIt¢L vooIs
2.5.2.1 Cenerul
MonopIfch nnd duopIfch roofs of buIIdIngs nro dofInod ns roofs wIfh gnbIo onds.
ÞOTI HIppod roof forms nro fronfod sopnrnfoIv In 2.5.3.
2.5.2.2 Louded xoneo
Zonos ovor whIch fho oxfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonf Is nssumod fo bo consfnnf for bofh monopIfch nnd
duopIfch roofs nro shown In IIguro l9 nnd IIguro 20. Thoso zonos nro sfrIps pnrnIIoI fo fho onvos nnd vorgo
nnd nro dofInod In forms of fho scnIIng Iongfhs I
!
nnd I
W
whoro I
!
= L or I
!
= 2H, whIchovor Is fho smnIIor,
nnd I
W
= W or I
W
= 2H, whIchovor Is fho smnIIor.
2.5.2.3 Monopitch roo[o
IxfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs for monopIfch roofs shouId bo obfnInod from TnbIo 9, usIng fho kov In
IIguro l9. OwIng fo fho nsvmmofrv of fhIs roof form, vnIuos nro gIvon for fhroo orfhogonnI Iond cnsos: wInd
normnI fo fho Iow onvos (0 = 0), wInd normnI fo fho gnbIo (0 = 90) nnd wInd normnI fo fho hIgh onvos
(0 = l80).
ÞOTI I Is scnIIng Iongfh of uppor sforov.
IIuuve 1B Key Iov Inset stovey
D
C
B
A A
b
b/2
b
b
/
2
Upper
strorey
Take pressure coefficients
on adjacent wall of this zone
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BS 6399-2:199?
40 ISI 3l JuIv 2002
SocfIon 2
2.5.2.4 Duopitch roo[o
2.5.2.4.1 IxfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs for duopIfch roofs shouId bo obfnInod from TnbIo l0, usIng fho kov
In IIguro 20. VnIuos nro gIvon for fwo wInd dIrocfIons: wInd normnI fo fho Iow onvos (0 = 0) nnd wInd
normnI fo fho gnbIo (0 = 90). Thoso cooffIcIonfs nro npproprInfo fo duopIfch fncos of oqunI pIfch buf mnv bo
usod wIfhouf modIfIcnfIon provIdod fho upwInd nnd downwInd pIfch nngIos nro wIfhIn 5 of onch ofhor. Ior
duopIfch roofs of gronfor dIspnrIfv In pIfch nngIos soo roforonco |6].
2.5.2.4.2 Whon n < ? nnd W < I
!
, zono C for fho Iond cnso 0 = 0 shouId bo consIdorod fo oxfond for n
dIsfnnco I
!
/2 downwInd from fho wIndwnrd onvo (ns shown for fInf roofs In IIguro l6), ropIncIng rIdgo
zonos I nnd I nnd pnrf of zono C.
2.5.3 HIµµed vooIs
IxfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs for convonfIonnI hIppod roofs on cuboIdnI-pInn buIIdIngs, whoro nII fncos of
fho roof hnvo fho snmo pIfch nngIo nnd nro In fho rnngo n = 45 fo +?5, nro gIvon In TnbIo ll. Tho
dofInIfIons of Iondod zonos nnd pIfch nngIos nro gIvon In IIguro 2l. Tho dnfn In TnbIo ll mnv bo nppIIod fo
hIppod roofs whoro mnIn fncos nnd hIppod fncos hnvo dIfforonf pIfch nngIos, provIdod fho pIfch nngIo of fho
upwInd fnco Is usod for onch wInd dIrocfIon, ns IndIcnfod In IIguro 2l. ÞognfIvo pIfch nngIos occur whon
fho roof Is n hIppod-frough form. Ior prossuro cooffIcIonfs for skow-hIppod roofs nnd ofhor hIppod roof
forms soo roforonco |6].
2.5.4 Munsuvd vooIs
IxfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs for mnnsnrd roofs nnd ofhor muIfI-pIfch roofs shouId bo dorIvod for onch
pInno fnco bv fho procoduro gIvon In 2.5.2 for roofs wIfh gnbIo vorgos or fho procoduro gIvon In 2.5.3 for
roofs wIfh hIppod vorgos, usIng fho pIfch nngIo for onch pInno fnco. Tho kov In IIguro 22 IndIcnfos whoro
odgo zonos shouId bo omIffod.
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BS 6399-2:199?
ISI 3l JuIv 2002
4l
SocfIon 2
IIuuve 19 Key Iov monoµIt¢L vooIs
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BS 6399-2:199?
42 ISI 3l JuIv 2002
SocfIon 2
IIuuve 20 Key Iov duoµIt¢L vooIs
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BS 6399-2:199?
ISI 3l JuIv 2002
43
SocfIon 2
Tub!e 9 £xtevnu! µvessuve ¢oeIII¢Ients C
po
Iov monoµIt¢L vooIs oI buI!dInus
Tub!e 10 £xtevnu! µvessuve ¢oeIII¢Ients C
po
Iov duoµIt¢L vooIs oI buI!dInus
PIt¢L unu!e Zone Iov = 0 Zone Iov = 90 Zone Iov = 1B0
A B C
A
\
A
I B C Ð A B C
5 l.8 l.2 0.6 2.2 2.l l.l 0.? 0.? 2.4 l.l 0.8
+0.0 +0.0 +0.0 +0.0 +0.0 +0.0 +0.0 +0.0
l5 l.l 0.8 0.4 2.6 l.6 l.l 0.8 0.8 2.6 l.0 0.9
+0.2 +0.2 +0.2 +0.2 +0.2 +0.2 +0.2 +0.2
30 0.5 0.5 0.2 l.? l.3 l.2 l.0 0.8 l.? l.0 0.9
+0.8 +0.5 +0.4 +0.5 +0.5 +0.4 +0.3 +0.2
45 0.0 0.0 0.0 l.5 l.3 l.2 l.0 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.9
+0.8 +0.6 +0.? +0.6 +0.6 +0.5 +0.4 +0.3
60 l.2 l.2 l.2 0.4 0.2 l.0 0.? 0.?
+0.8 +0.8 +0.8 +0.? +0.? +0.? +0.5 +0.5
?5 l.2 l.2 l.2 0.4 0.2 l.l 0.? 0.?
+0.8 +0.8 +0.8 +0.8 +0.8 +0.8 +0.? +0.6
ÞOTI l Af = 0 fho prossuro chnngos rnpIdIv bofwoon posIfIvo nnd nognfIvo vnIuos In fho rnngo of pIfch nngIos +5 < < +45.
Af = 90 fho prossuro chnngos bofwoon posIfIvo nnd nognfIvo wIfh fIucfunfIons of wInd dIrocfIon. In fhoso cnsos fwo sofs of vnIuos
nro gIvon nnd fhov shouId bo fronfod ns sopnrnfo Iond cnsos.
ÞOTI 2 InforpoInfIon for InformodInfo pIfch nngIos mnv bo usod bofwoon vnIuos wIfh fho snmo sIgn.
PIt¢L unu!e Zone Iov = 0 Zone Iov = 90
A B C £ I G A B C Ð
45 0.9 0.8 0.9 l.l 0.? 0.? l.5 l.3 l.0 0.9
30 l.? l.0 0.9 0.8 0.? 0.? l.? l.3 l.0 0.8
l5 2.6 l.0 0.9 0.? 0.5 0.5 2.6 l.4 0.8 0.8
5 2.4 l.2 0.8 0.5 0.3 0.5 2.2 l.5 0.? 0.?
+5 l.8 l.2 0.6 0.9 0.3 0.4 2.0 l.l 0.6 0.5
+0.0 +0.0 +0.0 0.9 0.3 0.4
+l5 l.l 0.8 0.4 l.3 0.9 0.5 l.6 l.5 0.6 0.4
+0.2 +0.2 +0.2 l.3 0.9 0.5
+30 0.5 0.5 0.2 0.9 0.5 0.5 l.2 l.l 0.6 0.5
+0.8 +0.5 +0.4 0.9 0.5 0.5
+45 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.3 0.3 l.2 l.2 0.6 0.4
+0.8 +0.6 +0.? 0.4 0.3 0.3
+60 +0.8 +0.8 +0.8 0.8 0.? 0.6 l.2 l.2 0.? 0.6
+?5 +0.8 +0.8 +0.8 0.9 0.6 0.8 l.2 l.2 l.l5 0.6
ÞOTI l Af = 0 fho prossuro chnngos rnpIdIv bofwoon posIfIvo nnd nognfIvo vnIuos In fho rnngo of pIfch nngIos +5 < < +45.
Two sofs of vnIuos nro gIvon nf fhoso pIfch nngIos nnd fhov shouId bo fronfod ns sopnrnfo Iond cnsos.
ÞOTI 2 InforpoInfIon for InformodInfo pIfch nngIos mnv bo usod bofwoon vnIuos wIfh fho snmo sIgn. Iofwoon pIfch nngIos +5
nnd 5InforpoInfIon Is nof pormIffod nnd fho dnfn for fInf roofs In 2.5.1 shouId bo usod Insfond.
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BS 6399-2:199?
44 ISI 3l JuIv 2002
SocfIon 2
Tub!e 11 £xtevnu! µvessuve ¢oeIII¢Ients C
po
Iov LIµµed vooIs oI buI!dInus
PIt¢L unu!e Zone Iov = 0 nnd = 90
A B C £ I G H I J
45 l.4 l.0 l.0 0.? 0.4 0.? l.l l.0 0.9
30 2.3 l.2 l.0 l.3 0.8 0.? l.0 l.0 0.8
l5 2.6 l.0 0.9 l.4 l.3 0.6 0.9 0.9 0.8
5 2.3 l.l 0.8 0.8 0.6 0.6 l.l 0.8 0.8
+5 l.8 l.2 0.6 0.8 0.6 0.6 l.l 0.6 0.6
+0.0 +0.0 +0.0 0.8 0.6 0.6 +0.0 +0.0 +0.0
+l5 l.3 0.8 0.5 l.4 l.3 0.6 0.9 0.6 0.4
+0.2 +0.2 +0.2 l.4 l.3 0.6 +0.0 +0.0 +0.0
+30 0.5 0.5 0.2 l.3 0.8 0.6 l.0 0.6 0.5
+0.8 +0.5 +0.4 l.3 0.8 0.6 +0.0 +0.0 +0.0
+45 0.0 0.0 +0.0 0.? 0.4 0.4 l.l l.l5 0.4
+0.8 +0.6 +0.? 0.? 0.4 0.4 +0.0 +0.0 +0.0
+60 +0.8 +0.8 +0.8 0.6 0.3 0.? l.2 0.? 0.6
+?5 +0.8 +0.8 +0.8 0.6 0.3 l.2 l.2 0.5 0.6
ÞOTI l Af = 0 fho prossuro chnngos rnpIdIv bofwoon posIfIvo nnd nognfIvo vnIuos In fho rnngo of pIfch nngIos +5 < < +45.
Two sofs of vnIuos nro gIvon nf fhoso pIfch nngIos nnd fhov shouId bo fronfod ns sopnrnfo Iond cnsos.
ÞOTI 2 InforpoInfIon for InformodInfo pIfch nngIos mnv bo usod bofwoon vnIuos wIfh fho snmo sIgn. Iofwoon +5 nnd 5
InforpoInfIon Is nof pormIffod nnd fho dnfn for fInf roofs In 2.5.1 shouId bo usod Insfond.
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BS 6399-2:199?
ISI 3l JuIv 2002
45
SocfIon 2
IIuuve 21 Key Iov LIµµed vooIs
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BS 6399-2:199?
46 ISI 3l JuIv 2002
SocfIon 2
IIuuve 22 Key Iov munsuvd und mu!tIµIt¢L vooIs
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BS 6399-2:199?
ISI 3l JuIv 2002
4?
SocfIon 2
2.5.5 Mu!tI-buy vooIs
IxfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs on downwInd bnvs of monopIfch nnd duopIfch muIfI-bnv roofs ns dofInod
In IIguro 23 mnv consorvnfIvoIv bo fnkon fo bo fho snmo ns for n sIngIo-bnv roof.
Howovor, roducod vnIuos of oxfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs mnv bo dorIvod from TnbIo 9 or TnbIo l0, ns
npproprInfo, ns foIIows:
n) Ior monopIfch roofs ns shown In IIguro 23n), nnv posIfIvo prossuro cooffIcIonf obfnInod from TnbIo 9
shouId bo ropIncod on fho socond nnd nnv subsoquonf downwInd bnvs bv C
po
= 0.4.
b) Ior unoqunI-pIfch duopIfch roofs, nII roof sIopos downwInd of fho fIrsf rIdgo shouId bo fronfod ns boIng
froughod (nognfIvo pIfch nngIo), ovon whon fho upwInd sIopo Is rIdgod ns shown In IIguro 23b), so fhnf
fho IocnI cooffIcIonfs bohInd onch rIdgo nro gIvon bv fho moro onorous A nnd I onvo zonos for nognfIvo
pIfch nngIos.
c) Ior oqunI-pIfch duopIfch roofs, nII roof sIopos downwInd of fho upwnrd sIopo shouId bo fronfod ns
nIfornnfoIv downwInd rIdgod (posIfIvo pIfch nngIo) nnd froughod (nognfIvo pIfch nngIo) ns shown
In IIguro 23c) nnd IIguro 23d), so fhnf fho IocnI cooffIcIonfs bohInd onch rIdgo nro gIvon bv fho Ioss
onorous I nnd I rIdgo zonos for posIfIvo pIfch nngIos.
ÞOTI Tho provIsIons of c) nbovo mnv bo nppIIod fo unoqunI-pIfch duopIfch roofs whon fho pIfch nngIos dIffor bv Ioss fhnn l0.
Ior wInds from 0 = 0 nnd 0 = l80, In nII fho nbovo cnsos, n furfhor roducfIon In oxfornnI prossuro mnv
bo obfnInod bv nppIvIng fho roducfIon fncfors of TnbIo l2 fo fho socond nnd subsoquonf downwInd bnvs.
Tub!e 12 Redu¢tIon Iu¢tov Iov mu!tI-buy vooIs
Buy \µwInd buy Se¢ond buy A!! vemuInInu buys
!oducfIon fncfor l.0 0.8 0.6
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BS 6399-2:199?
48 ISI 3l JuIv 2002
SocfIon 2
IIuuve 23 Key Iov mu!tI-buy vooIs
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BS 6399-2:199?
ISI 3l JuIv 2002
49
SocfIon 2
2.5.6 PIt¢Led vooIs wItL Inset stoveys
Tho procoduro gIvon for Insof sforovs on fInf roofs In 2.5.1.? shouId bo foIIowod, buf usIng fho npproprInfo
zonos for pIfchod roofs ns dorIvod from 2.5.2, 2.5.3, 2.5.4 nnd 2.5.5.
2.5.? £IIe¢t oI µuvuµets on µIt¢Led vooIs
Inrnpofs roduco fho hIgh sucfIon In fho odgo zonos nround fho porIphorv of fho roof nnd nogIocfIng fhoso
offocfs wIII gIvo n consorvnfIvo rosuIf for roof pIfchos Ioss fhnn n = 30. Ior sfoopor roofs, fho offocfs of
pnrnpofs shouId bo fnkon Info nccounf bv usIng fho procoduro gIvon In 3.3.3.?.
2.5.B RooI ovevLunus
2.5.B.1 Cenerul
Whoro fho roof ovorhnngs fho wnIIs bv nn nmounf Ioss fhnn I/l0, prossuro cooffIcIonfs shouId bo nssossod
usIng fho procoduro gIvon In 2.5.B.2.
!nrgor ovorhnngs shouId bo fronfod ns opon-sIdod buIIdIngs, wIfh InfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs doformInod
usIng fho provIsIons of 2.6.3.
2.5.B.2 Smull oterhunµo
Tho nof prossuro ncross n smnII roof ovorhnng shouId bo cnIcuInfod fnkIng fho prossuro cooffIcIonf on fho
uppor surfnco from 2.5.2, 2.5.3, 2.5.4 nnd 2.5.5, ns npproprInfo, nnd fho prossuro cooffIcIonf on fho Iowor
surfnco ns fhnf on fho ndjnconf wnII from 2.4.
2.5.9 CunoµIes, uvundstunds und oµen-sIded buI!dInus
2.5.9.1 1ree-otundinµ cunopieo
2.5.9.1.1 Þof prossuro cooffIcIonfs C
p
for froo-sfnndIng cnnopv roofs nro gIvon In TnbIo l3, TnbIo l4 nnd
TnbIo l5, whIch fnko nccounf of fho combInod offocf of fho wInd on bofh uppor nnd Iowor surfncos of fho
cnnopv for nII wInd dIrocfIons.
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BS 6399-2:199?
50 ISI 3l JuIv 2002
SocfIon 2
Tub!e 13 Net µvessuve ¢oeIII¢Ients C
p
Iov Ivee-stundInu monoµIt¢L ¢unoµy vooIs
PIt¢L unu!e Ioud ¢use Ovevu!!
¢oeIII¢Ients
Io¢u! ¢oeIII¢Ients
A B C
0 MnxImum, nII ( +0.2 +0.5 +l.8 +l.l
MInImum ( = 0 0.5 0.6 l.3 l.4
MInImum ( = l l.2 l.3 l.8 2.2
5 MnxImum, nII ( +0.4 +0.8 +2.l +l.3
MInImum ( = 0 0.? l.l l.? l.8
MInImum ( = l l.4 ( l.2) l.4 ( l.2) 2.6 2.6 ( 2.l)
l0 MnxImum, nII ( +0.5 +l.2 +2.4 +l.6
MInImum ( = 0 0.9 l.5 2.0 2.l
MInImum ( = l l.4 ( l.l) l.4 ( l.l) 2.6 2.? ( l.8)
l5 MnxImum, nII ( +0.? +l.4 +2.? +l.8
MInImum ( = 0 l.l l.8 2.4 2.5
MInImum ( = l l.5 ( l.0) l.5 ( l.0) 2.9 2.8 ( l.6)
20 MnxImum, nII ( +0.8 +l.? +2.9 +2.l
MInImum ( = 0 l.3 2.2 2.8 2.9
MInImum ( = l l.5 ( 0.9) l.5 ( 0.9) 2.9 2.? ( l.5)
25 MnxImum, nII ( +l.0 +2.0 +3.l +2.3
MInImum ( = 0 l.6 2.6 3.2 3.2
MInImum ( = l l.4 ( 0.8) l.4 ( 0.8) 2.5 2.5 ( l.4)
30 MnxImum, nII ( +l.2 +2.2 +3.2 +2.4
MInImum ( = 0 l.8 3.0 3.8 3.6
MInImum ( = l l.4 ( 0.8) l.4 ( 0.8) 2.0 2.3 ( l.2)
ÞOTI l InforpoInfIon mnv bo usod for soIIdIfv rnfIo In fho rnngo 0 < < l nnd for InformodInfo pIfch nngIos.
ÞOTI 2 Whoro fwo vnIuos nro gIvon for = l, fho fIrsf vnIuo Is for bIockngo fo fho Iow downwInd onvos nnd fho socond vnIuo
(In pnronfhosos) Is for bIockngo fo fho hIgh downwInd onvos.
ÞOTI 3 !ond cnsos covor nII possIbIo wInd dIrocfIons. Whon usIng dIrocfIonnI offocfIvo wInd spoods, uso:
n) fhoso vnIuos of C
p
wIfh fho Inrgosf vnIuo of V
o
found; or
b) dIrocfIonnI vnIuos of C
p
from roforonco |6].
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BS 6399-2:199?
ISI 3l JuIv 2002
5l
SocfIon 2
Tub!e 14 Net µvessuve ¢oeIII¢Ients C
p
Iov Ivee-stundInu duoµIt¢L ¢unoµy vooIs
Tub!e 15 Redu¢tIon Iu¢tovs Iov Ivee-stundInu mu!tI-buy ¢unoµy vooIs
PIt¢L unu!e Ioud ¢use Ovevu!!
¢oeIII¢Ients
Io¢u! ¢oeIII¢Ients
A B C Ð
20 MnxImum, nII ( +0.? +0.8 +l.6 +0.6 +l.?
MInImum ( = 0 0.? 0.9 l.3 l.6 0.6
MInImum ( = l l.5 l.5 2.4 2.4 l.2
l5 MnxImum, nII ( +0.5 +0.6 +l.5 +0.? +l.4
MInImum ( = 0 0.6 0.8 l.3 l.6 0.6
MInImum ( = l l.5 l.5 2.? 2.6 l.2
l0 MnxImum, nII ( +0.4 +0.6 +l.4 +0.8 +l.l
MInImum ( = 0 0.6 0.8 l.3 l.5 0.6
MInImum ( = l l.4 l.4 2.5 2.5 l.2
5 MnxImum, nII ( +0.3 +0.5 +l.5 +0.8 +0.8
MInImum ( = 0 0.5 0.? l.3 l.6 0.6
MInImum ( = l l.4 l.4 2.3 2.4 l.2
+5 MnxImum, nII ( +0.3 +0.6 +l.8 +l.3 +0.4
MInImum ( = 0 0.6 0.6 l.4 l.4 l.l
MInImum ( = l l.2 l.2 2.0 l.8 l.5
+l0 MnxImum, nII ( +0.4 +0.? +l.8 +l.4 +0.4
MInImum ( = 0 0.? 0.? l.5 l.4 l.4
MInImum ( = l l.2 l.2 l.8 l.6 l.6
+l5 MnxImum, nII ( +0.4 +0.9 +l.9 +l.4 +0.4
MInImum ( = 0 0.8 0.9 l.? l.4 l.8
MInImum ( = l l.2 l.2 l.6 l.3 l.?
+20 MnxImum, nII ( +0.6 +l.l +l.9 +l.5 +0.4
MInImum ( = 0 0.9 l.2 l.8 l.4 2.0
MInImum ( = l l.2 l.2 l.5 l.2 l.?
+25 MnxImum, nII ( +0.? +l.2 +l.9 +l.6 +0.5
MInImum ( = 0 l.0 l.4 l.9 l.4 2.0
MInImum ( = l l.2 l.2 l.4 l.l l.6
+30 MnxImum, nII ( +0.9 +l.3 +l.9 +l.6 +0.?
MInImum ( = 0 l.0 l.4 l.9 l.4 2.0
MInImum ( = l l.2 l.2 l.3 l.l l.6
ÞOTI l InforpoInfIon for soIIdIfv rnfIo mnv bo usod In fho rnngo 0 < < l.
ÞOTI 2 InforpoInfIon for InformodInfo pIfch nngIos mnv bo usod bofwoon vnIuos of fho snmo sIgn.
ÞOTI 3 !ond cnsos covor nII possIbIo wInd dIrocfIons. Whon usIng dIrocfIonnI offocfIvo wInd spoods, uso:
n) fhoso vnIuos of C
p
wIfh fho Inrgosf vnIuo of V
o
found; or
b) dIrocfIonnI vnIuos of C
p
from roforonco |6].
Io¢utIon Iu¢tovs Iov u!! so!IdIty vutIo
On muxImum On mInImum
Ind bnv l.00 0.8l
Socond bnv 0.8? 0.64
ThIrd nnd subsoquonf bnvs 0.68 0.63
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BS 6399-2:199?
52 ISI 3l JuIv 2002
SocfIon 2
2.5.9.1.2 CnnopIos shouId bo nbIo fo rosIsf fho mnxImum (Inrgosf posIfIvo) nnd fho mInImum (Inrgosf
nognfIvo) nof prossuros, fho Inffor dopondIng on fho dogroo of bIockngo undor fho cnnopv. Tho bIockngo
rnfIo ( nf nnv cross socfIon Is oqunI fo fho hoIghf of obsfrucfIon undor fho cnnopv dIvIdod bv fho smnIIosf
hoIghf of fho cnnopv nf fho IocnfIon of fho obsfrucfIon, bofh nrons normnI fo fho wInd dIrocfIon. Tho vnIuo
( = 0 roprosonfs n cnnopv wIfh no obsfrucfIons undornonfh. Tho vnIuo ( = l roprosonfs fho cnnopv fuIIv
bIockod wIfh confonfs fo fho downwInd onvos. VnIuos of C
p
for InformodInfo bIockngos mnv bo IInonrIv
InforpoInfod bofwoon fhoso fwo oxfromos, nnd nppIIod upwInd of fho posIfIon of mnxImum bIockngo onIv.
ÐownwInd of fho posIfIon of mnxImum bIockngo fho cooffIcIonfs for ( = 0 mnv bo usod.
IIuuve 24 Key Iov Ivee-stundInu ¢unoµy vooIs
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BS 6399-2:199?
ISI 3l JuIv 2002
53
SocfIon 2
2.5.9.1.3 Tho vnIuos In fho coIumns wIfh fho muIfI-coIumn hondIng !ocnI cooffIcIonfs, corrospondIng fo
fho Iondod nrons dofInod In IIguro 24, shouId bo usod for fho dosIgn of fho rospocfIvo nrons of fho cnnopv.
Whoro fho IocnI cooffIcIonf nrons ovorInp fho gronfor of fho fwo gIvon vnIuos shouId bo fnkon.
2.5.9.1.4 Tho vnIuos In fho coIumns hondod OvornII cooffIcIonfs shouId bo usod for fho dosIgn of fho
mombors supporfIng fho cnnopv. Ior monopIfch cnnopIos fho confro of prossuro shouId bo fnkon fo ncf nf
0.3W from fho wIndwnrd odgo. Ior duopIfch cnnopIos fho confro of prossuro shouId bo fnkon fo ncf nf fho
confro of onch sIopo. AddIfIonnIIv, duopIfch cnnopIos shouId bo nbIo fo supporf forcos wIfh ono sIopo nf fho
mnxImum or mInImum nnd fho ofhor sIopo unIondod.
2.5.9.1.5 In nddIfIon fo fho prossuro normnI fo fho cnnopv, fhoro wIII bo horIzonfnI Ionds on fho cnnopv duo
fo fho wInd prossuro on nnv fnscIn nf fho onvos or on nnv gnbIo bofwoon onvos nnd rIdgo on duopIfch
cnnopIos. InscIn Ionds shouId bo cnIcuInfod on fho nron of fho surfnco fncIng fho wInd usIng n nof prossuro
cooffIcIonf of C
p
= l.3 on fho wIndwnrd fnscIn/gnbIo nnd C
p
= 0.6 on fho Ioownrd fnscIn/gnbIo ncfIng In fho
dIrocfIon of fho wInd.
2.5.9.2 Cunopieo uttuched to huildinµo
Irossuros on cnnopIos nffnchod fo buIIdIngs dopond on fho shnpo nnd sIzo of fho buIIdIng, fho IocnfIon of
fho cnnopv nnd on fho surroundIng buIIdIngs. AdvIco Is gIvon In roforonco |6].
2.5.9.3 Crundotundo und open-oided huildinµo
IuIIdIngs wIfh pormnnonf wnIIs nnd ono or moro opon sIdos shouId bo fronfod ns convonfIonnI buIIdIngs,
wIfh oxfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs doformInod from 2.4 nnd 2.5 nnd fho InfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs
doformInod from 2.6.3.
2.5.10 IvI¢tIon Indu¢ed !ouds on vooIs
2.5.10.1 Roo[o o[ huildinµo
IrIcfIonnI forcos shouId bo consIdorod on Iong roofs nwnv from fho upwInd odgos. Tho rosuIfIng frIcfIonnI
drng cooffIcIonf shouId bo nssumod fo ncf ovor zono Ð on fInf roofs (soo IIguro l6) for nII wInd dIrocfIons;
nnd ovor zono Ð for monopIfch or duopIfch roofs (soo IIguro l9 nnd IIguro 20 nnd zono J for hIppod roofs
In IIguro 2l) onIv whon fho wInd Is pnrnIIoI fo fho rIdgo. VnIuos of frIcfIonnI drng cooffIcIonf shouId bo
obfnInod from TnbIo 6 nnd fho rosuIfIng frIcfIonnI forcos combInod wIfh fho normnI prossuro forcos ns
doscrIbod In 2.1.3.B.
2.5.10.2 1ree-otundinµ cunopv roo[o
IrIcfIonnI forcos shouId bo nssumod fo ncf ovor fho whoIo of fho fop nnd boffom surfncos of nn ompfv cnnopv
or fho whoIo of fho fop surfnco onIv for n fuIIv bIockod cnnopv. VnIuos of frIcfIonnI drng cooffIcIonf shouId
bo obfnInod from TnbIo 6 nnd fho rosuIfIng frIcfIonnI forcos combInod wIfh fho normnI forcos ns doscrIbod
In 2.1.3.B.
ÞOTI If fhoro nro fnscIns nf fho onvos or vorgos (soo 2.5.9.1.5) onIv fho gronfor of fho fnscIn or frIcfIon forcos nood fo bo fnkon Info
nccounf.
2.6 Intevnu! µvessuve ¢oeIII¢Ients
2.6.1 £n¢!osed buI!dInus
2.6.1.1 In oncIosod buIIdIngs, confnInIng oxfornnI doors nnd wIndows whIch mnv bo kopf cIosod, nnd whoro
nnv InfornnI doors nro gonornIIv opon or nro nf Ionsf fhroo fImos moro pormonbIo fhnn fho oxfornnI doors
nnd wIndows, fho InfornnI prossuro cnn bo fnkon ns unIform; npproprInfo InfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs nro
gIvon In TnbIo l6. Tho roIovnnf dIngonnI dImonsIon o for fho InfornnI prossuro mnv bo fnkon ns
(l3)
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BS 6399-2:199?
54 ISI 3l JuIv 2002
SocfIon 2
Tub!e 16 Intevnu! µvessuve ¢oeIII¢Ients C
pI
Iov en¢!osed buI!dInus
2.6.1.2 Whoro nn oncIosod buIIdIng Is subdIvIdod Info rooms wIfh InfornnI doors whIch nro nof nf Ionsf
fhroo fImos moro pormonbIo fhnn fho oxfornnI doors, fho InfornnI prossuro mnv dIffor bofwoon rooms. ThIs
wIII rosuIf In nof wInd Ionds on InfornnI wnIIs. A mofhod for cnIcuInfIng fho InfornnI prossuros In
muIfI-room buIIdIngs Is gIvon In roforonco |6]. Ior oxfornnI wnIIs, provIdod fhoro nro no domInnnf oponIngs,
fho InfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonf C
pI
shouId bo fnkon ns oIfhor 0.3 or +0.2, whIchovor gIvos fho Inrgor nof
prossuro cooffIcIonf ncross fho wnII. Tho mnxImum nof prossuro cooffIcIonf C
p
ncross InfornnI wnIIs shouId
bo fnkon ns 0.5. Tho roIovnnf dIngonnI dImonsIon o for fho InfornnI prossuro mnv bo fnkon ns:
2.6.1.3 Whoro nn oxfornnI oponIng, such ns n door, wouId bo domInnnf whon opon buf Is consIdorod fo bo
cIosod In fho uIfImnfo IImIf sfnfo, fho condIfIon wIfh door opon shouId bo consIdorod ns n sorvIconbIIIfv IImIf
sfnfo.
2.6.2 BuI!dInus wItL domInunt oµenInus
An oponIng wIII bo domInnnf, nnd confroI fho InfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs, whon Ifs nron Is oqunI fo, or
gronfor fhnn, fwIco fho sum of fho oponIngs In ofhor fncos whIch confrIbufo porosIfv fo fho InfornnI voIumo
confnInIng fho oponIng.
4)
InfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs C
pI
nro gIvon In TnbIo l? ns n frncfIon of fho nvorngo oxfornnI prossuro C
po
nf fho domInnnf oponIng obfnInod from 2.4 or 2.5 ns npproprInfo. Tho roIovnnf dIngonnI dImonsIon o
doponds on fho sIzo of fho domInnnf oponIng roInfIvo fo fho InfornnI voIumo nnd mnv bo fnkon ns fho
gronfor of:
whoro fho InfornnI voIumo Is fho voIumo of fho sforov or room confnInIng fho domInnnf oponIng.
Tub!e 1? Intevnu! µvessuve ¢oeIII¢Ients C
pI
Iov buI!dInus wItL domInunt oµenInus
2.6.3 Oµen-sIded buI!dInus
2.6.3.1 InfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs C
pI
for opon-sIdod buIIdIngs nro gIvon In TnbIo l8 nccordIng fo fho
form of fho buIIdIng. Tho roIovnnf dIngonnI dImonsIon o for uso wIfh fhoso cooffIcIonfs Is fho dIngonnI
dImonsIon of fho opon fnco. In TnbIo l8 n wInd dIrocfIon of 0 = 0 corrosponds fo wInd normnI nnd bIowIng
Info fho opon fnco, or fho Iongor fnco In fho cnso of fwo opon fncos, nnd normnI fo fho wnII In fho cnso of
fhroo opon fncos.
2.6.3.2 Ior buIIdIngs wIfh fwo opposIfo opon fncos, wInd skowod nf nbouf 0 = 45 fo fho nxIs of fho buIIdIng
Incronsos fho ovornII sIdo forco. ThIs Iond cnso shouId bo nIIowod for bv usIng n nof prossuro cooffIcIonf
of 2.2 dIvIdod oqunIIv bofwoon onch sIdo wnII. Moro dofnIIs nro gIvon In roforonco |6].
Tyµe oI wu!!s
C
pI
Two opposIfo wnIIs oqunIIv pormonbIo; ofhor fncos ImpormonbIo
WInd normnI fo pormonbIo fnco +0.2
WInd normnI fo ImpormonbIo fnco 0.3
Iour wnIIs oqunIIv pormonbIo; roof ImpormonbIo 0.3
(l4)
4)
Two or moro oponIngs In fho snmo fnco wIII confrIbufo fo ono offocfIvo domInnnf oponIng oqunI fo fho combInod nron nnd n
dIngonnI dImonsIon o oqunI fo fhnf of fho Inrgosf oponIng.
o = dIngonnI dImonsIon of domInnnf oponIng; or
(l5)
RutIo oI domInunt oµenInu uveu to sum oI vemuInInu
oµenInus und dIstvIbuted µovosItIes
C
pI
2 0.?5 C
po
3 0.9 C
po
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BS 6399-2:199?
ISI 3l JuIv 2002
55
SocfIon 2
Tub!e 1B Intevnu! µvessuve ¢oeIII¢Ients C
pI
Iov oµen-sIded buI!dInus
2.6.4 Oµen-toµµed ¢y!Indevs
Tho InfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonf for nn opon-foppod vorfIcnI cvIIndor, such ns n fnnk, sIIo or sfnck, Is gIvon
In TnbIo l9.
Tub!e 19 Intevnu! µvessuve ¢oeIII¢Ients C
pI
Iov oµen-toµµed vevtI¢u! ¢y!Indevs
2.? Pvessuve ¢oeIII¢Ients Iov e!ements
2.?.1 Genevu!
ThIs socfIon donIs wIfh fho prossuro cooffIcIonfs of oIomonfs of smnII crosswInd brondfh, fvpIcnIIv 200 mm,
nffnchod fo buIIdIngs. Ior shnrp-odgod shnpos fho prossuro cooffIcIonfs romnIn npproxImnfoIv consfnnf
ovor fho whoIo rnngo of wInd spoods IIkoIv fo bo oncounforod. Howovor, for cIrcuInr socfIons fho prossuro
cooffIcIonfs vnrv wIfh wInd spood nnd dInmofor. Ior cIrcuInr oIomonfs whoso dInmofor Is gronfor fhnn
nbouf 200 mm fho vnIuos In fhIs socfIon nro consorvnfIvo.
2.?.2 IndIvIduu! se¢tIons
2.?.2.1 Þof prossuro cooffIcIonfs for Iong cIrcuInr nnd shnrp-odgod socfIons, such ns roIIod sfooI socfIons,
pInfo gIrdors, box socfIons, bonms nnd cIrcuInr fubos wIfh fho Iong nxIs normnI fo fho wInd nro gIvon
In TnbIo 20. Thoso nof prossuro cooffIcIonfs shouId bo fnkon fo ncf on fho projocfod nron normnI fo fho wInd.
Tub!e 20 Net µvessuve ¢oeIII¢Ients C
p
Iov !onu e!ements
2.?.2.2 Ior horIzonfnI socfIons, fho roforonco hoIghf H
r
shouId bo fnkon ns fho hoIghf nbovo ground of fho
nxIs of fho socfIon. VorfIcnI or IncIInod socfIons mnv bo fnkon ns boIng dIvIdod Info pnrfs of Iongfh nf Ionsf
fwIco fho crosswInd brondfh, L 2B, nnd fho roforonco hoIghf H
r
shouId bo fnkon ns fho hoIghf nbovo
ground of fho fop of onch pnrf.
2.?.3 £IIe¢t oI !enutL
Tho nof prossuro cooffIcIonf for IndIvIdunI socfIons roducos whon Iongfh L bofwoon froo onds Is Ioss fhnn
20 dInmofors. A roducfIon fncfor x fo bo nppIIod fo fho nof prossuro cooffIcIonf In fhoso cnsos Is gIvon
bv IIguro 25 In forms of fho rnfIo L/B. In fho cnso of socfIons cnnfIIovorod from fho ground or nnofhor pInno
surfnco, such ns n roof, fho Iongfh L shouId bo fnkon ns fwIco fho profrudIng Iongfh. Ior socfIons spnnnIng
bofwoon fwo pInnos L shouId bo fnkon ns InfInIfo (x = l).
2.?.4 IuttI¢es und un¢!ud buI!dInu Ivumes
2.?.4.1 ConsorvnfIvo osfImnfos of fho IondIng on opon InffIcos cnn bo doformInod bv summIng fho Ionds on
IndIvIdunI mombors usIng 2.?.1, 2.?.2 nnd 2.?.3. Tho Iongfh L bofwoon froo onds shouId bo fnkon ns fho
Iongfh of onch oIomonf, I.o. fho Iongfh bofwoon nodos of fho InffIco. Whon fho InffIco Is donso or shIoIdod,
ns wIfh muIfIpIo InffIcos frnmos, fho dogroo of consorvnfIsm cnn bo Inrgo.
WInd dIve¢tIon One oµen Iu¢e Two udju¢ent
oµen Iu¢es
TLvee oµen Iu¢es
n
SLovtev Ionuev
0 +0.85 +0.80 +0.?? +0.60
90
b
0.60 0.46 0.5? 0.63
+0.52 +0.6? +0.?? +0.40
l80 0.39 0.43 0.60 0.56
n
VnIuos gIvon shouId bo nppIIod fo undorsIdo of roof onIv. Ior fho sIngIo wnII, uso prossuro cooffIcIonfs for wnIIs gIvon In TnbIo 5.
b
Whoro fwo sofs of vnIuos nro gIvon fhov shouId bo fronfod ns sopnrnfo Iond cnsos.
PvoµovtIon oI ¢y!Indev
C
pI
H/J 0.3 0.8
H/J < 0.3 0.5
£!ement tyµe
C
p
CIrcuInr socfIons l.2
Shnrp-odgod socfIons 2.0
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BS 6399-2:199?
56 ISI 3l JuIv 2002
SocfIon 2
2.?.4.2 !onds on uncInd buIIdIng frnmos cnnnof oxcood fho Ionds on fho fuIIv cInd buIIdIng, oxcopf whon fho
buIIdIng Is vorv Iong nnd fho wInd Is skowod nbouf 0 = 30 fo fho Iong nxIs. A sImpIIfIod mofhod of
cnIcuInfIng fho wInd Ionds on uncInd buIIdIng frnmos whIch nccounfs proporIv for fho shIoIdIng offocfs Is
gIvon In roforonco |?], bnsod on fho fuII mofhod gIvon In roforonco |6].
2.B Ivee-stundInu wu!!s, µuvuµets und sIunbouvds
2.B.1 Ivee-stundInu wu!!s und µuvuµets
2.B.1.1 VnIuos of nof prossuro cooffIcIonfs C
p
for froo-sfnndIng wnIIs nnd pnrnpofs, wIfh or wIfhouf rofurn
cornors, nro gIvon In TnbIo 2l npproprInfo fo fho zonos shown In IIguro 26 for fwo vnIuos of soIIdIfv.
SoIIdIfv ( = l rofors fo soIId wnIIs, whIIo ( = 0.8 rofors fo wnIIs whIch nro 80 ° soIId nnd 20 ° opon. Tho
Iond on non-soIId wnIIs shouId bo obfnInod usIng fho nof nron of fho wnIIs.
2.B.1.2 Tho hIgh vnIuos nonr fho froo ond or rofurn cornors of soIId wnIIs (zonos A nnd I) occur whon fho
wInd Is bIowIng nf 0 = 45 onfo fhnf ond. Modornfo porosIfv In fhIs rogIon, I.o. soIIdIfv ( = 0.8, roducos fhoso
hIgh Ionds fo fho vnIuos In zono Ð.
2.B.1.3 InforpoInfIon for soIIdIfv mnv bo usod In fho rnngo 0.8 < ( < l. Ior porous wnIIs nnd foncos wIfh
soIIdIfv Ioss fhnn 0.8, cooffIcIonfs shouId bo dorIvod ns for pInno InffIco fInmos (soo 2.?.4).
Tub!e 21 Net µvessuve ¢oeIII¢Ients C
p
Iov Ivee-stundInu wu!!s und µuvuµets
IIuuve 25 Redu¢tIon Iu¢tov Iov !enutL oI e!ements
So!IdIty Wu!!s Zones
A B C Ð
( = l WIfhouf rofurn cornors 3.4 2.l l.? l.2
WIfh rofurn cornors l/ 2.l l.8 l.4 l.2
( = 0.8 AII l.2 l.2 l.2 l.2
ÞOTI InforpoInfIon mnv bo usod for rofurn cornor Iongfhs bofwoon zoro nnd /.
Sharp-edged and circular
Sharp-edged
Circular
0.1 1 10 100
Ratio of length and breadth, L/B
R
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,
κ
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.1
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BS 6399-2:199?
ISI 3l JuIv 2002
5?
SocfIon 2
Tub!e 21u Redu¢tIon Iu¢tovs Iov Ivee-stundInu wu!!s und µuvuµets
L// Redu¢tIon Iu¢tov
3 0.6
5 0.?
l0 0.9
l5 l.0
n) Kov fo zonos
ÞOTI Ior fho dofInIfIon of / nnd H
r
for pnrnpofs soo IIguro l?n)
b) Kov fo rofurn cornors
IIuuve 26 Key Iov Ivee-stundInu wu!!s und µuvuµets
A B C
D
0.3 h
2 h
4 h
h
=
H
r
Corner or free end
A B C D A B C D
>
h
Plan
Without return corner With return corner
_
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BS 6399-2:199?
58 ISI 3l JuIv 2002
SocfIon 2
IIuuve 2? SLe!tev Iu¢tov Iov Ien¢es, wu!!s und µuvuµets
IIuuve 2B Key Iov sIunbouvds
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BS 6399-2:199?
ISI 3l JuIv 2002
59
SocfIon 2
2.B.1.4 Tho nof prossuro cooffIcIonfs C
p
In zonos A, I nnd C roduco whon fho wnII or pnrnpof Iongfh L Is
Ioss fhnn l5/. A roducfIon fncfor x gIvon In TnbIo 2ln mnv bo nppIIod fo fhoso zonos. Tho vnIuo of C
p
x
shouId nof bo fnkon ns Ioss fhnn l.2. Whoro froo-sfnndIng wnIIs nbuf ofhor sfrucfuros such fhnf fhoro Is no
froo ond, n vnIuo of C
p
= l.2 shouId bo usod.
2.B.1.5 Whon fhoro nro ofhor wnIIs or foncos upwInd fhnf nro oqunI In hoIghf or fnIIor fhnn fho wnII or fonco
hoIghf / nn nddIfIonnI shoIfor fncfor cnn bo usod wIfh fho nof prossuro cooffIcIonfs for boundnrv wnIIs nnd
InffIco foncos. Tho dogroo of fho shoIfor doponds on fho spncIng bofwoon fho wnIIs or foncos nnd fho soIIdIfv
( of fho upwInd (shoIforIng) wnII or fonco. VnIuos of shoIfor fncfor fo roduco fho nof prossuro cooffIcIonf nro
pIoffod In IIguro 2?. ShoIfor romnIns sIgnIfIcnnf up fo spncIngs of 20 wnII hoIghfs. Af vorv cIoso spncIngs
fho nof prossuro cooffIcIonf on fho downwInd (shoIforod) wnII cnn bo zoro or cnn rovorso In sIgn. A mInImum
IImIf fo fho shoIfor fncfor of 0.3 hns boon sof fo covor fhIs cnso snfoIv.
2.B.2 SIunbouvds
Tho nof prossuro cooffIcIonf C
p
for sIgnbonrds, sopnrnfod from fho ground bv nf Ionsf hnIf fhoIr hoIghf ns
dofInod In IIguro 28, shouId bo fnkon ns C
p
= l.8. If fho gnp Is Ioss fhnn hnIf fho hoIghf of fho bonrd, fhon
If shouId bo fronfod ns n froo-sfnndIng wnII In nccordnnco wIfh 2.B.1. Tho normnI forco shouId bo fnkon fo
ncf nf fho hoIghf of fho confro of fho bonrd, buf fho horIzonfnI posIfIon shouId bo fnkon fo vnrv bofwoon
0.25B from fho confro of fho bonrd.
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BS 6399-2:199?
ISI 3l JuIv 2002
6l
Se¢tIon 3. ÐIve¢tIonu! metLod 3
3.1 ÐIve¢tIonu! wInd !ouds
3.1.1 WInd dIve¢tIon
3.1.1.1 Tho dIrocfIonnI wInd Iond mofhod roquIros knowIodgo of fho wInd dIrocfIon In fwo forms:
n) In dogroos onsf of norfh, roprosonfod bv o, usod fo doformIno wInd spoods nnd dvnnmIc prossuro;
b) In dogroos roInfIvo fo normnI fo onch buIIdIng fnco (or nround fho porIphorv of n cIrcuInr-pInn buIIdIng),
roprosonfod bv 0, usod fo doformIno fho prossuro cooffIcIonfs.
ÞOTI In prncfIco, If Is usunIIv mosf convonIonf fo roInfo bofh nnd fho vnrIous vnIuos of for onch fnco,
l
,
2
,
3
, ofc., fo n sfnndnrd
vnIuo of , corrospondIng fo n prIncIpnI nxIs or roforonco fnco of fho buIIdIng. ThIs Is IIIusfrnfod In IIguro 29 for fho cnso of n
rocfnnguInr-pInn buIIdIng.
3.1.2 ÐynumI¢ µvessuve
3.1.2.1 Tho vnIuo of fho dvnnmIc prossuro o (In In) of fho dIrocfIonnI mofhod Is gIvon bv:
3.1.2.2 Tho roforonco vnIuo of dvnnmIc prossuro for dorIvIng prossuro on oxfornnI surfncos Is donofod bv o
o
nnd fho roforonco vnIuo for dorIvIng InfornnI prossuros bv o
I
.
3.1.2.3 VnIuos of dvnnmIc prossuro for vnrIous vnIuos of wInd spood nro gIvon In TnbIo 2.
3.1.3 WInd !oud
3.1.3.1 Directionul our[uce preooureo
3.1.3.1.1 Tho prossuro ncfIng on fho oxfornnI surfnco of n buIIdIng, p
o
, Is gIvon bv:
3.1.3.1.2 Tho prossuro ncfIng on fho InfornnI surfnco of n buIIdIng, p
I
, Is gIvon bv:
o = 0.6l3V
o
2
(l6)
whoro
V
o
Is fho offocfIvo wInd spood (In m/s) from 3.2.3.1.
p
o
= o
o
C
po
(l?)
whoro
o
o
Is fho dvnnmIc prossuro (3.1.2.2) from fho offocfIvo wInd spood In wInd dIrocfIon o for fho oxfornnI
surfnco dofInod In 3.1.2;
C
po
Is fho oxfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonf for fho buIIdIng surfnco In wInd dIrocfIon 0 gIvon In 3.3.
p
I
= o
I
C
pI
(l8)
whoro
o
I
Is fho dvnnmIc prossuro (3.1.2.2) from fho offocfIvo wInd spood In wInd dIrocfIon o for fho InfornnI
surfnco dofInod In 3.1.2;
C
pI
Is fho InfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonf for fho buIIdIng In wInd dIrocfIon 0 gIvon In 3.3.5.
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BS 6399-2:199?
62 ISI 3l JuIv 2002
SocfIon 3
3.1.3.1.3 Tho nof prossuro ncfIng ncross n surfnco p Is gIvon bv fho foIIowIng.
n) Ior oncIosod buIIdIngs:
b) Ior cnnopIos or buIIdIng oIomonfs
3.1.3.2 Directionul our[uce loudo
Tho nof wInd Iond P on n buIIdIng surfnco or oIomonf Is gIvon bv
IIuuve 29 WInd dIve¢tIons Iov u ve¢tunuu!uv-µ!un buI!dInu
p = p
o
p
I
(l9)
whoro
p
o
Is fho oxfornnI prossuro gIvon In 3.1.3.1.1;
p
I
Is fho InfornnI prossuro gIvon In 3.1.3.1.2.
p = o
o
C
p
(20)
whoro
o
o
Is fho dvnnmIc prossuro from fho offocfIvo wInd spood for fho cnnopv surfnco or oIomonf dofInod
In 3.1.2;
C
p
Is fho nof prossuro cooffIcIonf for fho oIomonf gIvon In 2.?.
P = pA (2l)
whoro
p Is fho nof prossuro ncross fho surfnco;
A Is fho Iondod nron.
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BS 6399-2:199?
ISI 3l JuIv 2002
63
SocfIon 3
3.1.3.3 Directionul oterull loudo
3.1.3.3.1 Tho ovornII Iond P on n buIIdIng mnv bo fnkon ns fho vocforInI sum of fho Ionds on IndIvIdunI
surfncos, muIfIpIIod bv (l + C
r
) fo nccounf for mIIdIv dvnnmIc rosponso. Howovor, sInco ponk Ionds on onch
fnco of buIIdIngs do nof ncf sImuIfnnoousIv, fho rosuIfIng summnfIon wouId bo consorvnfIvo.
3.1.3.3.2 AccordIngIv, fho ovornII Iond on n buIIdIng of nrbIfrnrv shnpo mnv bo roprosonfod bv fho cnsos
shown In IIguro 30 In whIch nII wIndwnrd-fncIng wnIIs or roof fncos nro cnfogorIzod ns fronf nnd nII
Ioownrd-fncIng wnIIs or roof fncos ns ronr, whon fho ovornII Iond In fho wInd dIrocfIon, P, mnv bo fnkon ns:
ÞOTI l Tho fncfor 0.85 nccounfs for fho non-sImuIfnnoous ncfIon of wInd prossuros.
ÞOTI 2 Tho horIzonfnI compononf of fho nof wInd Iond for onch Iondod nron Is rosoIvod Info fho wInd dIrocfIon bv muIfIpIvIng wIfh
fho npproprInfo vnIuo of cos boforo boIng summod.
Ior buIIdIngs wIfh fInf roofs, or whoro fho confrIbufIon fo fho horIzonfnI Ionds from fho roof Is InsIgnIfIcnnf,
fho ovornII Iond In fho wInd dIrocfIon P mnv bo fnkon, wIfhouf sIgnIfIcnnf Ioss of nccurncv, ns:
ÞOTI 3 IqunfIon 23 ImpIIos fhnf fho posIfIvo prossuro ncfIng on onch wIndwnrd-fncIng wnII roducos wIfh wInd nngIo normnI fo fho
wnII In proporfIon fo cos , whorons fho nognfIvo prossuro ncfIng on Ioownrd-fncIng wnIIs Is fnkon ns consfnnf wIfh wInd nngIo. Inco
Ionds nro fhon rosoIvod vocforInIIv fo gIvo fho ovornII Iond In fho wInd dIrocfIon. WnIIs nIIgnod oxncfIv pnrnIIoI fo fho wInd gIvo no
rosoIvod compononf In fho wInd dIrocfIon. In fho cnso of rocfnnguInr buIIdIngs, fho procoduro gIvos fho oxncf rosuIf of fho orfhogonnI
cnsos In 2.1.3.6 of fho sfnndnrd mofhod nf fho wInd dIrocfIons = 0 nnd = 90 nnd vorv cIoso fo fho combInnfIon of orfhogonnI Ionds
cnso In 2.1.3.6 of fho sfnndnrd mofhod nf fho wInd dIrocfIon = 45. o
o
Is bnsod on fho npproprInfo dIngonnI dImonsIons ns dofInod
In IIguro 5. Ior poIvgonnI buIIdIngs fhIs mnv bo consorvnfIvoIv bnsod on fho concopf of fho smnIIosf oncIosIng rocfnngIo.
