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Mango (Mangifera indica L.) belonging to Family Anacardiaceae is the most important commercially grown fruit crop of the country. It is called the king of fruits. India has the richest collection of mango cultivars. 2. OBJECTIVE The main objective of the study is to promote commercial cultivation of the crop by small and middle scale farmers by projecting a one acre bankable model project. 3. BACKGROUND 3.1 Origin
Cultivation of mango is believed to have originated in S.E. Asia. Mango is being cultivated in southern Asia for nearly six thousand years. 3.2 Area & Production
India ranks first among world¶s mango producing countries accounting for about 50% of the world¶s mango production. Other major mango producing countries include China, Thailand, Mexico, Pakistan, Philippines, Indonesia, Brazil, Nigeria and Egypt. India¶s share is around 52% of world production i.e. 12 million tonnes as against world¶s production of 23 million tonnes (2002-03). An increasing trend has been observed in world mango production averaging 22 million metric tonnes per year. Worldwide production is mostly concentrated in Asia, accounting for 75% followed by South and Northern America with about 10% share. Area under cultivation and production trends of mangoes in India during 1997-98 to 2001-02 are depicted in graphs 1 & 2. Major producing States are Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Orissa, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. Other States where mangoes are grown include Madhya Pradesh, Kerala, Haryana, Punjab etc. (Ref. Table1)
Production & Productivity of Mangoes during 2001-02 State Area (µ000 Ha.7 402.4 65.6 438.3 213.4 585.6 10020.The state-wise area and production of mangoes are given in Table 1 below: Table 1 : State-wise Area.0 457.3 65.3 115.5 1130.8 Production (µ000 MT) 2445.) Andhra Pradesh Uttar Pradesh Maharashtra Bihar Karnataka Tamil Nadu Orissa West Bengal Gujarat Others TOTAL 341.4 139.8 1950.2 .0 559.0 164.4 110.0 1253.7 1575.6 797.8 107.2 253.
3 Economic Importance The fruit is very popular with the masses due to its wide range of adaptability. pickle. It is a rich source of vitamin A and C. Good mango varieties contain 20% of total soluble sugars. MARKET ANALYSIS AND STRATEGY 4. Presently. higher prices found during February and March. The fruit is consumed raw or ripe. Philippines. of India. the raw fruit of local varieties of mango are used for preparing pickle and raw slices in brine on commercial scale while fruits of Alphonso variety are used for squash in coastal western zone. Its starch is used in confectionery industry. the prices vary with the season.1 World Trade Among internationally traded tropical fruits. chutney. . Pakistan. Each exporting country has its own varieties. 3. diuretic and laxative properties. Indonesia.1 Demand and Supply patterns 4. The mango kernel also contains about 8-10% good quality fat which can be used for saponification. The acid content of ripe desert fruit varies from 0.5 % and protein content is about 1 %. Japan. Their supplies come mainly from India. Southeast Asian buyers consume mangoes all year round.1. which differ in shape. murabba. Malaysia. The ripe fruit has fattening. colour and flavour. Australia and most recently South Africa. amchur. mango ranks only second to pineapple in quantity and value. when mango availability is lowest. Major markets for fresh and dried mangoes in 1998 were: Malaysia. high nutritive value. The wood is used as timber. The crop accounts for 39% of area under fruit corps in India and 23% of production of these crops. Thailand. richness in variety. It helps to increase digestive capacity. Australia. Prices are very low for Indonesian and Thailand fruit and are on the higher side for Indian fruit. Ministry of Agriculture . Mango also has medicinal uses. 4. Hong Kong and the Netherlands. delicious taste and excellent flavour. Germany. while for canned mango were: Netherlands. Raw fruits of local varieties of mango trees are used for preparing various traditional products like raw slices in brine. Govt.Source : Database of National Horticulture Board. In the United States of America. and dried twigs are used for religious purposes. France and USA. United Kingdom. Singapore.2 to 0. panhe (sharabat) etc.
