Issue 02 • 2010

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GL Noble Denton

www.gl-nobledenton.com

e n e r g y. e f f i c i e n c y. e n g i n e e r i n g .

oil & gas

Dynamic Positioning
pipeline Ensuring Reliability due diligence Building Confidence transport Hauling a Colossus

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The global independent technical advisor

A global network with a local presence
Assurance Advanced Engineering and Consulting Marine Operations Project Execution Software Solutions

15915_NS 16.09 2010

www.gl-nobledenton.com
© GL Industrial Services UK Ltd. All rights reserved.

Email: glnobledenton@gl-group.com

e d i t o r ia l

To Our Readers
The Deepwater Horizon case in the Gulf of Mexico has been dominating the headlines in

the past few months. With the successful reestablishment of well integrity in mid-July, the offshore oil and gas industry is now actively analysing the causes of the loss of life and oil spill, considering the lessons learnt and looking at how similar occurrences can be prevented. At GL Noble Denton we are assessing how we can best support our industry beyond this event and have initiated programmes to enhance the risk management of offshore drilling operations and well construction. It is clear that as our industry moves forward there will need to be greater rigour around assurance and verification activities associated with critical aspects of design and operation of wells and well control equipment. One of the biggest lessons we have all learnt is that implementation and assurance of any offshore operation requires unrelenting focus.
We are keen to assist our industry to improve performance levels. Given the

combination of skills that exist in our organisation we are uniquely placed to assist our customers with evaluating risks, setting practical performance standards and providing the assurance
John Wishart

and verification support to ensure those performance standards are delivered. Our heritage in developing class rules, operations guidelines and warranty stands us in good stead to assist our industry in a practical way to ensure that the effort the industry expends in design does indeed pay off through assured implementation.
The rules that GL already have cover “Drilling, Work Over, Production Systems and

Process Systems”, “Principles for the Construction of Underwater Working Devices and Underwater Working Machines”, “Control System, Instrumentation” and “Safety Systems”. In the ongoing exercise of lessons learnt it seems obvious that much more testing of critical equipment will be necessary to minimize failure. To fulfil this objective, while providing the much needed operational assurance that plans are indeed implemented with rigour, we will be issuing guidelines for the industry during the fourth quarter of this year.
The current edition of energize oil & gas gives an excellent insight of what

GL Noble Denton can do for our customers as an independent advisor. As our industry moves into more technically challenging areas we see the need for even more sophisticated offshore service vessels. This issue addresses dynamic positioning, highlighting the breadth of experience we have. In this edition you can also discover how mooring integrity for FPSOs can be enhanced, full-flow high-pressure testing of equipment can be undertaken in the UK, and how GL Noble Denton engineers helped transport a 28,000-tonne MOPU from Abu Dhabi to Norway. Yours sincerely,
John Wishart

President, GL Noble Denton
02/2010

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c o n t e n t s 02/2 0 1 0 26 DP I Regulatory changes for DP projects 44 FPSO Integrity of mooring systems 52 TESTING Flow Centre – a world-class facility 58 CONVERSION Elongation of a cable laying vessel NATURAL GAS METHANE RICH GAS Pretoria Randfontein Badplaas Johannesburg Lenasia Secunda Middelburg Witbank 18 EGYPT Burullus – drilling in deep water NA TU RA L GA S Komatipoort Matsulu Maputo MOZAMBIQUE SWAZILAND 29 DP II Dynamic positioning rules in the US 4 32 DP III Decisions and choices – updated GL rules 8 INTERVIEW Paul Shrieve about technical assurance 14 CRANES Convincing performance at crane inspection 40 Vanderbijlpark SOUTH AFRICA Volksrust ME TH AN ER ICH GA S Newcastle 10 Richards Bay SASOL Ensuring gas supply reliability in South Africa Durban INSTALLATION Long-legged hauling service for wind turbines energıze .

maritime and offshore assets to ensure SAFETY. Group Director Dynamic Positioning MOPU Transfer of a jack-up platform – how to haul a colossus 20 PIPES Managing pipework vibration – a challenge 48 DUE DILIGENCE Confidence builders for project financing A GLOBAL REACH IN THE OIL AND GAS CENTRES of the world. refineries and petrochemicals. fixed platforms. risers and flowlines. subsea systems. a premier provider of life cycle marine and offshore engineering services. GL Noble Denton is the MERGER BETWEEN GERMANISCHER LLOYD’S (GL) OIL & GAS BUSINESS AND NOBLE DENTON. We have strong expertise in complex oil and gas assets such as MODUs. Since January 2010. maritime and onshore oil and gas assets. We oversee and support the full lifecycle of an asset from project concept to decommissioning. build. integrity. install and operate oil and gas onshore. GL Noble Denton combines excellent engineering and analytical skills with operational experience of offshore. distribution networks as well as mobile offshore drilling units. FPSOs. OSVs – and assurance. marine operations. installation.com 5 02/2010 . GL Noble Denton is a full-service provider with broad upstream and midstream competence FOR THE COMPLETE ASSET LIFECYCLE.prof ile in br ief GL Noble Denton in Brief GL Noble Denton is a TECHNICAL ADVISOR AND TRUSTED PARTNER for the oil and gas industry. GL Noble Denton services oil and gas clients in onshore production. mobile offshore production units. they have been offering their services as GL Noble Denton. import terminals. The business segment has 54 36 INTERVIEW Bob Thomson. reliability and performance management. The oil and gas business segment of the GL Group helps to design. GL Noble Denton www. project management and software services to match. LNG. storage. SUSTAINABILITY AND SUPERIOR VALUE. The oil and gas business segment of GL employs MORE THAN 3. GL Noble Denton is A TRULY INDEPENDENT ADVISOR without any vested interest in selling a design. subsea.gl-nobledenton. offshore support vessels. onshore pipelines. The scope of technical services includes safety. tankers and shipping and offshore pipelines. safety and risk. asset integrity. pipelines.000 ENGINEERS AND EXPERTS IN 80 COUNTRIES. fabrication or equipment.

technical assurance o i l & g a s me rg e r 6 energıze .

Assurance underpins everything GL Noble Denton offers. Our experienced multi-skilled teams and our proven software solutions provide certification. Photo: iStockphoto 02/2010 7 . verification and inspection services.

te c h n i c a l a s s u ra n c e interview

“Our Advantage is the Range of Technical Competences”
Paul Shrieve heads GL Noble Denton’s global business stream “Technical Assurance”. energize spoke with him about what he and his team have on offer

ENErGizE: Paul, what do you do when you offer “technical assurance”? PAuL ShriEvE: The Technical Assurance busi-

independent role as we do in the above verification/certification process.
ENErGizE: What are GL Noble Denton’s largest or most important technical assurance contracts or projects? ShriEvE: It’s fair to say that technical assurance projects

ness stream really consists of the traditional “core GL” services. It is predominately related to certification or verification of oil and gas assets, whether they are onshore, offshore or pipelines, and also associated inspection activities. This is during the design, fabrication, construction, installation and operational phases of the asset lifecycle. The inspection can take one of many different forms. The verification/ certification process requires the witnessing and auditing of the fabrication and installation process of the selected critical elements. These critical elements are, as a minimum, selected due to their criticality to the safety of the asset, although business and environmentally-critical factors play in increasingly important rule. We also undertake projects were we act as the client representative in more of a QA/QC role, possibly during the construction of assets or even during the operational phase. This is “second-party inspection” since do are not fulfill an
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are now being undertaken by GL Noble Denton in all the key oil and gas locations globally. We can now make this statement, as I am pleased to say, that we have recently been awarded our first major technical assurance project in Houston. We will act as the independent verification body of a new installation being project-managed from Houston. The majority of our projects have traditionally come from the Middle East and Asia Pacific regions. A good example is our project for Burullus which spanned many phases of the field’s development. As a result of our excellent delivery and customer relationships we continue to support the project today. Other Middle East clients include the Adnoc Group and its various subsidiaries, Qatar Petroleum and Dolphin Energy. In Asia Pacific, our clients include Daewoo, Talisman, PetroVietnam, PTT Thailand, Carigali-Hess and Shell, and in the Americas we have been working with PEMEX in Mexico for a number of years. From Hamburg, we provide support
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SErvicE
GL Noble Denton’s Technical Assurance services are in compliance with agreed codes and standards such as: GL Rules and Guidelines National and international standards Rules and guidelines of other third party institutions Statutory requirements

Profile
PAuL ShriEvE is a technical engineer and

a proven manager in the energy sector with business development, operations management, and key account management experience within the fields of safety, integrity and performance improvement. In 2007 he joined Advantica as Executive Director for the UK and Europe. In 2008 he became Senior Vice-President of Global Business Management for GL Industrial Services and following the reorganisation Senior Vice-President of to assist our GL colleagues worldwide to deliver technical assurance services, and also as deliver projects directly as was the case in the classification of the Sakhalin II project for SEIC.
ENErGizE: in what regulatory environment do you operate and who makes the rules? ShriEvE: In some parts of the world there is a legal re-

Technical Assurance for GL Noble Denton at the beginning of 2010.

however they chose to as it is recognized as an industry best practise.
ENErGizE: Why do clients commission GL Noble Denton to perform technical assurance services?

quirement that the duty holder, generally the oil company, has to employ the services of an independent verification body (IVB). For example, in the UK sector of the North Sea, the offshore industry is operated in compliance with safety case legislation. Within this legislation there is the requirement to implement a verification process which should be verified by an IVB. This is the role undertaken by GL Noble Denton. This is a requirement during both the CAPEX and OPEX phase. What we undertake is directly associated with the duty holders’ ability to obtain and maintain their licence to operate. There are different regulatory bodies globally who create the framework within which the industry must operate. In some cases this framework does not oblige the duty holder to implement a verification or certification scheme,

Technical assurance is a fairly well-defined and accepted service. Our advantage is the range of technical competences. For example the pipeline expertise, the marine operational and the structural expertise and the core inspections competences that came into GL with the acquisitions. When you put all that together, there is a very deep and broad technical knowledge base that we can avail ourselves of. I don’t think that any of the other traditional certification and verification companies can outdo us in that respect. Furthermore we can complement our technical assurance services with specialist consulting support from other areas of the company, to undertake detailed assessments, and problem solving of identified plant issues.
LB/SNB

02/2010

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te c h n i c a l a s s u ra n c e j a c k -u p p l a tfo r ms

Huge dimensions. The transportation team aboard the “Thor” platform.

Down the River Elbe, just before Stade: First you see the four long columns reaching high up into the air, 82 metres long and almost 4 metres in diameter each. They belong to the jack-up platform “Thor”, named after the Nordic god of thunder. The floating crane platform, 70 metres in length and 40 metres in width, is on the way to Hamburg for its naming ceremony. Shortly before reaching its destination, it has to pass under two high-voltage lines spanning the Elbe. Here “Thor” pulls its legs in a little and moves along the outermost edge of the river – where the cables do not hang quite as low as in the middle of the faiway. The manoeuvre is successful; the way to the port of Hamburg is now free.