3.1.3.3.3 In fho cnso of ro-onfrnnf cornors nnd rocossod bnvs, (soo 3.3.1.5 nnd 3.3.1.6), fho boundnrv of fho
wodgo shouId bo fnkon ns n soIId surfnco normnI fo fho fIow (cos
2
0 = l) ns IndIcnfod In IIguro 30b).
3.1.3.4 Directionul [rictionul druµ component
If Is rocommondod In 3.3.1.9, 3.3.2.B, 3.3.3.9 nnd 3.3.4.3 fhnf frIcfIonnI forcos on Iong wnIIs nnd roofs nro
doformInod In nddIfIon fo fho forcos gonornfod bv normnI prossuros. Whon doformInIng ovornII forcos on
fho buIIdIng, fho confrIbufIon of frIcfIonnI forcos shouId bo fnkon fo ncf In fho wInd dIrocfIon nnd nddod fo
fho normnI prossuro Iond gIvon bv P.
3.1.3.5 Directionul cluddinµ loudo
3.1.3.5.1 A sImpIIfIcnfIon of fho fuII dIrocfIonnI mofhod whIch Ionds fo fowor cnIcuInfIons mnv bo usod fo
doformIno dIrocfIonnI cInddIng Ionds. Tho bnsIs of fho sImpIIfIcnfIon Is fo cnIcuInfo nII oxfornnI surfnco
prossuros corrospondIng fo n nomInnI dIngonnI dImonsIon o = 5 m, nnd fhon fo ndjusf fhoso prossuros for
fho ncfunI dIngonnI sIzo of cInddIng oIomonf usIng fho sIzo offocf fncfor of fho sfnndnrd mofhod C
n
gIvon
In IIguro 4.
P = 0.85 {Z(P
fronf
cos0) Z(P
ronr
cos0) (l + C
r
) (22)
whoro
P
fronf
Is fho horIzonfnI compononf of nof wInd Iond ncfIng on wIndwnrd-fncIng wnIIs nnd roofs;
P
ronr
Is fho horIzonfnI compononf of nof wInd Iond ncfIng on Ioownrd-fncIng wnIIs nnd roofs;
0 Is fho nngIo of fho wInd from normnI fo fho wnII or fo fho roof In fho horIzonfnI pInno;
C
r
Is fho dvnnmIc nugmonfnfIon fncfor from 1.6.1.
P = 0.85 o
o
{Z(C
po, fronf
Acos
2
0) Z(C
po,ronr
A cos0) (l + C
r
) (23)
whoro
C
po,fronf
Is fho prossuro cooffIcIonf for wIndwnrd wnIIs In fho sfnndnrd mofhod from TnbIo 5;
C
po,ronr
Is fho prossuro cooffIcIonf for Ioownrd wnIIs In fho sfnndnrd mofhod from TnbIo 5.
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BS 6399-2:199?
64 ISI 3l JuIv 2002
SocfIon 3
3.1.3.5.2 Ior fhIs mofhod fho oxprossIon for fho dIrocfIonnI oxfornnI surfnco prossuro p
o
gIvon bv 3.1.3.1.2
bocomos:
Tho oxprossIon for fho dIrocfIonnI InfornnI surfnco prossuro p
I
gIvon In 3.1.3.1.2 romnIns unchnngod.
n) ConornI cnso for nrbIfrnrv-shnpod buIIdIng
b) IuIIdIng wIfh ro-onfrnnf cornor (soo IIguro 33)
IIuuve 30 Key to ovevu!! !oud P
p
o
= o
s
C
po
C
n
(24)
whoro
o
s
Is dIrocfIv oquIvnIonf fo fho dvnnmIc prossuro of fho sfnndnrd mofhod buf Is doformInod from fho
oquIvnIonf offocfIvo wInd spood V
o
of fho dIrocfIonnI mofhod for n gusf ponk fncfor (soo 3.2.3.3) of
g
f
= 3.44, corrospondIng fo fho nomInnI dIngonnI dImonsIon o = 5 m.
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BS 6399-2:199?
ISI 3l JuIv 2002
65
SocfIon 3
3.2 ÐIve¢tIonu! wInd sµeeds
3.2.1 BusI¢ wInd sµeed
Tho googrnphIcnI vnrInfIon of bnsIc wInd spood V
b
shouId bo obfnInod dIrocfIv from IIguro 6.
ÞOTI Tho mofhod usod fo dorIvo fho bnsIc wInd spood from fho mofooroIogIcnI dnfn Is doscrIbod In Annox I.
3.2.2 SIte wInd sµeed
Tho sIfo wInd spood V
s
shouId bo cnIcuInfod from oqunfIon 8, foIIowIng fho procoduro gIvon In 2.2.2, oxcopf
for fho doformInnfIon of fho nIfIfudo fncfor S
n
.
ÞOTI In fho dIrocfIonnI mofhod, fopogrnphIc offocfs nro doformInod sopnrnfoIv from nIfIfudo offocfs.
Whon fopogrnphv Is nof fo bo consIdorod, fho nIfIfudo fncfor S
n
shouId bo doformInod from:
Whon fopogrnphv Is fo bo consIdorod, fho nIfIfudo fncfor S
n
shouId bo doformInod from:
3.2.3 £IIe¢tIve wInd sµeed
3.2.3.1 Tho offocfIvo wInd spood V
o
for onch wInd dIrocfIon for n buIIdIng on n pnrfIcuInr sIfo shouId bo
doformInod from:
Tho offocfIvo wInd spood shouId bo cnIcuInfod nf fho offocfIvo hoIghf H
o
, doformInod from fho roforonco
hoIghf H
r
In nccordnnco wIfh 1.?.3. !oforonco hoIghfs H
r
nro dofInod wIfh fho prossuro cooffIcIonf dnfn for
onch form of buIIdIng.
Ior buIIdIngs whoso hoIghf H Is gronfor fhnn fho crosswInd brondfh B In fho wInd dIrocfIon boIng
consIdorod, somo roducfIon In ovornII Ionds mnv bo obfnInod bv dIvIdIng fho buIIdIng Info n numbor of pnrfs
In nccordnnco wIfh 2.2.3.
S
n
= l + 0.00lA
S
(25)
whoro
A
S
Is fho sIfo nIfIfudo (In mofros nbovo monn son IovoI).
S
n
= l + 0.00lA
T
(26)
whoro
A
T
Is fho nIfIfudo of fho bnso of fho fopogrnphv (In mofros nbovo monn son IovoI).
V
o
= V
s
S
b
(2?)
whoro
V
s
Is fho sIfo wInd spood for onch wInd dIrocfIon gIvon bv 3.2.2;
S
b
Is fho forrnIn nnd buIIdIng fncfor npproprInfo fo fho wInd dIrocfIon boIng consIdorod, doformInod
from 3.2.3.2.2 for sIfos In counfrv forrnIn nnd from 3.2.3.2.3 for sIfos In fown forrnIn.
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BS 6399-2:199?
66 ISI 3l JuIv 2002
SocfIon 3
3.2.3.2 Terruin und huildinµ [uctor
3.2.3.2.1 Generol
Tho forrnIn nnd buIIdIng fncfor S
b
shouId bo usod fo modIfv fho sIfo wInd spood fo fnko nccounf of fho
offocfIvo hoIghf H
o
of fho buIIdIng or pnrf, fho dImonsIons of fho buIIdIng, fho IocnI fopogrnphv nnd fho
forrnIn upwInd of fho sIfo. If nIso modIfIos fho hourIv monn sIfo wInd spood fo nn offocfIvo gusf wInd spood.
Tho forrnIn nnd buIIdIng fncfor S
b
shouId bo doformInod from 3.2.3.2.2 for sIfos In counfrv forrnIn nnd
from 3.2.3.2.3 for sIfos In fown forrnIn, fnkIng fho foIIowIng Info nccounf:
n) fho offocfIvo hoIghf H
o
doformInod In nccordnnco wIfh 1.?.3 from fho roforonco hoIghf H
r
dofInod for
fho form of fho buIIdIng or pnrf (soo 2.2.3.2).
b) fho dIsfnnco of fho sIfo from fho son In fho wInd dIrocfIon boIng consIdorod;
c) for sIfos In fown forrnIn, fho dIsfnnco of fho sIfo from fho odgo of fho fown In fho wInd dIrocfIon boIng
consIdorod;
d) fho Inrgosf dIngonnI o of fho nron ovor whIch Iond shnrIng fnkos pInco ns dofInod In IIguro 5.
!ond offocfs, o.g. bondIng momonfs nnd shonr forcos, nf nnv IovoI In n buIIdIng shouId bo bnsod on fho
dIngonnI dImonsIon of fho Iondod nron nbovo fho IovoI boIng consIdorod, ns IIIusfrnfod In IIguro 5c).
3.2.3.2.2 Si/ee in coun/rx /erroin
In counfrv forrnIn S
b
shouId bo doformInod from:
S
b
= S
c
{l + (g
f
S
f
) + S
h
(28)
whoro
S
c
Is fho fofch fncfor obfnInod from TnbIo 22;
S
f
Is fho furbuIonco fncfor obfnInod from TnbIo 22;
g
f
Is fho gusf ponk fncfor (soo 3.2.3.3);
S
h
Is fho fopogrnphIc Incromonf (soo 3.2.3.4).
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BS 6399-2:199?
ISI 3l JuIv 2002
6?
SocfIon 3
Tub!e 22 Iu¢tovs S
c
und S
f
3.2.3.2.3 Si/ee in /oun /erroin
In fown forrnIn S
b
shouId bo doformInod from:
£IIe¢tIve LeIuLt
H
o
Iu¢tov \µwInd dIstun¢e Ivom seu to sIte
km
m 0.1 0.3 1.0 3.0 10 30 100
2 S
c
0.8?3 0.840 0.8l2 0.?92 0.??4 0.?6l 0.?23
S
f
0.203 0.2l5 0.2l5 0.2l5 0.2l5 0.2l5 0.2l5
5 S
c
l.06 l.02 0.990 0.966 0.944 0.928 0.882
S
f
0.l6l 0.l?9 0.l92 0.l92 0.l92 0.l92 0.l92
l0 S
c
l.2l l.l? l.l3 l.l0 l.0? l.06 l.00
S
f
0.l3? 0.l54 0.l69 0.l?5 0.l?8 0.l?8 0.l?8
l5 S
c
l.28 l.25 l.2l l.l8 l.l5 l.l3 l.08
S
f
0.l3l 0.l4l 0.l56 0.l6? 0.l?l 0.l?l 0.l?l
20 S
c
l.32 l.3l l.2? l.23 l.2l l.l9 l.l3
S
f
0.l2? 0.l32 0.l45 0.l5? 0.l63 0.l64 0.l66
30 S
c
l.39 l.39 l.35 l.3l l.28 l.26 l.20
S
f
0.l20 0.l22 0.l32 0.l45 0.l55 0.l59 0.l59
50 S
c
l.4? l.4? l.46 l.42 l.39 l.36 l.30
S
f
0.ll2 0.ll3 0.ll? 0.l25 0.l35 0.l45 0.l49
l00 S
c
l.59 l.59 l.59 l.5? l.54 l.5l l.43
S
f
0.09? 0.l00 0.l00 0.l00 0.ll0 0.l20 0.l32
200 S
c
l.?4 l.?4 l.?4 l.?3 l.?0 l.6? l.59
S
f
0.0?5 0.0?5 0.0?5 0.0?8 0.083 0.093 0.lll
300 S
c
l.84 l.84 l.84 l.83 l.82 l.?8 l.?0
S
f
0.065 0.065 0.065 0.06? 0.068 0.080 0.092
ÞOTI l InforpoInfIon mnv bo usod.
ÞOTI 2 Tho fIguros In fhIs fnbIo hnvo boon dorIvod from roforonco |8].
S
b
= S
c
T
c
{l + (g
f
S
f
T
f
) + S
h
(29)
whoro
S
c
Is fho fofch fncfor obfnInod from TnbIo 22;
T
c
Is fho fofch ndjusfmonf fncfor obfnInod from TnbIo 23;
S
f
Is fho furbuIonco fncfor obfnInod from TnbIo 22;
T
f
Is fho furbuIonco ndjusfmonf fncfor obfnInod from TnbIo 23;
g
f
Is fho gusf ponk fncfor (soo 3.2.3.3);
S
h
Is fho fopogrnphIc Incromonf (soo 3.2.3.4).
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BS 6399-2:199?
68 ISI 3l JuIv 2002
SocfIon 3
3.2.3.3 Cuot peuk [uctor
3.2.3.3.1 Tho gusf ponk fncfor g
f
usod In fho cnIcuInfIon of fho forrnIn nnd buIIdIng fncfor S
b
nIIows for fho
InfIuonco of fho dImonsIons of fho buIIdIng on fho mnxImum gusf spood. Tho dImonsIon of fho buIIdIng
whIch doformInos fho vnIuo of fho gusf ponk fncfor Is fho Iongfh of fho dIngonnI o of fho Iondod nron ovor
whIch Iond shnrIng fnkos pInco (soo IIguro 5). Sopnrnfo vnIuos shouId bo usod dopondIng upon whofhor
wInd Ionds nro boIng cnIcuInfod for fho whoIo buIIdIng, porfIons of fho buIIdIng or IndIvIdunI compononfs.
3.2.3.3.2 Ior oxfornnI prossuros on whoIo buIIdIngs nnd porfIons of buIIdIngs, fho vnIuos of g
f
shouId bo
obfnInod from TnbIo 24 usIng fho offocfIvo hoIghf H
o
of fho fop of fho buIIdIng nnd fho dIngonnI of fho Iondod
nron, o.
Tub!e 23 Adjustment Iu¢tovs T
c
und T
f
Iov sItes In town tevvuIn
£IIe¢tIve LeIuLt
H
o
Iu¢tov \µwInd dIstun¢e Ivom edue oI town to sIte
km
m 0.1 0.3 1.0 3.0 10 30
2 T
c
0.695 0.653 0.6l9 0.596 0.5?6 0.562
T
f
l.92 l.93 l.93 l.93 l.93 l.93
5 T
c
0.846 0.?95 0.?54 0.?25 0.?0l 0.684
T
f
l.4l l.60 l.63 l.63 l.63 l.63
l0 T
c
0.929 0.8?3 0.828 0.?96 0.??0 0.?5l
T
f
l.l6 l.34 l.50 l.52 l.52 l.52
l5 T
c
0.969 0.9ll 0.863 0.83l 0.803 0.?83
T
f
l.04 l.22 l.38 l.4? l.4? l.4?
20 T
c
0.984 0.935 0.886 0.853 0.824 0.804
T
f
l.00 l.l? l.35 l.44 l.45 l.45
30 T
c
0.984 0.965 0.9l5 0.880 0.85l 0.830
T
f
l.00 l.06 l.2l l.33 l.43 l.43
50 T
c
0.984 0.984 0.94? 0.9l2 0.88l 0.859
T
f
l.00 l.00 l.l2 l.24 l.38 l.42
l00 T
c
0.984 0.984 0.984 0.948 0.9l? 0.894
T
f
l.00 l.00 l.00 l.l4 l.28 l.38
200 T
c
0.984 0.984 0.984 0.980 0.94? 0.924
T
f
l.00 l.00 l.00 l.0? l.l9 l.3l
300 T
c
0.984 0.984 0.984 0.984 0.964 0.940
T
f
l.00 l.00 l.00 l.04 l.l4 l.24
ÞOTI l InforpoInfIon mnv bo usod.
ÞOTI 2 Ior sIfos In fowns Ioss fhnn 0.l km from fho odgo In fho upwInd dIrocfIon fho sIfo shouId bo nssumod fo bo In opon
counfrv forrnIn (soo 3.2.3.2.2).
ÞOTI 3 Tho fIguros In fhIs fnbIo hnvo boon dorIvod from roforonco |8].
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Tub!e 24 Gust µeuk Iu¢tov g
f
3.2.3.3.3 Whon nssossIng fho Ionds on IndIvIdunI sfrucfurnI compononfs, cInddIng unIfs nnd fhoIr fIxIngs n
vnIuo of g
f
= 3.44 shouId bo fnkon, unIoss fhoro Is ndoqunfo Iond shnrIng cnpncIfv fo jusfIfv fho uso of n
Iowor vnIuo (I.o. n dIngonnI Iongfh o gronfor fhnn 5 m) In whIch cnso TnbIo 24 shouId bo usod fo obfnIn fho
npproprInfo vnIuo for fho gusf ponk fncfor g
f
. ThIs vnIuo of g
f
= 3.44 shouId nIso bo fnkon whon usIng fho
provIsIons of 3.1.3.5.2 or 3.4.2 In conjuncfIon wIfh fho sIzo offocf fncfor C
n
of fho sfnndnrd mofhod.
3.2.3.3.4 Ior InfornnI prossuros, fho vnIuos of g
f
shouId bo obfnInod from TnbIo 24 usIng fho offocfIvo
hoIghf H
o
of fho fop of fho buIIdIng or pnrf of fho buIIdIng confnInIng fho roIovnnf sforov, nnd fho dIngonnI
of fho Iondod nron o Is doformInod from fho voIumo of fho buIIdIng, sforov or room ns dofInod In 2.6.
ÞOTI Tho dorIvnfIon of fho gusf ponk fncfor Is doscrIbod In Annox I, whIch nIso IncIudos mnfhomnfIcnI oqunfIons fo dorIvo g
f
. Þofo
fhnf fho sIzo offocf fncfor of fho sfnndnrd mofhod C
n
, gIvon In IIguro 4, wns doformInod from g
f
= 3.44 bv fho mofhod gIvon In 3.2.3.2
nnd 3.2.3.3 for n numbor of fvpIcnI sIfo oxposuros.
3.2.3.4 Topoµruphic increment
3.2.3.4.1 Tho fopogrnphIc Incromonf S
h
shouId bo usod fo modIfv fho forrnIn nnd buIIdIng fncfor fo nIIow
for IocnI fopogrnphIcnI fonfuros such ns hIIIs, vnIIovs, cIIffs, oscnrpmonfs or rIdgos whIch cnn sIgnIfIcnnfIv
nffocf fho wInd spood In fhoIr vIcInIfv. VnIuos of S
h
shouId bo dorIvod for onch wInd dIrocfIon consIdorod
nnd usod In conjuncfIon wIfh fho corrospondIng dIrocfIon fncfor S
d
.
3.2.3.4.2 Whoro fho nvorngo sIopo of fho ground doos nof oxcood 0.05 wIfhIn n kIIomofro rndIus of fho sIfo
fho forrnIn shouId bo fnkon ns IovoI nnd fho fopogrnphIc Incromonf S
h
shouId bo fnkon ns zoro. Whon fho
fopogrnphv Is dofInod ns nof sIgnIfIcnnf bv fho sImpIo crIforIn In IIguro ?, fho forrnIn mnv bo fnkon ns IovoI
nnd fho fopogrnphIc Incromonf S
h
mnv bo fnkon ns zoro.
3.2.3.4.3 ÐopondIng on whofhor fho fopogrnphIc Incromonf S
h
Is usod, cnro shouId bo fnkon fo onsuro fhnf
fho nIfIfudo fncfor S
n
, usod fo doformIno fho sIfo wInd spood V
s
, Is dorIvod from fho npproprInfo dofInIfIon
of nIfIfudo A
S
or A
T
In 3.2.2.
3.2.3.4.4 In fho vIcInIfv of IocnI fopogrnphIc fonfuros fho fopogrnphIc Incromonf S
h
Is n funcfIon of fho
upwInd sIopo nnd fho posIfIon of fho sIfo roInfIvo fo fho summIf or crosf. If shouId bo nofod fhnf S
h
wIII vnrv
wIfh hoIghf nbovo ground IovoI, from mnxImum nonr fo fho ground roducIng fo zoro nf hIghor IovoIs, nnd
wIfh posIfIon from fho crosf, from mnxImum nonr fho crosf roducIng fo zoro dIsfnnf from fho crosf.
3.2.3.4.5 VnIuos of fopogrnphIc Incromonf nro confInod fo fho rnngo 0 < S
h
< 0.6 nnd nppIv onIv fo fho
sImpIo fopogrnphIc fonfuros dofInod In IIguro 8. In sIfunfIons of muIfIpIo hIIIs or rIdgos, fhIs procoduro Is
npproprInfo whon nppIIod fo fho sIngIo hIII or rIdgo on whIch fho sIfo Is sIfunfod.
3.2.3.4.6 In corfnIn sfoop-sIdod oncIosod vnIIovs wInd spoods mnv bo Ioss fhnn In IovoI forrnIn. Ioforo nnv
roducfIon In wInd spoods Is consIdorod spocInIIsf ndvIco shouId bo soughf. Ior sIfos In compIox fopogrnphv
spocInIIsf ndvIco shouId bo soughf (soo roforoncos |5] fo |8]) or n mnxImum vnIuo of S
h
= 0.6 usod.
ÞOTI VnIuos of S
h
mnv bo dorIvod from modoI-scnIo or fuII-scnIo monsuromonfs or from numorIcnI sImuInfIons.
3.2.3.4.? In unduInfIng forrnIn If Is offon nof possIbIo fo docIdo whofhor fho IocnI fopogrnphv of fho sIfo Is
sIgnIfIcnnf In forms of wInd fIow. In such cnsos fho nvorngo IovoI of fho forrnIn upwInd of fho sIfo for n
dIsfnnco of 2 km shouId bo fnkon ns fho bnso IovoI from whIch fo nssoss fho hoIghf Z nnd fho upwInd sIopo
c
!
of fho fonfuro.
£IIe¢tIve LeIuLt
H
o
ÐIuuonu! dImensIon o
m
m < 5 10 20 40 100 200 300
l0 3.44 3.l9 2.90 2.62 2.23 l.9? l.??
20 3.44 3.24 2.98 2.69 2.2? 2.04 l.83
50 3.44 3.30 3.02 2.?5 2.36 2.l0 l.89
l00 3.44 3.33 3.0? 2.?9 2.40 2.l4 l.95
200 3.44 3.40 3.l3 2.84 2.4? 2.l8 2.0l
300 3.44 3.44 3.l? 2.86 2.49 2.2l 2.04
ÞOTI InforpoInfIon mnv bo usod.
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?0 ISI 3l JuIv 2002
SocfIon 3
3.2.3.4.B VnIuos of fho fopogrnphIc Incromonf S
h
shouId bo obfnInod from TnbIo 25 usIng fho npproprInfo
vnIuos for fho upwInd sIopo c
!
, fho offocfIvo Iongfh L
o
nnd fho fncfor e whIch shouId bo doformInod from
IIguro 9 for hIIIs nnd rIdgos or IIguro l0 for cIIffs nnd oscnrpmonfs.
Tub!e 25 Vu!ues oI L
o
und S
h
3.2.3.4.9 In cnsos frnnsIfIonnI bofwoon hIIIs nnd rIdgos In IIguro 8n) nnd cIIffs nnd oscnrpmonfs In
IIguro 8b), I.o. whon fho downwInd sIopo Iongfh L
Ð
Is much Iongor fhnn fho upwInd sIopo Iongfh L
!
, If mnv
bo dIffIcuIf fo docIdo whIch modoI Is fho moro npproprInfo. In fhIs cnso, n vnIuo of e mnv bo dorIvod from
bofh IIguro 9 nnd IIguro l0 nnd fho smnIIor vnIuo usod.
3.2.3.4.10 Af somo dIsfnnco from n fopogrnphIc fonfuro fho offocf of IocnI fopogrnphv Is ropIncod bv fho
gonornI offocf of nIfIfudo. In mnnv cnsos, If wIII nof bo cIonr whofhor fopogrnphv or nIfIfudo domInnfos. As
onch Is nssossod dIfforonfIv bv fho dIrocfIonnI mofhod, If Is nocossnrv fo cnIcuInfo fho offocfIvo wInd
spood V
o
fwIco, ns foIIows, nnd fo fnko fho Inrgor vnIuo of V
o
obfnInod:
wIfh fopogrnphv, usIng S
n
for fho forrnIn bnso nIfIfudo nnd fho npproprInfo vnIuo of S
h
; nnd
wIfhouf fopogrnphv, usIng S
n
for fho sIfo nIfIfudo nnd S
h
= 0.
ThIs procoduro Is rocommondod fo doformIno fho IImIf of fopogrnphIc InfIuonco downwInd of n cIIff or
oscnrpmonf.
3.2.3.4.11 Whoro fho downwInd sIopo of n hIII or rIdgo Is gronfor fhnn c
Ð
= 0.3 fhoro wIII bo Inrgo rogIons
of roducod nccoIornfIon or ovon shoIfor nnd If Is nof possIbIo fo gIvo procIso dosIgn ruIos for fhoso
cIrcumsfnncos. VnIuos of e from IIguro 9 shouId bo usod ns uppor bound vnIuos.
3.3 ÐIve¢tIonu! µvessuve ¢oeIII¢Ients
3.3.1 £xtevnu! µvessuve ¢oeIII¢Ients C
po
Iov wu!!s oI buI!dInus
3.3.1.1 Verticul uullo o[ rectunµulur-plun huildinµo
3.3.1.1.1 Irossuro cooffIcIonfs for wnIIs of rocfnnguInr-pInn buIIdIngs nro gIvon In TnbIo 26 for fho zonos ns
dofInod In IIguro 3l. Zonos A nnd I shouId bo dofInod, monsurIng fhoIr wIdfh from fho upwInd odgo of fho
wnII. If zonos A nnd I do nof occupv fho whoIo of fho wnII, zono Ð shouId bo dofInod from fho downwInd
odgo of fho wnII. If zono Ð doos nof occupv fho romnIndor of fho fnco, zono C Is fhon dofInod ns fho romnIndor
of fho fnco bofwoon zonos I nnd Ð.
3.3.1.1.2 Tho wInd dIrocfIon 0 Is dofInod ns fho nngIo of fho wInd from normnI fo fho wnII boIng consIdorod
(soo 3.1.1). Tho roforonco hoIghf H
r
Is fho hoIghf nbovo ground of fho fop of fho wnII, IncIudIng nnv pnrnpof,
or fho fop of fho pnrf If fho buIIdIng hns boon dIvIdod Info pnrfs In nccordnnco wIfh 2.2.3. Tho crosswInd
brondfh B nnd InwInd dopfh D nro dofInod In IIguro 2. Tho scnIIng Iongfh I for dofInIng fho zonos Is gIvon
bv I = B or I = 2H, whIchovor Is fho smnIIor.
3.3.1.1.3 Whoro wnIIs of fwo buIIdIngs fnco onch ofhor nnd fho gnp bofwoon fhom Is Ioss fhnn I nnd gronfor
fhnn I/4 somo funnoIIIng of fho fIow wIII occur bofwoon fho buIIdIngs. Tho mnxImum offocf occurs nf n
spncIng of I/2 nnd Is mnInfnInod ovor n rnngo of wInd nngIos 45 from normnI fo fho nxIs of fho gnp. In
fhIs cIrcumsfnnco, fho foIIowIng nppIv.
n) Ovor fho rnngo of wInd nngIo 45 < 0 < +45 fho wIndwnrd-fncIng wnII Is shoIforod bv fho Ioownrd-
fncIng wnII of fho ofhor buIIdIng. Tho posIfIvo prossuros In TnbIo 26 nppIv whoro fho wnII Is dIrocfIv
oxposod fo fho wInd buf gIvo consorvnfIvo vnIuos for fho whoIo wnII.
b) Ovor fho rnngos of wInd nngIo l35 < 0 < 45 nnd +45 < 0 < l35 funnoIIIng occurs. VnIuos for zono
A nf 0 = 90 shouId bo muIfIpIIod bv l.2. VnIuos for zonos I nf 0 = 90 shouId bo muIfIpIIod bv l.l nnd
nppIIod fo nII pnrfs of zonos I fo Ð whIch fnco fho ofhor buIIdIng ovor fhoso rnngos of wInd nngIo. Thoso
funnoIIIng fncfors gIvo fho mnxImum offocf whIch corrosponds fo n gnp wIdfh of I/2 nnd InforpoInfIon
Is pormIffod In fho rnngo of gnp wIdfhs from I/4 fo b (soo 2.4.1.4).
S!oµe
( = Z/L
!
)
SLu!!ow
(0.05 <
!
> 0.3)
Steeµ
(
!
> 0.3)
IffocfIvo Iongfh L
o
= L
!
L
o
= Z/0.3
TopogrnphIc Incromonf S
h
= 2.0c
!
e S
h
= 0.6e
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c) Ovor fho rnngos of wInd nngIo l80 < 0 < l35 nnd +l35 < 0 < +l80 fho vnIuos of prossuro
cooffIcIonf romnIn fho snmo ns gIvon In TnbIo 26.
d) Whoro fho fwo buIIdIngs nro shoIforod bv upwInd buIIdIngs such fhnf fho offocfIvo hoIghf for fho Iowor
of fho fwo buIIdIngs Is 0.4H
r
In nccordnnco wIfh 1.?.3.3, funnoIIIng mnv bo dIsrognrdod.
3.3.1.2 Verticul uullo o[ polvµonul-plun huildinµo
3.3.1.2.1 Tho prossuro cooffIcIonfs gIvon In TnbIo 26 shouId nIso bo usod for fho vorfIcnI wnIIs of
poIvgonnI-pInn buIIdIngs. In such cnsos fhoro mnv bo nnv numbor of fncos (gronfor fhnn or oqunI fo 3). Tho
wInd dIrocfIon, prIncIpnI dImonsIons nnd scnIIng Iongfh romnIn ns dofInod In 3.3.1.1.2.
ÞOTI Insfond of cnIcuInfIng fho crosswInd brondfh B nnd InwInd dopfh D for fho compIox buIIdIng pInn, fhoso dImonsIons mnv bo
doformInod from fho smnIIosf rocfnngIo or cIrcIo whIch oncIosos fho pInn shnpo of fho buIIdIng.
3.3.1.2.2 IrovIdod fho Iongfh of fho ndjnconf upwInd fnco Is gronfor fhnn I/5 fho ponk sucfIon cooffIcIonfs
for zono A gIvon In TnbIo 26, for wInd nngIo 60 < 0 < l20, cnn bo roducod bv muIfIpIvIng fhom bv fho
roducfIon fncfor npproprInfo fo fho ndjnconf cornor nngIo µ gIvon In TnbIo 2?.
ÞOTI A rocfnnguInr cornor = 90 gIvos fho hIghosf IocnI sucfIon In zono A.
Tub!e 26 £xtevnu! µvessuve ¢oeIII¢Ients C
po
Iov vevtI¢u! wu!!s oI ve¢tunuu!uv-µ!un buI!dInus
WInd dIve¢tIon
D/H 1 D/H 4
A B C Ð A B C Ð
0 +0.?0 +0.83 +0.86 +0.83 +0.50 +0.59 +0.6l +0.59
l5 +0.?? +0.88 +0.80 +0.68 +0.55 +0.62 +0.5? +0.49
30 +0.80 +0.80 +0.?l +0.49 +0.5? +0.5? +0.5l +0.35
45 +0.?9 +0.69 +0.54 +0.34 +0.56 +0.49 +0.38 +0.24
60 +0.24 +0.5l +0.40 +0.26 0.20 +0.36 +0.29 0.20
?5 l.l0 0.?3 +0.23 0.20 l.l0 0.?3 +0.23 0.20
90 l.30 0.80 0.42 0.20 l.30 0.80 0.42 0.20
l05 0.80 0.?3 0.48 0.26 0.80 0.?3 0.48 0.26
l20 0.63 0.63 0.45 0.29 0.63 0.63 0.45 0.29
l35 0.50 0.50 0.40 0.33 0.50 0.50 0.40 0.33
l50 0.34 0.34 0.26 0.32 0.34 0.34 0.26 0.32
l65 0.30 0.30 0.23 0.28 0.20 0.l? 0.l5 0.l8
l80 0.34 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.l? 0.l5 0.l5 0.l5
ÞOTI l InforpoInfIon mnv bo usod bofwoon gIvon wInd dIrocfIons nnd for D/H In fho rnngo l < D/H < 4.
ÞOTI 2 Whon fho rosuIf of InforpoInfIng bofwoon posIfIvo nnd nognfIvo vnIuos Is In fho rnngo 0.2 < C
po
< +0.2, fho cooffIcIonf
shouId bo fnkon ns C
po
= 0.2 nnd bofh possIbIo vnIuos usod.
IIuuve 31 Key Iov vevtI¢u! wu!!s oI buI!dInus
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BS 6399-2:199?
?2 ISI 3l JuIv 2002
SocfIon 3
Tub!e 2? Redu¢tIon Iu¢tovs Iov zone A on vevtI¢u! wu!!s oI µo!yuonu!-µ!un buI!dInus
3.3.1.2.3 Whonovor fho vnIuo of prossuro cooffIcIonf for ponk sucfIon In zonos I, C nnd Ð nro moro nognfIvo
fhnn fho roducod prossuro cooffIcIonf In zono A, fho roducod zono A vnIuos shouId bo nppIIod fo fhoso zonos
nIso.
3.3.1.3 Triunµulur µuhle uullo
3.3.1.3.1 Irossuro cooffIcIonfs for fho frInnguInr gnbIo wnIIs formod bv sfoop duopIfch roofs or non-vorfIcnI
wnIIs (A-frnmo buIIdIngs) In fho rnngo 30 n?5 nro gIvon In TnbIo 28 for zonos H fo K ns dofInod
In IIguro 32. Ior gnbIo wnIIs formod bv duopIfch roofs of pIfchos Ioss fhnn n = 30 or bv non-vorfIcnI wnIIs
of pIfchos gronfor fhnn n = ?5 (nonrIv vorfIcnI) fho gonornI mofhod gIvon In 3.3.1.1 shouId bo usod.
3.3.1.3.2 Tho wInd dIrocfIon 0 Is dofInod ns fho nngIo of fho wInd from normnI fo fho wnII boIng consIdorod
(soo 3.1.1). Tho roforonco hoIghf H
r
Is fho hoIghf of fho ponk of fho gnbIo.
3.3.1.3.3 Whoro gnbIos of fwo buIIdIngs fnco onch ofhor nnd fho gnp bofwoon fhom Is Ioss fhnn I somo
funnoIIIng of fho fIow wIII occur bofwoon fho buIIdIngs. Tho mnxImum offocf occurs nf n spncIng of I/2 nnd
Is mnInfnInod ovor n rnngo of wInd nngIos 45 from pnrnIIoI fo fho nxIs of fho gnp. In fhIs cIrcumsfnnco,
fho foIIowIng nppIv.
n) Ovor fho rnngo of wInd nngIo 45 < 0 < +45 fho wIndwnrd-fncIng gnbIo Is shoIforod bv fho Ioownrd-
fncIng gnbIo of fho oufor buIIdIng. Tho posIfIvo prossuros In TnbIo 28 nppIv whoro fho gnbIo Is dIrocfIv
oxposod fo fho wInd buf gIvo consorvnfIvo vnIuos for fho whoIo gnbIo.
b) Ovor fho rnngos of wInd nngIo l35 < 0 < 45 nnd +45 < 0 < +l35 funnoIIIng occurs. VnIuos for zono
H nf 0 = 90 shouId bo muIfIpIIod bv l.2. VnIuos for zono I nf 0 = 90 shouId bo muIfIpIIod bv l.l nnd
nppIIod fo nII pnrfs of zonos I fo K whIch fnco fho ofhor buIIdIng ovor fhoso rnngos of wInd nngIo. Thoso
funnoIIIng fncfors gIvo fho mnxImum offocf whIch corrosponds fo n gnp wIdfh of I/2 nnd InforpoInfIon Is
pormIffod In fho rnngo of gnp wIdfhs from I/4 fo I (soo 2.4.1.4).
c) Ovor fho rnngos of wInd nngIo l80 < 0 < l35 nnd +l35 < 0 < +l80 fho vnIuos of prossuro
cooffIcIonf romnIn fho snmo ns gIvon In TnbIo 28.
3.3.1.4 Non-terticul uullo
3.3.1.4.1 Irossuro cooffIcIonfs for wIndwnrd-fncIng non-vorfIcnI wnIIs In fho rnngo 0 = 90 nro gIvon
In TnbIo 29 for zonos A fo ÐdofInod In IIguro 3l. Ior nII ofhor wInd nngIos, prossuros on non-vorfIcnI wnIIs
shouId bo fnkon ns fho snmo ns for vorfIcnI wnIIs.
3.3.1.4.2 Tho wInd dIrocfIon 0 Is dofInod ns fho nngIo of fho wInd from normnI fo fho wnII boIng consIdorod
(soo 3.1.1) nnd Is IImIfod horo fo fho rnngo 0 = 90. Tho pIfch nngIo n Is dofInod ns fho nngIo from
horIzonfnI, honco n = 90 for vorfIcnI wnIIs. Tho roforonco hoIghf H
r
Is fho hoIghf nbovo ground of fho fop
of fho wnII.
ÞOTI Tho prossuro cooffIcIonfs for non-vorfIcnI wnIIs In TnbIo 29 nro ossonfInIIv IdonfIcnI fo fho prossuro cooffIcIonfs for sfoop
pIfchod roofs In 3.3.3, nIIowIng for fho dIfforoncos In dofInIfIon of zonos; fhoroforo nf Inrgo pIfch nngIos ( > 45) fho dIsfIncfIon
bofwoon wnII nnd roof Is InrgoIv IrroIovnnf. Howovor, sfoop-pIfchod surfncos whIch moof nIong fho fop odgo fo form n rIdgo,
o.g. A-frnmo buIIdIngs, nro boffor Inforprofod ns duopIfch roofs, fnIIIng undor fho provIsIons of 3.3.3.
Covnev unu!e Redu¢tIon Iu¢tov
60 0.?
90 l.0
l20 0.6
l50 0.2
ÞOTI InforpoInfIon Is nIIowod In fho rnngo 60 < < l50.
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BS 6399-2:199?
ISI 3l JuIv 2002
?3
SocfIon 3
3.3.1.5 Buildinµo uith re-entrunt cornero
3.3.1.5.1 Tho procoduro gIvon In 3.3.1.1 shouId bo usod for vorfIcnI wnIIs of buIIdIngs confnInIng ro-onfrnnf
cornors, such ns !, T, X nnd Y shnpod buIIdIngs In pInn. Ifoms n) fo o) dofIno fho zonos, usIng IIguro 33 ns
roforonco.
n) Ior fho fncos of fho upwInd wIng, fho crosswInd brondfh nnd fho hoIghf of fho wIng shouId bo usod fo
doformIno fho scnIIng pnrnmofor I. Ior nII ofhor wIngs fho ovornII crosswInd brondfh of fho buIIdIng
shouId bo usod.
ÞOTI Insfond of cnIcuInfIng fho crosswInd brondfh B nnd InwInd dopfh D for fho compIox buIIdIng pInn, fhoso dImonsIons mnv
bo doformInod from fho smnIIosf rocfnngIo or cIrcIo whIch oncIosos fho pInn shnpo of fho upwInd wIng or of fho whoIo buIIdIng,
rospocfIvoIv.
b) Ior fncos wIfh fwo oxfornnI cornors, zonos A, I, C nnd Ð nro dofInod In nccordnnco wIfh 3.3.1.1.
c) Ior fncos wIfh ono upwInd (oxfornnI) cornor nnd ono downwInd ro-onfrnnf cornor, zonos A, I nnd C nro
dofInod (zono Ð doos nof nppIv).
d) Ior fncos wIfh ono upwInd ro-onfrnnf cornor nnd ono downwInd oxfornnI cornor, zonos C nnd Ð nro
dofInod (zonos A nnd I do nof nppIv).
o) In ro-onfrnnf cornors fhnf fnco dIrocfIv Info fho wInd n wodgo fhnf oxfonds from fho InfornnI cornor
wIfh fho fnco of fho wodgo normnI fo fho wInd dIrocfIon Is dofInod. Tho wIdfh of fho wodgo u shouId bo
fnkon ns u = I or u = fho wIdfh of fho wodgo IImIfod bv nn oxfornnI cornor (mnrkod IImIf of wodgo),
whIchovor Is fho smnIIor.
3.3.1.5.2 Tho prossuro cooffIcIonfs for zonos dofInod In 3.3.1.5.1 shouId bo obfnInod from TnbIo 26
npproprInfo fo fho wInd nngIo 0 monsurod from normnI fo onch wnII.
Tho prossuro cooffIcIonfs for fho zonos fhnf IIo wIfhIn fho dofInod wodgo shouId bo fnkon for zono
C nf 0 = 0 from TnbIo 26.
Tub!e 2B £xtevnu! µvessuve ¢oeIII¢Ients C
po
Iov vevtI¢u! uub!e wu!!s udju¢ent to
non-vevtI¢u! wu!!s und vooIs
WInd dIve¢tIon PIt¢L oI udju¢ent wu!! ov vooI 30 ?5
D/H 1 D/H 4
H I J K H I J K
0 +0.25 +0.80 +0.80 +0.25 +0.l8 +0.5? +0.5? +0.l8
30 +0.?0 +0.?5 +0.50 0.2 +0.50 +0.54 +0.36 0.20
60 +0.50 +0.40 0.2 0.25 +0.36 +0.29 0.20 0.20
90 l.l0 0.80 0.?0 0.60 l.l0 0.80 0.?0 0.60
l20 l.30 0.?5 0.60 0.50 l.30 0.?5 0.60 0.50
l50 0.30 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.2l 0.l8 0.l8 0.l8
l80 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.l8 0.l8 0.l8 0.l8
ÞOTI l InforpoInfIon mnv bo usod bofwoon gIvon wInd dIrocfIons nnd for D/H In fho rnngo l < D/H < 4.
ÞOTI 2 Whon fho rosuIf of InforpoInfIng bofwoon posIfIvo nnd nognfIvo vnIuos Is In fho rnngo 0.2 < C
po
< +0.2, fho cooffIcIonf
shouId bo fnkon ns C
po
= 0.2 nnd bofh possIbIo vnIuos usod.
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BS 6399-2:199?
?4 ISI 3l JuIv 2002
SocfIon 3
IIuuve 32 Key to vevtI¢u! uub!e wu!!s
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BS 6399-2:199?
ISI 3l JuIv 2002
?5
SocfIon 3
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S
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BS 6399-2:199?
?6 ISI 3l JuIv 2002
SocfIon 3
3.3.1.6 Buildinµo uith receooed huvo
3.3.1.6.1 IuIIdIngs whoro fhoro nro rocossod oponIngs, such ns porchos nnd bnIconIos or bofwoon fho wIngs
of n buIIdIng, shouId bo fronfod ns foIIows, usIng IIguro 34 ns roforonco.
n) Tho pnrnmofor I shouId bo doformInod In nccordnnco wIfh 3.3.1.1.2
ÞOTI Insfond of cnIcuInfIng fho crosswInd brondfh B nnd InwInd dopfh D for fho compIox buIIdIng pInn, fhoso dImonsIons mnv
bo doformInod from fho smnIIosf rocfnngIo or cIrcIo whIch oncIosod fho roIovnnf pInn shnpo dofInod In Ifoms b) or c).
b) If G < I/2 fho rocoss Is cnfogorIzod ns nnrrow. Tho wnII In whIch fho rocoss shouId bo nssossod ns If fho
rocoss dId nof oxIsf, ns shown In IIguro 34n). Tho prossuro cooffIcIonf corrospondIng fo fho posIfIon of fho
rocoss shouId bo nppIIod fo nII fho wnIIs InsIdo fho rocoss. Ior ponk cInddIng Ionds nf fho moufh of fho
nnrrow rocoss, nddIfIonnI IocnI zonos A nf fho oxfornnI odgo of fho wnIIs of fho rocoss shouId bo dofInod
ns IndIcnfod In IIguro 34n). Tho roIovnnf pInn-shnpo for cnIcuInfIng I Is fhnf of fho whoIo buIIdIng.
c) If G > I/2 fho rocoss Is cnfogorIzod ns wIdo. Tho procoduro In 3.3.1.5 for buIIdIngs wIfh ro-onfrnnf
cornors shouId bo nppIIod ns IndIcnfod In IIguro 34b). Tho roIovnnf pInn-shnpo for cnIcuInfIng I Is fhnf
of nnv upwInd wIng, or of fho whoIo buIIdIng, rospocfIvoIv.
3.3.1.6.2 Whoro fho rocossod bnv Is IImIfod In hoIghf bv n fIoor or n soffIf, fho prossuro In fho rocoss shouId
bo fnkon fo ncf on fho fIoor nnd soffIf In nddIfIon fo fho wnIIs.
3.3.1.? Buildinµo uith internul uello
3.3.1.?.1 Ior buIIdIngs wIfh InfornnI woIIs, fho prossuro cooffIcIonf for fho oxfornnI wnIIs nro unnffocfod bv
fho woII nnd shouId bo dorIvod ns If fho woII dId nof oxIsf.
3.3.1.?.2 Irossuro wIfhIn fho woII Is domInnfod bv fIow ovor fho roof nnd shouId bo dorIvod ns foIIows.
n) Whon fho gnp ncross fho woII G Is smnIIor fhnn I/2 fho prossuro In fho woII Is fnkon ns unIform nnd
oqunI fo fho prossuro on fho roof confnInIng fho woII.
b) Whon G > I/2 fho procoduro for ro-onfrnnf cornors In 3.3.1.5 shouId bo usod.
IIuuve 33 Key Iov wu!!s oI buI!dInus wItL ve-entvunt ¢ovnevs
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B
S
I
BS 6399-2:199?
ISI 3l JuIv 2002
??
SocfIon 3
3.3.1.B 1rreµulur [uceo und inoet uullo
To doformIno prossuro cooffIcIonfs for fho IrroguInr fncos of buIIdIngs wIfh ro-onfrnnf cornors In oIovnfIon
(I.o. wnIIs formod bv moro fhnn ono rocfnngIo) fho procoduro gIvon for fho sfnndnrd mofhod In 2.4 shouId
bo usod wIfh dIrocfIonnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs obfnInod from TnbIo 26 npproprInfo fo fho wInd nngIo from
normnI fo onch fnco.
3.3.1.9 1riction induced loudo on uullo
IrIcfIon forcos shouId bo doformInod for Iong wnIIs wIfh D > I whon fho wInd Is pnrnIIoI fo fho wnII. Tho
frIcfIonnI drng cooffIcIonf shouId bo nssumod fo ncf ovor nII zono C nnd Ð of such wnIIs, wIfh vnIuos ns gIvon
In TnbIo 6. Tho rosuIfIng frIcfIonnI forcos shouId bo nppIIod In nccordnnco wIfh 3.1.3.4.
IIuuve 34 Key Iov wu!!s oI buI!dInus wItL ve¢essed buys
D
D
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
B
B
B
C
C C
C
C
C C
A
B
C
G < b/2
G > b/2
θ
W
i
n
d
θ
W
i
n
d
W
=
b
a) Narrow recess
b) Wide recess
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BS 6399-2:199?
?8 ISI 3l JuIv 2002
SocfIon 3
3.3.2 £xtevnu! µvessuve ¢oeIII¢Ients Iov I!ut vooIs oI buI!dInus
3.3.2.1 Choice o[ method
3.3.2.1.1 A gonornI mofhod for doformInIng fho wInd prossuros on fInf, or nonrIv fInf roofs of buIIdIngs wIfh
nnv nrbIfrnrv pInn shnpo Is gIvon In fho foIIowIng socfIon. ThIs gonornI mofhod nIso nccounfs for fho
vnrInfIons In hIgh IocnI sucfIon nround fho porIphorv of fho roof cnusod bv vnrIous common forms of onvos
dofnII.
3.3.2.1.2 A sImpIor mofhod, rosfrIcfod fo rocfnnguInr-pInn buIIdIngs onIv, Is gIvon In 3.3.3.3, nssumIng fho
fInf roof fo bo n monopIfch roof wIfh zoro pIfch nngIo. Tho gonornI mofhod shouId bo usod for nII roofs of
pIfch Ioss fhnn = 5 on non-rocfnnguInr pInn buIIdIngs.
3.3.2.2 Cenerul method
3.3.2.2.1 Tho roof shouId bo subdIvIdod Info socfIons bv IInos drnwn In fho wInd dIrocfIon fhrough onch
upwInd-fncIng cornor.
Zonos of prossuro cooffIcIonf nro dofInod for onch socfIon from fho upwInd cornor ns gIvon In IIguro 35. Tho
shnpo of fho roof In IIguro 35 roprosonfs n fvpIcnI nrbIfrnrv roof pInn.
3.3.2.2.2 Tho wInd dIrocfIon Is dofInod ns fho nngIo of fho wInd from normnI fo fho onvos of fho socfIon of
roof boIng consIdorod, ns dofInod In IIguro 35. Tho roforonco hoIghf H
r
Is fho hoIghf nbovo ground of fho
fop of fho roof. Tho crosswInd brondfh B nnd InwInd dopfh D nro dofInod In IIguro 2.
ÞOTI Insfond of cnIcuInfIng fho crosswInd brondfh B nnd InwInd dopfh D for fho compIox buIIdIng pInn nf ovorv wInd nngIo, fhoso
dImonsIons mnv bo doformInod from fho smnIIosf rocfnngIo or cIrcIo whIch oncIosos fho pInn shnpo of fho buIIdIng.
Tho scnIIng Iongfh I for dofInIng fho zonos Is gIvon bv I = B or I = 2H, whIchovor Is fho smnIIor.
3.3.2.2.3 AppIIcnfIon of fho zonos ns dofInod In IIguro 35 shouId bo roponfod for ovorv socfIon of fho roof
unfII prossuro cooffIcIonfs for nII zonos ovor fho whoIo roof hnvo boon dofInod. IIguro 36n) shows fho
compIofod nssIgnmonf for fho nrbIfrnrv shnpo nnd wInd dIrocfIon usod In IIguro 35. IIguro 36b) shows fho
zonos for fho snmo shnpod roof buf n dIfforonf wInd dIrocfIon. Tho oxnmpIos In IIguro 36 covor mosf
condIfIons IIkoIv fo bo oncounforod.
IIuuve 35 Key to uenevu! metLod Iov I!ut vooIs
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BS 6399-2:199?
ISI 3l JuIv 2002
?9
SocfIon 3
3.3.2.3 1lut roo[o uith ohurp euteo
IxfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs for onch zono of fInf roofs wIfh shnrp onvos nro gIvon In TnbIo 30. Shnrp onvos
roprosonf fho mosf onorous IondIng condIfIon (hIghosf sucfIon). Irossuro cooffIcIonfs for ofhor common
fvpos of onvos nro gIvon In 3.3.2.4, 3.3.2.5 nnd 3.3.2.6.
3.3.2.4 1lut roo[o uith purupeto
3.3.2.4.1 A pnrnpof nIong nnv onvos or odgo wIII roduco fho prossuro cooffIcIonfs In zonos A fo Ð
ImmodInfoIv ndjnconf fo fhnf onvos buf fho prossuros In zonos I, I nnd C wIII bo unnffocfod. Tho oxfornnI
prossuro cooffIcIonfs gIvon In TnbIo 30 for zonos A fo Ð for fInf roofs wIfh shnrp onvos shouId bo muIfIpIIod
bv fho npproprInfo roducfIon fncfors gIvon In TnbIo 3l, dopondonf on fho hoIghf of fho pnrnpof /, ns dofInod
for fho sfnndnrd mofhod In IIguro l?, nnd fho onvos hoIghf H or crosswInd wIdfh B.
ÞOTI Tho roforonco hoIghf H
r
Is fho hoIghf nbovo ground of fho fop of fho pnrnpof.
3.3.2.4.2 !ondIng of fho pnrnpof wnIIs shouId bo doformInod from 2.B.1.1 for froo-sfnndIng pnrnpofs nnd
from 2.B.1.4 for downwInd pnrnpofs.
3.3.2.5 1lut roo[o uith curted euteo
Ior fInf roofs wIfh curvod onvos, ns dofInod for fho sfnndnrd mofhod In IIguro l?, fho zonos sfnrf from fho
odgo of fho fInf pnrf of fho roof. IxfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs for onch zono nro gIvon In TnbIo 32 dopondonf
on fho rnfIo of fho cornor rndIus r of fho onvos fo fho scnIIng Iongfh I.
3.3.2.6 1lut roo[o uith munourd euteo
Ior fInf roofs wIfh mnnsnrd onvos, ns dofInod for fho sfnndnrd mofhod In IIguro l?, fho zonos sfnrf from
fho odgo of fho fInf pnrf of fho roof. IxfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs for onch zono nro gIvon In TnbIo 33
dopondonf on fho pIfch of fho mnnsnrd onvos .
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BS 6399-2:199?
80 ISI 3l JuIv 2002
SocfIon 3
Tub!e 30 £xtevnu! µvessuve ¢oeIII¢Ients C
po
Iov I!ut vooIs wItL sLuvµ euves
IIuuve 36 £xumµ!es oI zones oI I!ut vooI oI uvbItvuvy µ!un sLuµe
Io¢u! wInd
dIve¢tIon