whereas United Kingdom imports are concentrated during the May to July.000 MT of Alphonso variety is exported to Middle East. squash. Fifty-four percent of European Union imports enter during the periods May to July and November to December. pack house. The varieties in demand at the international market include Kent. UK and Netherlands every year. Bahrain. Alphonso and Kesar. efforts are being made to exploit European. South Africa during January to April and Venezuela during April to July.. American and Asian markets. the United States during June to October. 4.1. Tomy Atkin. German imports are spread more evenly throughout the year. grading packing line etc. µMahamango¶. cold storages. European Union buyers source mangoes from South America and Asia.2 International Markets for Indian Mango Asian producers find it easier to expand sales to the European Union. Banganapalli and several other varieties that are currently in demand in the international markets are produced and exported from India. Southeast Asian countries get most of their supplies from the Philippines and Thailand. Dashehari. Singapore and U.A. Besides these. Kuwait. Facilities like pre-cooling. Malaysia. jam. Indian exports take place mainly during the month of May. Nepal. India and Pakistan are the predominant suppliers to the West Asian market. These are being exported to U. Pakistan supplies the majority of its exports to the European Union during June and July. France. Europe¶s acceptance of different varieties is greater. whereas proximity gives Mexico and Haiti a clear advantage in supplying to the United States market.Most international trade in fresh mangoes takes place within short distances. have been made available at the facility centre of .. Although Asia accounts for 75 percent of world production. About 13.K. Haiti and Brazil account for the majority of North America¶s imports. Transportation costs are not as big a factor in exporting mangoes to the European Union as in exporting to the United States market: for example. a co-operative society was established in 1991 with the support of Maharashtra State Agricultural & Marketing Board (Pune). because of a large demand from Asian immigrant groups. its dominance does not translate into international trade. Kesar. Although a lion¶s share of Indian mango goes to the Gulf countries. pickles. The different products of mango which are exported include mango chutney. juice.S.K. Kuwait and Russia. pulp. India and Pakistan are able to compete with non-Asian suppliers to the European Union. with peak imports in June. Varieties such as Alphonso. French imports reach peak in April and May. U. Brazil provided chiefly during the period November to December. nectar and slices. This was mainly formed to boost the export of Alphonso mangoes as well as for domestic marketing. the fresh mangoes are being exported to Bangladesh. Of the top suppliers. Mexico. Phytosanitary restrictions are less stringent.
98 0. Saudi Arabia and U. Country Quantity Value (µ000 Tonnes) (Rs. Bahrain Others Total 21.A and U. The trend in export of mangoes during the period 1999-2000 to 2002-03 is given in Graph 3 and destination wise exports during 2001-02 are shown in Table-2.K. pickle and chutney are exported to U. Kuwait Oman U.94 1. U.A.K.19 6.10 28.A.E Saudi Arabia U.Mahamango for which the financial assistance was given by APEDA. Fresh mangoes are exported to Bangladesh.63 2. New Delhi and Maharashtra State Agricultural & Marketing Board (Pune). 4..92 80. Processed mango products viz. Germany.10 1.73 0. U.2 Import/Export trends India's mango exports were estimated at 45 thousand tonnes worth Rs 100 crore (Rs 1 billion) in 2002-03. U.K. in crores) Bangladesh U. New Delhi . Saudi Arabia.01 8.62 4..37 0.A.E. Netherlands.54 3.43 24. Netherlands.S. Saudi Arabia.A and U.99 Source : APEDA..K.88 0.A.E.60 3. and mango pulp to U. Table-2 : Country-wise export of mangoes from India during 200102.03 12.S. U.K.88 1.09 44..81 2. A similar type of association named µMANGROW¶ has been formed for the export of Kesar mangoes from Aurangabad district of Maharashtra.S. Kuwait.E.A.