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Photo: Jörn Iken

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“We were entrusted with the assessment and approval of the design and responsible for monitoring the entire construction process. “Thor” was classified by Germanischer Lloyd.Long-Legged Haulage Service The greatest potential for wind energy is to be found on the high seas. growing market for offshore wind turbines. Hochtief expects that 800 offshore wind turbines will be installed annually in Europe as of 2012. “We have been occupied with this project since 2007. which is able to lift 500 tonnes with an outreach of 15 metres. the GL Group’s project manager in charge. To complete this demanding assign- ABSTrACT “Thor” is one of the world's largest jack-up platforms for the erection of wind turbines The platform must be able to carry heavy loads and to withstand giant waves Safety and efficiency: GL is responsible for Thor’s certification ment. we are now better positioned than ever before. extending to the current limits of what is technically fea11 02/2010 . needs a stable base – which brings us back to the legs. in water depths ranging up to 50 metres. there are different concepts for the foundation structures to be used in anchoring the wind turbines on the seabed: monopiles are driven into the ground. The nacelle of a 5-MW turbine. are deposited and fixed to piles in the seabed. Depositing this load onto the tower flange is as much precision work as the pulling and erection of the rotor star with blades of 50 to 60 metres in length. These units will be erected in the North Sea. thousands of wind turbines will be erected here – viable technical solutions for ocean installation are already available “Thor” is one of the world’s largest jack-up platforms for the erection of wind turbines on the high seas. Depending on the depth in each case.” says Jochen Künzel. “Thor” is equally well suited to all concepts. Chairman of the Management Board of Hochtief’s Civil Engineering and Marine Works division. which has to be lifted 100 metres into the air. Martin Rahtge.” The installation of the foundation structures is Thor’s first task and erecting the turbine itself will be the next major challenge. The vessel is owned by the construction company Hochtief AG. the crane. This involves some heavy hydraulics. The crane is able to lift 500 tonnes with an Major Challenges The new jack-up rig is needed urgently. which plans to install a whole series of offshore wind farms in the coming years. lattice structures – known as jackets – or tripods that look like enormous camera supports. over the coming years.” Profile. is pleased: “In the outreach of 15 metres. weighs almost 300 tonnes.

it doesn’t really fit. Impressive Technical Solutions Challenging operational situations will certainly be encountered by “Thor”. “This means ’Thor‘ is far from being a ship. In the end. the significant wave height can be 2. this is only a positioning system using thrusters and developing an output of 3. Once it has been elevated. thus lifting itself out of the water.” says Künzel. 12 energıze . because no drilling takes place on “Thor”. The load to be borne here is 10. As long as these limits are not exceeded. “In operational mode. the tilting moments produced by the wind and waves are substantial.” “Thor” has its own propulsion unit.” Photo: Jörn Iken Impressive. BG Verkehr.000 tonnes out of the water. says Künzel. and so SOLAS does not apply. on the right instrument to be used for the certification.000 kW. the crane is able to do its work perfectly. But the characteristics of a jack-up platform – which is therefore a ‘self-elevating platform’ in terms of the Code – are so dominant that there were no objections.te c h n i c a l a s s u ra n c e j a c k -u p p l a tfo r ms sible today.5 metres and the wind is allowed to reach a maximum of 12 m/s.” is how he describes the possible risks. “Thor” can push its legs right down to the seabed. “After all. Künzel explains. the hydraulics must lift 10. enabling it to move autonomously from one plant to the next within the offshore wind farm. The situation Jochen Künzel points out. we agreed on the Code for the Construction of Mobile Offshore Drilling Units.” can perform its work precise to the millimetre. the jack-up platform is independent of the weather. and to take up the correct position at the erection site. “Strictly speaking.000 tonnes out of the water – and the tilting effects produced by the wind and waves are substantial. Jochen Künzel first had to come to an agreement with the responsible authority. Despite all the enormously heavy components. “However. In addition.” The hydraulics must lift 10. the crane then has a fixed platform from which it TAXING Work. The jack-up platform “Thor” on its way up the Elbe towards Hamburg – where the new installation platform for wind turbines had its naming ceremony.000 tonnes. “The regulatory situation remains rather unclear. Much depends on the composition of the seabed on which the gigantic legs have to support the vessel.

Certification of the vessel includes the appraisal of such conditions by means of global strength analyses.5 m) oPErATIoNAL CoNDITIoNS: 4 single winches. draught (with spud- total output: 5. “For this reason.0 t PoWEr SUPPLY: Diesel/electric. northeast of the island Borkum. “We carried out the certification of the living and sleeping quarters according to the Norwegian standard NORSOK.0 m. THE oWNEr IS HoCHTIEF. 100 A5 Self-Elevating A . JI GL Unit. operating depth: 50. diameter (spudcans): 3.300 t. who work in shifts and remain on board for one to two weeks at a time. payload: 3.000 t GEAr: heavy-lift crane commodation and leisure area is that “Thor” is also designed for purposes other than the installation of offshore wind farms in the North Sea and the Baltic. we can simulate the worst possible operating case.Perpendicular.4 m. hoisting capacity: 10. Initially. The construction company intends to push forward the development of offshore wind farms in the North Sea through the use of the new jack-up platform which was classified by GL.7 m (8. The reasons for the high-quality outfitting of the ac- Thor: Facts & Figures The vessel is one of the world’s largest jack-up platforms for the erection of wind turbines.” says Künzel. width: 40 m. the working and accommodation facilities are also exceptional. This also applies to the “surPhoto: Jörn Iken vival mode”: the platform must be able to withstand giant waves. capacity: 500 t/15 m MoorING WINCHES: length: 82 m. Technical Data CLASSIFICATIoN: cans): 7.kuenzel@gl-group. but if gaps arise in the orderbook as a result of delays in the planned expansion of offshore wind farms. “Thor” is also fully fit for service in the conventional offshore business.MC AUT HULL DIMENSIoNS: length: 70 m. For the North Sea. deck load: 15. “Thor” was built at the Crist shipyard in Gdańsk. each pulling 30.010 kW 02/2010 13 . The technical solutions to be seen on board “Thor” are not the only impressive features it has to offer. this is equivalent to a significant wave height of 10 metres – which corresponds to a maximum wave height of 17 metres. “Thor” will be deployed in the erection of BARD Offshore 1. No one thinks it is likely.0 t/m².5 m. are even able to make use of a fitness centre – assuming they still have the energy after finishing a hard day’s work. The members of the installation crew. in which it puts down two diagonally opposed legs on the seabed and presses itself up. The 82-metre legs of the jack-up platform were visible from afar. height: 60 m LEG DIMENSIoNS: Liebherr BOS 14 000. the platform conducts a preloading test. GL GROUP EXPERT: Jochen künzel offshore Installation Phone: +49 40 36149-7424 E-Mail: jochen.com draught (without spudcans): 3. In this way.” Jochen Künzel emphasizes. could become critical in the event of a “punch through” – when one leg of the platform sinks into a part of the seabed falsely considered to be hard enough.

which serves as a bridgehead in COSCO’s strategy to expand its global terminal network. the buyer of the three STS container cranes: PCT is the wholly-owned overseas container terminal operation of COSCO Pacific whose ultimate parent company is China Ocean Ship- abstract Shanghai Zhenhua Heavy Industry Co.A..A. COSCO Pacific holds a concession to operate Piers 2 and 3 of the terminal facility at the Piraeus port. GL Noble Denton’s Shanghai team had submitted a proposal for quality assurance services last February. The project also holds significance for Piraeus Container Terminal S. (PCT). because for the first time ever. we secured a contract with a COSCO affiliate.. “This is why ZPMC provided GL Noble Denton with the Photo: Mondhe 14 energıze . “We have enjoyed an excellent business relationship with ZPMC for some time and were able to demonstrate our qualification and expertise in a number of other projects in the past. and won the contract. Ltd.(ZPMC) is the manufacturer of three cranes for Piraeus Container Terminal S. “This is an important milestone for us. Ltd (ZPMC) is the manufacturer of the Piraeus cranes.te c h n i c a l a s s u ra n c e c ra n e i n s p e c ti o n Convincing Performance a recent landmark project with a cOscO subsidiary enabled GL Noble Denton’s shanghai-based industrial inspection team to intensify its activities in the port machinery market In a project involving the construction of three ship-to-shore (STS) container cranes to be installed at the Greek port of Piraeus. Technical Assurance Manager at GL Noble Denton’s Shanghai office.” says Manfred Bernitt. Shanghai Zhenhua Heavy Industry Co.” Bernitt explained. GL Noble Denton's Shanghai office provided reliable services ping (Group) Company (COSCO).

02/2010 15 . the manufacturer of the Piraeus cranes.Inspection. commissioned GL Noble Denton to perform quality assurance services. ZPMC.

“For a project of this An ambitious five-month time limit was set for completing the project.” STS Cranes for Piraeus – Key Specifications type Of structure: ship-to-shore Combined Efforts of the Experts Three engineers were dispatched to the manufacturing site. assembly. GL Noble Denton accepted responsibility for 16 container crane rateD capacity: under telescopic spreader: 65 t type Of cONtaiNers tO be haNDLeD: 20’/40’/45’ raiL GauGe: 30. 17 m (below rail top) energıze Photos: Mondhe .te c h n i c a l a s s u ra n c e c ra n e i n s p e c ti o n opportunity to participate in the call for bids. GL ensured timely and successful delivery “thanks to the combined efforts of all the team members and their voluntary overtime work.” Earlier GL assignments with ZPMC ranged from supervising the construction of a 4000-t/h shiploader for the port of Fujairah in the United Arab Emirates to material verifaction of steel structures for the Koniambo Mine Development Project in New Caledonia. This first-ever contract from PCT provided GL Noble Denton with an excellent opportunity to build recognition with the Greek customer. Fabrication and assembly were completed on schedule at the ZPMC facilities in China. fabrication. scale. independent services. GL ensured timely and successful delivery. monitoring the workmanship. David Chang Wei. procedures. said he felt the GL team did an excellent job in providing reliable.” says Bernitt. to-shore cranes for the Egyptian port of Damietta. “But we made good on our commitment.” said Wei. Another recent project the team was contracted for covered the supervision of the construction of two shipscheDuLe. each one focusing on his specific field of expertise: mechanical. In the contract. electrical and steel structure engineering. An ambitious five-month time limit was set for completing the project. non-destructive testing expert and project manager with GL Noble Denton. we would have normally estimated seven months.5 m Outreach: 65 m backreach: 22 m Lift: 46 m (above rail top). packing and preparation for shipment of the cranes as well as on-site testing and commissioning in accordance with the buyer’s specifications and contract requirements. materials. The cranes are now on their way to Greece by ship. and so was GL Noble Denton’s inspection work at the manufacturing plant.

GL Noble Denton ensures strict compliance with all contractual stipulations. “We sat down to discuss this with the engineer and finally agreed to the generally-recognized AWS D 1. When it was determined that the personnel lift of the Piraeus cranes did not meet the noise and vibration requirements of the relevant standards. the manufacturer was able to deliver what is probably the best-possible per- sonnel lift while acquiring know-how they will benefit from in future projects. The owner is satisfied because we showed the necessary amount of flexibility while strictly adhering to the set principles.” Wei proudly announced.” Wei added. He mentioned discussions regarding welding standards that arose when the Greek engineer representing the owner spelt out requirements the supplier found overly rigorous. load tests. drawing on their experience and know-how. By following this advice. GL Noble Denton engineers will do their operational inspections on site in Piraeus. It will be the first time for GL Noble Denton’s Shanghai team to conduct a cross-border operation independently. -“We have just learnt this contract has been awarded to GL Noble Denton. ZL GL NOBLE DENTON EXPERT: Manfred bernitt technical assurance Manager shanghai phone: +86 21 2308 3868 e-Mail: manfred. The next phase of PCT’s Piraeus construction plans involves eight rail-mounted gantry cranes that will expand the handling capacity of the container terminals. GL Noble Denton is dedicated to offering suppliers a variety of options in dealing with specific challenges. “We recommended having the rack and pinion teeth re-grounded and then cleaned. passenger lift load tests and service load tests.com 02/2010 17 .” Wei recounted. Final Spurt in Greece When the completed cranes arrive in Greece this October.On-Site Service.1 standard. At the same time. and so was GL Noble Denton’s inspection work at the manufacturing plant. including all crane commissioning tests. too.bernitt@gl-group. “I was impressed by the smooth handling of the communication process and the exchange of ideas. Fabrication and assembly were completed on schedule at the ZPMC facilities in China.” Wei explained. “The inspections went very well.” As a technical consultancy. Wei and the other team members were able to offer diagnostic suggestions.

Some 90 kilometres from the Nile Delta shoreline. Saurus. Ambitious Aims for all Participants West Delta Deep Marine is owned by the Burullus Gas Company consortium. Simian. geologists believe the Delta and its adjacent offshore area are analogous to other gas and petroleumrich deltas.te c h n i c a l a s s u ra n c e b u ru l l u s Drilling in Deep Water As an Independent Verification Body and Quality Surveillance Provider. lies West Delta Deep Marine (WDDM). high-quality gas deposits in late Tertiary sands 2 to 5 million years la. Sequoia. Successful exploration and appraisal wells since 1997 have resulted in the discovery of nine gas fields: Scarab/Saffron. Sapphire. in water depths of 250 to 1. The first WDDM fields – Scarab/Saffron in energıze ABSTRACT GL Noble Denton has provided technical assurance services to the Burullus projects since 2003 GL Noble Denton is in charge of independent verification and quality inspections old. Egypt’s national oil company. GL Noble Denton has been supporting various Burullus development projects since 2003 Sienna Simian Solar Serpent Cairo Scarab Saffron Saurus Sapphire Sequoia Successful Exploration. when researchers discovered rich. such as those in Indonesia. mainly in the Pliocene horizons. The region and its geological horizons for natural gas came to attention in 1990. Meanwhile. Sienna. Egypt’s largest gas field development area. Serpent. Solar and Sienna Up. These horizons extend far into the deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea to the north and north-west of the Delta and the Western Desert. a joint-venture company comprising the Egyptian General Petroleum Corporation (EGPC).250 metres. the Niger River Delta in West Africa and the Gulf of Mexico. including the offshore north of the Sinai Peninsu- 18 . British Gas (BG) and Petronas. A total of nine gas fields have been discovered off the Egyptian coast. in the Nile Delta.