Zone
A B C Ð £ I G
0 l.4? l.25 l.l5 l.l5 0.69 0.?l 0.20
l5 l.68 l.4? l.24 l.l4 0.6l 0.?0 0.20
30 2.00 l.?0 l.38 l.03 0.66 0.6? 0.20
45 l.90 l.49 l.l8 0.86 0.59 0.54 0.20
60 l.?0 l.24 l.l0 0.64 0.6l 0.42 0.20
?5 l.45 0.85 0.69 0.35 0.6l 0.2l 0.20
90 l.43 0.?5 0.52 0.24 0.62 0.20 0.20
ÞOTI l InforpoInfIon mnv bo usod.
ÞOTI 2 Whoro bofh posIfIvo nnd nognfIvo vnIuos nro gIvon bofh vnIuos shouId bo consIdorod.
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BS 6399-2:199?
ISI 3l JuIv 2002
8l
SocfIon 3
Tub!e 31 Redu¢tIon Iu¢tov Iov zones A to Ð, H to J und O to S oI I!ut vooIs wItL µuvuµets
Tub!e 32 £xtevnu! µvessuve ¢oeIII¢Ients C
po
Iov I!ut vooIs wItL ¢uvved euves
Io¢u! wInd dIve¢tIon

Puvuµet LeIuLt vutIo
//I
0 0.05 0.10 0.20
0 l.00 0.?6 0.6? 0.56
30 l.00 0.90 0.88 0.?0
60 l.00 l.00 0.9? 0.?4
90 l.00 0.84 0.60 0.60
ÞOTI InforpoInfIon mnv bo usod.
£uves vudIus
vutIo
r/I
Io¢u! wInd
dIve¢tIon