g. mango stones. There is need for developing processing industries in the southern region of the country where post harvest losses in handling and marketing are higher.1 PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY Agro-climatic requirements Mango is well adapted to tropical and sub-tropical climates. China's market has been increasing and ranks second among the top importers in the world. 4. the mango industry has provided livelihood opportunities to its growers and those involved in its marketing channel. rapid transit. Saudi Arabia and Singapore have been among the top ten importers exhibiting an export growth average of 20% annually. /annum and dry season. e. peels remain unutilized which can be used properly by the processors to earn more profit. it affects the tree adversely. Creation of essential infra-structure for preservation.The biggest importer of mango is the United States importing an average of 1. Dry weather before .85. Europe¶s top importers of mango include Netherlands. UAE. The distribution of rainfall is more important than its amount. There is scope to establish mango preservation factories in cooperative sector. Similarly.3 Analysis and Future Strategy Mango has an established export market and poses bright opportunities for export in the international market whether in fresh or processed forms. Mango growers cooperatives on the lines of Mahamango need to encouraged to come up in major mango producing States. This will also help to improve sanitary conditions around factory premises.000 metric tonnes annually (about 45% of the total world import volume). High temperature by itself is not so injurious to mango. refrigerated transportation. It cannot stand severe frost. cold storage. It thrives well in almost all the regions of the country but cannot be grown commercially in areas above 600 m. Germany and Belgium with an aggregate average volume of 95. 5. Considerable amount of waste material. grading. processing. This will add to their income through processing and create additional employment opportunities for the rural people. Of late Asian market has been expanding.000 metric tonnes imported annually. but in combination with low humidity and high winds. France. packaging and quality control are the important aspects which needs more attention. Mango varieties usually thrive well in places with rainfall in the range of 75-375 cm. UK. Other Asian markets such as Malaysia. 5. especially when the tree is young.
Srikakulam. Nadia Varieties Cultivated In India. Balagha Ratnagiri. Hoshiarpur. Sindega. Kolar. Rayagada. Surat. Puri Gurdaspur. Each of the main varieties of mango has an unique taste and flavour. Vishakhapatnam. Kathwa. Bageshwar. Strong winds and cyclones during fruiting season can play havoc as they cause excessive fruit drop.2 Growing and Potential Belts Mango is cultivated in almost all the states of India. Adilabad. Rajgari. Raipur. Bastar. Vijaynagar Jabalpur. Haridwar Saharanpur. Ramnandgaon. Gunpur. Malappuram Rewa. Varanasi Malda. about 1. Rain during flowering is detrimental to the crop as it interferes with pollination. Hazaribagh. Kagu Kannur.500 varieties of mango are grown including 1. Chittoor. Tiruvallur. . Godda. Ganjam. Ropar Dharmapuri. Theni. The state-wise growing belts are given in the following : State Andhra Pradesh Chhattisgarh Gujarat Haryana Jammu & Kashmir Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Orissa Punjab Tamil Nadu Uttaranchal Uttar Pradesh West Bengal 5. However. Bulandshahar. Madurai Almora. Junagarh. Raigarh Sonepur. well drained. rain during fruit development is good but heavy rains cause damage to ripening fruits. Bangalore. Faizabad. Bastar Bhavnagar. Jabalpur. Dehradun. Murshidabad. aerated and deep soils rich in organic matter with a pH range of 5. Bolangir. Khamman. alluvial. Lucknow. Sahibganj. Durg. UdhamSingh Nagar. Katni. Udhampur Ranchi. East and West Godavari. Koraput. Khera Karnal. Mehsana.blossoming is conducive to profuse flowering. Dhenkanal. Gajapati.5 are ideal for mango cultivation. Kurushetra Jammu. Nainital. Valsad. Malkanpuri. Bilaspur. Gumla. Sindhudurg. Palakkad. Satna. Vellore.3 Growing belts Krishna.5 to 7. Loamy. 5. Dumka. Trissur.000 commercial varieties. Tumkur.