600 to 800 metres of water – started production in March 2003. 68 kilometres of installed umbilicals deliver power. Well drilling was completed in 2007 and gas has been flowing ever since. flying leads. welding. called Phase IV. manufacture. 123 kilometres. Sienna and Sapphire fields were added to increase production to the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) plant at Idku on the Egyptian coast. pipelines. GL NOBLE DENTON EXPERT: Hisham El-Grawany Country Manager Egypt Phone: + 202 25287295/6/7/8 E-Mail: hisham. umbilicals. the area is congested. two manifolds with subsea control modules with 20-inch future connections. The closest possible location for the new northern manifold is more than 50 metres away from either existing tie-in hub. pipelines. Burullus appointed GL Noble Denton to provide Independent Verification Authority (IVA) and Quality Surveillance (QS) services. WDDM Phase VIII comprises an estimated 33 wells to be developed in three stages. In 2005 the Simian. It will be applied to all offshore facilitys SCEs (Safety Critical Elements) associated with the WDDM Concession development projects. valves.com ZL 02/2010 19 . subsea manifolds and structures. CLIENT REPRESENTATIVES GL Noble Denton can mobilize Vessel / Barge Rep’s during the installation of equipment such as subsea production trees. two in the Serpent field and one in the Sinbad field. Provision of all quality disciplines Quality Co-coordinator Senior Quality Surveyors at vendors and manufacturers of subsea production trees.el-grawany@gl-group. 2013 and 2015 respectively. VIII b and VIII c. Independent verification services for the development projects were placed into the hands of GL Noble Denton. coating. low and high-pressure hydraulic oil and communications services to the subsea facilities. Photo: NASA Quality audits / surveillance programme. The fields set records for the longest directto-beach tiebacks. 10-inch diameter flowline. the equipment for WDDM IV includes one new subsea distribution assembly. five of them in the Scarab/Saffron area. AUT. The daily contract quantity is 633 million standard cubic feet per day (mmscfd) over a period of at least 17 years. NDT. The Simian/Si- Furthermore. control systems and umbilical incl. The scope of verification scheme includes design. fabrication. offshore installation and commissioning. pipelines. including Quality Surveillance HSE Expediting. controls. eight wet gas flowmeters and at least 18 flying leads. for completion during 2011. control systems and sub-sea structures. such as subsea production trees. as well as for surveys and pre-commissioning. Phase VIII a. comprised eight additional wells. QUALITY SURVEILLANCE (INSPECTION): Subsea Equipment With two manifolds already in place and flowline termination (PLET) and umbilical termination (UTA) points for each of the eight existing wells located close to the respective manifolds. located approximately 90 kilometres off the north-western margin of the Nile Delta. jumpers. bends. Each Scarab/Saffron manifold contains a 20-inch connection hub for the tie-in of further wells. umbilicals. is being developed progressively to maintain current and future gas supplies to the Egyptian domestic and export markets. and four tie-in spool bases (TSBs) with hubs for 23 jumpers and a 66-kilometre. The subsea equipment for WDDM IV includes eight horizontal subsea trees.Case Study THE WEST DELTA DEEP MARINE (“WDDM”) Concession. In addition there is a shallow water control platform. Both of these fields set records for the longest direct-to-beach tie-backs. with Simian being 123 kilometres in length. The next development phases of the West Delta Deep Marine area. The challenge: INDEPENDENT VERIFICATION AUTHORITY enna offshore facilities consist of eight subsea wells tied into the existing WDDM gas gathering network.

Screening Methodology Tackling this issue on a process plant can be a significant undertaking. A structured screening methodology is therefore essential to: Typical approach for implementing a pipework vibration screening methodology Photo: Dreamstime STAGE 1 Initial screening STAGE 2 Site measurements and assessment of risk to pipework STAGE 3 Detailed investigations and development of solutions 20 energıze . with many kilometres of process piping and numerous welded and mechanical connections potentially at risk. as well as penalty clauses and other contractual obligations associated with failure to supply. concluding that fatigue/vibration was the primary cause of over 20% of all hydrocarbon releases. the consequences for plant operations and business performance due to pipework integrity issues can be significant. vibration and noise problems. including unplanned shutdowns and maintenance. In addition to the health. yet identifying plant at risk can be a challenge for operators of large diverse assets Data published by the UK’s Health & Safety Executive (HSE) for the offshore industry in the North Sea has highlighted that vibration induced fatigue can be a major threat to pipework integrity.te c h n i c a l a s s u ra n c e p i p e s Managing Pipework Vibration Vibration is a significant threat to the integrity of process pipework. safety and environmental concerns associated with any process fluid release.

ABSTRACT Pipework vibration can be a significant threat to the integrity of process plants Implementation of a structured screening programme allows high priority areas to be identified and addressed Detailed assessments are used to understand any problems identified and to develop solutions identify the sources of vibration excitation. An outline of the approach used by GL Noble Denton to address the risk of pipework vibration issues on a large diverse asset. The final stage concentrates on the locations which are of most concern. identify pipework at risk and assess the relative risk. Vibration induced fatigue can be a major threat to pipework integrity – it was the primary cause of over 20 per cent of all hydrocarbon releases. Stage 2 then covers investigation of these key areas. pioritize effort on areas of most concern. such as a gas processing plant. During the initial screening. is shown below. 02/2010 21 . plant areas that are likely to experience vibration problems are identified by pinpointing the main vibration sources while assessing the relative risk for planning subsequent investigations. Detailed vibration Risk. consider the possible effects of changes in plant operation. including vibration measurements and a review of the as-installed pipework design and condition.

and therefore require further refinement in some applications to account for specific issues. an understanding of the cause of any failures. such as assessment of the vibration risk on gas transmission facilities and pipework. Recently this expertise has been applied to screening of vibration problems on several gas-fired power stations. these guidelines are primarily targeted at offshore installations and process plants. ergy Institute – “Guidelines for the avoidance of vibration induced fatigue failure in process pipework” – provides a framework for this screening methodology and is starting to be accepted across the oil and gas industry as best practice. However. GL Noble Denton implemented a structured assessment methodology to identify problem areas and define subsequent mitigation actions for the main pipework and small bore connections. Solutions can then be developed to address the issues highlighted. The initial site survey consisted of a walk-round visual lowed by basic vibration measurements and assessment of the likelihood of failure of any connections. and validated experimentally or theoretically. The approach defined in the publication from the EnMANAGEMENT. To meet this objective.te c h n i c a l a s s u ra n c e p i p e s measurement studies may be undertaken that cover a range of plant operating conditions if necessary. GL Noble Denton has a team of engineers based in their Loughborough office in the UK who carry out these assessments. this expertise was used to satisfy the requirement to manage the risk of potential vibration problems in response to recommendations by the safety regulator. and utilize a range of vibration measurement equipment for detailed studies to gain GL Noble Denton implemented a structured assessment methodology to identify problem areas and define subsequent mitigation actions. Case Study: Offshore and Onshore For one UK client with onshore and offshore facilities. This Photo: Dreamstime review of the site processes and pipework. and a strategy is in the process of being implemented for an operator in North Africa with onshore and offshore gas production facilities. fol- 22 energıze .

Stress.com with blank flange C 02/2010 23 . The failure was detected by the release of gas into the compressor building through the crack in the weld between the upper flange and pipe section. allowing effort to be focused on the highest-risk areas in subsequent stages. A Crack evident at weld connection on the PIPEWORK OF A GAS COMPRESSOR . The subsequent investigation confirmed that this was a fatigue failure DUE TO EXCITATION of the second mode of vibration of the small bore connection by forces relating to the blade passing frequency of the compressor at certain operating speeds. Fatigue failure at the upper flange of a small bore connection. as corrosion on the fracture face suggested the crack had been growing intermittently. and during transient events such as pipeline cleaning sphere arrival.miles@gl-group. This ongoing project is successfully demonstrating to the UK HSE that the risk of vibration-related pipework fatigue failure is being adequately managed across the client’s facilities. This problem had evidently been occurring over a long period. Subsequent detailed assessment to analyse the problems and develop solutions included installation of monitoring equipment to assess the behaviour of the compression plant over its full operating range. addressing maintenance issues. TM/PI toe B Fracture face showing growth of fatigue crack C Small bore connection GL NOBLE DENTON EXPERT: Dr Toby Miles Senior Consultant – Asset Management Phone: +44 1509 282284 E-Mail: toby. Immediate recommendations included improvement of ineffective pipework supports.Fatigue Failure A B Figure 1 shows an example of a failure on a small bore exercise identified key problem areas for immediate remedial action and further investigation. and design changes for vulnerable small bore connections that were highlighted to be at risk of failure.

dynamic positioning o i l & g a s me rg e r 24 energıze Photo: NASA .

including failure mode and effects analyses (FMEA) and failure mode. 02/2010 25 . effects and criticality analyses (FMECA). GL Noble Denton provides DP assurance services.Dynamic Positioning (DP) is a computer-controlled system that automatically maintains a vessel’s position and heading.

vessels and rigs are becoming larger.d y n a m i c p o s i ti o ni n g o v e rvi e w Very Dynamic Progress the year 2010 sees some fundamental regulatory changes for dynamic positioning The use of of dynamic positioning in offshore projects is growing. However. A number of organizations are taking a close look 26 at the regulatory framework. The effects of changes to the relevant classification society rules normally have a limited impact because they tend to affect ships in that class only. but some of this year’s changes go a bit further than usual. changes in class rules can level the playing field. The industry is increasingly approaching dynamic positioning operations from a risk awareness perspective. Classification societies are publishing updates to their dynamic positioning (DP) rules as they do on a regular basis. An increased number of DP vessels are already operating in the Gulf of Mexico and will be required for offshore wind farm installation in Europe and Asia. thus providing the DP vessel owning community with more energıze . In addition.

the international trade association representing offshore. 2010 also sees the first steps in a potentially radical approach to create a government-run regulatory and inspection regime for DP applying to all DP vessels operating within a certain jurisdiction. several changes to regulatory documents have taken place or are being made Required Reference Standards Over the past twenty years.Magical Precision. Oil and gas companies frequently use IMCA guidance as required reference standards 27 02/2010 . The scope is wide and encompasses design and engineering standards for DP vessels. IMCA are also reviewing and updating their guidance on Annual DP Trials. DP operating standards and DP training standards. choice. be publishing new guidance documents for the DP sector as well as revising existing guidance. abstract With the growing use of DP and a rising market demand. This is happening in the United States. accessible to members and non-members alike. Dynamic Positioning enables float-over installations of topsides in a fraction of the usual time. as usual. These rules will fall within the United States Coast Guard’s (USCG) scope of inspection for vessels sailing under the US flag as well as foreign flags. marine and underwater engineering companies has built up a valuable source of guidance documents for the DP sector. We should also turn our attention to the International Marine Contractors Association (IMCA) who will. including the M103 “Guidelines for the Design and Operation of DP Vessels”. DP moves into the centre of attention This year. Much of the IMCA guidance is referenced in company management systems and is found on the bookshelves of a large number of DP vessels regardless of flag or location. This is likely to reflect changing patterns and the increasing importance of annual DP trials in the DP sector.