Zone
A B C Ð £ I G
0.05 0 0.8l l.00 l.l5 l.26 0.39 0.20 0.20
l5 0.?9 l.06 l.l6 l.09 0.3? 0.22 0.20
30 0.66 0.9? l.0? l.06 0.35 0.29 0.20
45 0.6l 0.80 0.92 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.20
60 0.66 0.64 0.69 0.62 0.35 0.38 0.20
?5 0.?9 0.48 0.53 0.48 0.3? 0.40 0.20
90 0.8l 0.48 0.39 0.29 0.39 0.43 0.20
0.l0 0 0.?? 0.?3 0.?9 0.?9 0.30 0.2l 0.20
l5 0.64 0.65 0.?0 0.69 0.29 0.22 0.20
30 0.56 0.60 0.62 0.63 0.29 0.25 0.20
45 0.49 0.5l 0.56 0.58 0.28 0.28 0.20
60 0.56 0.40 0.43 0.46 0.29 0.30 0.20
?5 0.64 0.39 0.36 0.36 0.29 0.30 0.20
90 0.?? 0.43 0.3? 0.3? 0.30 0.30 0.20
0.20 0 0.5l 0.54 0.54 0.56 0.30 0.2l 0.20
l5 0.46 0.49 0.52 0.53 0.28 0.22 0.20
30 0.40 0.43 0.4? 0.5l 0.26 0.25 0.20
45 0.38 0.4l 0.43 0.43 0.26 0.2? 0.20
60 0.40 0.38 0.40 0.38 0.26 0.29 0.20
?5 0.46 0.35 0.3l 0.28 0.28 0.29 0.20
90 0.5l 0.40 0.36 0.23 0.30 0.30 0.20
ÞOTI l InforpoInfIon mnv bo usod.
ÞOTI 2 Whoro bofh posIfIvo nnd nognfIvo vnIuos nro gIvon bofh vnIuos shouId bo consIdorod.
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BS 6399-2:199?
82 ISI 3l JuIv 2002
SocfIon 3
Tub!e 33 £xtevnu! µvessuve ¢oeIII¢Ients C
po
Iov I!ut vooIs wItL munsuvd euves
3.3.2.? 1lut roo[o uith inoet otorevo
Ior fInf roofs wIfh Insof sforovs, prossuro cooffIcIonfs for bofh fho uppor nnd Iowor roof shouId bo dorIvod
ns foIIows.
n) Ior fho uppor roof 3.3.2.3 fo 3.3.2.6, dopondIng on fho form of fho onvos, shouId bo usod, fnkIng fho
roforonco hoIghf H
r
ns fho ncfunI hoIghf fo fho uppor onvos buf fnkIng H ns fho hoIghf of fho Insof sforov
(from fho uppor onvos fo fho Iowor roof IovoI) for doformInIng fho scnIIng Iongfh I.
b) Ior fho Iowor roof 3.3.2.3 fo 3.3.2.6, dopondIng on fho formof fho onvos, shouId bo usod, whoro H
r
= H,
fho ncfunI hoIghf of fho Iowor sforov, IgnorIng fho offocf of fho Insof sforovs. In nddIfIon, fwo furfhor
zonos, X nnd Y, nround fho bnso of fho Insof sforovs nro dofInod In IIguro 3?, whoro fho scnIIng
pnrnmofor I Is bnsod on fho dImonsIons of fho uppor, Insof sforov
c) In zonos X nnd Y fho prossuros shnII bo fnkon ns fho prossuro npproprInfo fo fho wnII zonos A fo Ð on
onch ndjnconf Insof sforov wnII from 3.3.1.
3.3.2.B 1riction induced loudo on [lut roo[o
IrIcfIon forcos shouId bo doformInod for Iong fInf roofs wIfh D > I/2 In nII wInd dIrocfIons. Tho frIcfIonnI
drng cooffIcIonf shouId bo nssumod fo ncf ovor nII of zono C of such roofs, wIfh vnIuos ns gIvon In TnbIo 6.
Tho rosuIfIng frIcfIonnI forcos shouId bo nppIIod In nccordnnco wIfh 3.1.3.4.
Munsuvd
µIt¢L unu!e