Arka Aruna (Banganapalli x Alphonso). Sarauli. Vanraj Baneshan. Mallika. Pairi Alphonso. Fazli Bombai. varieties may be classified as under : Early Mid-season Late Bombai. Neelphonso. PKM 2 (very few of these hybrid varieties are grown commercially in the country). Chausa. Sunder Langra. Gulabkhas. Chausa. Bangalora. Langra. Himsagar. Alphonso. Langra. Neelum. Fazli Fernandin. Gulab Khas. Kesar. Olour. Amrapalli. Langra. Himsagar. Langra Jardalu. Chausa Hybrids: Amrapalli (Dashehari x Neelum). The important mango varieties cultivated in different states of India are given below : State Andhra Pradesh Bihar Goa Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Tamil Nadu Uttar Pradesh West Bengal Varieties grown Allumpur Baneshan.Based on time of ripening . Dashehari. Neelum. Totapuri. Bangalora. Himayuddin. Langra. Bombay Green. Dashehari. Ratna (Neelum x Alphonso). Sukul. Langra. Langra. Cherukurasam. Rumani. Bangalora. Neeleshwari. Mankurad Alphonso. Mankurad Fazli. Baganapalli. Fernandin. Gulabi. Kishen Bhog. Zardalu. Kishen Bhog. Mulgoa. Chausa. Langra. Mankurad. Himsagar. Amrapalli. Fazli. Kishen Bhog. Neeleshan. Bangalora. Bombai. Sindhu (Ratna x Alphonso). Bombay Green . Fazli Chausa. Mulgoa. Totapuri Bombay Green. Arka Puneet (Alphonso x Janardhan Pasand). Langra Banganapalli. Langra Dashehari. Banganapalli. Langra. Arka Neelkiran (Alpohonso x Neelum). Kesar. Amrapalli. Mulgoa. Dashehari. PKM 1 (Chinnasuvernarekha x Neelum). Neelum. Suvernarekha. Au Rumani (Rumani x Mulgoa). Himsagar. Totapuri Mundappa. Mallika (Neelum x Dashehari). Pairi. Kesar. Chausa. Jawahar. Vanraj. Neelum. Neelum. Dashehari. Malda Bombay Green. Pairi. Suvernarekha Alphonso. Mankurad. Fazli. Dashehari. Mallika Dashehari. Chausa. Dashehari. Chausa. Safeda Lucknow. Banganapalli. Mallika - . Vanraj. Jamadar. Neelum. Zardalu. Sabri. Neelum. Suvarnarekha. Rajapuri. Gulabkhas Alphonso. Amrapalli. Manjeera (Rumani x Neelum). Langra. Bombai. Mulgoa. Dashehari. Totapuri Bathua. Alfazli. Rajapuri. Mallika Alphonso. Sunderja.
x 12m. In the model scheme. P2O5. K2O 1kg.4 5. The following table gives the details of fertilizer applied (depending upon the age of the plants) : Age of the plant (in years) 1* 10 11 Fertilizer applied 100g. 100g. 500g. with a population of 63 plants per acre has been considered which was observed to be common in areas covered during a field study. a spacing of 8m.5 Training of Plants Training of plants in the initial stages of growth is very important to give them a proper shape specially in cases where the graft has branched too low. 5. and 12m. x 10m. one half immediately after the harvesting of fruits in June/July and the other half in October. Foliar application of 3 % urea in sandy soils is recommended before flowering. P2O5. 50g. N.3 Spacing The planting distance is 10m.5. in dry and moist zones respectively. in both young and old orchards followed by irrigation if there are no rains. x 8m. 5. inarching and epicotyl grafting etc.4. K2O -do- . planting is taken up at the end of rainy season. 1kg.4. 5. 5.2 Planting Season Planting is usually done in the month of July-August in rainfed areas and during February-March in irrigated areas. Plants are generally propagated vegetatively by using several techniques like veneer grafting.6 Nutrition Fertilizers may be applied in two split doses .4.1 Planting Planting Material Mango can be propagated from seed or propagated vegetatively. In case of heavy rainfall zones. N.