An intensive dialogue within the industry is currently going on. Whether two different inspection processes can coexist comfortably in the future and still meet the industry’s apparent need for a common standard is yet to be seen. It is expected that standards for DP will be included in Part B. dynamic positioning moves into the centre of attention of a number of organizations. going comprehensive review of STCW. A US Coast Guard Officer inspects the emergency alarms during an annual inspection of a foreign vessel. could lead on to more. energıze . guidance or some other measure. and hence will not be mandatory. source. average chance of succeeding with its guidance. This year. several updates and changes to DP regulatory documents have taken place or are still being made. Many in the sector are already suspicious of STCW certification and are likely to remain suspicious after the inclusion of DP. if successful. The industry uses IMCA guidance as required reference standards in pre-contract selection processes. it is after all a non-profit technological society serving no particular special group. This is the OCIMF initiative – OVID – (Offshore Vessel Inspection Database) which is now gaining a foothold among oil companies. Target Date 2012 Finally. advancing technological development and enhancing safety. However. The truly independent nature of MTS. This is planned to be presented at the MTS DP Conference in Houston in October this year. including most oil companies. For example. 2010 sees the continuation of the process at IMO to include DP training and experience standards in the on- in pre-contract selection processes. The target date for completion of the revision of STCW is the summer of 2012. Truly Independent Nature IMCA’s pre-eminent position as a principal source of DP operational guidance to the industry may soon be challenged: The US-based DP Committee of MTS (Marine Technology Society) is set to publish wide-ranging guidance on DP operations. It is too early at this stage to determine what effect the inclusion of DP in STCW will have on the DP sector. interpret its responsibilities in its own way and will develop its own response. This is a Photo: USCG new venture for the MTS DP Committee and. should give it a better-than28 This text is based on a paper presented at the European Dynamic Positioning Conference in May 2010. Each administration will. whether it be in the form of regulation. With the increasing use of dynamic positioning and a rising market demand. as the preferred inspection tool for DP and other vessels. the IMCA CMID inspection process is currently regarded by clients. This MTS initiative is quite independent from what is happening at the USCG although there is some cross-fertilization of ideas between the two groups.d y n a m i c p o s i ti o ni n g o v e rvi e w Inspection. as ever. 2010 has seen the implementation of an alternative process.

accommodation units. pipelayers and decommissioning vessels.dyn amic posit ion in g us rul es Growth of Activity Probably the most radical development with the greatest potential to affect the DP community in the us. This is in addition to the rapid rise in the number of DP drillships and MODUs. DP operations and DP training. The process has begun and there appears to be a tight timetable for its development and incorporation as a “Code of Federal Regulation” (CFR). A limited measure was put in place in 2003 by the USCG. Since 2003 the USCG has witnessed an almost exponential growth of activity in the DP sector offshore.. particularly on the OCS (Outer Continental Shelf) of the Gulf of Mexico. Penalties for contravening abstract The NOSAC prepares recommendations for rule-making in design and engineering. also potentially worldwide. 29 02/2010 Photo: iStockphoto . etc. In 2010 almost every OSV that attends rigs and platforms in the Outer Shelf is DP Class 2 and even in the shallow waters of the inner shelf the number of DP OSVs is increasing. This 2010 initiative is a reinstatement of the stalled 1999 effort to regulate DP in the US. is currently taking place in the united states The proposed rule-making covers three areas: DP design and engineering. construction vessels. operations and training The DP sector should watch developments in the US and be prepared for other coastal states following suit a CFR are scaled depending on the severity of the contravention and extend from financial penalties (fines) through to seizure of the vessel and on to imprisonment.

Infos & Events oVID www. Now. since they have no regulatory basis for DP inspections.ocimf. to be subjected to annual Coast Guard inspection prior to issuance of a COI (Certificate of Inspection) for US-flagged or a COC (Certificate of Compliance) for foreign-flagged vessels. NOSAC delivered their recommendations to the US Coast Guard at the end of June 2010. This absence of a regulatory basis in DP is a hole that the USCG is intent on filling. ommendations are being considered by the USCG. so. Currently.com/ Advisory Committee (NOSAC) with preparing recommendations for rule-making in the three designated areas: design and engineering. During the annual inspection marine safety officers inspect all parts of a vessel for safety regulations and also look for environmental hazards.d y n a m i c p o s i ti o ni n g u s ru l e s Results.dynamic-positioning. NOSAC were required to deliver their recommendations to the Coast Guard by the end of June 2010. This has given rise to a situation where the USCG inspectors. NOSAC’s rec30 relateD eVents Mts DP Houston 12–13 October IMca annual MeetIng 23–24 November aDIPec 1–4 November Photo: USCG energıze . DP operations and DP training. including environmental groups and Washington lobbyists. who are charged with the responsibility for maintaining safety and environmental standards in US waters through regulatory compliance inspections.com/microsite ocIMF www. The USCG has entrusted the National Offshore Safety The US inspection regime requires all vessels to be subjected to annual Coast Guard inspection. almost all of which are DP-classed. the real process will start towards creating the rules and their incorporation into a CFR. whether under the US or foreign flags.imca-int. The US inspection regime requires all vessels. are not in a position to properly do uscg.com IMca www. That process will include review opportunities for industry and other special groups and interests.com/ DP www.ocimf-ovid.

to follow the American example. For example. Extending the Scope The group that deals with DP operations is also likely to recognize existing industry wide guidance as well as existing oil company practices which may exceed or differ from the provisions of industry-wide guidance and classification societies. These industry-wide interests include oil companies. pipelayers and decommissioning vessels call for a new regulatory basis. For example. The path towards DP rulemaking in the US as described above appears to be unstoppable. However. are included in NOSAC’s recommendations. drilling contractors.Safety. technical societies. The DP sector should watch developments in the US and be prepared for other coastal states. it is likely that the NOSAC working group on DP design and engineering recommended to the Coast Guard that they adopt large tracts of IMO MSC/Circ 645. equipment manufacturers. in broad terms there appears to be a move towards recognizing a considerable amount of DP guidance already in the public domain. especially those that have deepwater oil and gas fields and rely on DP drillships and MODUs. training institutions. this may be the case with the NOSAC recommendations in relation to annual DP trials. It should be emphasized that this current DP rulemaking initiative pre-dated the Deepwater Horizon disaster by many months.com 02/2010 31 . accommodation units. DP construction and other DP applications. vessel owners. In DP GL NOBLE DENTON EXPERT: cpt. as well as industry practices that have proven to be successful in controlling and mitigating DP incidents. construction vessels. such as the internationally recognized NI DPO certification scheme. Photo: Dreamstime (l). training it is likely that existing training and certification arrangements. Joe Hughes Dynamic Positioning Phone: +1 281 6101090 e-Mail: jhughes@nobledenton. The rapid rise in the number of DP drillships and MODUs. along with additional recommendations for vesselspecific familiarization and training and for extending the scope to cover engineering and electrical disciplines. trade associations and consultants. The work of the NOSAC working groups has been confidential in its detail. Marcusroos (r) NOSAC consists of industry-wide interests and is not limited to US based representatives.

one of the DP notations (DP 0 to DP 3. In addition. Depending on the specific dynamic positioning operational requirements. 645 “Guidelines for Vessels with Dynamic Positioning Systems” dated 6 June 1994. related to Photo: iStockphoto sel and the charterer.g. e. The updated rules account for latest experience in DP projects. based on an analysis of the conse- 32 energıze . they highlight the importance of the redundancy concept. The DP class notation required for a particular operation should be agreed upon between the owner of the vesquences of loss of position during the operation. a brief description of the amendments and changes A new version of the Rules for Dynamic Positioning Systems was published by Germanischer Lloyd in May 2010. The GL DP Rules are based on IMO MSC/Circ. which still applies unchanged. a design requirement for class notations DP 2 and DP 3. by means of a DP capability analysis.d y n a m i c p o s i ti o ni n g g l ru l e s Decisions and Choices classification society germanischer lloyd (gl) has updated its dynamic positioning rules. The owner or operator of a DP vessel has to make several decisions and choices in preparing for DP classification: The owner / operator must define the environmental conditions and operational modes for DP operation. The owner / operator must specify the period for terminating a DP operation safely after a single failure. The operating area for the vessel must be defined as a prerequisite for determining the DP Class Notation.

g. This includes the loss of one compartment due to fire or flooding. It makes sense for the redundancy concept and the worst-case failure design to account for the operating modes (e. DP 0 anD DP 1: Loss of position is possible after a sin- does it specify any conditions the system must fulfil. such as pipe ure in any active or static component or system. which is primarily achieved by finetuning the software in the DP control system. gle failure. the work to be carried out. DP 2: Loss of position will not occur after a single fail- ure in any active component or system. it is essential to define the redundancy concept as early as possible during the design phase. nor 02/2010 33 . the respective IMO equipment class acc. 645) may be assigned by Germanischer Lloyd.Rough sea. It is not linked directly to the accuracy of the positioning of the vessel. The class notation only relates to the loss of position after a single failure as defined above. Accuracy typically depends on optimal adjustment of all involved DP system components. to MSC/Circ. High safety standards and clear rules help seamen to master difficult situations. DP 3: Loss of position will not occur after a single fail- The Redundancy Concept To save time and money during the construction phase.

lifting.g. WCF. supply. It usually involves simultaneous failure of several thrusters and generators. the DP system must be tested annually The worst-case failure design intent of a DP system is the single assumed failure that serves as a basis for defining the design and operating conditions. all thrusters. e. transit. In the new GL DP Rules. common mode failures are to be examined. environmental conditions for work. The following assumes one single failure as the initiating event of an undesired occurrence.) and the operating conditions (e. especially so for notaenergıze . sIngle FaIlure concePt: The single failure concept Defining Technical Challenges The first section of the new rules provides many definitions to form a common basis of understanding in this special field of shipbuilding. etc.g. this is supported by the early approval of the redundancy concept. wave and current conditions and directions. Simultaneous occurrence of several independent failures is not considered. It is determined through FMEA. Worst-case FaIlure DesIgn Intent (WcFDI): abstract The GL DP Rules 2010 account for latest experience in DP projects One of the DP notations 0 to 3 may be assigned by GL During the service life of the vessel. loss of the most effective thrusters. 34 identified in the DP system that would have the greatest conceivable effect on DP capability. reDunDancY concePt: The means whereby the design intent for coping with a worst-case failure is implemented.) during the design phase to allow for appropriate design modifications. crane work.d y n a m i c p o s i ti o ni n g g l ru l e s laying. Worst case FaIlure (WcF): The single failure mode definition updates may serve as examples: DP caPabIlItY analYsIs: A theoretical calculation and a polar plot representing the vessel’s capability to maintain position under specific wind. etc. The definitions of the documents required for approval have been modified and extended. These conditions should be considered separately for different thruster combinations. However.

During the service life of the vessel. of the main approval For DP 2 and DP 3 vessels.g. For the class renewal survey due every five years. Upon any major modifications of the Mode and Effects DP system. the DP system must be tested annually. Photos: BoH The main practical verification for DP 2 and DP 3 systems is done in an FMEA proving trial pursuant to an approved trial programme. Classic.full integration test may be required by GL. the FMEA is a critical safety documents. for planned maintenance. will affect redundancy. the oldest position reference system very accurate in relatively shallow water. This trial serves to verify the theoretical results of the FMEA document. It is sufficient to submit the documentation of the DP annual trial to GL. optimal power output and distribution as required for the given operating parameters. Furthermore. It also allows engineers to determine how temporary removal of a component or system. depending on the given circumstances. A factory acceptance test for the DP control system has been added. US both notations (DP 3 / DP 2) to a vessel so that either notation may be used in specific DP operating configurations as appropriate. germanischer lloyd Maritime Phone: +49 40 36149 9200 e-Mail: uwe.e. i. They can be prepared by a body such as GL Noble Denton. A novelty in the GL DP Rules is the option to assign FMea. The FMEA and related trial documentation are the main approval documents required for class notations DP 2 and DP 3. As a key document. DP annual trials may be conducted independently from the annual class surveys. a test of either the modified parts or the entire Analysis is one system is required. including the trial programme. it provides the DP operator with guidance on corrective action in case of failure. This enables operators to ensure efficient.com 02/2010 35 . depending on the degree of technical innovation and the complexity of the DP system. the redundancy concept and the Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA). item and therefore a “living” document that must be up- dated as necessary. a heat run for all thrusters and an endurance test of no less than four hours of continuous operation are required. complete FMEA proving trial has to be repeated in the pres- The Failure ence of a GL surveyor. e. a GL MARITIME EXPERT: uwe supke automation. Light taut wire. New Details for Innovations Section 3 of the GL Rules explains surveys and tests to be carried out during construction. the used for DP is still tions DP 2 and DP 3. Apart from the standard survey.supke@gl-group. These modifications affect the area of redundancy.

gl noble Denton’s group Director Dynamic Positioning. but one is certainly whether a gineering consultancy associated with new designs and upgrades. There are also DP semi-submersibles and drillships. because the water is too deep. So he uses a DP unit which automatically and very precisely holds its position to allow drilling operations to be undertaken. energIZe: to which vessels does dynamic positioning apply? tHoMson: Today. suitability inspections and FMEAs – Failure Mode and Effects Analysis audits. We also provide specialist consultancy related to feasibility. Let me give you an example: A shipowner wins a long-term contract and goes to a shipyard and orders an expensive DP vessel. normally an FMEA. about the challenges with DP and when vessels are “fit for purpose” energIZe: Dynamic Positioning (DP) is the hot topic at the moment. but often this may not involve a specialist DP audit company at the outset to check the design. The shipyard will build it. more capable and more complicated than ever. We also perform float-overs with dynamic positioning. The vessels are larger. basically every offshore service vessel vessel is “fit for purpose”.000 feet of water. This is especially relevant for windfarm installation vessels. Prior to the contract.d y n a m i c p o s i ti o ni n g interview ”Nowadays almost every new Offshore Vessel has DP Capability“ bob thomson. But it’s not just ships. Nowadays almost every new offshore vessel has DP capability. energIZe: What is the actual the challenge with DP? tHoMson: There are many.The shipowner is reliant on the capability of the shipyard and his own experience. the vessel will be given a full third-party audit. Why the latter? If an operator wants to drill in 5. What does gl noble Denton offer? tHoMson: GL Noble Denton offers DP auditing and en- using anchor chains. complying with the general standards of class and other statutory bodies. It is not connected to the seabed and just keeps its position for weeks at a time. The shipowner’s client will be the oil company who will have specific tasks in mind for the vessel and will generally demand an independent audit from a trusted service provider such as GL Noble Denton to make sure that the ship will be fit for purpose. he can’t possibly use a conventional mooring arrangement 36 . design and upgrades/refurbishment. or perhaps on delivery. to energıze uses dynamic positioning. The auditing involves annual audits. It is a growing market.