Io¢u! wInd
dIve¢tIon

Zone
A B C Ð £ I G
30 0 0.93 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.2? 0.20 0.20
l5 0.?6 0.85 0.9l 0.94 0.22 0.20 0.20
30 0.66 0.?3 0.?5 0.88 0.20 0.20 0.20
45 0.60 0.59 0.63 0.66 0.2l 0.25 0.20
60 0.66 0.40 0.42 0.36 0.20 0.30 0.20
?5 0.?6 0.34 0.30 0.23 0.22 0.30 0.20
90 0.93 0.39 0.30 0.22 0.2? 0.26 0.20
45 0 l.l9 l.24 l.29 l.34 0.44 0.20 0.20
l5 l.l0 l.22 l.22 l.24 0.39 0.20 0.20
30 0.98 l.06 l.05 l.05 0.35 0.24 0.20
45 0.8? 0.89 0.88 0.80 0.35 0.36 0.20
60 0.98 0.62 0.64 0.34 0.35 0.46 0.20
?5 l.l0 0.50 0.45 0.24 0.39 0.48 0.20
90 l.l0 0.56 0.4l 0.2l 0.44 0.46 0.20
60 0 l.2? l.2? l.2? l.23 0.59 0.20 0.20
l5 l.3? l.25 l.2? l.l? 0.54 0.20 0.20
30 l.32 l.22 l.08 l.02 0.49 0.26 0.20
45 l.2l l.ll 0.9? 0.?? 0.45 0.45 0.20
60 l.32 0.8l 0.?3 0.35 0.49 0.60 0.20
?5 l.3? 0.?0 0.54 0.23 0.54 0.66 0.20
90 l.2? 0.69 0.48 0.2l 0.59 0.66 0.20
ÞOTI l InforpoInfIon bofwoon = 30 nnd = 60 mnv bo usod.
ÞOTI 2 Ior > 60 InforpoInfo bofwoon fho vnIuos for = 60 In TnbIo 33 nnd fho vnIuos gIvon In TnbIo 30.
ÞOTI 3 Whoro bofh posIfIvo nnd nognfIvo vnIuos nro gIvon, bofh vnIuos shouId bo consIdorod.
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BS 6399-2:199?
ISI 3l JuIv 2002
83
SocfIon 3
3.3.3 £xtevnu! µvessuve ¢oeIII¢Ients Iov µIt¢Led vooIs oI buI!dInus
3.3.3.1 Cenerul
Tho prossuro cooffIcIonfs for wIndwnrd-fncIng sfoop pIfchod roofs ( > 45) gIvon In fhIs socfIon nro
ossonfInIIv IdonfIcnI fo fho prossuro cooffIcIonfs for wIndwnrd-fncIng non-vorfIcnI wnIIs In 3.3.1.4 nnd
TnbIo 29, nIIowIng for fho dIfforoncos In dofInIfIon of zonos. Thoroforo nf Inrgo pIfch nngIos ( > 45) fho
dIsfIncfIon bofwoon wnII nnd roof Is InrgoIv IrroIovnnf. Sfoop-pIfchod surfncos nffnchod fo fho fop of vorfIcnI
wnIIs nro boffor Inforprofod ns pIfchod roofs, fnIIIng undor fho provIsIons of 3.3.3. Sfoop-pIfchod surfncos
sprIngIng dIrocfIv from fho ground whIch moof nIong fho fop odgo fo form n rIdgo, o.g. A-frnmo buIIdIngs,
nro nIso boffor Inforprofod ns duopIfch roofs, fnIIIng undor fho provIsIons of 3.3.3.
IIuuve 3? AddItIonu! zones uvound Inset stovey
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BS 6399-2:199?
84 ISI 3l JuIv 2002
SocfIon 3
3.3.3.2 Sculinµ lenµth und re[erence heiµht
3.3.3.2.1 Two vnIuos nro noodod for fho scnIIng Iongfh I: I
!
= L or I
!
= 2H, whIchovor Is fho smnIIor,
nnd I
W
= W or I
W
= 2H, whIchovor Is fho smnIIor.
3.3.3.2.2 Tho roforonco hoIghf H
r
Is fho hoIghf nbovo ground of fho hIghosf poInf on fho roof, fho hIgh onvos
In fho cnso of monopIfch nnd froughod duopIfchod roofs, nnd fho rIdgo In fho cnso rIdgod duopIfch nnd
hIppod roofs.
3.3.3.3 Monopitch roo[o
3.3.3.3.1 IxfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs C
po
for monopIfch roofs nro gIvon In TnbIo 34 for zonos A fo J
dofInod In IIguro 38. Thoso zonos nro dofInod from fho upwInd cornor.
ÞOTI Tho pIfch nngIo Is fnkon ns posIfIvo whon fho Iow onvos Is upwInd nnd nognfIvo whon fho hIgh onvos Is upwInd.
3.3.3.3.2 Whon nII wInd dIrocfIons nro consIdorod, svmmofrv Ionds fo four possIbIo pnfforns of zonos for
onch form of roof, ns shown In IIguro 39n). WInd normnI fo oIfhor fho onvos ( = 0) or fho vorgo ( = 90)
provIdos spocInI cnsos whoro oIfhor of fwo pnfforns In IIguro 39n) couId nppIv. Iocnuso of fho fIucfunfIons
of wInd dIrocfIon found In prncfIco nnd In ordor fo gIvo fho oxpocfod rnngo of nsvmmofrIc IondIng, bofh
pnfforns shouId bo consIdorod. In fho spocInI cnso = 0 fho fwo Iond cnsos hnvo svmmofrIcnIIv IdonfIcnI
vnIuos, whorons In fho spocInI cnso = 90 fho fwo Iond cnsos dIffor: ono wIfh fho pIfch nngIo posIfIvo nnd
fho odgo zonos nIong fho Iow onvos; fho ofhor wIfh fho pIfch nngIo nognfIvo nnd fho odgo zonos nIong fho
hIgh onvos.
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BS 6399-2:199?
ISI 3l JuIv 2002
85
SocfIon 3
Tub!e 34 £xtevnu! µvessuve ¢oeIII¢Ients C
po
Iov µIt¢Led vooI zones A to J
PIt¢L unu!e

Io¢u! wInd
dIve¢tIon

Zone
A B C Ð £ I H I J
45 0
30
60
90
0.6l
0.53
l.ll
l.25
0.58
0.50
l.29
0.8l
0.56
0.49
l.36
0.62
0.4l
0.55
0.96
0.42
0.?6
0.55
0.9?
0.??
0.?8
0.8l
0.9l
0.20
0.62
0.52
l.05
l.48
0.?9
0.58
0.9?
l.05
0.94
0.58
l.l?
0.9?
30 0
30
60
90
0.?6
l.l3
2.06
l.28
0.68
l.02
2.33
0.94
0.60
0.89
2.l?
0.?0
0.50
0.?9
l.22
0.3?
0.?6
0.84
l.03
0.?0
0.63
0.?6
0.80
0.20
0.?6
l.l?
l.69
l.54
0.85
0.8?
l.l8
l.l0
0.90
0.?3
l.2l
l.0l
l5 0
30
60
90
l.08
2.64
2.25
l.22
l.05
2.3?
2.l5
0.?9
0.9?
l.?l
l.85
0.58
0.92
l.00
l.02
0.3l
0.88
0.93
0.?6
0.60
0.82
0.85
0.?2
0.20
l.l0
2.?5
2.44
l.5l
0.96
l.66
l.60
l.l5
0.83
l.ll
l.0?
l.l0
5 0
30
60
90
l.49
2.36
l.85
l.30
l.l3
2.2l
l.5?
0.?9
l.l9
l.63
l.28
0.58
l.l2
l.04
0.??
0.2?
0.83
0.82
0.65
0.59
0.82
0.??
0.54
0.20
l.4?
2.24
2.l0
l.65
0.9l
l.30
l.6?
l.l5
0.6?
0.9l
l.09
l.l0
0 0
30
60
90
l.4?
2.00
l.?0
l.43
l.25
l.?0
l.24
0.?5
l.l5
l.38
l.l0
0.52
l.l5
l.03
0.64
0.24
0.69
0.66
0.6l
0.62
0.?l
0.6?
0.42
0.20
l.43
l.?0
2.00
l.4?
0.?5
l.24
l.?0
l.25
0.52
l.l0
l.38
l.l5
+5 0
30
60
90
l.39
l.?8
l.6?
l.2l
l.24
l.64
l.33
0.83
l.ll
l.34
l.l2
0.55
l.l9
l.09
0.?l
0.25
0.56
0.62
0.64
0.6l
0.59
0.60
0.42
0.20
l.39
l.?5
2.05
l.48
0.69
l.02
l.5l
l.l5
0.43
0.?6
l.05
l.l0
+l5 0 0.9l
+0.20
0.83
+0.20
0.?8
+0.20
0.8l
+0.20
0.2l
+0.20
0.3l
+0.20
0.90
+0.20
0.36
+0.20
0.30
+0.20
30 0.84
+0.20
0.88
+0.20
0.82
+0.20
0.83
+0.20
0.2l
+0.20
0.3?
+0.20
0.63
+0.20
0.35
+0.20
0.32
+0.20
60 l.2?
+0.20
0.86
+0.20
0.?0
+0.20
0.6l
+0.20
0.54
+0.20
0.33
+0.20
l.5?
+0.20
l.2l
+0.20
0.93
+0.20
90 l.20 0.84 0.58 0.2? 0.64 0.20 l.42 l.l5 l.l0
+30 0 0.38
+0.50
0.50
+0.50
0.50
+0.50
0.50
+0.50
0.20
+0.39
0.25
+0.40
0.60
+0.20
0.30
+0.20
0.25
+0.20
30 0.50
+0.?5
0.50
+0.55
0.50
+0.40
0.50
+0.45
0.20
+0.4l
0.20
+0.26
0.40
+0.55
0.30
+0.50
0.25
+0.4?
60 0.l4
+0.50
0.50
+0.43
0.45
+0.30
0.40
+0.25
0.20
+0.20
0.20
+0.20
0.8l
+0.40
0.89
+0.40
0.83
+0.33
90 l.l3 0.94 0.?? 0.l9 0.60 0.20 l.25 l.l5 l.l0
+45 0
30
60
90
+0.52
+0.80
+0.60
l.l?
+0.50
+0.?8
+0.45
0.?6
+0.50
+0.48
+0.35
0.86
+0.60
+0.55
+0.30
0.33
+0.49
+0.45
+0.28
0.55
+0.?0
+0.45
+0.2l
0.28
+0.42
+0.65
+0.50
l.25
+0.40
+0.60
+0.50
l.l5
+0.35
+0.55
+0.50
l.l5
+60 0
30
60
90
+0.5?
+0.80
+0.?0
0.44
+0.5?
+0.?9
+0.4?
0.44
+0.5?
+0.59
+0.3?
0.44
+0.80
+0.62
+0.35
0.20
+0.5?
+0.59
+0.3?
0.44
+0.80
+0.62
+0.35
0.20
+0.50
+0.??
+0.59
l.2l
+0.50
+0.??
+0.59
l.2l
+0.50
+0.??
+0.59
l.2l
+?5 0
30
60
90
+0.8l
+0.83
+0.55
0.43
+0.8l
+0.83
+0.55
0.43
+0.8l
+0.83
+0.55
0.43
+0.8l
+0.?3
+0.4l
0.20
+0.8l
+0.83
+0.55
0.43
+0.8l
+0.?3
+0.4l
0.20
+0.58
+0.85
+0.?8
l.2l
+0.58
+0.85
+0.?8
l.2l
+0.58
+0.85
+0.?8
l.2l
ÞOTI l InforpoInfIon mnv bo usod bofwoon vnIuos of fho snmo sIgn.
ÞOTI 2 Irossuro chnngos rnpIdIv from nognfIvo fo posIfIvo wIfh IncronsIng pIfch bofwoon = l5 nnd = 30 nnd vnIuos for bofh
sIgns nro gIvon.
ÞOTI 3 Whon InforpoInfIng bofwoon = l5 nnd = 30, InforpoInfo bofwoon nognfIvo vnIuos fo gIvo Iond cnso for upwnrd Iond
nnd bofwoon posIfIvo vnIuos fo gIvo Iond cnso for downwnrd Iond.
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B
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I
BS 6399-2:199?
86 ISI 3l JuIv 2002
SocfIon 3
IIuuve 3B Key Iov monoµIt¢L vooIs
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B
S
I
BS 6399-2:199?
ISI 3l JuIv 2002
8?
SocfIon 3
3.3.3.3.3 !ondIng of rocfnnguInr-pInn fInf or nonrIv-fInf roofs In fho rnngo 5 < < 5 mnv bo nssossod ns
monopIfch roofs ns n sImpIor nIfornnfIvo fo fho gonornI mofhod for fInf roofs In 3.3.2. In fhIs cnso, whon fho
roof Is Iong In fho wInd dIrocfIon, I.o. D > I/2, n downwInd zono oquIvnIonf fo zono C In IIguro 35 mnv bo
dofInod for whIch C
po
= 0.2.
3.3.3.4 Duopitch roo[o
3.3.3.4.1 IxfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs C
po
for duopIfch roofs nro gIvon In TnbIo 34 for zonos A fo J nnd
TnbIo 35 for zonos K fo S dofInod In IIguro 40. Thoso zonos nro dofInod from fho upwInd cornor of onch fnco.
ÞOTI Tho pIfch nngIo , Is fnkon ns posIfIvo whon fho roof hns n confrnI rIdgo nnd nognfIvo whon fho roof hns n confrnI frough.
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B
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BS 6399-2:199?
88 ISI 3l JuIv 2002
SocfIon 3
IIuuve 39 SymmetvIes Iov µIt¢Led vooIs
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B
S
I
BS 6399-2:199?
ISI 3l JuIv 2002
89
SocfIon 3
Tub!e 35 £xtevnu! µvessuve ¢oeIII¢Ients C
po
Iov µIt¢Led vooI zones K to S
PIt¢L unu!e

Io¢u! wInd
dIve¢tIon
Zone
K I M N O P O R S
45 0 0.92 0.92 0.92 0.?5 0.?5 0.?5 0.63 0.63 0.63
30 l.l2 l.l2 l.l2 0.52 0.20 0.52 0.32 0.32 0.32
60 l.04 l.04 l.04 0.24 0.?3 0.24 l.05 l.05 l.05
90 l.l? 0.96 0.86 0.33 0.88 0.28 l.25 l.08 l.36
30 0 0.?8 0.?8 0.?8 0.66 0.4? 0.66 0.40 0.40 0.40
30 0.44 0.44 0.44 0.52 0.20 0.52 0.20 0.20 0.20
60 0.?4 0.?4 0.?4 0.2? 0.62 0.2? l.0l l.0l l.0l
90 l.l3 0.94 0.?? 0.l9 0.?8 0.20 l.25 l.06 l.36
l5 0 0.69 0.69 0.69 0.52 0.26 0.52 0.2l 0.2l 0.2l
30 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.55 0.55 0.55
60 0.6? 0.6? 0.6? 0.20 0.65 0.20 l.03 l.03 l.03
90 l.20 0.84 0.58 0.2? 0.64 0.20 l.42 l.l0 l.30
5 0 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.28 0.28 0.28
30 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.26 0.20 0.48 0.48 0.48
60 0.69 0.69 0.69 0.20 0.66 0.20 0.88 0.88 0.88
90 l.2l 0.83 0.55 0.25 0.6l 0.20 l.48 l.l2 l.30
+5 0 0.32 0.2? 0.28 0.28 0.20 0.20 0.36 0.30 0.24
30 0.?0 0.46 0.30 0.23 0.3l 0.20 0.?l 0.59 0.46
60 l.04 0.90 0.52 0.20 0.56 0.20 0.9? 0.83 0.?3
90 0.90 0.83 0.58 0.20 0.60 0.20 0.89 0.89 l.09
+l5 0 0.8 0.8l 0.80 0.?8 0.39 0.40 0.85 0.55 0.39
30 l.32 l.l4 l.ll 0.88 0.46 0.34 0.4? l.25 0.8l
60 l.3l 0.92 0.?2 0.58 0.5? 0.23 l.45 l.08 0.?5
90 0.8l 0.?4 0.54 0.20 0.58 0.20 0.83 0.?? 0.92
+30 0 0.29 0.26 0.25 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.3l 0.32 0.33
30 0.?4 0.63 0.52 0.43 0.39 0.43 0.?6 0.5l 0.40
60 l.04 l.05 0.90 0.64 0.58 0.4? l.02 0.6? 0.64
90 0.66 0.6l 0.49 0.2l 0.49 0.20 0.6? 0.58 0.69
+45 0 0.2l 0.2l 0.2l 0.20 0.23 0.23 0.2l 0.24 0.26
30 0.2l 0.20 0.20 0.2? 0.23 0.26 0.20 0.2l 0.22
60 0.54 0.54 0.5l 0.4l 0.44 0.38 0.55 0.4? 0.50
90 0.55 0.46 0.38 0.20 0.40 0.20 0.60 0.45 0.4?
+60 0 0.49 0.49 0.40 0.40 0.30 0.30 0.5? 0.5? 0.5?
30 0.63 0.63 0.?l 0.69 0.40 0.40 0.6? 0.6? 0.6?
60 l.00 l.00 0.60 0.42 0.?4 0.63 0.9l 0.9l 0.9l
90 0.?2 0.?2 0.24 0.20 0.60 0.20 l.2l l.2l l.2l
+?5 0 0.54 0.54 0.43 0.43 0.30 0.30 0.58 0.58 0.58
30 0.?l 0.?l 0.64 0.63 0.40 0.40 0.?0 0.?0 0.?0
60 l.l3 l.l3 0.6? 0.3l l.l5 0.6l 0.9? 0.9? 0.9?
90 0.?9 0.?9 0.42 0.2l 0.80 0.20 l.2l l.2l l.2l
ÞOTI l InforpoInfIon mnv bo usod, oxcopf bofwoon = +5 nnd = 5.
ÞOTI 2 Whon fho rosuIf of InforpoInfIng bofwoon posIfIvo nnd nognfIvo vnIuos Is In fho rnngo 0.2 < C
po
< +0.2, fho cooffIcIonf
shouId bo fnkon ns C
po
= 0.20 nnd bofh possIbIo vnIuos usod.
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B
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I
BS 6399-2:199?
90 ISI 3l JuIv 2002
SocfIon 3
IIuuve 40 Key Iov duoµIt¢L vooIs
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B
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BS 6399-2:199?
ISI 3l JuIv 2002
9l
SocfIon 3
3.3.3.4.2 Whon nII wInd dIrocfIons nro consIdorod, svmmofrv Ionds fo four possIbIo pnfforns of zonos for
onch form of roof, ns shown In IIguro 39b). WInd normnI fo oIfhor fho onvos ( = 0) or fho vorgo ( = 90)
provIdos spocInI cnsos whoro oIfhor of fwo pnfforns In IIguro 39b) couId nppIv. Iocnuso of fho fIucfunfIons
of wInd dIrocfIon found In prncfIco nnd In ordor fo gIvo fho oxpocfod rnngo of nsvmmofrIc IondIng, bofh
pnfforns shouId bo consIdorod.
3.3.3.4.3 Whon < ? nnd W < B, zonos I nnd I shouId bo consIdorod fo oxfond for n dIsfnnco B/2 downwInd
from fho wIndwnrd onvo, ropIncIng zonos !, M nnd Þ nnd pnrf of zonos O nnd I. ThIs Iond cnso shouId bo
compnrod wIfh fho sfnndnrd Iond cnso dofInod In IIguro 40 nnd fho moro onorous condIfIon shouId bo usod.
3.3.3.5 Hipped roo[o
3.3.3.5.1 Tho provIsIons In 3.3.3.5.2 fo 3.3.3.5.4 nppIv fo convonfIonnI hIppod roofs on rocfnnguInr-pInn
buIIdIngs, whoro fho pIfch of fho mnIn rIdgod fncos hnvo pIfch nngIo
l
nnd fho frInnguInr sIdo fncos hnvo
pIfch nngIo
2
. Zonos of oxfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonf nro dofInod In IIguro 4l. !ocnI wInd dIrocfIons
l
nnd
2
nro dofInod from normnI fo fho Iongor nnd shorfor onvos, rospocfIvoIv, whoro
2
= 90
l
.
3.3.3.5.2 Thus, for fho mnIn rIdgod fncos fho pIfch Is
l
, fho wInd dIrocfIon Is
l
nnd fho zonos nro A
l
fo Y
l
,
nnd for fho frInnguInr sIdo fncos fho pIfch Is
2
, fho wInd dIrocfIon Is
2
nnd fho zonos nro A
2
fo Y
2
. Tho
roforonco hoIghf H
r
Is fho hoIghf nbovo ground of fho rIdgo.
3.3.3.5.3 IxfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs for zonos A fo I on fho upwInd fncos nro gIvon In TnbIo 34. IxfornnI
prossuro cooffIcIonfs for zonos O nnd I on fho downwInd fncos nro gIvon In TnbIo 35. Tho sIzo of onch of
fhoso zonos Is gIvon In IIguro 4l.
3.3.3.5.4 IxfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs for fho nddIfIonnI zonos T fo W nIong fho hIp rIdgos nnd for zonos
X nnd Y nIong fho mnIn rIdgo nro gIvon In TnbIo 36. Tho wIdfh of onch of fhoso nddIfIonnI zonos In pInn Is
shown In IIguro 4lb). Tho boundnrv bofwoon onch pnIr of nddIfIonnI zonos, T!, VW nnd XY, Is fho
mId-poInf of fho rospocfIvo hIp or mnIn rIdgo.
3.3.3.6 Mired µuhleo und hipped roo[o
!oofs wIfh n sfnndnrd gnbIo nf ono ond nnd n hIp nf fho ofhor nro n froquonf occurronco. In such cnsos, fho
govornIng crIforIon Is fho form of fho upwInd cornor for fho wInd dIrocfIon boIng consIdorod.
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BS 6399-2:199?
92 ISI 3l JuIv 2002
SocfIon 3
3.3.3.? E[[ect o[ purupeto on pitched roo[o
3.3.3.?.1 Tho offocfs of pnrnpofs shouId bo fnkon Info nccounf fo doformIno oxfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs
on pIfchod roofs. OwIng fo fho wnv fhnf pnrnpofs nround roofs chnngo fho posIfIvo prossuros oxpocfod on
upwInd pIfchos wIfh Inrgo posIfIvo pIfch nngIos fo sucfIon, nogIocfIng fhoIr offocf Is nof nIwnvs
consorvnfIvo. Irossuros on fho pnrnpof wnIIs shouId bo doformInod usIng fho procoduro In 2.B.1.1 for
froo-sfnndIng pnrnpofs nnd from 2.B.1.4 for downwInd pnrnpofs.
3.3.3.?.2 Monopi/c/ roofe
n) Lou eotee ui// porope/ upuinJ. Ior fho pnrf of fho roof boIowfho fop of fho pnrnpof, oxfornnI prossuro
cooffIcIonfs shouId bo doformInod In nccordnnco wIfh 3.3.2.4, I.o. fho roof shouId bo fronfod ns n fInf roof
wIfh pnrnpofs, IrrospocfIvo of ncfunI roof pIfch. Ior nnv pnrf of fho roof fhnf Is nbovo fho fop of fho
pnrnpof, I.o. If fho fop of fho pnrnpof Is boIow fho IovoI of fho hIgh onvos, oxfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs
shouId bo doformInod In nccordnnco wIfh 3.3.3.3 ns If fho pnrnpof dId nof oxIsf.
b) Hig/ eotee upuinJ. IxfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs shouId bo doformInod In nccordnnco wIfh 3.3.3.3.
Tho roducfIon fncfors of TnbIo 3l shouId bo usod for upwInd onvos nnd vorgo zonos A fo Ð nnd H fo J,
wIfh fho pnrnpof hoIghf / doformInod nf fho upwInd cornor of onch rospocfIvo zono. Thus, for pnrnpofs
IovoI wIfh fho hIgh onvos fho pnrnpof hoIghf shouId bo fnkon ns / = 0 for zonos A fo Ð nnd H, so fhnf fho
roducfIon fncfor Is Ioss fhnn unIfv onIv for zonos I nnd J.
3.3.3.?.3 Duopi/c/ roofe
n) IpuinJ foce. Ior fho pnrf of fho roof boIow fho fop of fho pnrnpof, oxfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs shouId
bo doformInod In nccordnnco wIfh 3.3.2.4, I.o. fho roof shouId bo fronfod ns n fInf roof wIfh pnrnpofs,
IrrospocfIvo of ncfunI roof pIfch. Ior nnv pnrf of fho roof fhnf Is nbovo fho fop of fho pnrnpof, I.o. If fho fop
of fho pnrnpof Is boIow fho IovoI of fho rIdgo, oxfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs shouId bo doformInod In
nccordnnco wIfh 3.3.3.4 ns If fho pnrnpof dId nof oxIsf.
b) DounuinJ foce. IxfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs shouId bo doformInod In nccordnnco wIfh 3.3.3.4 for fho
downwInd pIfch of duopIfch roofs. Tho roducfIon fncfors of TnbIo 3l shouId bo usod onIv for fho vorgo
zonos Q fo S wIfh fho pnrnpof hoIghf / doformInod nf fho upwInd cornor of onch rospocfIvo zono.
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BS 6399-2:199?
ISI 3l JuIv 2002
93
SocfIon 3
IIuuve 41 Key Iov LIµµed vooIs
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BS 6399-2:199?
94 ISI 3l JuIv 2002
SocfIon 3
Tub!e 36 £xtevnu! µvessuve ¢oeIII¢Ients C
po
Iov uddItIonu! zones T to Y oI LIµµed vooIs
PIt¢L unu!e