during the pre-monsoon. For trench application of fertilizers. 5-8/ fruit set to maturity Full bearing stage y Irrigated after every 10-15 days y 2-3 irrigations after fruit set. the area between the basins should be ploughed at least three times in a year i. Well decomposed farm-yard manure may be applied every year. Micronutrients may be applied as per the requirement in the form of foliar sprays. 5.7 Irrigation The frequency and amount of irrigation to be provided depends on the type of soil. 400g. No irrigation is required during the monsoon months unless there are long spells of drought.e. Frequent irrigation during 2-3 months prior to the flowering season is not advisable as it is likely to promote vegetative growth at the expense of flowering. rainfall and its distribution and lastly the age of the trees. In case of mono-cropping.4-5 days . oilseeds like mustard.8 Intercultural Operations The frequency and the time of inter-culture operations vary with age of the orchards and existence of inter-crops. The weed problem may not exist immediately after planting the mango crop but it is advisable to break the crust with hand hoe each time after 10-15 irrigations are applied. each of N and K2O and 200g. The method usually followed for irrigating mango plants is basin irrigation. . cereals like wheat. gram etc. black gram. post-monsoon period and in the last week of November.9 Inter-cropping Intercropping can be taken up till the mango trees attain suitable height and develop canopy (at 5-6 years of age). sesame and groundnut. Irrigation should be given at 50% field capacity. use of Drip Irrigation will not only reduce the water requirements but will also help in fertigation in root zones of the plants.Leguminous crops like green gram. Generally inter-crops are grown during the early years of plantation and hence frequency and method of irrigation has to be adjusted accordingly. prevailing climatic conditions. Age of the plant (in Irrigation schedule years)/Growth stage 1 y Irrigated at an interval of 2-3 days during dry season. 5. However. cauliflower. vegetable crops such as cabbage. of P2O5 per plant should be provided. 5.*The doses applied in the subsequent years should be increased every year upto 10 years in the multiple of the first year¶s dose.. 2-5 y Irrigation interval.
10. can be cultivated in fully grown orchards.10. potato. fruit fly and scale insects.1 Regulation of Bearing Proper cultural practices like addition of fertilizers and control of diseases and insect pests may be adopted to regulate growth and bearing.11 Plant Protection Measures 5. monocrotophos. cucumber.4-D (2g. The average cost of inter cropping would be Rs. tinda. die back. lady¶s finger etc. pumpkin. disturbed water relation.It is advisable to take vegetable crops as inter crops for better returns. water) in the last week of April or in the last week of May will control to some extent the summer fruit drop in Langra & Dashehari. inflorescence midge. and spices like chillies can be grown as intercrops. biennial bearing. blight. phosphamidon & methyl parathion are recommended. lack of nutrition. hopper. The major among these are malformation. less exhaustive and dwarf type inter. clustering etc. For controlling these insects. some short duration . Disorders can also affect the crop if proper case and control measures are not taken. 5. plum etc. etc. The . guava. Regular bearing varieties viz. fruit drop. 5. 2. (20 g. black tip. Dashehari and Amrapalli may be grown. 5. climatic factors .10. A spray of Alar (BNine) @ 100 ppm.1 Insect Pests Insect pests mostly observed are mealy bug.tomato. In addition to field crops. water) during µon¶ year may help to regulate the bearing. Deblossoming of the panicles with NAA @ 200 ppm. attack of disease and pest.11. turmeric etc. bitter gourd.10 Crop Management 5.fillers like papaya. ginger.2 Diseases and Disorders The crop is suspect to diseases like powdery mildew. 5.11. or 20 ppm. The partial shade loving crops like pineapple. peach.000 / Acre and it would yield on an average of 6 tonnes / Acres. red rust. in 100 l.2 Regulation of Fruit Drop Embryo abortion. brinjal. anthracnose. In order to control these diseases spraying of appropriate chemicals/fungicides have to be undertaken preferably on preventive basis./100 l. can be grown till these do not interfere with the main mango crop . spraying with carbaryl. sooty mould. hormonal imbalances are the major factors that lead to fruit drop.