Scotland.Dynamic Positioning Consulting & Assurance Bob Thomson.com SNB with local resources in all regions supported from a “Centre of Excellence” in Aberdeen. Photo: Daejoo Umm Shaif UAP topside. Maersk. GL Noble Denton’s global DP team provides first-class support in oil and gas wherever you are. GL Noble Denton has performed these float-overs to date: Photo: Ken Doerr Photo: Ali Badri Bunga Orkid A. GL Noble Denton’s Group Director Dynamic Positioning. Umm Shaif UAP topside (DP) Umm Shaif CP-1 topside (moored) Maersk Oil Qatar – BG topside (DP) Maersk Oil Qatar – BE topside (DP) 02/2010 37 . heavy lift cranes. bow loading systems. Bunga Raya A topside (DP assistance) Bunga Raya E topside (DP assistance) Rong Doi topside (DP) EGP-3A topside (moored) Bunga Orkid A topside (DP) Umm Shaif CSP-1 topside (DP) Rong Doi. pipelay equipment. GL Noble Denton’s FMEA & FMECA is used on all types of offshore support vessels around the world – from drillships to offshore supply vessels including: diving equipment. thomson Dynamic Positioning Phone: +1 832 3006718 e-Mail: bob. GL NOBLE DENTON EXPERT: robert W. Our services include design and analysis of redundancy concepts for Class 2 & 3. ballast systems.thomson@gl-nobledenton. GL Noble Denton provides global DP support make sure the vessel is compliant with the specifications of the contract. There is definitely a cost benefit of involving a specialist DP consulting company at the outset to ensure that the vessel they build is going to meet the demanding standards of the international market. Performance In addition to the many feasibility studies.

consulting o i l & g a s me rg e r Offering consulting across the entire asset lifecycle. 38 energıze Photo: iStockphoto . GL Noble Denton combines exceptional engineering and analytical skills with operational experience of offshore and onshore oil & gas assets.

02/2010 39 .

The South African national transportation network with more than 2.c o n s u l t i ng s a s o l NATURAL GAS METHANE RICH GAS Pretoria Randfontein Badplaas Johannesburg Lenasia Secunda Vanderbijlpark Middelburg Witbank Matsulu Komatipoort SWAZILAND Volksrust ME TH AN ER ICH SOUTH AFRICA GA S Newcastle Richards Bay AFRICA Connection. MAP SECTION Durban 40 energıze NA TU Maputo RA L GA S .000 kilometres of high-pressure gas pipelines.

including the 865-km cross-border pipeline linking the gas fields in Mozambique to the Sasol Gas network in South Africa. Sasol gas realized that managing a growing. GL Noble Denton was able to demonstrate it was the right partner for this project.Miramar MOZAMBIQUE Ensuring Gas Supply Reliability in South Africa By implementing a software solution tailored to the client’s needs. GL Noble Denton’s gas management system is based on the Stoner Software suite. Working together with Sasol Gas. safely and efficiently Sasol Gas operates and maintains the South African national gas transportation network with more than 2. GL Noble Denton’s SPS software suite supports a wide variety of applications that can provide major benefits throughout a gas pipeline company’s organization. complex gas transmission network effectively requires state-of-the-art pipeline management systems. and methane-rich synthetic gas manufactured in the Sasol Synfuels plant in Secunda. 41 aBStraCt A dynamic gas transmission network requires a state-of-the-art pipeline management system GL Noble Denton engineered a sustainable solution of Gauteng. These included: balancing the volume of gas across the entire value chain. GL Noble Denton engineered a solution that not only meets the current requirements of the growing Sasol Gas gas transmission network but will also handle its future needs.000 kilometres of highpressure gas pipeline. Currently the network delivers more than 120 million gigajoules of gas per year to over 541 customers in the industrial regions ing similar systems for major gas pipeline clients throughout the world. Mpumalanga. A realtime. Sasol Gas markets two separate types of gas through their gas transmission network: natural gas produced in Mozambique. simulation-based solution is particularly suited to the dynamic operating nature of gas transmission networks. The accuracy of simulation provided by the SPS/Simulator is unsurpassed by any other product available today. managing unaccounted-for gas. KwaZuluNatal and Northern Free State. Sasol Gas identified a number of key business issues which required addressing in order to operate the pipeline network in a safe and efficient manner. Gl noble Denton enabled South african Sasol Gas to operate its pipeline network reliably. With a software portfolio based on world-leading pipeline simulation technology and broad experience in implement- 02/2010 .

The results from the simulation model are used for a wide range of pipeline applications supporting all areas of the gas pipeline business. Software Solution The pipeline management system that was installed at Sasol Gas combined two products from GL Noble Denton’s Stoner family of pipeline simulation software. Sasol and GL Noble Denton worked together to define the requirements for the new system. line pack analyses. is used for onenergıze Operations The Operations Group is the primary user of the on-line pipeline management system. Marketing/System Support The marketing department uses SynerGEE Gas for longrange planning to validate potential new business and conduct what-if studies regarding debottlenecking solutions for future gas delivery needs. industrial plants and facilities. a fully-transient simulation package with multiple modules. optimally utilizing the existing infrastructure to service existing customers.c o n s u l t i ng s a s o l managing a rapidly developing gas network. It is used for both transmission pipelines and distribution networks.and offline simulation tools using common simulation engines. as well as intermediate and long-term gas planning including: throughput a pressure analysis. Typical engineering activities would include: pressure and throughput analyses. The resultant solution was a totally integrated gas management system consisting of identical on. contract compliance monitoring. availability and survival analysis. Access to the system is through a webbased graphical user interface that provides data access across the whole Sasol Gas organization. Engineering SPS offline was utilized by the engineering department for piping design. cost analysis. ensuring that the needs of all stakeholders were met. pressure monitoring. velocity analyses/pig tracking. The operations department also utilize the online and predictive functions of the SPS model to carry out the following operations: leak detection. SynerGee GaS is a simulation package with multiple modules which is used extensively in the design and planning of gas pipeline systems. Stoner PiPeline Simulator (SPS). station design. a technology using software to enable realtime monitoring and control of infrastructure systems. as well as measurement station design. Gas capacity or line pack is one of the key parameters that gas controllers require in the daily operation of the gas network. heaters/condensate prediction. composition and quality tracking. Marketing is also concerned with identifying customers who could take gas at rates beyond what their current contracts and nominations mandate which may be difficult to recognize using current methods. fullytransient mathematical simulation model of the pipeline network. operational forecasting. gas temperature analysis. Quantifying of spare capacity. Gas Planning SPS on-line and predictive functions are used by the planning department to undertake network analysis. Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition. operational optimization. The main users of the system were identified as follows: instruments which are used to drive the real-time. The system resides in the gas control centre where it is connected to the pipeline SCADA system and gathers information from the field measuring 42 . however it is through the use of advanced predictive simulation tools that the gas controller can gain the greatest benefits. multiple scenario capability. pig and scraper tracking. SCaDa. scheduling.

regulators. Transmission Networks. had to be defined to allow the systems to exchange data. filter and query data from multiple external GIS sources. valves. Look Ahead Model. Model Builder which lets you import. The SPS Operational Interface is a web-enabled graphical user interface allowing information to be displayed directly through a web browser on any PC connected to the Sasol gas network. maintenance or other scenarios. GL Noble Denton validated the systems.wilde@gl-group. imPlementation – A truly multinational team from GL Noble Denton Software Solutions were involved in the project. and the Area Isolation Module which allows you to choose an area to isolate for emergency planning. compressors. 43 02/2010 . metering systems. a general-purpose modelling tool for gas piping networks.line and offline simulations of gas pipeline systems. SynerGEE combines the features of the most advanced pipeline simulation software commercially available with the ease and familiarity of a Windows-based operating system. AW Stoner Software by GL Noble Denton SynerGee GaS – netWorK moDellinG anD analySiS – SynerGEE® Gas. models and analyses complex. GL NOBLE DENTON EXPERT: andrew Wilde Software Solutions Phone: +44 1509 28 2381 e-mail: andrew. DetaileD DeSiGn – A detailed system design study was undertaken to define the required system functionality and architecture. The GL Noble Denton pipeline simulation suite provides a complete range of simulation solutions from the design and planning desktop through operator training and qualification. Used extensively in the design and planning of gas pipeline systems. These modules include the Customer Management Module to link SynerGEE with the existing Customer Information Services. Interfaces with other corporate systems. and into online systems including leak detection and predictive simulation. BCX (the Sasol Gas IT consultant) and GL Noble Denton was established and a number of key project stages were defined: meterinG StuDy – The need for a detailed study on the existing high-pressure fiscal metering system was identified. identifying potential areas of improvement. and Planning Predictor.com Using new technologies and innovative architectures. SPS easily handles any combination of scenarios including control system analyses. The application modules selected for the Sasol Gas project included Leak Finder. Final acceptance testing took place towards the end of 2009. primarily transmission pipelines. Stoner PiPeline Simulator (SPS) – GL Noble Denton’s Stoner Pipeline Simulator is the worldwide leader in transient flow simulation for liquid and gas pipelines. Sastech. All of the project stakeholders were engaged in a series of workshops to ensure that all of the system requirements were included in the final. detailed design. the ERP environment etc. followed by an intensive training programme for system users. storage fields and production wells. Access is tightly controlled through a comprehensive security system built into the operational interface. Project Implementation A project team of Sasol Gas. including SCADA. including resources in the UK as well as Mechanicsburg and Houston. equipment performance analyses and pressure flow capacity analyses with user-defined levels of complexity. The basic challenge for operators is balancing the changing conditions of supply and demand. closedconduit transmission and distribution pipeline systems consisting of pipes.

which has led to improved offshore inspection and condition monitoring. some of which are linked to the safety-critical issue of station-keeping. Failure Detection System “For the first time. FPSO expert at GL Noble Denton in Aberdeen. based on operational experience.” Brown adds. the JIP has introduced a method to evaluate the extent of combined wear and corrosion affecting 44 energıze . “The project addresses a number of areas that are of particular concern with regard to mooring/station-keeping integrity. “A floating rather than fixed asset is a major integrity step change. storage and offloading (FPSO) systems are used for offshore oil and gas exploration and development. ABSTRACT FPSO mooring systems are subject to high loads and constant fatigue loading for an extended duration Improved inspection and condition monitoring ensures integrity This is one of the results of Phase 2 of a joint industry project on mooring integrity. The OTC paper presents the steps that have been initiated to improve mooring durability in terms of both design and integrity management. Floating hulls often have additional and complex interacting systems.” Floating. The project has again brought to the fore the importance of mooring integrity. These floating systems allow access to deepwater and remote reserves. The results of a joint industry project (JIP) were presented at the Offshore Technology Conference (OTC) in Houston last May “The challenge of achieving consistent mooring integrity for FPSOs requires operational experience and stringent analysis of all available data.” says Martin Brown. In 2009 about 130 FPSO units were operating worldwide and many more are planned.” says JIP manager Brown.c o n s u l t i ng fps o Integrity is Crucial The durability of FPSO mooring systems can be improved by optimizing the design and integrity management. production. “Improvements are necessary in the areas of design and integrity management. and is feeding the results back to the operators.