Io¢u! wInd
dIve¢tIon

AddItIonu! zones
T \ V W X Y
+5 0 0.56 0.56 0.3l 0.45 0.58 0.58
30 0.62 0.62 0.60 0.46 0.4? 0.54
60 l.l3 0.63 0.?6 0.5l 0.38 0.36
90 l.l9 0.?6 0.89 0.50 0.6l 0.20
+l5 0 0.3l 0.3l 0.44 0.83 l.l? l.l?
30 0.3? 0.3? l.00 0.99 l.3l l.l3
60 0.94 0.52 l.43 0.?l 0.?8 0.80
90 l.09 0.?? 0.9? 0.59 0.64 0.20
+30 0 0.40 0.40 0.53 0.33 0.28 0.28
30 0.26 0.26 0.?4 0.55 0.5l 0.50
60 0.99 0.4? l.25 0.82 0.?? 0.49
90 l.l0 l.0l l.40 0.62 0.?8 0.20
+45 0 0.?4 0.?4 0.65 0.24 0.20 0.20
30 0.55 0.55 0.52 0.22 0.22 0.28
60 l.ll 0.33 0.6? 0.35 0.32 0.4l
90 l.22 0.?l l.35 0.43 0.88 0.28
ÞOTI InforpoInfIon mnv bo usod.
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BS 6399-2:199?
ISI 3l JuIv 2002
95
SocfIon 3
3.3.3.?.4 HippeJ roofe
n) IpuinJ noin onJ /ip focee. Ior fho pnrf of fho roof boIow fho fop of fho pnrnpof, oxfornnI prossuro
cooffIcIonfs shouId bo doformInod In nccordnnco wIfh 3.3.2.4, I.o. fho roof shouId bo fronfod ns n fInf roof
wIfh pnrnpofs, IrrospocfIvo of ncfunI roof pIfch. Ior nnv pnrf of fho roof fhnf Is nbovo fho fop of fho
pnrnpof, I.o. If fho fop of fho pnrnpof Is boIow fho IovoI of fho rIdgo, oxfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs shouId
bo doformInod In nccordnnco wIfh 3.3.3.5 ns If fho pnrnpof dId nof oxIsf.
b) DounuinJ noin onJ /ip focee. IxfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs shouId bo doformInod In nccordnnco
wIfh 3.3.3.5 ns If fho pnrnpof dId nof oxIsf. Tho roducfIon fncfors of TnbIo 3l shouId nof bo nppIIod fo nnv
zono.
3.3.3.B Pitched roo[o uith inoet otorevo
IxfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs shouId bo doformInod In nccordnnco wIfh 3.3.2.?, usIng fho npproprInfo
zonos for fho pIfchod roofs ns dorIvod from 3.3.3.3, 3.3.3.4 nnd 3.3.3.5.
3.3.3.9 1riction induced loudo on pitched roo[o
IrIcfIon forcos shouId bo doformInod for Iong pIfchod roofs whon fho wInd Is pnrnIIoI fo fho onvos or
rIdgo, I.o. = 90. Tho frIcfIonnI drng cooffIcIonf shouId bo nssumod fo ncf ovor zonos I nnd I onIv of such
roofs, wIfh fho vnIuos ns gIvon In TnbIo 6. Tho rosuIfIng frIcfIonnI forcos shouId bo nppIIod In nccordnnco
wIfh 3.1.3.4.
3.3.4 Mu!tIµIt¢L und mu!tI-buy vooIs
3.3.4.1 Multipitch roo[o
3.3.4.1.1 MuIfIpIfch roofs nro dofInod ns roofs In whIch onch spnn Is mndo up of pIfchos of fwo or moro pIfch
nngIos, ns shown In IIguro 22 for fho sfnndnrd mofhod. Tho form In IIguro 22n) Is commonIv known ns n
mnnsnrd roof.
ÞOTI IInf roofs wIfh mnnsnrd onvos nro donIf wIfh In 3.3.2.6.
3.3.4.1.2 IxfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs for onch pIfch shouId bo dorIvod In nccordnnco wIfh 3.3.3.4
or 3.3.3.5, nccordIng fo fho form of fho vorgos, buf omIffIng fho onvos odgo zonos nIong fho chnngo In sIopo
whoro IndIcnfod In IIguro 22.
ÞOTI Tho Ioffors dosIgnnfIng fho zonos In IIguro 22 whIch corrospond fo fho sfnndnrd mofhod shouId bo Ignorod.
n) Tho onvos odgo zonos A fo Ð on fho boffom odgo of nII wIndwnrd fncos shouId bo IncIudod whon fho
pIfch nngIo of fhnf fnco Is Ioss fhnn fhnf of fho pIfch boIow, IncIudIng fho Iowosf fnco formIng fho ncfunI
onvos of fho wIndwnrd sIdo, ns shown In IIguro 22n). Tho onvos zonos A fo Ð shouId bo oxcIudod whon
fho pIfch nngIo Is gronfor fhnn fhnf of fho pIfch boIow, ns shown In IIguro 22b).
b) Tho rIdgo zonos K fo Þ for gnbIod roofs or rIdgo zonos X nnd Y for hIppod roofs shouId bo IncIudod onIv
on fho hIghosf downwInd fnco nIong fho ncfunI rIdgo, ns shown In IIguro 22n) nnd IIguro 22b). !Idgo
zonos on nII ofhor downwInd fncos shouId bo oxcIudod.
c) Vorgo zonos H fo J on gnbIod roofs or hIp zonos ! fo W on hIppod roofs shouId bo IncIudod for nII fncos.
3.3.4.2 Multi-huv roo[o
3.3.4.2.1 MuIfI-bnv roofs nro dofInod ns roofs mndo up of n sorIos of monopIfch, duopIfch, hIppod or sImIInr
spnns ns shown In IIguro 23n) fo IIguro 23c).
3.3.4.2.2 Irossuro cooffIcIonfs on fho fIrsf spnn, I.o. fho upwInd pIfch of muIfI-bnv monopIfch roofs nnd fho
upwInd pnIr of pIfchos of duopIfch roofs, mnv bo fnkon fo bo fho snmo ns for sIngIo spnn roof. Howovor, fhoso
prossuros nro roducod In vnIuo for fho downwInd spnns.
3.3.4.2.3 Accounf mnv bo fnkon of fhIs roducfIon bv foIIowIng fho procoduro In 2.5.5 of fho sfnndnrd
mofhod, buf usIng fho kov In IIguro 42 fo dofIno rogIons of shoIfor nf nnv gIvon wInd dIrocfIon.
ÞOTI Whon fho wInd dIrocfIon Is normnI fo fho onvos, I.o. = 0, IIguro 42 bocomos IdonfIcnI fo fho sfnndnrd mofhod cnso of
IIguro 23d). Whon fho wInd Is normnI fo fho gnbIos, I.o. = 90, fhoro nro no rogIons of shoIfor.
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BS 6399-2:199?
96 ISI 3l JuIv 2002
SocfIon 3
3.3.4.3 1riction induced loudo on multipitch und multi-huv roo[o
IrIcfIon forcos shouId bo doformInod for Iong pIfchod roofs whon fho wInd Is pnrnIIoI fo fho onvos or
rIdgo, I.o. = 90. Tho frIcfIonnI drng cooffIcIonf shouId bo nssumod fo ncf ovor onIv zonos I nnd I of such
roofs, wIfh vnIuos ns gIvon In TnbIo 6. Tho rosuIfIng frIcfIonnI forcos shouId bo nddod fo fho normnI prossuro
forcos In nccordnnco wIfh 3.1.3.4.
3.3.5 Intevnu! µvessuve ¢oeIII¢Ients
3.3.5.1 If Is rocommondod fhnf fho procoduros for InfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs gIvon In 2.6 for fho
sfnndnrd mofhod nro usod. Whon nocossnrv, InforpoInfIon shouId bo usod bofwoon fho orfhogonnI wInd
dIrocfIons fo obfnIn vnIuos for fho ofhor wInd dIrocfIons.
3.3.5.2 TnbIo l8, gIvIng InfornnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs for opon-sIdod buIIdIngs, hns boon oxpnndod In
TnbIo 3? fo gIvo vnIuos for 30 Incromonfs of wInd dIrocfIon.
ÞOTI If moro nccurnfo vnIuos nro roquIrod, InfornnI prossuros In oncIosod buIIdIngs or buIIdIngs wIfh domInnnf oponIngs mnv nIso
bo doformInod from fho dIsfrIbufIon of oxfornnI prossuros bv cnIcuInfIng fho bnInnco of InfornnI fIows (soo roforonco |6]).
Tub!e 3? Intevnu! µvessuve ¢oeIII¢Ients C
pI
Iov oµen-sIded buI!dInus
IIuuve 42 Key to mu!tI-buy vooIs
WInd dIve¢tIon

One oµen Iu¢e Two ov move udju¢ent oµen Iu¢es
SLovtev Ionuev Ionuev und one
sLovtev
n
Ionuev und botL
sLovtev
b
\µwInd tLIvd MIdd!e tLIvd ÐownwInd
tLIvd
0 +0.85 +0.68 +0.68 +0.68 +0.?? +0.60
30 +0.?l +0.54 +0.?0 +0.80 +0.?? +0.50
60 +0.32 +0.38 +0.44 +0.54 +0.?? +0.30
90 0.60 0.40 0.40 0.40 +0.??, 0.38 0
l20 0.46 0.46 0.46 0.46 0.53 0.63
l50 0.3l 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.60 0.49
l80 0.l6 0.l6 0.l6 0.l6 0.33 0.39
n
Two vnIuos nro gIvon for = 90. Tho posIfIvo vnIuo nppIIos whon fho wInd Is bIowIng Info fho shorf opon fnco.
b
AppIv vnIuos fo undorsIdo of roof onIv. Ior fho sIngIo wnII, uso prossuro cooffIcIonfs for wnIIs gIvon In TnbIo 26.
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BS 6399-2:199?
ISI 3l JuIv 2002
9?
SocfIon 3
3.4 HybvId ¢ombInutIons oI stunduvd und dIve¢tIonu! metLods
3.4.1 Stunduvd eIIe¢tIve wInd sµeeds wItL dIve¢tIonu! µvessuve ¢oeIII¢Ients
3.4.1.1 Applicuhilitv
Sfnndnrd offocfIvo wInd spoods shouId bo combInod wIfh dIrocfIonnI prossuro cooffIcIonfs In cnsos whoro
fho form of fho buIIdIng Is woII dofInod buf fho oxposuro of fho sIfo Is nof woII dofInod.
ÞOTI TvpIcnI oxnmpIos nro roIocnfnbIo or porfnbIo buIIdIngs, or mnss-producod dosIgns.
3.4.1.2 Applicution
As fho sfnndnrd offocfIvo wInd spoods nppIv fo fho rnngo = 45 oIfhor sIdo of fho nofIonnI orfhogonnI
wInd dIrocfIons, fho npproprInfo sfnndnrd offocfIvo wInd spood fo bo usod wIfh onch of fho dIrocfIonnI
prossuro cooffIcIonfs shouId bo soIocfod from fhIs rnngo. ThIs rosuIfs In n Iond cnso for onch wInd dIrocfIon
for whIch prossuro cooffIcIonfs nro gIvon, usunIIv fwoIvo.
3.4.2 ÐIve¢tIonu! eIIe¢tIve wInd sµeeds wItL stunduvd µvessuve ¢oeIII¢Ients
3.4.2.1 Applicuhilitv
ÐIrocfIonnI offocfIvo wInd spood shouId bo combInod wIfh sfnndnrd prossuro cooffIcIonfs If n moro procIso
osfImnfo of sIfo oxposuro Is roquIrod, pnrfIcuInrIv whon fhoro Is sIgnIfIcnnf fopogrnphv or whon fho sIfo Is
In n fown. In fho sfnndnrd mofhod fho mofhod for sIgnIfIcnnf fopogrnphv (2.2.2.2) wns dorIvod nssumIng
fho furbuIonco chnrncforIsfIcs for opon counfrv forrnIn nnd somo ndvnnfngo mnv bo gnInod bv usIng fho
ncfunI sIfo chnrncforIsfIcs. Tho sfnndnrd mofhod for offocfIvo wInd spoods nssumos fhnf fho sIfo Is 2 km
from fho odgo of n fown, wIfh sIfos cIosor fo fho odgo fronfod ns boIng In counfrv forrnIn nnd sIfos furfhor
Info fho fown fronfod ns boIng nf 2 km, fhus, fho pofonfInI bonofIfs of shoIfor from fho fown oxposuro nro
nof oxpIoIfod for nnv IocnfIons oxcopf fhoso nf oxncfIv 2 km from fho odgo.
3.4.2.2 Applicution
3.4.2.2.1 Tho dIrocfIonnI offocfIvo wInd spoods shouId bo doformInod In onch of fho fwoIvo wInd dIrocfIons
usIng fho vnIuo of gusf fncfor g
f
= 3.44, for fho dnfum dIngonnI dImonsIon o = 5 m ns foIIows:
n) from ( = 0 fo ( = 330 In 30 InforvnIs, nIIgnod from norfh, for whIch vnIuos of dIrocfIonnI fncfor nro
gIvon In TnbIo 3; or
b) from = 0 fo = 330 In 30 InforvnIs, nIIgnod wIfh rospocf fo fho buIIdIng nxos, InforpoInfIng
corrospondIng vnIuos of dIrocfIonnI fncfor from TnbIo 3; or
c) In 30 InforvnIs fromnormnI fo fho sfooposf sIopo of fho sIgnIfIcnnf fopogrnphIc fonfuro, InforpoInfIng
corrospondIng vnIuos of dIrocfIonnI fncfor from TnbIo 3.
OpfIon n) Is fho sImpIosf fo ImpIomonf whon fopogrnphv Is nof sIgnIfIcnnf; opfIon b) onsuros fhnf osfImnfos
wIII corrospond oxncfIv wIfh fho buIIdIng nxos; opfIon c) onsuros fhnf fho mosf onorous fopogrnphIc offocfs
nro IncIudod.
3.4.2.2.2 Ior onch orfhogonnI Iond cnso fho Inrgosf vnIuo In fho rnngo = 45 oIfhor sIdo of fho nofIonnI
wInd dIrocfIon shouId bo soIocfod from fho dIrocfIonnI wInd spoods. Thoso vnIuos mnv bo fnkon fo bo
oquIvnIonf fo fho sfnndnrd offocfIvo wInd spoods nnd usod In fho sfnndnrd mofhod.
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BS 6399-2:199?
98 ISI 3l JuIv 2002
Annex A (novmutIve)
Ne¢essuvy µvovIsIons Iov wInd tunne! testInu
A.1 StutI¢ stvu¢tuves
Tosfs for fho doformInnfIon of wInd Ionds on sfnfIc sfrucfuros shouId nof bo consIdorod fo hnvo boon
proporIv conducfod unIoss:
n) fho nnfurnI wInd hns boon modoIIod fo nccounf for:
l) fho vnrInfIon of monn wInd spood wIfh hoIghf nbovo ground npproprInfo fo fho forrnIn of fho sIfo; nnd
2) fho InfonsIfv nnd scnIo of fho furbuIonco npproprInfo fo fho forrnIn of fho sIfo nf n doformInod
goomofrIc scnIo;
b) fho buIIdIng hns boon modoIIod nf n goomofrIc scnIo nof moro fhnn fho foIIowIng muIfIpIos of fho
goomofrIc scnIo of fho sImuInfod nnfurnI wInd, wIfh npproprInfo corrocfIons nppIIod fo nccounf for nnv
goomofrIc scnIo dIscropnncIos wIfhIn fhIs rnngo:
3 for ovornII Ionds; nnd
2 for cInddIng Ionds;
c) fho rosponso chnrncforIsfIcs of fho wInd funnoI InsfrumonfnfIon nro consIsfonf wIfh fho monsuromonfs
fo bo mndo;
d) fho fosfs onnbIo fho ponk wInd Ionds wIfh fho roquIrod nnnunI rIsk of boIng oxcoodod fo bo prodIcfod.
A.2 ÐynumI¢ stvu¢tuves
Tosfs for fho doformInnfIon of fho rosponso of dvnnmIc sfrucfuros shouId nof bo consIdorod fo hnvo boon
proporIv conducfod unIoss fho provIsIons for sfnfIc sfrucfuros In Ifoms n) fo d) of A.1 nro snfIsfIod, fogofhor
wIfh fho nddIfIonnI provIsIon fhnf:
fho sfrucfurnI modoI Is roprosonfod (phvsIcnIIv or mnfhomnfIcnIIv) In mnss dIsfrIbufIon, sfIffnoss nnd
dnmpIng In nccordnnco wIfh fho osfnbIIshod Inw of dImonsIonnI scnIIng.
ÞOTI InformnfIon fo onnbIo dosIgnors fo mnko n consIdorod judgomonf of fho fncIIIfIos offorod whon commIssIonIng wInd funnoI
fosfs Is nvnIInbIo In roforonco |9]. AdvIco mnv nIso bo soughf from fho IuIIdIng !osonrch AdvIsorv SorvIco, IuIIdIng !osonrch
IsfnbIIshmonf, Cnrsfon, Wnfford, Horfs WÐ2 ?J!. ToI: 0l923 664664.
Annex B (InIovmutIve)
ÐevIvutIon oI extveme wInd InIovmutIon
B.1 Intvodu¢tIon
Tho wInd dnfn nrchIvod bv fho MofooroIogIcnI OffIco nro dorIvod from confInuousIv rocordIng nnomogrnphs,
normnIIv oxposod nf n hoIghf of l0 m nbovo ground In opon, IovoI forrnIn or, In ofhor forrnIns, nf n hoIghf
oquIvnIonf fo fho sfnndnrd oxposuro. CurronfIv, fho nofwork numbors nbouf l30 sfnfIons nnd fho mnIn
nrchIvo comprIsos hourIv monn wInd spoods nnd wInd dIrocfIons, fogofhor wIfh dofnIIs of fho mnxImum
gusf onch hour. Mnnv of fhoso sfnfIons hnvo pnsf rocords spnnnIng sovornI docndos, nIfhough fho
compufor-hoId onos gonornIIv bogIn In nbouf l9?0.
ConvonfIonnIIv, osfImnfIon of fho oxfromo wInd cIImnfo In fompornfo rogIons hns InvoIvod fho nnnIvsIs of
n sorIos of nnnunI mnxImum wInd spoods, for oxnmpIo usIng fho mofhod proposod bv CumboI |8]. Tho mnIn
dIsndvnnfngo of mofhods usIng onIv nnnunI mnxImum vnIuos Is fhnf mnnv ofhor usofuI dnfn wIfhIn onch
vonr nro dIscnrdod. Ior fho propnrnfIon of fho bnsIc wInd spood mnp gIvon In IIguro 6, n suporIor fochnIquo
InvoIvIng fho mnxImum wInd spood durIng ovorv porIod of wIndv wonfhor (or sform) wns usod. ThIs
nppronch gronfIv Incronsod fho nmounf of dnfn nvnIInbIo for nnnIvsIs nnd onnbIod fho dIrocfIonnI nnd
sonsonnI chnrncforIsfIcs of fho !K wInd cIImnfo fo bo oxnmInod.
A sform wns dofInod ns n porIod of nf Ionsf l0 consocufIvo hours wIfh nn ovornII monn wInd spood gronfor
fhnn 5 m/s. Such porIods woro IdonfIfIod for 50 nnomogrnph sfnfIons, ovonIv dIsfrIbufod ovor fho !nIfod
KIngdom nnd mosfIv hnvIng sfnndnrd oxposuros, usIng fhoIr rocords durIng fho porIod l9?0 fo l980. Af fho
mnjorIfv of fhoso sfnfIons, fho nvorngo numbor of sforms onch vonr wns nbouf l40. Tho mnxImum hourIv
monn wInd spood bIowIng from onch of fwoIvo 30 wInd dIrocfIon socfors (confrod on 0, 30, 60, ofc.) wns
cnIcuInfod for onch sform.
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ISI 3l JuIv 2002
99
Throo fvpos of now oxfromo wInd InformnfIon woro noodod: nn Improvod mnp of bnsIc wInd spoods V
b
;
dIrocfIon fncfors S
d
; nnd sonsonnI fncfors S
s
.
AnnIvsos of oxfromo wInd spoods nro porformod In forms of fhoIr probnbIIIfv of occurronco. Tho sfnndnrd
monsuro of probnbIIIfv Is fho cumuInfIvo dIsfrIbufIon funcfIon (CÐI), convonfIonnIIv gIvon fho svmboI P
(usod oIsowhoro In fhIs sfnndnrd for wInd Iond), nnd corrospondIng fo fho nnnunI rIsk of nof boIng oxcoodod.
ÐosIgn fo rosIsf oxfromo wInds Is bnsod on fho nnnunI rIsk (probnbIIIfv) Q of fho hourIv monn wInd spood
boIng oxcoodod gIvon bv Q = l P. Tho rocIprocnI of fho nnnunI rIsk Is somofImos roforrod fo ns fho rofurn
porIod nnd Is bosf Inforprofod ns fho monn InforvnI bofwoon rocurroncos whon nvorngod ovor n vorv Iong
porIod. Tho dofInIfIon of rofurn porIod rnpIdIv bocomos InvnIId for porIods Ioss fhnn nbouf l0 vonrs. Tho
porIod bofwoon IndIvIdunI rocurroncos vnrIos consIdornbIv from fhIs monn vnIuo, so fho concopf of rofurn
porIod Is nof vorv usofuI nnd Is opon fo mIsInforprofnfIon. Tho concopf of nnnunI rIsk Is Ioss opon fo
mIsInforprofnfIon nnd shouId bo vIowod ns fho rIsk of oxcoodIng fho dosIgn wInd spood In onch vonr fho
buIIdIng Is oxposod fo fho wInd.
B.2 BusI¢ wInd sµeed
B.2.1 Storm murimu
Tho bnsIc wInd spood V
b
Is osfImnfod fo hnvo n rIsk of Q = 0.02 of boIng oxcoodod In nnv vonr. To obfnIn
fhIs spood for onch sfnfIon, nII fho mnxImum wInd spoods In sforms t
s
woro fIrsf nbsfrncfod, IrrospocfIvo of
dIrocfIon. Tho cumuInfIvo dIsfrIbufIon funcfIon P roprosonfIng fho rIsk of n pnrfIcuInr vnIuo nof boIng
oxcoodod wns doformInod bv fho mofhod of ordor sfnfIsfIcs. In fhIs mofhod, fho mnxImn woro sorfod Info
nscondIng ordor of vnIuo nnd nssIgnod n rnnk n whoro n= l for fho Iowosf vnIuo nnd n = A for fho hIghosf
vnIuo, fhon P wns osfImnfod for fho sform mnxImn t
s
bv P(t
s
) = n/(A + l).
B.2.2 Annuul murimu
MnxImn from dIfforonf sforms cnn bo rognrdod ns sfnfIsfIcnIIv Indopondonf, so fho CÐI P(t) of nnnunI
mnxImum wInd spoods t wns found from P(t) = P
r
(t
s
), whoro r Is fho nvorngo nnnunI rnfo of sforms. ThIs
CÐI of nnnunI mnxImn wns fIffod fo n IIshor-TIppoff Tvpo l (ITl) dIsfrIbufIon, dofInod bv
Honco
nnd n pIof of x vorsus t
s
Iod fo osfImnfos of fho nnnunI modo nnd dIsporsIon. Tho wInd spood V nssocInfod
wIfh n corfnIn nnnunI cumuInfIvo rIsk P of nof boIng oxcoodod mnv bo found from:
ÞOTI IqunfIon I.3 foIIows from oqunfIon I.2 bocnuso fho npproxImnfIon In(l I) P hoIds woII for smnII vnIuos of P.
P(t) = oxp{ oxp( x) (I.l)
whoro
x = o(t I);
I Is fho modo;
l/o Is fho dIsporsIon.
(I.2)
(I.3)
x
n
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B.2.3 Beot ertreme model
Whon fho mnxImum wInd spood In onch sform t
s
Is ropIncod bv Ifs squnro t
s
2
nnd fhIs Is muIfIpIIod bv hnIf
fho donsIfv of nIr, fho dvnnmIc prossuro o Is obfnInod. Ixfromo-vnIuo fhoorv prodIcfs fhnf fho ITl
dIsfrIbufIon shouId bo n boffor fIf fo dvnnmIc prossuro fhnn fo wInd spood. Tho nbovo oxfromo vnIuo
nnnIvsIs mofhod wns roponfod for onch sfnfIon usIng o ns fho vnrInbIo. If wns found fhnf fho rnfo of
convorgonco of sform mnxImn fo fho ITl modoI wns fnsfor for fho o modoI fhnn fho t
s
modoI. Tho wInd
spood corrospondIng fo fho dvnnmIc prossuro hnvIng n rIsk of Q = 0.02 of boIng oxcoodod nf Ionsf onco por
vonr wns usod fo dorIvo fho vnIuo nf onch sfnfIon. CorrocfIons woro fhon mndo fo fho IndIvIdunI sfnfIon
osfImnfos fo onsuro fhnf whon nII fho vnIuos woro pIoffod on n mnp, fhov roprosonfod n hoIghf of l0 m
nbovo ground In opon, IovoI forrnIn nf monn son IovoI. Isofnchs woro fhon drnwn fo bo n bosf fIf fo fho wInd
spoods pIoffod.
IIffIng fho dvnnmIc prossuro o fo fho ITl modoI hns boon sfnndnrd prncfIco In mosf of Iuropo for mnnv
vonrs, whorons fho prncfIco In fho !K hnd provIousIv boon fo fIf fho wInd spood V. Tho dIfforonco bofwoon
fho fwo modoIs nf fho dosIgn rIsk Q = 0.02 Is smnII, nbouf 4 °. Af vorv smnII rIsks, for oxnmpIo nf
Q = l0
4
usod for nucIonr InsfnIInfIons, fho o modoI prodIcfs smnIIor wInd spoods fhnn boforo. Whorons nf
hIghor rIsks, for oxnmpIo for froquonf sorvIco condIfIons, fho o modoI prodIcfs hIghor wInd spoods fhnn
boforo. WhIIo ndopfIon of fho boffor o modoI brIngs fho !K Info IIno wIfh Iuroponn prncfIco, If nIso ImpIIos
fhnf provIous prncfIco nf smnII rIsks wns ovor consorvnfIvo, buf fhnf sorvIco condIfIons mnv hnvo boon
unconsorvnfIvo. Thoso chnngos nro nIso rofIocfod In fho oxprossIon for probnbIIIfv fncfor S
p
In Annox Ð.
B.2.4 Ertenoion to Northern 1relund
Thoro woro InsuffIcIonf nnomogrnph sfnfIons fo dofIno fho Isofnchs for Þorfhorn IroInnd, so If wns
nocossnrv fo Incorpornfo nddIfIonnI dnfn from IIro In ordor fo nIIow InforpoInfIon up fo fho nnfIonnI bordor.
ThIs wns dono bv compnrIng rosuIfs from fho sforms nnnIvsIs for Þorfhorn IroInnd wIfh n mnp, propnrod
bv fho IrIsh MofooroIogIcnI SorvIco, showIng Isofnchs of gusf spoods hnvIng nn nnnunI rIsk of boIng
oxcoodod of Q = 0.02.
B.3 ÐIve¢tIon Iu¢tov
Tho snmo nnnIvsIs wns porformod on fho sorIos of mnxImum wInd spoods from onch 30 wInd dIrocfIon
socfor, fo vIoId rnfIos of fho socforInI oxfromo fo fho nII-dIrocfIon oxfromo for wInd spood nnd dvnnmIc
prossuro. Affor corrocfIon for sIfo oxposuro, fho dIrocfIonnI chnrncforIsfIcs of oxfromo wInds showod no
sIgnIfIcnnf vnrInfIon wIfh IocnfIon nnvwhoro In fho !nIfod KIngdom, wIfh fho sfrongosf wInds bIowIng
from dIrocfIons soufh-wosf fo wosf. ThIs onnbIod ono sof of dIrocfIon fncfors fo bo proposod. Tho rnfIos
cnIcuInfod rofor fo n gIvon rIsk In onch socfor. Howovor, duo fo confrIbufIons from ofhor socfors, fho ovornII
rIsk wIII bo gronfor fhnn fho roquIrod vnIuo. Tho dIrocfIon fncfor S
d
hns boon dorIvod bv ndjusfIng socforInI
rnfIos fo onsuro nn ovonIv dIsfrIbufod ovornII rIsk.
B.4 Seusonu! Iu¢tov
Tho ovornII sform mnxImn (IrrospocfIvo of wInd dIrocfIon) woro nnnIvsod for onch monfh, usIng n fochnIquo
sImIInr fo fhnf usod for fho nnnunI nnnIvsos. CIvon fho rIsk of n vnIuo boIng oxcoodod bv monfh, fho rIsk In
nnv Iongor porIod Is fho sum of fho monfhIv rIsks. Tho sonsonnI chnrncforIsfIcs of sfrong wInds nIso show
no sIgnIfIcnnf vnrInfIon ncross fho !K so, ngnIn, ono sof of fncfors couId bo proposod S
s
. Tho sfrongosf wInds
usunIIv occur In mId-wInfor nnd fho Ionsf wIndv porIod Is bofwoon Juno nnd Augusf.
B.5 VevIII¢utIon oI tLe dutu
SInco fhIs nnnIvsIs wns porformod, n furfhor l0 vonrs of dnfn hns bocomo nvnIInbIo whIch doubIos fho dnfn
rocord nnd IncIudos fho sovoro sforms of Ocfobor l98? nnd of Jnnunrv nnd Iobrunrv l990. A moro roconf
nnnIvsIs of fho fuII 2l-vonr rocords for fon of fho orIgInnI 50 sIfos showod nn Improvod nnnIvsIs nccurncv
buf fho vnIuos woro nof sIgnIfIcnnfIv dIfforonf from fho orIgInnI nnnIvsIs. ThIs gIvos furfhor confIdonco fhnf
fho ll-vonr porIod of fho orIgInnI nnnIvsIs wns roprosonfnfIvo.
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BS 6399-2:199?
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l0l
B.6 IuvtLev InIovmutIon
!oforoncos |8] nnd |l0] fo |l4] gIvo furfhor InformnfIon on fho dorIvnfIon of oxfromo wInd InformnfIon.
AdvIco cnn nIso bo obfnInod from fho MofooroIogIcnI OffIco nf fho foIIowIng nddrossos.
IngInnd nnd WnIos: MofooroIogIcnI OffIco, AdvIsorv SorvIco, !ondon !ond, IrncknoII, IorkshIro
!Cl2 2SZ. ToI: 0845 300 0300.
ScofInnd: MofooroIogIcnI OffIco, 220 Sf VInconf Sfroof, CInsgow C2 5QÐ. ToI: 0l4l 248 ?2?2.
Þorfhorn IroInnd: MofooroIogIcnI OffIco, IrogrossIvo Houso, l CoIIogo Squnro Insf, IoIfnsf ITl 6IQ.
ToI: 0l232 32845?.
Annex C (InIovmutIve)
ÐynumI¢ uuumentutIon
C.1 ÐynumI¢ uuumentutIon Iu¢tov
C.1.1 Cenerul
Tho dvnnmIc dIspIncomonf of n sfrucfuro In Ifs Iowosf-froquoncv modo cnn bo roInfod fo fho corrospondIng
qunsI-sfnfIc dIspIncomonf bv fho producf of fwo pnrnmofors: fho buIIdIng hoIghf fncfor K
h
nnd fho buIIdIng
fvpo fncfor K
b
. Tho fuII nnnIvsIs of fho govornIng roInfIonshIps Ionds fo oqunfIons whIch nro foo compIox for
codIfIcnfIon purposos. A numorIcnI ovnIunfIon nnd curvo-fIffIng oxorcIso cnrrIod ouf for prncfIcnI prIsmnfIc
buIIdIngs, IncIudIng porfnI-frnmo sfrucfuros, showod fhnf sImpIIfIcnfIons couId bo mndo fo fho nIgobrnIc
roInfIonshIps wIfh onIv mnrgInnI Ioss of nccurncv wIfhIn n rnngo of mIIdIv dvnnmIc sfrucfuros.
C.1.2 1ull equution
Tho ponk dofIocfIon (nnd honco ponk sfrossos) cnn bo obfnInod bv nppIvIng n fncfor fo fho sfnfIc dofIocfIon,
whoro fhIs fncfor Is fho rnfIo of fho ncfunI ponk dofIocfIon fo fho sfnfIc ponk dofIocfIon. ThIs rnfIo Is dofInod
horo ns (l + C
r
) In forms of fho dvnnmIc nugmonfnfIon fncfor C
r
gIvon bv:
C.1.3 Runµe o[ tuliditv
As Iong ns fho dvnnmIc nugmonfnfIon fncfor romnIns In fho rnngo 0 C
r
0.25 fho mofhod works woII,
nnd fhIs rnngo cnn bo usod ns fho dofInIfIon of mIIdIv dvnnmIc buIIdIngs. WIfh fuIIv dvnnmIc buIIdIngs,
whIch gIvo vnIuos of C
r
> 0.25, fho mofhod bocomos Ioss nccurnfo nnd gonornIIv moro consorvnfIvo. Tho
IImIfs of C
r
< 0.25 nnd H < 300 m In IIguro 3 sorvo fo oxcIudo fhoso fuIIv dvnnmIc sfrucfuros from fho
provIsIons of fhIs Inrf of IS 6399.
C.1.4 Simple equution
!sIng fho curvo-fIffod oxprossIons for fho buIIdIng hoIghf fncfor K
h
nnd fho buIIdIng fvpo fncfor K
b
onnbIos
prosonfnfIon of fho vnIuos of C
r
fo n good npproxImnfIon bv fho fnmIIv of curvos prosonfod In IIguro 3. Tho
oqunfIon for fhIs fnmIIv of curvos Is:
(C.l)
whoro
S
g
Is fho gusf fncfor npproprInfo fo fho sIzo of fho sfrucfuro nnd forrnIn nnd Is gIvon bv
S
g
= l + g
f
S
f
for counfrv forrnIn; nnd S
g
= l + g
f
S
f
T
f
for fown forrnIn;
S
f
, T
f
, g
f
nro obfnInod from TnbIo 22, TnbIo 23 nnd TnbIo 24, rospocfIvoIv.
K
h
nnd K
b
nro pnrnmofors dopondIng on fho buIIdIng hoIghf nnd IocnfIon nnd on fho form of
consfrucfIon of fho buIIdIng (soo C.2). VnIuos of K
b
nro gIvon In TnbIo l.
(C.2)
whoro
/
o
Is n dImonsIonnI consfnnf wIfh vnIuo /
o
= 0.l m.
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BS 6399-2:199?
l02 ISI 3l JuIv 2002
C.2 BuI!dInu LeIuLt Iu¢tov und buI!dInu tyµe Iu¢tov
C.2.1 Deritution o[ tulueo
Tho producf K
h
K
b
gIvon In oqunfIon (C.l) Is gIvon wIfh onIv mnrgInnI Ioss of nccurncv bv:
ÞOTI InformodInfo vnIuos of K
f
couId bo obfnInod bv InforpoInfIon, fnkIng fho vnrInfIon of S
o
ns n guIdo.
C.2.2 De[uult tulueo o[ purumetero
In IIguro 3 nnd oqunfIon (C.2) sfnndnrd vnIuos of pnrnmofors hnvo boon nssumod fo bo gIvon bv fho
foIIowIng.
Tho buIIdIng hoIghf fncfor K
h
dofInod bv oqunfIon (C.6) vnrIos onIv wonkIv wIfh chnngo of forrnIn
roughnoss, so fhnf n sImpIo forrnIn-Indopondonf form gIvon bv:
whoro H Is fho buIIdIng hoIghf In mofros, cnn bo usod wIfhouf sIgnIfIcnnf Ioss of nccurncv. ThIs
sImpIIfIcnfIon Is usod In IIguro 3 nnd oqunfIon (C.2).
VnIuos of fho buIIdIng fvpo fncfor K
b
gIvon In TnbIo l, hnvo boon dorIvod from dnfn obfnInod from n Inrgo
numbor of compIofod buIIdIngs nnd ofhor sfrucfuros.
C.3 Move u¢¢uvute ussessment oI dynumI¢ uuumentutIon
If fho nssumpfIons usod fo dorIvo fho vnIuo of dvnnmIc nugmonfnfIon fncfor C
r
nro InnpproprInfo for fho
pnrfIcuInr buIIdIng, or If n moro nccurnfo nssossmonf Is roquIrod, fhon fho oxprossIon for fho producf
K
h
K
b
gIvon bv oqunfIon (C.3) cnn bo usod In conjuncfIon wIfh roIovnnf vnIuos of fho pnrnmofors. In
pnrfIcuInr, vnIuos of V
s
, S
o
nnd K
f
cnn bo dorIvod for fho ncfunI IocnfIon nnd oxposuro of fho buIIdIng, nnd
vnIuos of n
o
nnd obfnInod from monsuromonfs or prodIcfIons for fho sfrucfuro.
(C.3)
whoro
S
o
Is fho forrnIn nnd buIIdIng fncfor for hourIv monn wIndspoods gIvon In 3.2.3.2, so
fhnf S
o
= S
c
(l + S
h
) for counfrv forrnIn; nnd S
o
= S
c
T
c
(l + S
h
) for fown forrnIn (from TnbIo 22 nnd
TnbIo 23);
n
o
Is fho nnfurnI froquoncv of fho fundnmonfnI modo of vIbrnfIon (In Hz);
o Is fho dIngonnI sIzo of fho buIIdIng (In m);
Is fho sfrucfurnI dnmpIng of fho buIIdIng ns n frncfIon of crIfIcnI;
V
s
Is fho sIfo wInd spood (In m/s);
K
f
Is n forrnIn corrocfIon fncfor such fhnf K
f
= l.33 nf fho son consf; nnd K
f
= 0.?5 nf Ionsf 2 km InsIdo
fown forrnIn.
(C.4)
V
s
= 24 (C.5)
K
h
= S
o
2/3
H
2/3
K
f
(C.6)
(C.?)
K
h
= (0.8H)
0.?5
(C.8)
K
h
K
b
× K
f
20 S
o
n
o
2
o