Immature. smaller fruits are separated from the larger ones in order to achieve uniform ripening.1 POST HARVEST MANAGEMENT Grading Grading is mainly based on the size. The . overripe. Langra at 140 C and Chausa at 80 C with 85-90 % relative humidity. 6. 5. damaged and diseased fruits are discarded in the process of grading. plant population etc. the yield ranges from 5 to 9 t/acre. Grafted plants start bearing early.) in hot water at 52±20 C for 5 minutes.8ml.grower needs to seek advice and professional assistance to prevent/control diseases and disorders in the crop. 6. Yield of fruits varies considerably according to the variety. colour and maturity of the fruits. within 4-8 days under ambient conditions. The fruits are generally harvested early in the season at a pre-mature stage to capture early market. 6. On an average. Mature fruits are ripened with lower doses of ethrel for uniform colour development. The harvested fruits are pre-cooled to 10-120 C and then stored at an appropriate temperature.2 Storage The mature green fruits can be stored at room temperature for about 4-10 days depending upon the variety. climatic conditions. of fruit is used for packaging and transportation of mango fruits.12 Harvesting and Yield The orchard starts bearing from sixth year onwards and the economic life of a mango tree exceeds 35 years. The fruits of Dashehari. ethrel (1. 6. rectangular in shape and bamboo baskets having capacity to accommodate 5 to 8kg./l. While grading.3 Packing Wooden or cardboard boxes. Such fruits are ripened by uniformly dipping in 750 ppm. Mallika and Amrapalli should be stored at 120 C.
O. Uttar Pradesh. Tel (05270)-2262097/2161. Ratnagiri415712. Indian Institute of Horticultural Research. Acharya NG Ranga Agricultural University. Maharashtra-560003 (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) . Rahuri-413722. University of Agricultural Sciences.4 Transportation Road transport by trucks is the most popular mode of transport due to easy approach from orchards to the market. Dharwad-580005. New Delhi-110012. Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth. Tel (02358)-2282064. TECHNOLOGY SOURCES The major sources for technology. Karnataka. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth. Andhra Pradesh. 7. Hyderabad500030. Rajendra Nagar. Uttar Pradesh. Shivajinagar. Maharashtra. of fruit. Tel (080)-28466471/6353. Hessarghatta. as well as quality planting material are: (i) Central Institute for Sub-tropical Horticulture. Tel (02426) 2243208. Kakori. Size of the box varies to accommodate 5 to 10 kg. Tel (0522)-2841022/1023. Directorate of Horticulture. Pune.most commonly used containers are ventilated card board boxes of corrugated fibre board (CFB) cartons. Dapoli District.5 Marketing Marketing of the produce is mainly controlled by intermediaries like wholesalers and commission agents. 6. Lucknow-226002. Kumarganj. Bangalore-560089. P. Indian Agricultural Research Institute. Maharashtra. Tel (0836)2447783. Karnataka. Faizabad224229. Tel (040)-24015078. Narendra Deva University of Agriculture & Technology. Dr. 6.
No. Uttar Pradesh ECONOMICS OF A ONE ACRE MODEL High quality commercial cultivation of crop by using improved planting material and drip irrigation leads to multiple benefits viz. Bangalore. Lalbagh. Improved fruit quality. 8. Hyderabad. High efficiency in water application and water use efficiency.) Sl.1 Directorate of Horticulture. y y y y y y y y Synchronized growth. High fertilizer use efficiency. Reduction in variation of off-type and non-fruit plants. Directorate of Horticulture. Minimum incidence of pests and diseases. Directorate of Horticulture.(x) (xi) (xii) 8.1. Increase in average productivity. A summary is given in the figure below. The cost components of such a model along with the basis for costing are exhibited in Annexures I & II. Lucknow. Andhra Pradesh. Component Proposed Expenditure . Early maturity. flowering and harvesting. The project cost works out to around Rs. COST OF PROJECT (Amount in Rs. Costs & Returns: 8.2 A one acre plantation of the crop is a highly viable proposition.50 lakhs per acre. Karnataka.