GL Noble Denton FPSO Achievements GL Noble Denton has been involved with more than 100 mobile offshore production units since the first FPSO unit ever built. MIC. 02/2010 45 . turret and marine systems. GL Noble Denton takes on all phases of the project from conceptual and front-end engineering design to detail design. In 2009 about 130 FPSO units were operating worldwide – and many more are planned. particularly for existing units with internal turrets.” says Brown. 20 conversions and 65 studies. since this will influence when a mooring is no longer fit for purpose. whether all mooring lines are properly intact at any given time. operators need to be Microbiologically influenced corrosion on mooring components can be a problem for operators. “The status and maturity of the technology has improved. Nevertheless. More field testing is required to come up with improved and reliable designs. More and more FPSO operators are realizing the commercial and safety benefits of a mooring line failure detection system which helps to assess Photo: Dreamstime says Brown. For the first time. “Some mooring systems are designed for 25 years or more of continuous operation.” says the FPSO expert. mooring. structural. living quarters. The project reviewed the state of the art in line failure detection systems. and safety and utility modules. chains over time. With experts on hull.” Growth. This is a tough challenge for any mechanical system. This “Comley” model (named after the project engineer) allows a more accurate assessment to be made of the accumulated effects of wear and corrosion. site management and asset integrity management. including more than 15 newbuilding projects. An investigation has been carried out into the phenomenon of microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) on mooring components. which can accelerate local corrosion significantly. Petrojarl 1 in 1984. It is important to be able to evaluate the loss of steel. represents a major challenge. but much more data is needed to define the extent of the problem. based on the predicted motion of the actual floating structure. detecting failures. it has been shown that MIC can be an issue.

ance document includes specifications for lights and cameras. the FPSO Forum on Wednesday. Monitoring campaigns offer verification of design and analysis assumptions. surface properties. chemical composition and microstructure. In addition. “The most important message is probably to plan what you intend to do with the data beforehand and then to follow through with the process so that maximum benefit can be obtained from the data. The mission of the forum is to identify the common technical issues facing those involved erating FPSOs and to foster JIPs to tackle these issues for the common good of the industry. Thorough examination allows potential issues to be detected early before they develop into very expensive problems. fabricating and op. enabling them to glean as much insight as possible from remotely operated vehicle (ROV) inspection videos. More than 150 experts will meet for the four-day conference. The guidneed to be improved. which still The 25th FPSO Research Forum GL Noble Denton will host the 25th FPSO Research Forum in Aberdeen. There is a vast array of ROVs available for survey work. which can influence the quality of the recorded images considerably. Selecting the right type for a particular survey is a complex task that not only needs to consider the scope of work but also the general availability of ROVs and the suitability of the vessel used to deploy the ROV. UK in October. As a public event. A guidance document on monitoring and recording systems produced by the project assists operators by maximizing the benefit gained from recording data. and some are now sufficiently powerful to clean off marine growth.” JIP project manager Brown sums it up. Members of the Mooring Integrity Session at the Offshore Technology Conference in Houston. SERVICE. “Collecting data without interpretation and checking for trends is a wasted opportunity. Smaller ROVs can now be launched over the side of the actual FPSO unit itself. This data helps to improve mooring response prediction tools. 13 October will discuss Effects on FPSO Integrity”.“Human. more prepared to share data. System and Ageing 46 energıze . in designing. mooring system inspection guidance has been developed for non-mooring specialists. which will include a number of “Joint Industry Project” (JIP) Steering Committee meetings.c o n s u l t i ng fps o OTC.” Brown continues: “The JIP has demonstrated that through close collaboration between all sides of the supply chain it is possible to accelerate the mooring integrity learn- A guidance document on monitoring and recording systems helps to maximize the benefit of recording data. correlation of fatigue analyses plus instantaneous and continuous integrity monitoring. accounting for hardness. The project has produced guidance on selecting optimal materials for longterm mooring components. This can help reduce the cost of inspection operations significantly.

GL Noble Denton runs the present JIP and reports to a steering committee made up of world experts including operators. Phase 2 was launched to address these challenges. proceedings. Brown. was written by Martin G. regulatory authorities. Remotely operated vehicles are in use for failure detection. classification societies. at the same time. ing process and. Wood Group Engineering (North Sea) Ltd. BP Exploration Operating Company Limited and Subir Bhattacharjee. as well as Ian Williams. Philip Smedley. ExxonMobil Production Engineering. Phase 1 of the mooring integrity JIP highlighted a number of important mooring integrity challenges for the offshore industry. The full paper. such as mooring line failure detection and MIC. which is part of the OTC conference Contents of the Summary Paper Definition of a practical method to estimate wear/corrosion based on calibration using field measurements Feedback on the break testing of worn components Photo: Dreamstime Review of the effects of Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC) Guidance on how to monitor station-keeping performance and what to do with the data received Summary of mooring line failure detection options www. Our work on improving inspection strategies for mooring systems should help to identify anomalies before they get a chance to become safety-critical”.Photo: Film-Ocean Inspection.com The influence of proof load on fatigue endurance Material compatibility guidance Inspection guidance for ROV operators 02/2010 47 .brown@nobledenton. titled “Phase 2 Mooring Integrity JIP Summary of Findings”. GL NOBLE DENTON EXPERT: Martin Brown Consultant Naval Architect Phone: +44 1224 289 108 E-Mail: martin. Comley and Morten Eriksen from GL Noble Denton. tackle areas of key exposure. A third JIP phase is in the planning stage.gl-nobledenton. Andrew P. designers and manufacturers plus service and inspection companies.com MB Summary of Findings This JIP has attracted the support of 38 organizations.

assessing the potential for the offshore exploration market. third-party experts to identify. “Currently the offshore industry is a very healthy area to do business in.” said David Rowan.” said David Rowan. financial institutions. Rising oil prices further boost this trend. During the Beijing workshop. and there is a continuing need to replace retired units. energy companies and the media. from its concept to completion. which was chaired by David Rowan. The workshop was attended by over 40 representatives from leading Chinese banks. semi-submersibles and drill ships will be needed for exploration and development. such as wind energıze .c o n s u l t i ng du e d i l i g e n c e Drilling Rig. As the offshore industry goes into deep water. India and China need energy to fuel their growth. Another factor is offshore renewable energy. Managing Director Execution Services at GL Noble Denton. The Offshore Promise “There has been a huge boom in the construction of jack-up rigs around the world. driving developments both onshore and offshore. mitigate and control technical risks throughout a project. driving developments both onshore and offshore. Rowan said the recovery from the global recession will free up capital for project funding. senior GL Noble Denton executives and senior executives from West LB and Standard Chartered Bank provided in-depth information on the subject. Emerging markets need energy to fuel their growth. 48 Russia. Technical due diligence is a process carried out by independent. Countries like Brazil.

West LB AG. GL Noble Denton. 02/2010 49 .” said Hertel. “In 2009. Equity accounts for 10% to 30% in typical deals.” Photo: BP ABSTrACT The financing of major offshore projects is big business GL Noble Denton provides project structure reviews. to increase from 250 billion US$ in 2007 to over 350 billion US$ in 2012. West LB and Standard Chartered Bank explained keys for for successful project financing farms. said that the biggest part of the capital is raised in the form of debt or construction loans from banks. In a joint one-day workshop in Beijing on 27 April. Annual offShore expLorATIoN AND proDuCTIoN expenditure is expected ence in the marine and offshore industry. A great number of new FPSOs will be needed over the next years.” he said.” explained Paul Clifford. Project Finance Project finance is a method of raising long-term debt financing for major projects. West LB AG. Executive Director – Energy Structured Offshore Trends According to Claus Hertel. Director and Head of Project Finance. yard audits. offshore oil production has increased by 22% and GAS proDuCTIoN By 55% since 2000. specification reviews and execution plan reviews and other due diligence services In his presentation on capital structures for project finance. “It is tied to a specific asset whose repayment source comes from its cash flow. an industry veteran with over 40 years experi- with more growth predicted. based on lending against the cash flows generated by the project alone. expects A 40% INCreASe IN offShore rIG DemAND over the next five years. GroWTh over The LAST TeN yeArS . “The crucial role of the independent engineer during the due-diligence phase is to demonstrate that the assumptions underlying the proposed project are conservative and feasible and will support the budget. and up to 75 new FPSOs will be needed over the next five years. GL Noble Denton’s David Rowan. Floating Production and Storage Units (FPSO) have experienced mASSIve Growth. where specialized installation and maintenance ships are needed. Claus Hertel. Standard Chartered Bank.The Confidence Builders Technical due diligence is indispensable for project financing. almost 300 billion US dollars of project finance capital was raised globally across about 700 different transactions. Five large projects are to be initiated this year. Hertel continued that a project budget needs to be mapped out carefully before approaching the financial markets. design. “Typically you can raise up to 80% of the project cost in debt. Finance. especially for offshore projects that are technically sophisticated.

Expert David Rowan (l. will operate as expected and will generate cash flow as projected. the IE assesses the technical expertise of the proposed shipyard. social and environmental risks. The independent engineer works under the direction of the lender but keeps in close contact with the owner. “The due diligence requirements serve to assure that the project can be completed on time and on schedule. Independence Is Key “Project finance typically requires assessment by an Independent Engineer (IE) or Technical Advisor (TA) as an inherent requirement of the funding. independent engineers monitor the ongoing works at the shipyard.and offshore. In the second phase. Paul Clifford of Standard Chartered Bank addressed a different aspect of the due-diligence process. In addition. Platform.c o n s u l t i ng du e d i l i g e n c e Podium.” he said. their fitness for the Photo: Gazprom 50 energıze . Large-scale projects need sound financing. The due diligence phase takes place once the project has been set up and structured. GL Noble Denton supports clients in their assessment of technical and commercial risks of major oil and gas projects on. given purpose and their conformance with contract requirements. Once the equipment is in operation. operational risks. A thorough feasibility study and a reasonable allocation of the project risks are keys for successful project Due DILIGeNCe. preparing progress reports based on site visits and document reviews. he added. The independent engineer scrutinizes the design of specific units. project contract risks. listing five risk areas for project finance: construction and completion risks. financing. and financial and commercial risks.” said David Rowan. the independent engineers verify whether it performs properly and lives up to expectations. legal. His work is subdivided into two main phases: due diligence and monitoring.) at the Offshore Industry Technical Due Diligence Workshop at the Raffles Beijing Hotel close to the Forbidden City.

but its potential for growth is tremendous.The key requirement for all technical due diligence work is independence and impartiality. technology. from which many modern project finance techniques are drawn. milestone confirmations. The workshop was wrapped up by David Rowan who conveyed the essence of technical due diligence by quoting Ronald Reagan as saying “You hope for the best. On the other hand. Braden discussed design issues in technical due diligence as well as items to consider when reviewing shipyard and charter contracts. went into further detail concerning the work of independent engineers. In the 19th Century. water. proCuremeNT AND CoNSTruCTIoN) and Owner Furnished Equipment (OFE). based on LeNDING AGAINST The CASh fLoWS generated by the developed in the Texas oilfields in the 1930’s. execution plan reviews.com Project Finance Project finance is a method of raising long-term debt financing for major projects. two Directors of Technical Due Diligence at GL Noble Denton. Project finance is not a new concept. GL Noble Denton has facilitated the financing of several projects launched in China. yard audits. He also addressed items an independent engineer must review in a shipyard audit. Rowan belives ten years from now China may take the lead in this area. there may be overcapacities. etc. production control. Finance for natural resources projects. project execution philosophy. Rowan said that his creed has always been: “We have to say what we believe to be the truth. and later in the DeveLopmeNT of NorTh SeA fIeLDS in the 1970’s. specification reviews. but you plan for the worst”. drawing on its offshore expertise. initial risk and cost control. gas and electricity projects were funded uSING prIvATe SeCTor moNey . design reviews. In two additional presentations. Mr Tate discussed project planning and research in view of market fundamentals. 02/2010 51 . and Chinese yards have displayed increasing competence in semisubmersible and drill ship construction. quality assurance. Chinese shipyards David rowan managing Director execution Services phone: +713 5434319. In 2009. are investing heavily in offshore development. such as shipyard capabilities. GL Noble Denton provides project structure reviews. in which case a qualified independent engineer can help lenders and owners identify the best contractors. e-mail: david.” John Tate and Paul Braden. management issues. the English road system and numerous railway. yard facilities.rowan@gl-group. almost 300 BILLIoN uS DoLLArS of projeCT fINANCe CApITAL was raised project. globally across about 700 different transactions. zL GL NOBLE DENTON ExPERT: Promising Chinese Market The offshore industry in China is relatively young. security. Most of the capital raised is used to fund EPC contracts (eNGINeerING. costs and financial performance. Mr Braden elaborated on three financial criteria an independent engineer must keep in mind: revenue generation. For example. and other due diligence services for the construction of several drillships and semi-submersibles in Yantai. planning. Project finance has accelerated its development over the past 20 years.

