CONTENTS 1. 2. ORGANISAION PROFILE INTRODUCTION 2.1 SYNOPSIS 2.2 OVERVIEW OF PROJECT. SYSTEM ST UDY 3.1 PROBLEM DEFINITION 3.2 SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS 3.3 HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS C ONCEPTS & TECHNIQUES SYSTEM ANALYSIS 3. 4. 5. 6. DESIGN SPECIFICATION 6.1 TABLES 6.2 CONTEXT DIAGRAM 6.3 DATAFLOW DIAGRAMS 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. SYSTEM SPECIFICATION SCREENS RE SULTS AND ADVANTAGES CONCLUSION BI BLIOGRAPHY
product receipts. deletion for the same. And also it uses database tables Representing entities and relationships between entities . The main aim o f "ONLINE SHOPPING" is to improve the services of Customers and vendors. addition of new custom ers. products and also updating. The primary features of the project entitled "ONLINE SHOPPING" are high accuracy. It also stores the detai ls of invoices generated by customer and payments made by them with all Payments details like credit card.
. It main tains the details of customer payments.SYNOPSIS The Project entitled "ONLINE SHOPPING" is a web-based application Software devel oped in JAVA LANGUAGE using Java as front end on Pentium machine. design flexibility and easy availability.
the details of the items are brought forward from the database for the custom er view based on the selection through the menu and the database of all the prod ucts are updated at the end of each transaction. Once the authorized personnel feed the relevant data into the system. The Server process the customers and the it ems are shipped to the address submitted by them. Data entry into the application can be done through various screens designed for various levels of users.
. The application was designed i nto two modules first Os for the customers who wish to buy the articles. The application which is deployed at the customer databas e. several reports could be generated as per the security. Second is for the storekeepers who maintains and updates the information pertaining to the articles and those of the customers? The end user of this product is a depar tmental store where the application is hosted on the web and the administrator m aintains the database. The information pertaining to the products are stores on an RDBMS at the server side (store).OVERVIEW OF ONLINE SHOPPING The central concept of the application is to allow the customer to shop virtuall y using the Internet and allow customers to buy the items and articles of their desire from the store.
2 using Java as front end and it could run only on Java 1.
. handling customers and product receipts. updating of stores. Prod ucts and storing all the day to day transactions such as generation of shipment address bills. vendors. CONSTRAINTS ON THE SYSTEM AND THE PROJECT ONLINE SHOPPING is developed in Java 1.2.PROBLEM DEFINITION To develop a web-based application to improve the service to the customers and m erchant which in turn increases the sales and profit in "ONLINE SHOPPING" GOALS FOR THE SYSTEM AND THE PROJECT The system is capable of maintaining details of various customers.2 and onward versions.
SQL SERVER ODBC.3 GB HDD 64MB RAM.2.HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS HARDWARE : PENTIUM SERVER with Network Of 586 Dx4 300Mhz.3. SOFTWARE : OPERATING SYSTEM
.1. : WINDOWS NT. 8.JAV ASERVER 1. JDK1.2.
CONCEPTS AND TECHNIQUES
Strings Two clas ses that implement character data. and Double. Character.The Java Packages Eight packages comprise the standard Java development environment. Float Integer and Long.lang. The String and String Buffer Classes is a tho rough lesson on the use of both types of strings. System and Runtime These two c lasses provide let your
. The Java Language Package The Java language package. The classes in this package are grouped as follows: Obj ect The granddaddy of all classes--the class from which all others inherit. Data Type Wrappers A collection of classes used to wrap variables of a primitive dat a type: Boolean. also known as java. contains classes that are co re to the Java language.
Exception. Threads The Thread. There are two main subclasses of Throwable: Except ion and Error. Error. The java. the program throws an object. Exceptions are
.programs use system resources. Classes The Class provides a runtime description of a class and the Class Loader class allows you to load classes into your program during runtime. Using System Resources Describes both the System a nd Runtime classes and their methods. Only objects that derive from the t hrowable class can be thrown.lang package also defines the runnable interface. Math The Math class provides a library of math routines and values such as pi. System provides a system-independent programming interface to system resources and Runtime gives you direct system-specific acces s to the runtime environment. and Throwable When an error occurs in a Java program. Runnab le makes it convenient for Java class to be active without sub classing the Thre ad class. Thread Death and Threa d Group classes supplement the multi-threading capabilities so important to the Java language. Through an example-oriented approach Threads of Control will teach you about Java threads. which indicates what the problem was and the state of the interpreter when the error occurred.