4.1. This is part cost of tube-well. Drip Irrigation & Fertigation System (Rs. it is necessary to install a bore well with diesel/electric pumpset and motor.0 thousand): This is average cost of one acre drip system for mango inclusive of the cost of fertigation equipment.000 45. if newly purchased (Please indicate the year)* Grand Total 2. y y y . 5.400 3.0 thousand): This is the labour cost of shaping and dressing the land site and developing a layout. 6.600 21.000 29.000 8.000 5.29.000 15.000 5. (Power) Subtotal Irrigation (i) Tube-well/submersible pump (ii) Cost of Pipeline (iii) Others.000 *Cost of newly purchased land will be limited to one-tenth of the total project cost 8. 3. if any. 2.000 2.400 4.000 25.25.000 5. Cultivation Expenses (i) Cost of planting material (ii) Manures & fertilizers (iii) Insecticides & pesticides (iv) Cost of Labour (v) Others.600 33. Fencing (Rs.50.000 45.600 1.3 The major components of the model are: y Land Development: (Rs.60 thousand): It is necessary to guard the orchard by barbed wire fencing to safeguard the valuable produce from poaching. 4. please specify Subtotal Cost of Drip/Sprinkler Infrastructure (i) Store & pump house (ii) Labour room (iii) Agriculture Equipments Subtotal Land Development (i) Soil Leveling (ii) Fencing Subtotal Land. Irrigation Infra-structure (Rs. if any.45 thousand): For effective working with drip irrigation system.4000 25.
Recurring Production Cost: Recurring production costs in the pre & post-operative period are exhibited in Annexures III & III A respectively.4 Labour cost has been put at an average of Rs.0 thousand): This is to cover costs of land preparation and planting operations. 8.5 8.20. liming material. inputs and power.00 .7 Balance Sheet: The projected balance sheet of the model is given at Annexure IV.application ( FYM. labour cost on application of inputs. y y 8.25.00 45.00 30.). plant growth regulators. The produce has been valued at Rs.4 thousand): For investment on improved manually operated essential implements a provision of another Rs. power. harvesting. inputs .70 per man-day. interest on term loan.000 annually. Cultivation (Rs. y Equipment/Implements (Rs. inter-cultural and other farm operations. Returns from the Project: In the development stage returns from inter-cropping are estimated at Rs. Building and Storage (Rs.21. fertilizers.The actual cost will vary depending on location.0 thousand): A one acre orchard would require minimally a labour shed and a store-cum pump house. There would be three sources of financing the project as below: Source Farmer¶s share Capital subsidy Term loan Rs. plant population and plot geometry. The yield from the plantation is estimated at 5 tonnes in the first year of bearing rising to 7 tonnes.10 thousand is included. 10. The actual cost will vary from location to location depending upon minimum wage levels or prevailing wage levels for skilled and unskilled labour. The main components are planting material. land preparation. plant protection chemicals etc. packing and transportation. Thousand 75. planting material.000 per tonne in this exercise.5.6 Project Financing: 8.
Payback Period: On the basis of costs and returns of the model.00 Profit & Loss Account: The cash flow statement may be seen in Annexure V. The repayment schedule has been presented at Annexure-VII A.8 150.11 IRR/BCR: The viability of the project is assessed in Annexure IX over a period of 15 years.Total 8.63 years (vide Annexure XI).12 8. the pay back period is estimated at 4. Repayment of Term Loan: The term loan will be repaid in 11 equated 6 monthly installments with a moratorium of 72 months. Gross profit increases from Rs.3% of gross sales .14 .43.3 thousand per annum in the first three years of bearing and thereafter more or less stabilise. 8. The rate of interest would have to be negotiated with the financing bank.13 8.10 Project Viability: 8. 8.5 thousand per annum to Rs. It has been put at 12% in the model (vide Annexure VII). At this point fixed cost would work out to 55.9. Break-even Point: The break even point will be reached in the 3rd year.vide Annexure XII.59 and the BCR to 1.25. Annexure VI projects the profit and loss account of the model.9 8. The Debt Service coverage ratio calculations are presented in Annexure X. Depreciation calculations are given in Annexure VIII. The IRR works out to 32. The average DSCR works out to 3.83.
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