000 actual cubic metres per hour (acmh) represents an annual deficit of 1. During the test work. The reference turbine flow meters used on site are sent to Europe each year for calibration against the International High Pressure Volume Flow Standard.1% on a typical flow of 5. we have taken this equipment to the only facility on the face of the Earth that can reach the flow rates we require’.” This was the comment from the project manager of a major sub-sea safety valve manufacturer following tests in the slam shut test rig at the GL Noble Denton Flow Centre in County Durham. The Flow Centre uses several routes to traceability. For instance. Using this facility has eliminated the dependency on external calibration labs and reduced the uncertainty of the secondary instrumentation used on site. UK. you feel a darn sight more comfortable with your test programme.c o n s u l t i ng te s ti n g A World-Class Facility GL Noble Denton’s Flow Centre is the one facility where safety and financial risk are mitigated in full-flow highpressure testing “When you are standing in front of an attorney who asks you what steps you have taken to mitigate the risk of an accident and you can say ‘Sir. Temperature. pressure and electrical calibrations are carried out on-site in the UKAS-accredited Calibration Laboratory. which holds standards directly traceable to UK national standards.7 million euros. The Flow Centre is the only vertical test rig in the world for full-flow high-pressure gas tests. the valve proved capable of shutting off a gas flow of 137 metres per second at 55 bar in On even higher flows. It is an essential requirement that the measurements taken during a calibration can be traced to international standards. Uncertainty and Traceability Manufacturers and operators of gas flow meters require calibrations to demonstrate that their products are accurate and that the uncertainty can be quantified. This is the highest flow rate available world wide for this type of test. A small discrepancy in the indicat- ed flow may mean that significant differences are reported between producers and buyers. Laboratory activities also include a managed energıze Unique Facility. this deficit will be significantly greater – it doesn’t pay to gamble with your gas. an error of 0. In this way the meters are directly traceable to the lowest possible flow uncertainty in the world. abstraCt Manufacturers and operators of gas flow meters require calibrations to demonstrate that their products are accurate The Flow Centre is the only facility for full-flow highpressure testing of sub-sea safety valves 3 seconds. 52 .

there is an increased risk to the integrity of pipework and equipment. This test line will also be used to calibrate large mass flow meters required when CO2 metering becomes an important industry requirement. GL will be commissioning an extra bank of reference meters in the autumn to cope with the increased turn-down range of the latest ultra-sonic flow meters. ensuring that the GL tests are as close to the operational scenario as possible. 02/2010 53 . The effects can be modelled with CFD packages. orifice plate calibration and storage service to clients with a diverse metering portfolio. In addition to sub-sea safety valve testing.com alistair Milne Project Engineer. Its capabilities include calibration of HIGH-PrEssUrE Gas FLOW MEtErs and a wide custody transfer meters are routinely calibrated by a team of highlyqualified experts who know how to CONtrOL tHE EXtrEME aND POtENtIaLLY HaZarDOUs PHYsICaL FOrCEs at work during these tests.com GL Noble Denton Flow Centre Located near the UK National Grid Bishop Auckland compressor station. Due to its quality and consistency. secure location. the leading European test site for large flow meters. the Flow Centre is ideally suited to construct test rigs for a variety of high-pressure tests. With the higher sand content found in the wells now being exploited. These effects can be captured in the high-speed data logging system for analysis and incorporation into future models. Sand is fed into the erosion rig in a single pass which ensures that the particles are not rounded off. and Experience.brown@gl-group. The Flow Centre has been in operation for over thirty years. the calibration lab is the preferred choice for high-pressure instrument manufacturers who are required to supply a calibration certificate with their equipment. high-flow Testing at the GL Flow Centre helps the clients to reduce financial risk. General Manager spadeadam test site & GL Flow Centre Phone: +44 1697 749138 E-Mail: david. Specialist Test Work With a flexible site layout and experienced technicians. accessible with large-capacity cranes.Risk Assessment. range of instruments. DB VaLIDatION. In the discrete. the Flow Centre was originally a test facility for British Gas. Pipelines are exposed to extreme and potentially hazardous physical forces. GL NOBLE DENTON EXPERTS: David brown. a sand erosion rig has been developed to test valves and piping geometry under real-life conditions. Today it is one of the LEaDING CaLIbratION LabOratOrIEs IN tHE WOrLD . The Flow Centre has been in operation for over thirty years. GL Flow Centre Phone: +44 1388 724039 E-Mail: alistair. but the results need validation to ensure that the parameters and assumptions used in the model are correct. This will ensure that the site can maintain its position as the leading European test site for large meters and also allow the latest generation of sub-sea flow meters to be accommodated in a purpose-built test line. as well as tEstING PIPELINE COMPONENts in real operational conditions. unexpected effects may occur due to complex features or properties which may not be adequately modelled. Pressure drop trials on filter assemblies and pipework layouts can be conducted to endorse design calculations or provide data for more extensive arrangements.milne@gl-group. Whilst classical calculations and computer simulations are essential to develop ideas.

c o n s u l t i ng mo p u 54 energıze .

The MOPUstor (Mobile Offshore Production Unit and Storage) platform was built by SBM Offshore. at Adyard in Mussafah. the unit was transferred onto a specially modified bottom-reaction. 100 km off the coast of Norway. the platform weighs 12. The catch: The unit was built in far-away Abu Dhabi. semi-submersible barge that had been fitted with side sponsons forward and coupled with a large hinged secondary support barge aft to partially support the weight of the module. Experts from GL Noble Denton made sure the challenging transfer from the yard to the dry-transport ship went smoothly The transport of the MOPUstor to its load-out location and the load-out onto the dry-transport vessel for the voyage to Norway were technically very challenging and required utmost engineering skill. Talisman Energy is about to install a MOPUstor jack-up platform to develop the YME oil field. The oil from its subsea storage tank will be transferred to tankers through a submerged loading system (SLS).20 metres and 55 ABSTrAcT The MOPUstor jack-up platform for the YME oil field off Norway was built in Abu Dhabi The transfer from the yard to the sea transport vessel was a major engineering challenge Precision Job. At the yard. Completed in May 2010. How to Haul a Colossus In Egersund Basin in the North Sea.600 tonnes – the complete unit was 139 metres long and 85 metres wide at the water line (98 metres overall) at a maximum draught of 5. UAE. a subsidiary of GustoMSC. GL Noble Denton played a key role in ensuring the safe transfer 02/2010 .500 tonnes. With a final floating displacement of 28. Abu Dhabi. Upon its arrival in Norway. Manoeuvring the behemoth down Mussafah Channel was a complex challenge. its legs will be fitted at an in-shore location before the unit will be taken to the offshore well site where it will lower its legs onto the seafloor and jack itself up above the water line.

narrow section of the channel had not been officially surveyed since 1986. and coordination and cooperation with the construction contractors and port authorities was needed to ensure that operations were shut down temporarily for transit. A full bathymetric survey. The water depths and ocean floors were analysed to ensure accurate and reliable data. which is subject to very strong tidal currents. prepare a concise towage manual and look after all marine aspects. It was also essential for the unit to clear the Mussafah Channel. astrous consequences for the integrity of the module. Maximum clearance through this area at water level was just 40 metres. given the draught and size of the MOPUstor unit. of the 18-mile channel was completed to entermined that the transit was tide-bound and could only be completed safely during certain tidal windows. was closed to all vessel movements to ensure that no traffic would be encountered during the passage down the Mussafah Channel. which is critical for the supply of all Abu Dhabi offshore drilling operations as well as various shipyards and EPC contractors. Any grounding of the barge would have had dis56 Additional complications resulted from ongoing construction work for a new bridge across the channel. Furthermore. ongoing dredging operations for the nearby new Mussafah Channel added to the complexity of the move because they had a continuously changing local effect on tidal time predictions. The tow masters faced numerous obstacles and chal- Off to Norway. sure accurate and reliable water depth data. by nightfall. The initial. studying the water depths and ocean floors.c o n s u l t i ng mo p u with an air draught of 55 metres – this was by far the largest vessel ever built in Abu Dhabi. energıze BAThYMETrIc SUrvEY. Excellent sea and weather conditions were key requirements for successful load-out. Narrow Channel SBM Offshore called on the local knowledge and towage expertise of GL Noble Denton’s Abu Dhabi office to supply two tow masters for the voyage out. SBM Offshore gave invaluable support throughout this data gathering process. Prepassage the channel lateral buoys required repositioning. For the day of the move the entire channel. lenges to complete this operation in a safe and efficient manner. Tidal gauges were set up to monitor the change in tidal predictions and ensure up-to-date data was available to the tow masters. It was de- .

The load-out operation took approximately five hours and followed a carefully planned procedure. manoeuvred the complete unit from Adyard Mussafah. Two separate. Japan IMO NUMBEr: 8130875 TONNAGE: gross tonnage (GT) of 8.70 m (573. Captain David Wells. independent weather forecasts were constantly monitored to ensure the stipulated weather criteria would be adhered to.8 ft) (sailing)/ 26 m (85 ft) (submerged)/ 14 m (46 ft) (maximum cargo) DEPTh: 12 m (39 ft) DEPTh OF hOLD: 50 x 16 x 7. The 18-nautical-mile Mussafah Channel transit was competed in less than 6 hours.2 ft) b. completed a 180-degree turn and proceeded down the channel.6 m [102 × 47.05 carefully manoeuvred alongside and loaded out onto the “Mighty Servant 1”.000 tonnes. Successful Finale At first light the following morning. BEAM: 40 m (130 ft) DrAUGhT: 4 m (13 ft) (minimum)/ Ltd. This was reportedly the largest-dimensioned load ever carried on board this ship. including all support barges.p. This project has underlined the versatility of GL Noble Denton in tackling all aspects of complex offshore operations and in providing clients with comprehensive expertise. The tow was then taken 20 nautical miles offshore to the “Mighty Servant 1” load-out position. Owned by Dockwise.. after rearranging the towing vessel configuration.5 ft)/ [160 x 52 x 25 ft] hATch: 31 × 14. weather conditions were acceptable for the load-out and. assisted by Captain Morvan Le Dorven.5 m 29. its final deck clearance was less than one metre forward and zero aft with substantial overhangs either side.910 metric tonnes deadweight (dwt) LENGTh: 190. the final MOPUstor transport weight was approximately 23. Mighty Servant 1 is one of the largest carrying vessels on the market. On 12 August 2010 at 06. Senior Surveyor from GL Noble Denton. and thereby. as well as five towing vessels.03 m (623.” MLD NOTE: GL Noble Denton’s sub-contractor Chris Lovett did all the lead-up work but he was not able to attend during the tow. a.9 ft] 174.m. the level of comfort and confidence they need. Oshima. The wind and sea conditions would be critical for open water towage and for the load-out operation.. Mighty Servant 1 OWNEr: Dockwise BUILDEr: Oshima Shipbuilding Co. was to be loaded out onto the semisubmersible dry-transport vessel “Mighty Servant 1” for the voyage to Norway.193 tonnes / 40. The feedback GL Noble Denton received from its clients speaks for itself: “The operation was a great success and GL Noble Denton was instrumental in this achievement.The MOPUstor.com 02/2010 57 .le-dorven@gl-nobledenton. the MOPUstor was GL NOBLE DENTON EXPERT: Morvan Le Dorven Marine Operations consultant and Surveyor Phone: +971 2 44298704653 E-Mail: morvan. After deballasting for the voyage. The wind and tidal conditions were favourable.77 m (28.

United Kingdom. Increasing Capability Nexans engaged GL Noble Denton in Sandefjord to manage this conversion. so three months construction time had to suffice. The available time for the actual conversion was limited due to the vessel’s busy schedule.c o n s u l t i ng s hi p c o n v e rs i o n Elongating of a Cable Laying Vessel Starting a new life: The cable laying vessel (CLV) “Nexans Skagerrak” was recently relaunched after a successful conversion and upgrade The CLV “Nexans Skagerrak” was the first purpose-built ship to be designed specifically for the transport and installation of submarine high-voltage cables and umbilicals. The work included a totally reworked global strength as well as stability calculaenergıze abSTraCT The cable solution supplier Nexans initiated the conversion of its CLV “Skagerrak” to meet the changing needs of customers The owner engaged GL Noble Denton to manage the conversion Ready for Operation. and the Cammel Laird yard Birkenhead. who provided a team for project manage58 . to increase the vessel’s capability to perform more demanding cable and umbilical installation tasks as well as to provide a service life extension. had to prefabricate some 800 tonnes of steel before the vessel arrived for the actual conversion work. but this conversion is the largest and most complicated upgrade to date. the vessel has been constantly upgraded and new systems have been added. The new hull section was prefabricated to save conversion time. The scope of the conversion included improved loading condition. as well as increased and upgraded accommodation facilities. ment. Throughout its life. design and construction follow-up. cable solutions supplier Nexans. The loading condition enhancement was done by lengthening the vessel by 12. enhanced deck facilities. There are to date only two vessels of this kind in the world. The upgraded “Skagerrak”.5 metres. The conversion was initiated by the owner.