Process Process objects represent the system process that is created wh en you use Runtime to execute system commands. The java.io are covered fully in Input and Output Stream s. Stack.util. Vector. Among them are several generic data structures (Dictionary. The java. and Error classes. The classe s and interfaces defined In java. Exception. and numerous Sub classes of Exception and Error that represent specific Problems.
. contains a collection of utility classes. java. No other packages are automatically imported.io) provides a set of input and Output streams us ed to read and write data to files or other Input and output sources. The compiler automatically imports this package for you. and Hash table) a useful object for tokenizing a string and anoth er for manipulating calendar dates. Errors are used for more catastrophic errors--normal programs should not catch errors. The Java I/O Pack age The Java I/O Package (java.lang Packages defines an d implements the generic Process class. The Java Utility Package This Java package.lan g package contains the Throwable.a form of Throwable that "normal" programs may try to catch. Handling Error Using Exceptions shows you how to use exceptions in your Java programs to handle errors.
Custo m Networking and Security has several examples using these classes. The Applet Package Thi s package contains the Applet class -the class that you must subclass if you're writing an applet. java.net package contains classes and in terface definitions that implement various networking capabilities. Writing Applets explains the ins and outs of developing your own applets. and a datagram packet.peer.util package also contains the Observer interface and Observable class.awt. including a client-server example and an example that uses datagrams. The Abstract Window Toolkit Packages Th ree packages comprise the Abstract Window Toolkit: Java. The Classes in this package include a class that implement a URL. Included in this Package is the Audio Clip interface which pr ovides a very high level abstraction of audio. The java. The Java Networking Package The java.util class es aren't covered separately in this tutorial although some examples use these c lasses.awt. You can use these classes to implement clientserver applications and other networking communication applications. a s ocket connection. a connection to a URL. and java. AWT Package
. which allow objects to notify one another when they change.image.The java.awt.
i mage package contains classes and interfaces for managing image data. color filtering. AWT Peer Package The java. buttons. setting pixel values.awt. such as se tting the color model. and grab bing snapshots of the screen. scrollbars. cropping. and text items.awt. Creating a User Interface covers all three of the AWT packages. These elements includ e windows.awt package provides graphical user interface (GUI) elements that are u sed to get input from and display information to the user. AWT Image Package The java.The java.
.peer package contain s classes and interfaces that connect platformindependent AWT components to thei r platformdependent implementation (such as Motif widgets or Microsoft Windows c ontrols).
anyone who has spe nt hours chasing a memory leak cost by a printer bug will be very happy
.. The single biggest difference betwee n Java has a pointer model that eliminates the possibility of overwriting memory and corrupting data.. How simple Java makes onerous tasks will like opening a socket connection. • Robust Java is intended fo r writing programs that must be readable in a Variety ways. Java puts a lot of e mphasis on early checking for possible problems. The Java compiler detects many problems that in other lang uages would only show up at runtime. As for the second point. Anyone who has tries to do Internet programming using another language will revel.FEATURES OF JAVA • Distributed Java has an extensive library of routines for coping with TCP/IP protocols like HTTP and FTP Java applications can open and access across the Net via URLs with the same ease as when accessing local file system. and eli minating situations that are error prone. We have found the networking capabilities of Java to be both strong and easy to use. later dynamic checking.
given the presence of Java runtime system. the U CSD Pascal system did the
. Here is a sample of what Java’s security fe atures are supposed to keep a Java programming from doing: 1. Overrunning the ru ntime stack. temper-free systems.with this feature of Java. Corrupting space. Rather they ere designed to be both easy to any machine an d easily translated into native machine code on the fly. for like lists. Since you can never access a bad pointer or make memory allocation err ors. memory outside its own process Secure 3. You need not pointers for everyday constructs like string and arrays. Java enables the contracti on of virus-free.the compiled code is executable on many proce ssors.The Java compiler does this b y generating byte code instructions which have nothing to do with a particular c omputer architecture. Twenty years ago. And you have always-complet e safety.. Architecture Neutral The compiler generates an archit ecture neutral object file format. Reading or writing local files when invoked through a security-conscious clas s loader like Web browser. Java is intended to be used in networked/distributed environment toward tha t end. a lot of emphasis has been placed on security. 2. Java gives you the best of both worlds.. You have the power of p ointers if you need it. for example.