' ¹
´ !
2/3
×
¹ )
´ `
¦ ¹
V
s
24

' ¹
´ !
×
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BS 6399-2:199?
ISI 3l JuIv 2002
l03
Annex Ð (novmutIve)
PvobubI!Ity Iu¢tov und seusonu! Iu¢tov
Ð.1 PvobubI!Ity Iu¢tov
Tho bnsIc wInd spood ns dofInod In cInuso 2.2.1 hns nn nnnunI rIsk of boIng oxcoodod of Q = 0.02. To vnrv
fho bnsIc wInd spood for ofhor such nnnunI probnbIIIfIos fho bnsIc wInd spood shouId bo muIfIpIIod bv fho
probnbIIIfv fncfor S
p
gIvon bv:
whoro Q Is fho nnnunI probnbIIIfv roquIrod. ThIs oxprossIon corrosponds fo n IIshor-TIppoff fvpo l (ITl)
modoI for dvnnmIc prossuro fhnf hns n chnrncforIsfIc producf (modo/dIsporsIon rnfIo) vnIuo of 5, whIch Is
vnIId for fho !K cIImnfo onIv.
A numbor of vnIuos of S
p
for sfnndnrd vnIuos of Q nro roIovnnf:
S
p
= 0.?49 for Q = 0.632 (soo nofo l);
S
p
= 0.845 for Q = 0.22? (soo nofo 2);
S
p
= l.000 for Q = 0.02 (soo nofo 3);
S
p
= l.048 for Q = 0.0083 (soo nofo 4);
S
p
= l.4 for Q = 5.? l0
4
(soo nofo 5);
S
p
= l.263 for Q = l0
4
(soo nofo 6).
ÞOTI l Tho nnnunI modo, corrospondIng fo fho mosf IIkoIv nnnunI mnxImum vnIuo.
ÞOTI 2 Ior fho sorvIconbIIIfv IImIf, nssumIng fho pnrfInI fncfor for Ionds for fho uIfImnfo IImIf Is
f
= l.4 nnd for fho sorvIconbIIIfv
IImIf Is
f
= l.0, gIvIng:
S
p
= = 0.845
ÞOTI 3 Tho sfnndnrd dosIgn vnIuo, corrospondIng fo n monn rocurronco InforvnI of 50 vonrs.
ÞOTI 4 Tho dosIgn rIsk for brIdgos, corrospondIng fo n monn rocurronco InforvnI of l20 vonrs.
ÞOTI 5 Tho nnnunI rIsk corrospondIng fo fho sfnndnrd pnrfInI fncfor for Ionds, corrospondIng fo n monn rocurronco InforvnI
of l?54 vonrs. Inck-cnIcuInfod nssumIng fho pnrfInI fncfor Iond for fho uIfImnfo IImIf Is
f
= l.4 nnd nII rIsk Is nscrIbod fo fho
rocurronco of wInd.
ÞOTI 6 Tho dosIgn rIsk for nucIonr InsfnIInfIons, corrospondIng fo n monn rocurronco InforvnI of l0 000 vonrs.
Ð.2 Seusonu! Iu¢tov
Tho sonsonnI fncfor S
s
mnv bo usod for buIIdIngs whIch nro oxpocfod fo bo oxposod fo fho wInd for spocIfIc
subnnnunI porIods, roducIng fho bnsIc wInd spoods whIIo mnInfnInIng fho rIsk Q of boIng oxcoodod nf n
vnIuo 0.02 In fho sfnfod porIod. Tho sonsonnI fncfor S
s
mnv nIso bo usod In conjuncfIon wIfh fho probnbIIIfv
fncfor S
p
for ofhor rIsks Q of boIng oxcoodod In fho sfnfod porIod. If vnIuos of S
s
nro usod fhov shouId bo
fnkon from TnbIo Ð.l.
(Ð.l)
l/l.4
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BS 6399-2:199?
l04 ISI 3l JuIv 2002
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BS 6399-2:199?
ISI 3l JuIv 2002
l05
Annex £ (InIovmutIve)
TevvuIn ¢uteuovIes und eIIe¢tIve LeIuLt
£.1 TevvuIn ¢uteuovIes
£.1.1 Cenerul
Tho roughnoss of fho ground surfnco confroIs bofh fho monn wInd spood nnd Ifs furbuIonf chnrncforIsfIcs
nnd Is doscrIbod bv nn offocfIvo norodvnnmIc roughnoss Iongfh c
o
. Ovor n smoofh surfnco such ns opon
counfrv fho wInd spood Is hIghor nonr fho ground fhnn ovor n roughor surfnco such ns n fown. Iv dofInIng
fhroo bnsIc forrnIn cnfogorIos wInd spoods cnn bo dorIvod for nnv InformodInfo cnfogorv or fo nccounf for
fho InfIuonco of dIfforIng upwInd cnfogorIos fo fhnf of fho sIfo. AccordIngIv no InforpoInfIon bofwoon fho
fhroo forrnIn cnfogorIos Is pormIffod In fhIs pnrf. Tho fhroo bnsIc cnfogorIos dofInod In 1.? nro ns foIIows.
n) Seo. ThIs nppIIos fo fho son, buf nIso fo InInnd Inkos whIch nro Inrgo onough nnd cIoso onough fo nffocf
fho wInd spood nf fho sIfo. AIfhough fhIs sfnndnrd doos nof covor offshoro sfrucfuros, If Is nocossnrv fo
dofIno such n cnfogorv so fhnf fho grndunI docoIornfIon of fho wInd spood from fho consf InInnd cnn bo
qunnfIfIod nnd fho wInd spood for nnv Innd-bnsod sIfo cnn bo doformInod. Tho norodvnnmIc roughnoss
Iongfh for son Is fnkon ns c
o
= 0.003 m.
b) Coun/rx. ThIs covors n wIdo rnngo of forrnIn, from fho fInf opon IovoI, or nonrIv IovoI counfrv wIfh no
shoIfor, such ns fons, nIrfIoIds, moorInnd or fnrmInnd wIfh no hodgos or wnIIs, fo unduInfIng counfrvsIdo
wIfh obsfrucfIons such ns occnsIonnI buIIdIngs nnd wIndbronks of froos, hodgos nnd wnIIs. IxnmpIos nro
fnrmInnds nnd counfrv osfnfos nnd, In ronIIfv, nII forrnIn nof ofhorwIso dofInod ns son or fown. Tho
norodvnnmIc roughnoss Iongfh for counfrv Is fnkon ns c
o
= 0.03 m.
c) Toun. ThIs forrnIn IncIudos suburbnn rogIons In whIch fho gonornI IovoI of roof fops Is nbouf 5 m nbovo
ground IovoI, oncompnssIng nII fwo sforov domosfIc housIng, provIdod fhnf such buIIdIngs nro nf Ionsf ns
donso ns normnI suburbnn dovoIopmonfs for nf Ionsf l00 m upwInd of fho sIfo. WhIIsf If Is nof onsv fo
qunnfIfv If Is oxpocfod fhnf fho pInn nron of fho buIIdIngs Is nf Ionsf 8 ° of fho fofnI nron wIfhIn n 30
socfor confrod on fho wInd dIrocfIon boIng consIdorod. Tho norodvnnmIc roughnoss Iongfh for fown Is
fnkon ns c
o
= 0.3 m.
ÞOTI Tho norodvnnmIc roughnoss of forosfs nnd mnfuro woodInnd Is sImIInr fo fown forrnIn (c
o
= 0.3 m). If Is InndvIsnbIo fo fnko
ndvnnfngo of fho shoIfor provIdod bv woodInnd unIoss If Is pormnnonf (nof IIkoIv fo bo cIonr foIIod).
£.1.2 Vuriution o[ [etch
Iofch rofors fo fho forrnIn dIrocfIv upwInd of fho sIfo. Tho ndjusfmonf of wInd spood chnrncforIsfIcs ns fho
wInd fIows from ono forrnIn fo nnofhor Is nof Insfnnfnnoous. Af n chnngo from n smoofhor fo n roughor
surfnco fho monn wInd spood Is grndunIIv sIowod down nonr fho ground nnd fho furbuIonco In fho wInd
Incronsos.
ThIs ndjusfmonf roquIros fImo fo work up fhrough fho wInd profIIo nnd nf nnv sIfo downwInd of n chnngo
In forrnIn fho wInd spood Is nf somo InformodInfo fIow bofwoon fhnf for fho smoofh forrnIn nnd fhnf for fho
fuIIv dovoIopod rough forrnIn. Tho rosuIfIng grndunI docoIornfIon of fho monn spood nnd Incronso In
furbuIonco hns boon nccounfod for In TnbIo 22 nnd TnbIo 23 bv dofInIng fho sIfo bv Ifs dIsfnnco downwInd
from fho consf nnd, In nddIfIon If If Is In n fown, bv Ifs dIsfnnco from fho odgo of fho fown.
ShoIfor of n sIfo from n fown upwInd of fho sIfo hns nof boon nIIowod for, ofhor fhnn If fho sIfo Is In n fown
IfsoIf. To do so wouId Infroduco foo much compIoxIfv wIfh onIv n mnrgInnI snvIng In fho rosuIfIng wInd
Ionds. Howovor, |8] nnd |l5] gIvo InformnfIon on how fo fnko such offocfs Info nccounf.
If Is Imporfnnf, If dIrocfIonnI offocfs nood fo bo consIdorod, fo fnko fuII nccounf of fho offocfs of forrnIn
upwInd of fho sIfo In conjuncfIon wIfh fho dIrocfIon fncfor. ThIs bocomos ovon moro Imporfnnf If fho offocfs
of fopogrnphv nIso nood fo bo consIdorod, ns fho fopogrnphIc Incromonf S
h
cnn bo Inrgo.
£.2 £IIe¢tIve LeIuLt
£.2.1 In rough forrnIn, such ns fowns nnd cIfIos, fho wInd fonds fo bohnvo ns If fho ground IovoI wns rnIsod
fo n hoIghf jusf boIow fho nvorngo roof hoIghf, IonvIng nn IndoformInnfo rogIon boIow whIch Is offon
shoIforod. ThIs dIspIncomonf hoIghf H
d
Is n funcfIon of fho pInn nron donsIfv nnd gonornI hoIghf of fho
buIIdIngs or obsfrucfIons. Tho offocfIvo hoIghf, H
o
of nnv buIIdIng fhnf Is hIghor fhnn Ifs surroundIngs In
such forrnIn Is fhus fho roforonco hoIghf H
r
Ioss fho dIspIncomonf hoIghf H
d
. Thus H
o
= H
r
H
d
.
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BS 6399-2:199?
l06 ISI 3l JuIv 2002
£.2.2 Tho dIspIncomonf hoIghf hns boon doformInod bv ISÐ! |l6] from nvnIInbIo roforoncos for urbnn nnd
woodInnd forrnIn. Insod on fhIs work fho normnI prncfIcnI rnngo of dIspIncomonf hoIghfs hns boon found
fo bo 0.?5H
o
< H
d
< 0.90H
o
. A vnIuo of H
d
= 0.8H
o
hns boon ndopfod In 1.?.3.
£.2.3 ThIs doos nof nppIv whoro fho buIIdIng fo bo dosIgnod Is n sImIInr hoIghf or Iowor fhnn Ifs
surroundIngs. A mInImum offocfIvo hoIghf of H
o
= 0.4H
r
hns boon ndopfod.
£.2.4 Tho dIspIncomonf hoIghf roducos wIfh sopnrnfIon dIsfnnco X
o
bofwoon buIIdIngs pnrfIcuInrIv ncross
opon spncos wIfhIn, or nf fho odgo of, n buIIf up nron, ns doscrIbod In 1.?.3.3 nnd IIIusfrnfod In IIguro I.l.
£.2.5 AccoIornfod wInd spoods occur cIoso fo fho bnso of buIIdIngs whIch nro sIgnIfIcnnfIv fnIIor fhnn fho
dIspIncomonf hoIghf. Whon consIdorIng Iow-rIso buIIdIngs whIch nro cIoso fo ofhor fnII buIIdIngs fho ruIos
for offocfIvo hoIghf wIII nof nocossnrIIv Iond fo consorvnfIvo vnIuos nnd spocInIIsf ndvIco shouId bo soughf.
IIuuve £.1 ÐIsµ!u¢ement LeIuLt und eIIe¢tIve LeIuLt
Wind
H
o
Profile of
displacement
height
6H
o
2H
o
0.8H
o
o
H
r
H
e
H
d
X
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I
BS 6399-2:199?
ISI 3l JuIv 2002
l0?
Annex I (InIovmutIve)
Gust µeuk Iu¢tov
A sImpIIfIod formuIn |8] for g
f
gIvon bv g
f
= 0.42 In (3600//), whoro / Is fho gusf durnfIon fImo In soconds,
hns boon shown fo bo wIfhIn n fow porconf of moro compIox formuInfIons ns proposod bv Croonwnv |l?] nnd
ISÐ! |l8]. Ior fho purposos of fhoso procoduros fho sImpIIfIod formuIn wns fhus consIdorod ndoqunfo.
Howovor, fho vnIuo of fho gusf fncfor In forms of fho gusf porIod / Is nof of dIrocf nppIIcnfIon fo dosIgn. Tho
probIom Is rnfhor fo doformIno, for sfnfIc sfrucfuros, fho npproprInfo gusf spood whIch wIII onvoIop fho
sfrucfuro or compononf fo produco fho mnxImum IondIng fhoroon.
IorfunnfoIv for bIuff fvpo sfrucfuros, such ns buIIdIngs, whIch cnn bo dosIgnod sfnfIcnIIv, fhoro Is n sImpIo
ompIrIcnI roInfIonshIp bofwoon fho porIod / nnd fho chnrncforIsfIc sIzo of fho sfrucfuro or oIomonf n gIvon
bv:
ÞOTI AccoIornfIon of fho wInd spood bv fopogrnphv doos nof sIgnIfIcnnfIv nffocf fho sIzo of fho gusfs, so fhnf fopogrnphIc Incromonf
S
h
Is nof IncIudod In fho oqunfIons for V
o
.
Iv combInIng fhoso fwo oqunfIons, n grnph cnn bo pIoffod of hoIghf ngnInsf o/V
s
for fown forrnIn fo gIvo
vnIuos of fho gusf ponk fncfor g
f
. ThIs Is shown In IIguro I.l. Ior dosIgn purposos If Is IIkoIv fhnf V
s
wIII
IIo wIfhIn fho rnngo 20 m/s < V
s
< 30 m/s so fhnf for n sIzo of, for oxnmpIo 20 m, o/V
s
IIos In fho
rnngo 0.6?s < o/V
s
< ls. Ior n hoIghf of 20 m nbovo ground, g
f
wInd spood wouId bo wIfhIn l.8 ° ovor fhIs
rnngo of sIfo monn spood. SImIInr porconfngo chnngos wouId nppIv for dIfforonf sIzos nnd hoIghfs.
ConsoquonfIv for fhoso purposos fho vnIuos of g
f
ndopfod hnvo boon bnsod on n sIngIo vnIuo of V
s
= 24 m/s,
roprosonfnfIvo of fho whoIo of fho !K. Tho rosuIfIng vnIuos of sIzo o nro fhon shown ns fho nbscIssn on fho
grnph of IIguro I.l whIch onnbIos g
f
fo bo rond dIrocfIv for gIvon hoIghfs nnd sIzos. Incfor g
f
Is gIvon
In TnbIo 24 for vnrIous hoIghfs nnd buIIdIng sIzos.
/ = 4.5o/V
o
(I.l)
whoro
V
o
Is fho roIovnnf monn wInd spood nf hoIghf H
r
gIvon bv V
o
= V
s
S
c
for counfrv forrnIn; nnd
V
o
= V
s
S
c
T
c
for fown forrnIn.
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BS 6399-2:199?
l08 ISI 3l JuIv 2002
I
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B
S
I
BS 6399-2:199?
ISI 3l JuIv 2002
l09
Annex G (novmutIve)
ToµouvuµLI¢ !o¢utIon Iu¢tov
G.1 Genevu!
Tho dnfn for fho fopogrnphIc IocnfIon fncfor, e, gIvon In IIguro 9n, IIguro 9b, IIguro l0n nnd IIguro l0b
hnvo boon pIoffod from fho foIIowIng ompIrIcnI oqunfIons fIffod fo monsurod dnfn.
IqunfIons C.l fo C.l0 mnv bo usod fo compufo fho vnIuo of fopogrnphIc IocnfIon fncfor, e. As fho fIffod
oqunfIons nro ompIrIcnI, If Is mosf Imporfnnf fhnf vnIuos of fho pnrnmofors fo fho oqunfIons nro rosfrIcfod
fo fho sfnfod rnngos, ofhorwIso InvnIId vnIuos wIII bo gonornfod.
G.2 IIuuve 9u und IIuuve 9b, uµwInd A!! toµouvuµLy
ÞOTI Af fho crosf/summIf (whoro X = 0) fho vnIuo of fopogrnphIc IocnfIon fncfor Is oqunI fo fho pnrnmofor A gIvon bv IqunfIon C.2.
whon
X/L
!
< l.5 or H/L
o
> 2.0, fnko fho vnIuo
e = 0 (S
/
= 0)
G.3 IIuuve 9u und IIuuve 9b, downwInd HI!!s und vIdues
Ior fho rnngos:
l.5 X/L
!
0 nnd 0 H/L
o
2.0
fnko:
C.l
whoro
C.2
nnd
C.3
Ior fho rnngos:
0 X/L
Ð
2.0 nnd 0 H/L
o
2.0
fnko:
C.4
whoro:
C.5
nnd
C.6
ÞOTI IqunfIons C.2 nnd C.5 nro IdonfIcnI.
whon
X/L
Ð
> 2.0 or H/L
o
> 2.0, fnko fho vnIuo
e = 0 (S
h
= 0)
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I
BS 6399-2:199?
ll0 ISI 3l JuIv 2002
G.4 IIuuve 10u und IIuuve 10b, downwInd C!IIIs und es¢uvµments
Ior fho rnngo 0 X/L
o
< 0.l, InforpoInfo bofwoon vnIuos for X/L
o
= 0 (e = A In IqunfIon C.2) nnd X/L
o
= 0.l.
whon: H/L
o
< 0.l, uso fho vnIuos for H/L
o
= 0.l.
whon: X/L
Ð
> 3.5 or H/L
o
> 2.0, fnko fho vnIuo e = 0 (S
/
= 0)
G.5 Tubu!uted vu!ues
AIfornnfIvoIv, vnIuos of e mnv bo InforpoInfod dIrocfIv from TnbIo C.l fo TnbIo C.4. As TnbIo C.l fo
TnbIo C.4 hnvo boon dorIvod dIrocfIv from fho oqunfIons, fhov mnv bo usofuI In chockIng fho nccurncv of
ImpIomonfnfIon of fho oqunfIons whon dovoIopIng soffwnro or sprondshoofs.
Ior fho rnngos:
0.l X/L
o
3.5 nnd 0.l H/L
o
2.0
fnko:
C.?
whoro:
C.8
C.9
nnd
C.l0
L
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BS 6399-2:199?
ISI 3l JuIv 2002
lll
T
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BS 6399-2:199?
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ll5
IIst oI veIeven¢es (soo cInuso 1.2)
InIovmutIve veIeven¢es
|l] IÞCIÞII!IÞC SCIIÞCIS ÐATA !ÞIT (ISÐ!). WinJ 1ngineering. !ondon: ISÐ! InfornnfIonnI
5)
.
|2] COÞST!!CTIOÞ IÞÐ!ST!Y !ISIA!CH AÞÐ IÞIO!MATIOÞ ASSOCIATIOÞ (CI!IA). WinJ
1ngineering in //e 1ig//iee. !ondon: CI!IA, l98l
6)
.
|3] SIMI!, I., nnd SCAÞ!AÞ, !.H. WinJ 1ffec/e on S/ruc/uree. Þow York: John WIIov nnd Sons, l9?8.
|4] ÞATIOÞA! CO!ÞCI! OI CAÞAÐA. Supplenen/ /o //e Ao/ionol BuilJing CoJe of ConoJo, l980.
Þ!CC Þo. l??24, Offnwn: ÞnfIonnI CouncII of Cnnndn, l980.
|5] COOK, Þ.J. T/e oeeeeenen/ of Jeeign uinJ epeeJ Jo/o. nonuol uor/e/ee/e ui// reoJx-rec/oner /oIlee.
(SuppIomonf l fo T/e Jeeignere guiJe /o uinJ looJ of IuilJing e/ruc/uree |6,8]). Cnrsfon: IuIIdIng !osonrch
IsfnbIIshmonf, l985 (!oprInfod wIfh nmondmonfs l99l).
|6] COOK, Þ.J. T/e Jeeignere guiJe /o uinJ looJing of IuilJing e/ruc/uree. Por/ 2. S/o/ic e/ruc/uree.
!ondon: Iufforworfh ScIonfIfIc, l985.
|?] WI!!IO!Ð, M.!., nnd A!!SOI, A.C. Deeign guiJe for uinJ looJe on uncloJ froneJ IuilJing
e/ruc/uree Juring cone/ruc/ion (SuppIomonf 3 fo T/e Jeeignere guiJe /o uinJ looJing of IuilJing
e/ruc/uree |6,8]). Cnrsfon: IuIIdIng !osonrch IsfnbIIshmonf, l990.
|8] COOK, Þ.J. T/e Jeeignere guiJe /o uinJ looJing of IuilJing e/ruc/uree. Por/ 1. Boc/grounJ, Jonoge
eurtex, uinJ Jo/o onJ e/ruc/urol cloeeifico/ion. !ondon: Iufforworfh ScIonfIfIc, l985.
|9] !IIÞHO!Ð, T.A., od. WinJ Tunnel MoJelling for Citil 1ngineering Applico/ione.
CnmbrIdgo: CnmbrIdgo !nIvorsIfv Iross, l982.
|l0] CO!!IÞCIO!!ÞI, !.H. WInd dnfn nvnIInbIo In fho MofooroIogIcnI OffIco. Journol of 1nJue/riol
AeroJxnonice. l9?8, 3, l45l55.
|ll] COOK, Þ.J. Townrds boffor osfImnfIon of oxfromo wInds. Journol of WinJ 1ngineering onJ 1nJue/riol
AeroJxnonice. l982, 9, 295323.
|l2] COOK, Þ.J. Þofo on dIrocfIonnI nnd sonsonnI nssossmonf of oxfromo wInds for dosIgn. Journol of WinJ
1ngineering onJ 1nJue/riol AeroJxnonice. l983, 12, 3653?2.
|l3] COOK, Þ.J., nnd I!IO!, M.J. Ixfromo wInd cIImnfo of fho !nIfod KIngdom. Journol of WinJ
1ngineering onJ 1nJue/riol AeroJxnonice. l98?, 26, 3?l389.
|l4] MAYÞI J !. Tho osfImnfIon of oxfromo wInds. Journol of 1nJue/riol AeroJxnonice. l9?9, 5, l09l3?.
|l5] COOK, Þ.J., SMITH, I.W., nnd H!IAÞÐ, M.V. BI1 progron STIOAGBLOW. ueere nonuol
(SuppIomonf 2 fo T/e Jeeignere guiJe /o uinJ looJing of IuilJing e/ruc/uree |6,8]). I!I MIcrocompufor
pnckngo. Cnrsfon: IuIIdIng !osonrch IsfnbIIshmonf, l985.
|l6] IÞCIÞII!IÞC SCIIÞCIS ÐATA !ÞIT. S/rong uinJe in //e o/noep/eric IounJorx loxer.
Por/ 1. Meon /ourlx uinJ epeeJe. IngInoorIng ScIoncos Ðnfn Ifom 82026. !ondon: ISÐ!
InfornnfIonnI, l990.
|l?] C!IIÞWAY, M.A. An nnnIvfIcnI nppronch fo wInd voIocIfv gusf fncfors. Journol of 1nJue/riol
AeroJxnonice. l9?9, 5, 6l-9l.
|l8] IÞCIÞII!IÞC SCIIÞCIS ÐATA !ÞIT. S/rong uinJe in //e o/noep/eric IounJorx loxer.
Por/ 2. Diecre/e gue/ epeeJe. IngInoorIng ScIoncos Ðnfn Ifom 83045. !ondon: ISÐ! InfornnfIonnI, l983.
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CoµyvIuLt
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Licensed Copy: Mr. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 09/12/2010 01:52, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI

Licensed Copy: Mr. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 09/12/2010 01:52, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI

Licensed Copy: Mr. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. (c) BSI . 09/12/2010 01:52. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. Uncontrolled Copy.

Uncontrolled Copy. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User.Licensed Copy: Mr. (c) BSI . 09/12/2010 01:52.

Licensed Copy: Mr. Uncontrolled Copy. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. 09/12/2010 01:52. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. (c) BSI .

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User.Licensed Copy: Mr. Uncontrolled Copy. 09/12/2010 01:52. (c) BSI . Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.

(c) BSI . 09/12/2010 01:52.Licensed Copy: Mr. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. Uncontrolled Copy.

(c) BSI . Uncontrolled Copy. 09/12/2010 01:52.Licensed Copy: Mr. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.

Licensed Copy: Mr. (c) BSI . 09/12/2010 01:52. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Uncontrolled Copy. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User.

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. 09/12/2010 01:52. (c) BSI . Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. Uncontrolled Copy.Licensed Copy: Mr.

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. 09/12/2010 01:52. Uncontrolled Copy.Licensed Copy: Mr. (c) BSI . Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. 09/12/2010 01:52.Licensed Copy: Mr. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Uncontrolled Copy. (c) BSI .

Licensed Copy: Mr. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. (c) BSI . 09/12/2010 01:52. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Uncontrolled Copy.

(c) BSI .Licensed Copy: Mr. 09/12/2010 01:52. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Uncontrolled Copy.

inwind depth. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. Uncontrolled Copy. wind angle Wind 6Ho Profile of displacement height Ho 2Ho He D Hr 0. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. (c) BSI W1 L L W 1 W H1 H 2 H2 L2 a) Fixed dimensions: length. width. height D D B Wind θ Wind B General cases Orthogonal cases b) Variable dimensions: crosswind breadth. 09/12/2010 01:52.Licensed Copy: Mr.8Ho Hd Xo c) Displacement height and effective height B Plan Wind .

Licensed Copy: Mr. Uncontrolled Copy. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. (c) BSI . Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. 09/12/2010 01:52.

09/12/2010 01:52. (c) BSI . Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.Licensed Copy: Mr. Uncontrolled Copy. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User.

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.Licensed Copy: Mr. Uncontrolled Copy. 09/12/2010 01:52. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. (c) BSI .

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User.Licensed Copy: Mr. 09/12/2010 01:52. Uncontrolled Copy. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. (c) BSI .

Licensed Copy: Mr. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 09/12/2010 01:52, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI

Licensed Copy: Mr. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 09/12/2010 01:52, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI

Licensed Copy: Mr. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 09/12/2010 01:52, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Uncontrolled Copy. (c) BSI . 09/12/2010 01:52. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User.Licensed Copy: Mr.

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. 09/12/2010 01:52. Uncontrolled Copy.Licensed Copy: Mr. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. (c) BSI .

09/12/2010 01:52. Uncontrolled Copy. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. (c) BSI . Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.Licensed Copy: Mr.

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User.Licensed Copy: Mr. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. (c) BSI . Uncontrolled Copy. 09/12/2010 01:52.

3 _ 1.3. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Uncontrolled Copy. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. downwind slope < 0.05 D b) Escarpment (0.3 Downwind slope ψ D> 0. (c) BSI Wind Topography significant for shaded area Upwind slope ψ U> 0.05) and cliff (upwind slope > 0. 09/12/2010 01:52.05.05) Wind Upwind slope ψ U> 0.05 0.5 x slope length if ψ U < 0.5 x slope length if ψ U < 0.05 Δ T = base of topography Z = slope height = = L U = slope length a) Hill and ridge (upwind slope > 0. downwind slope<0.6 x slope height if ψ U > 0.05) .3 5 x slope height if ψ U > 0.3 > upwind slope > 0.3 _ Δ T = base of topography = Z = slope height = L U = slope length Downwind slope ψ < 0.Licensed Copy: Mr.05: downwind slope > 0.05 Topography significant for shaded area 1.

Uncontrolled Copy. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.Licensed Copy: Mr. (c) BSI . Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. 09/12/2010 01:52.

09/12/2010 01:52. Uncontrolled Copy.Licensed Copy: Mr. (c) BSI . Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User.

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. 09/12/2010 01:52. Uncontrolled Copy.Licensed Copy: Mr. (c) BSI .

Licensed Copy: Mr. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 09/12/2010 01:52, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI

Licensed Copy: Mr. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 09/12/2010 01:52, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI

Licensed Copy: Mr. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 09/12/2010 01:52, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. Uncontrolled Copy. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. (c) BSI .Licensed Copy: Mr. 09/12/2010 01:52.

Licensed Copy: Mr. Uncontrolled Copy. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. (c) BSI . 09/12/2010 01:52.

(c) BSI . Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Uncontrolled Copy.Licensed Copy: Mr. 09/12/2010 01:52.

09/12/2010 01:52. Uncontrolled Copy. (c) BSI . Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.Licensed Copy: Mr.

Licensed Copy: Mr. 09/12/2010 01:52. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. (c) BSI . Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. Uncontrolled Copy.

Licensed Copy: Mr. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. (c) BSI . Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. 09/12/2010 01:52. Uncontrolled Copy.

09/12/2010 01:52. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User.Licensed Copy: Mr. (c) BSI Wind Hr = H A B C C a) Cut-out downwind: tall part long C Hr B A H1 Wind C B A b) Cut-out upwind: tall part long A B C B A C B A c) Cut-out downwind: tall part narrow d) Cut-out upwind: tall part narrow H 2= H r Wind Wind H1 Hr Hr H1 H 2= H r . Uncontrolled Copy. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.

Uncontrolled Copy.2b 1 b 2 /3 A E B C B1 H1 Hr A B C . 09/12/2010 01:52. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. (c) BSI Wind Wind Hr > 0.Licensed Copy: Mr. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Uncontrolled Copy. (c) BSI . 09/12/2010 01:52.Licensed Copy: Mr. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User.

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. 09/12/2010 01:52. (c) BSI .Licensed Copy: Mr. Uncontrolled Copy.

09/12/2010 01:52. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. Uncontrolled Copy. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.Licensed Copy: Mr. (c) BSI .

Licensed Copy: Mr. Uncontrolled Copy. (c) BSI a) Parapets Hr H h Hr= H b) Curved eaves Hr = H > b/10 r Roof zones start from here α c) Mansard eaves Roof zones start from here . Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. 09/12/2010 01:52. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.

09/12/2010 01:52. (c) BSI W A C b/2 b/2 Upper strorey Take pressure coefficients on adjacent wall of this zone ind D B A b b . Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Uncontrolled Copy.Licensed Copy: Mr. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User.

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. (c) BSI .Licensed Copy: Mr. 09/12/2010 01:52. Uncontrolled Copy.

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. (c) BSI . 09/12/2010 01:52. Uncontrolled Copy.Licensed Copy: Mr.

Uncontrolled Copy. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.Licensed Copy: Mr. (c) BSI . 09/12/2010 01:52. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User.

Uncontrolled Copy.Licensed Copy: Mr. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. (c) BSI . 09/12/2010 01:52.

(c) BSI . Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. Uncontrolled Copy. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.Licensed Copy: Mr. 09/12/2010 01:52.

(c) BSI .Licensed Copy: Mr. 09/12/2010 01:52. Uncontrolled Copy. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.

09/12/2010 01:52. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. Uncontrolled Copy. (c) BSI .Licensed Copy: Mr.

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. (c) BSI . Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Uncontrolled Copy.Licensed Copy: Mr. 09/12/2010 01:52.

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. 09/12/2010 01:52. Uncontrolled Copy.Licensed Copy: Mr. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. (c) BSI .

Uncontrolled Copy. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. 09/12/2010 01:52.Licensed Copy: Mr. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. (c) BSI .

Licensed Copy: Mr. Uncontrolled Copy. 09/12/2010 01:52. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. (c) BSI .

(c) BSI . Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. 09/12/2010 01:52. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.Licensed Copy: Mr. Uncontrolled Copy.

Uncontrolled Copy.Licensed Copy: Mr. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. 09/12/2010 01:52. (c) BSI . Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User.

(c) BSI . Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. Uncontrolled Copy. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.Licensed Copy: Mr. 09/12/2010 01:52.

09/12/2010 01:52. (c) BSI .Licensed Copy: Mr. Uncontrolled Copy. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User.

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User.Licensed Copy: Mr. 09/12/2010 01:52. (c) BSI . Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Uncontrolled Copy.

7 0. (c) BSI Reduction factor.6 0. Uncontrolled Copy.1 0. L/B 100 .8 0.4 Circular Sharp-edged Sharp-edged and circular 0. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.Licensed Copy: Mr.1 1 10 Ratio of length and breadth. κ 0. 09/12/2010 01:52.5 0.9 1. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User.0 1.

(c) BSI A A B Plan 2h 0.3 h B Corner or free end C 4h D Without return corner C _ >h A B C D D With return corner h = Hr .Licensed Copy: Mr. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. 09/12/2010 01:52. Uncontrolled Copy.

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Uncontrolled Copy. 09/12/2010 01:52. (c) BSI . Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User.Licensed Copy: Mr.

Uncontrolled Copy. (c) BSI . 09/12/2010 01:52. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.Licensed Copy: Mr.

Licensed Copy: Mr. 09/12/2010 01:52. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. (c) BSI . Uncontrolled Copy. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User.

(c) BSI . Uncontrolled Copy. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. 09/12/2010 01:52. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.Licensed Copy: Mr.

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. (c) BSI .Licensed Copy: Mr. 09/12/2010 01:52. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Uncontrolled Copy.

(c) BSI . Uncontrolled Copy. 09/12/2010 01:52. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.Licensed Copy: Mr.

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User.Licensed Copy: Mr. 09/12/2010 01:52. Uncontrolled Copy. (c) BSI . Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.

09/12/2010 01:52. (c) BSI . Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Uncontrolled Copy.Licensed Copy: Mr.

09/12/2010 01:52. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. (c) BSI .Licensed Copy: Mr. Uncontrolled Copy. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.Licensed Copy: Mr. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. 09/12/2010 01:52. Uncontrolled Copy. (c) BSI .

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. 09/12/2010 01:52. (c) BSI . Uncontrolled Copy.Licensed Copy: Mr.

Licensed Copy: Mr. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Uncontrolled Copy. (c) BSI . Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. 09/12/2010 01:52.

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. Uncontrolled Copy. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.Licensed Copy: Mr. 09/12/2010 01:52. (c) BSI .

Uncontrolled Copy. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. 09/12/2010 01:52. (c) BSI . Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User.Licensed Copy: Mr.

(c) BSI .Licensed Copy: Mr. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. 09/12/2010 01:52. Uncontrolled Copy. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.

09/12/2010 01:52. (c) BSI .Licensed Copy: Mr. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. Uncontrolled Copy. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.

Licensed Copy: Mr. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 09/12/2010 01:52, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI

Licensed Copy: Mr. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 09/12/2010 01:52, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI

Licensed Copy: Mr. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 09/12/2010 01:52, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI

Uncontrolled Copy.Licensed Copy: Mr. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. (c) BSI D D d in W W in d b) Wide recess a) Narrow recess A C A C A B A W G < b/2 = b C C G > b/2 A C B A C C C θ B A θ B A . 09/12/2010 01:52.

(c) BSI . Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Uncontrolled Copy.Licensed Copy: Mr. 09/12/2010 01:52.

09/12/2010 01:52.Licensed Copy: Mr. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. Uncontrolled Copy. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. (c) BSI .

Licensed Copy: Mr. Uncontrolled Copy. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. 09/12/2010 01:52. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. (c) BSI .

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User.Licensed Copy: Mr. (c) BSI . Uncontrolled Copy. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. 09/12/2010 01:52.

09/12/2010 01:52. (c) BSI . Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User.Licensed Copy: Mr. Uncontrolled Copy.

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. 09/12/2010 01:52. (c) BSI . Uncontrolled Copy.Licensed Copy: Mr.

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. (c) BSI . Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Uncontrolled Copy. 09/12/2010 01:52.Licensed Copy: Mr.

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Uncontrolled Copy. (c) BSI . 09/12/2010 01:52.Licensed Copy: Mr.

(c) BSI .Licensed Copy: Mr. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. 09/12/2010 01:52. Uncontrolled Copy.

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. (c) BSI . 09/12/2010 01:52. Uncontrolled Copy.Licensed Copy: Mr.

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. (c) BSI . Uncontrolled Copy. 09/12/2010 01:52.Licensed Copy: Mr. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User.

Uncontrolled Copy. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. (c) BSI .Licensed Copy: Mr. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. 09/12/2010 01:52.

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. 09/12/2010 01:52.Licensed Copy: Mr. (c) BSI . Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. Uncontrolled Copy.

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. (c) BSI . 09/12/2010 01:52.Licensed Copy: Mr. Uncontrolled Copy. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User.

Uncontrolled Copy. (c) BSI . 09/12/2010 01:52. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.Licensed Copy: Mr.

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. Uncontrolled Copy. 09/12/2010 01:52.Licensed Copy: Mr. (c) BSI .

Uncontrolled Copy. (c) BSI . Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. 09/12/2010 01:52. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.Licensed Copy: Mr.

Licensed Copy: Mr. (c) BSI . Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. 09/12/2010 01:52. Uncontrolled Copy.

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Uncontrolled Copy.Licensed Copy: Mr. 09/12/2010 01:52. (c) BSI .

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. (c) BSI . Uncontrolled Copy. 09/12/2010 01:52.Licensed Copy: Mr. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User.

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User.Licensed Copy: Mr. (c) BSI . Uncontrolled Copy. 09/12/2010 01:52. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.

Licensed Copy: Mr. Uncontrolled Copy. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. (c) BSI . Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. 09/12/2010 01:52.

Licensed Copy: Mr. 09/12/2010 01:52. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Uncontrolled Copy. (c) BSI .

Licensed Copy: Mr. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Uncontrolled Copy. 09/12/2010 01:52. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. (c) BSI .

Licensed Copy: Mr. (c) BSI . 09/12/2010 01:52. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Uncontrolled Copy.

(c) BSI . Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Uncontrolled Copy. 09/12/2010 01:52. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User.Licensed Copy: Mr.

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.Licensed Copy: Mr. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. (c) BSI . 09/12/2010 01:52. Uncontrolled Copy.

Licensed Copy: Mr. 09/12/2010 01:52. (c) BSI . Uncontrolled Copy. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. 09/12/2010 01:52. (c) BSI Ho Wind Profile of displacement height 2Ho 0.8Ho Xo Hd He 6Ho Hr .Licensed Copy: Mr. Uncontrolled Copy.

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. (c) BSI . Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. Uncontrolled Copy. 09/12/2010 01:52.Licensed Copy: Mr.

(c) BSI . Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User.Licensed Copy: Mr. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. 09/12/2010 01:52. Uncontrolled Copy.

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. 09/12/2010 01:52. (c) BSI .Licensed Copy: Mr. Uncontrolled Copy.

09/12/2010 01:52.Licensed Copy: Mr. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. (c) BSI . Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Uncontrolled Copy.

Licensed Copy: Mr. (c) BSI . 09/12/2010 01:52. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Uncontrolled Copy. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User.

Licensed Copy: Mr. (c) BSI . Uncontrolled Copy. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. 09/12/2010 01:52.

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. Uncontrolled Copy. 09/12/2010 01:52. (c) BSI .Licensed Copy: Mr. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. 09/12/2010 01:52.Licensed Copy: Mr. Uncontrolled Copy. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. (c) BSI .

Uncontrolled Copy.Licensed Copy: Mr. (c) BSI . 09/12/2010 01:52. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia User. 09/12/2010 01:52. Uncontrolled Copy. (c) BSI .Licensed Copy: Mr. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.