After the conversion. An additional accommodation module and a new work deck have been installed. The GL Noble Denton team covered all the phases of this conversion. fitting new deck cranes and an upgrade of the on-deck safety systems. dayrooms and galley were refurbished in addition to an increased number of single cabins to 60.000-m2 work deck was fitted on board to accommodate requirements for increased ProjeCT. namely the conceptual design and concept selection.com 02/2010 59 . the vessel has a perpendicular length of 112.886 to 9.25 metres. as well as the general challenge to get new and old systems to fit together as one seamless unit. which was prefabricated to save conversion time. and facilities that needed to be interfaced during the insertion of the new hull section. GLMillibus. quaes inus et harumqui Change. including fitting of two new lifeboats and lifeboat stations. evaluating a proposed yard.373 tonnes. storage and to accommodate additional cable laying equipment. including the fitting of one accommodation module with 17 single cabins. preparing yard specifications. ØT This article was first published in “Ship + Offshore” magazine. The first task for the ”Skagerrak” is laying of 292 km of HVDC cable for the BP Valhall Power from Shore project in the North Sea. tions and design of all steel structures for hull strengthening in addition to the extension plug itself. GL NObLE DENTON ExpERT: Coordinating New and Old Systems The work performed was reported to be complex both due to the limited time and the large amount of systems Øyvind Thoresen engineering Manager Phone: +47 33 447051 e-Mail: oyvind.Oxmx mxis. The upgrade increased the ship’s deadweight from 7. the naval. GL Noble Denton provided the yard supervision and was responsible for all class and as-built documentation. A new 2. This work also included some modifications of existing cable laying equipment. Domestic and service areas such as mess room. structural and marine systems design as well as the safety systems design. Tin nam latem eicto doluptae idunto estenis est quam.thoresen@nobledenton.

which will connect Russia and the European Union via the Baltic Sea. The epibenthos sledge. consists of a towed steel frame equipped with searchlights. GL Noble Denton. a pressure-compensated battery as well as testing equipment. Epibenthos.220-km pipeline will be capable of supplying enough gas for 26 million households in Europe.aro u n d t h e wo x d o i l & g a s x x x x x x xrlx x x x x x x x x x projects in brief Solitaire. The GL team for pressure vessels and underwater technology specializes in ensuring safe and reliable underwater systems. highly sedimented. study of the draught of shipping traffic in the German EEZ and the risk of potential interference with the pipeline. will not inflict any further environmental harm on the Baltic or interfere with ship traffic. Unmanned Submersibles (ROV. a camcorder. All parties involved are working hard to assure that the Nord Stream pipeline. The investigation of deep sea areas in general and the exploration and mining of energy resources in particular require special know-how. The tubes Nord Stream Gas for Europe will be welded aboard the pipelay vessel. AUV) and Underwater Working Machines. including: study of potential interference with shipping. Examples are sponges. assessment of possible interference with a planned offshore wind farm in the “Adlergrund” area.000 metres. others are mobile. Oktopus Know-how to Investigate Deep Sea Areas and tested by technical experts from the Pressure Vessels and Underwater Technology department according to the new revised GL Rules for Underwater Technology. investigation on the optimal burial depth of the pipelines inside the Greifswalder Bodden up to the border of the German Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) to maintain ease and safety of shipping. corals or starfish. assessment of potential emergency anchoring and grounding near the pipeline. largely enclosed sea. Department Plant and Pipelines in Hamburg has been tasked to conduct various safety studies to ensure optimal pipeline routing and maximum safety. The rapid increase in worldwide energy demand has been driving the exploration of new deep-sea energy resources such as gas hydrates. which is due to come fully on line in 2012. The 1. baltic sea Pipe-laying operations for the Nord Stream subsea gas pipeline project. Germany. Chapter 3. have begun recently. built by Oktopus GmbH. The epibenthos sledge was examined 60 energıze Photo: Nord Stream AG . Some are attached to the substrate. The epibenthos sledge is now ready for deployment on deep sea floor exploration missions. oil and gas. evaluation of military training areas in the course of the pipeline routing. germany GL’s Pressure Vessels and Underwater Technology department has recently certified a research vehicle for deep sea use up to 6. Kiel. The research vehicle is now ready for deployment. evaluating the probabilities of accidents in close vicinity of the pipeline route. These studies have been of particular importance since the Baltic is a relatively shallow. The Greek word “epibenthos” is a scientific term used for animals that live on or immediately above the seafloor.

500 homes and displace over a million tonnes river ThAmes Offshore Installation. During the offshore installation of the 175 turbines for phase one. BEP GL Noble Denton Software Selected for Bunde-Etzel Pipeline Project Transport Services (GTS) entry point/exit point at Oude Statenzijl. “The transportation and installation of huge. London Array will serve 475. With its capacity it will generate enough energy to supply around 475. This includes real-time leak detection and location. will become a major source of natural gas for Western Europe. mainly because of improved support mechanisms in the main offshore markets identified. to the Gas ment system will use its industry-leading gas modelling software. the European offshore wind market is likely to outpace the rest of the world for some years to come. which are currently under development in Etzel. 02/2010 61 Illustration: British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Ltd. GL Noble Denton’s pipeline managePhotos: Bunde-Etzel-Pipelinegesellschaft germany The pipeline management system for the Bunde-Etzel Pipeline (BEP) in Western Europe will be provided by GL Noble Denton. world’s largest offshore wind farm when fully complete.500 homes. The system will be integrated into IT company Telvent’s supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system to provide a complete control system for the pipeline that will optimize security and operations as well as help assure reliable supply. In addition. Despite activities in other regions. which is part of the gas transportation system of GTS in the Netherlands. Germany. The technical service provider to the energy industries has been contracted by London Array Ltd to perform Marine Warranty Survey services for the first phase of the project. it includes exclusive in-house wind resource maps that utilize GL Garrad Hassan’s real project experience. GL Noble Denton will confirm that technical risks are kept within acceptable levels. The BEP project involves the connection of a 48" pipeline from gas storage facilities. The first 630-MW phase is scheduled for completion by the end of 2012. as well as a regulatory framework and industry outlook.” says Gabor Bohner. to provide advanced functionality for the safe and efficient operation of the pipeline. offshore construction on the first 630-MW phase of the project is due to start early next year. as well as predictive applications to support pipeline operations. . Located around 20 km off the British coasts of Kent and Essex. drivers and barriers. and increased industry action in European markets. Stoner Pipeline Simulator (SPS). covering a distance of 60 km. The pipeline connects the cavern facility in Etzel to the natural gas grid in Oude Statenzijl in the Netherlands.GLGH Research Report Marks Growth in Europe London Array Service Contract for 630-MW Phase London ArrAy europe GL Garrad Hassan has released a england London Array will be the new edition of their “Offshore Wind Energy Market Report”. Construction. It shows that concerns over energy security. This pipeline. climate change and ambitious European renewable energy targets have led to an improved regulatory framework. 30 km of CO2 each year. awkwardly shaped structures offshore involve risks that can only be mitigated by adhering to codes and standards. who heads GL Noble Denton’s Marine Operations and Marine Warranty Survey department in Hamburg. The new report provides detailed information on market status.

10. – 29.2010 MTS Society Dynamic Positioning Conference Houston. D-50354 Aktiengesellschaft 2010. – 25.2010 OSEA 2010 Suntec. – 13. Hamburg Editorial Director Dr Olaf Mager (OM). issue No. Contributions by external authors do not necessarily reflect the views of the editors or of Germanischer Lloyd Enquiries to: Germanischer Lloyd AG. UK 26.11. This product was printed on FSC Certified Paper Aberdeen. – 04. Singapore 62 Singapore. Luxemburger Straße 96. Richard Palmer (RP).11. All information is correct to the best of our knowledge. Location of Scotland’s first university. Felix Weise (FW). Karsten Hagenah (KH). Corporate Communications Managing Editor Stefanie NormannBirkholz (SNB) Authors of this issue Lea Behnsen (LB). The capital of the United Arab Emirates. Hussain Al-Ahmed.2010 International Marine Contractors Association (IMCA) Annual Seminar Dubai. E-Mail: pr@gl-group. The Mercat Cross in the town centre. Scotland’s capital with a fine tradition.2010 TEAM Europe 2010 Edinburgh. Toby Miles (TM). Jörn Iken (JI).11.10. USA GL Noble Denton: booth 20 13. Nicolai Schäfer. Aberdeen. Fax: +49 40 36149250.10. St Andrews. D-20357 Hamburg Layout Oliver Lohrengel Translations Andreas Kühner Prepress Fire Department Printed by Media Cologne Kommunikationsmedien GmbH. Iardo.com energıze . Edinburgh. Zhang Li (ZL). Uwe Supke (US). Joe Hughes (JH). Jjhake. Morvan Le Dorven (MLD). Texas. Corporate Communications.2010 25th FPSO Research Forum Aberdeen.11. Houston. Martin Brown (MB).10. Andrew Wilde (AW) Cover photo iStockphoto Design and production printprojekt.2010 Asset Integrity Management 2010 Aberdeen.service dates & rules Conferences & Fairs OCTOBER 11. UAE 23. Boomtown in the Persian Gulf. – 03. UK 12. IMPRINT energize oil & gas. Urban. The so-called “oil capital of Europe”. – 24. D-20457 Hamburg. Abu Dhabi. The city of the US oil and gas industry. UAE GL Noble Denton: booth 11430 23. Reprinting Photos: AngMoKio. Dubai. Dave Wheeler Hürth Reprint © Germanischer Lloyd permitted on explicit request – copy requested.com Subscription service: for address changes and orders please send an e-mail to publications@gl-group.12.2010 28th North Sea Flow Measurement Workshop St Andrews. Phone: +49 40 36149-4509. Brooktorkai 18. David Brown (DB). UK NOVEMBER 01. October 2010 Frequency energize oil & gas is published twice a year Published by Germanischer Lloyd Aktiengesellschaft. 02/2010. Stefanie Normann-Birkholz (SNB). Schulterblatt 58.2010 ADIPEC 2010 Abu Dhabi. Fascinating mega-city in Asia. UK 30. – 13.

The global independent technical advisor The power of dynamic positioning GL Noble Denton is a leader in the field of dynamic positioning. Email: glnobledenton@gl-group. We also do FMEA/FMECA on: • • • • • Diving Equipment Ballast Systems Pipelay Equipment Bow Loading Systems Heavy Lift Cranes Contact us now to learn more about how we can help you. All rights reserved.gl-nobledenton.com . effects and criticality analyses (FMECA) on all types of offshore support vessels around the world – from drillships to offshore supply vessels. Our services include failure mode and effects analyses (FMEA) and failure mode.09 2010 www. a computer-controlled system that automatically maintains a vessels position and heading.com © GL Industrial Services UK Ltd. 15915_NS 16.

com stavanger Aberdeen Oslo Hamburg London shanghai Cairo Abu Dhabi Houston Kuala Lumpur singapore Rio de Janeiro The global independent technical advisor Perth GL Noble Denton Suite 900 5177 Richmond Avenue Houston.com Fax: +49 40 36149-200 www. TX 77056 USA Phone: +1 713 586 7000 Fax: +1 713 586 7007 E-Mail: glnobledenton@gl-group.gl-group.gl-garradhassan. 8. Menara Ambank No.com Zahret El-Maadi Tower 66. Apartment 2 11431 Cairo Arab Republic of Egypt Phone: +20 2 25287295 Fax: +20 2 25287294 E-Mail: glnobledenton@gl-group.com Level 39. El-Maadi 35th Floor.gl-nobledenton.GL Group Head Office Brooktorkai 18 20457 Hamburg Germany Phone: +49 40 36149-0 www.com E-Mail: headoffice@gl-group.com Brooktorkai 18 20457 Hamburg Germany Phone: +49 40 36149-7700 Fax: +49 40 36149-1781 E-Mail: glis@gl-group. Cornich El-Nile.com www. Jalan Yap Kwan Seng 50450 Kuala Lumpur Malaysia Phone: +60 3 2160 1088 Fax: +60 3 2160 1099 E-Mail: glnobledenton@gl-group.com 0E713 2010-04-10 Region Americas Region europe Region Middle east/Africa Region Asia/Pacific .

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