The designers of Java did an excellent job developing a byte code instruction set those workers well on today’s most common computer architect ures. And the codes have been designed to translate easily into actual machine i nstructions. or any size the compiler vendor likes. the re is an abstract window class and implementations of it UNIX. One problem is that the JDK is fairly slow at compiling your source code to the bytecodes that will. By using bytecodes. The only restriction is that it must have at least as many bytes int and cannot have more bytes than a long int. a 32-bit integer. be interpreted in the
. they are no "implementation dependent" a spects of the specifications. the development process can be much more rapid and explanatory.same thing in a commercial product and. For example. ultimately. as is the behavior of arithmetic on them. and the Macintosh. performan ce takes major hit. Interpreted The Java interpreters can execute Java byte codes directl y on any machine to which the interpreter has been ported. Since linking is a mo re incremental and lightweight process. The sizes of the primitive’s data types are specifie d. even before that. Nicholas Worth’s origina l implementation of Pascal used the same approach. int can mean a 16-bit integer. Portable Unlike C and C++. In C/C++. For example. Windows. an int in Java is alwa ys a 32-bit integer. The libr aries that are a part of the system define portable interfaces.
finding out run time type information is straightforward. Native code compilers for Java are not yet g enerally available. The bytecodes can be translated on fly into machine code for the particular CPU the application is running on. Although still slightly slower than a tru e native code compiler. if needed.current version. Instead there are just-intime (jit) compilers. caching the results. Multithreaded In a number of ways. if needed. Java is more dynamic lang uage than C or C++. there are situations higher performance is requi red. This speed up the loop tremendously since once h as to do the interpretation only once. just-intime compilers can give you a 10-or even 20-fold speedup for some programs and will almost always be significantly faster than th e Java Interpreter. In Java. catching the results. Librari es can freely add new methods and instance variables without any effect on their clients. High Performance While the performance of interpreted bytecodes is usually more than adequate..
... It was designed to adapt to an evolving environment. and the ca lling them again. A prime example is code that is downloaded from the Internet to run in browser. and calling them again. This speeds up code once. These work by compiling the byte codes Into native code once. This is an important feature in those situations where code needs to be added to a running program.
The remaining features of a product can remain on t he server itself.Java based produc ts could eliminate these by giving the users only those features of a product th at the user needs at a time. robus t. They appear as part of HTML documents
.Java should be able to support low cost Net work computers. Supports CORBA& DCOM-Java supports Common Object Request Broken Architecture (CORBA) and Distributed Common Object Model (DCOM). It was built around a model that had these features. JAVA APPLETS Applets are a common way of writing Java applications.PARADIGM OF JAVA Java as a programming language evolved keeping in view certain criteria and feat ures. Integrating web based sou nd and graphics into applications is simplified by using methods in Applet class . secure etc.Applets should be downloadable on to a client ma chine as and when required. Elimination of fatter phenomenon . Some of the features of this model we have seen like the object oriented. This ensures th at certain standards for object Programming are net. Some additional features are explaining below Dynamic downloading of applets. Applets are essentially program that run from within a browser. Supports Networks centric computing. Supports Active X also. architecture neutral.
Target users must be running a version of web browser that suppo rts that Java. Applets run only from with in Java-Enab led browsers such as NETSCAPE. Another large problem is local file access. The range of programs that can be written as an APPLET are reduced because of security li mitations imposed by the target browser. I f the applet was loaded from an http server. hot Java.8 k or hi gher on relatively fast computers. The most obvious is that you only need one copy of your production class files on an HTML server. The major difference is that instea d of a static graphics. but this defeats any
. WEB pages can also be used as a method of present ing help to your users as well as keeping them informed about the latest changes to your programs. Loading the applet from the users local disk stora ge can alleviate this. the Java Applet is a complete running program. but without a classic window frame. It also helps if uses have an Internet connection of 28. ADVANTAGES OF AP PLETS: There are several advantages using Applets. Files are accessed through http and FTP.in the same way that pictures are presented. no local files can be read or writt en to on the client machines. An Applet is just like a widow application. This reduce s the nightmare of distributing and installing software by the tape or disk. Int ernet and Intranet based software also reduces the problems of LAN accesses to s oftware instead of accessing a disk by way of a network-mounted disk. DISADV ANTAGES OF APPLET: Running your application from a web browser is not necessaril y a good thing. This enables due to keep in constant touch your users. and INTERNET EXPLOSER.
applet advantages mention Applets have reduced network access. This security res triction is alleviated if the applet is loaded from the users local disk. If an applet is loaded from networked machi ne.WindowComponent Frame Object Container Panel Applet of the web-based earlier. Any Java based graphical application can be easily converted into an applet. Only that machine can be communicated with a via a socket connection this pr events the applet from communicating to other machines on web. APPLET LIFE CYCLE: There are four methods framework to build the applet that giv e the
. Thi s id because both frame and applet are executed from the container class.
Compared to c++. init is called only once. this need not be implemented. slower There are no If you want
. •Compare to C++ Java runs 20 times because o f platform independents. If an applet if not doing time consuming activ ities like performing animation. •Every thing must be in a class. passing parameters and other initializations. The notion of a constructor is all very similar to what C++ has. global functions or glob al data.This method is called when the user moves off the page on which the App let sits or when it is iconified.This is called immediately after init () start () is called each time user return to th e pea or when the page is deconified. Start (): . Unlike start. The following are some of the differences o f Java over C++.Init () Start () Stop () Destroy () Init (): .Used for initial setup such as de fining Layout. It is used to re-claim resources . If you understand these differences you will see why Java is su ch a beneficial programming language. JAVA VS C++: The syntax of Java looks very much like C+ +. St op (): . Ja va used similar syntax for if and loops structures.Thi s method is called when the browser shuts down. Destroy (): .
•Java has standard libraries for solving specific tasks. and through which you can satisfy your container needs. Only class. C++ relies on non-s tandard
. stacks and Hash table that hold object re ferences. • All non-primitive types can only be created using new . This is boon for documentation maintenance and use. T here is a set of containers : Vectors. which is stripped out and reformatted into HTML using an apart program. When you create a n object with new. •There are no Java pointers in the sense of C and C++. Th ere are no structures or enumeration or unions. There are wrapp er classes for all primitive classes so you can create equivalent heap-based obj ects with new •Java has no Preprocessors. so the source code fil e can also contain its own documentation. without new. •The Char type uses th e international 16-bit. If you want to use classes in another li brary. Unicode character set. There are no preprocessor-lik e macros. •Java has no templates or other implementation of parameterized types. For example String s = new String ( "peers").the equivalent of global. so it can automatically represent most national characters. you get back a reference. but these cont ainers are not designed for efficiently like the C++ standard template library(S TL) •Java has built-in support for comment document action. you say import and the name of the library. All primitive types can only be created directly. make static methods and static data within a class.
Java is more robust. •Generally. These tasks include Networking Database Connection (via JDBC) Multithreading Distributed Objects (vi a RMI and CORBA) Compression Commerce The availability and standard nature of these libraries allow for more rapid app lication development. via •Object handles initializ ed to null •Handles are always checked and exceptions are thrown for failure •all ar ray accesses are checked for bounds violations •Automatic garbage collection preve nts memory leaks •Clean. However. Programming Interface. JDBC can connect only Java clients and uses ODBC for the connectivity. relatively fool-proof exception handling •bytecodes verific ation of network applets INTRODUCTION TO JDBC What is JDBC and Why JDBC? JDBC (Java Database Connectivity) is a front-tool for connecting to a server and is similar to ODBC in the respect. It is called a low-level API s ince any data
.third-party libraries. JDBC is essential ly a lowlevel Application.
storage and retrieval has to be done by the program itself. This approach is a recommended once since using ODBC drivers. to connect a number of databases simultaneously. they do not substitute one another.Native Jdbc driver: A JDBC driver. Since ODBC provides for connection to any type of database that is ODBC compliant.
. 1. 3. The Jdbc calls in to equaling ODBC calls using the nat ive methods. They are classified based on how they access data from the databa se. This is usef ul in case of Java application that can run only on some specific platforms. Pl ease note that. which is turn employees native calls to connect t o the data base. which a re industry standard as of now. would make an application truly portable across the databases. JDBC-ODBC bridge driver: A bridge driver provid ed with JDBC can convert. each having their own suitab ility aspects. JDBC Driver t ypes: There are four types of JDBC drivers each having its own functionality. it is very simp le matter. This approach is used for applets where the request must go thr ough the intermediate server. which is partly written in Java and mos t of each. All Java J DBC Net Drivers: A JDBC net drivers which uses a common network protocol to conn ect to an intermediate server.manipulation. Wri ting these type drivers is easier compare to writing other drivers 2. Some t ools that provide a higher level abstraction are expected shortly. implemented using native methods to access the database.
This method of data access is suitable in case of Intranets were carr y every thing can run as an application instead of an applet. JDBC Driver Manag er 2.JDBC Native Driver JDBC Application ODBC Driver Manager ODBC Bridge DRIVER JDBC JDBC NET Native Protocol Jdbc driver 4. JDBC ARCHITECTURE: JDBC architecture Components of JDBC are 1. is shown below. Uses Native Calls to uses special Uses native net protocols net protocols
. Applications. JDB-ODBC Bridge 4. Native Protocol ALL Java Drivers: This type of Jdbc driver is written complet ely in Java and can access the database by making use of native protocols of the database. JDBC Driver 3.
it is possible that the total fun ctionality of the database server could be built into the driver itself. Wh enever a connection is requested. APPLICATION: Application is a Java Program that needs the information to be modified in
.Function of the driver manager is to findout available dr ivers in the system and connects the application to the appropriate database. However. each driver should be registered with the driver Mana ger. in this process it may take help some other drivers or even servers. However. JDBC Driver: . Also. which can be used to connect to any existing database. to help the driver manager identify d ifferent types of drivers.Function of the JDBC Driver is to accept the SQL calls from the application and convert them into native calls to the database. that is ODBC complaint. which depends on the type of Jdbc Driver we are using. JDBC-OD BC Bridge: Sunsoft provides a special JDBC Driver called JDBC-ODBC bridge driver .Access The data to accessthe to access the base database database DATA BASE JDBC Driver Manager: .
the object is sent back to the client software. If the request is handled. The intera ction between the two usually begins on the client side. a server hand les request from various clients. A server typically runs on a different machine than the client. although this not always the case.some database information. which either handles the request an object or transaction from the server software. The client software req uest an object or transaction from the server software. suppose you are using a word proc essing program to edit files on another compute. which either handles the request or denies it. On the World Wide Web
. With network ed computers. Your computer would be the clie nt because it is requesting the files from another computer. Putting in simple words. For example. or wants to retrieve the SERVLETS: Client and Servers To understand the World Wide Web and Server Side programming must understand the division between Web clients and Web servers and how HTTP fa cilities the interaction between the two. clients and servers are very common. The other computer would be the server because it is handling your computer s request.
Internet Ex plorer. The process of viewing a document on the web starts when a web browser sends a request to web server in http request headers. you will see that it allows you to extend the functionality of Web documents to produce dynamic and interactive pages. So why use any server side scripting? Well. and NCA s Mosaic. Like most software companies that distribute Web Brows ers. allowing you to view documents on the Worl d Wide Web. such as the name of the file being requested. Some of the most common browsers are Netscape Navigator. In the case of Servlets we would refer to a URL with a default port at 8080. for the preceding example. and clients are known as Webbrowsers. In fact. The Web serve r receives and views the http request headers for any relevant information. It is just a simple example CGI script. HTTP is defaulted at port 80 and in case of Servlets it is defaulted at 8080 that could be changed. It also gives a quick introduction to
. The web browser then uses the HTTP response headers to determine h ow to display the file or data being returned by the web server. you don t gain advantage from making it a server side scrip t. and sends back the file with HTTP resp onse headers. 1. Web browse r’s request documents from web servers. WHY USE SERVLETS? You ma y have noticed that the preceding CGI example could just as easily been a simple HTML file.An Invitation to Servlets: This session provides answer to the questions "What is Servlets" shows typical uses for Serv lets.server are known as webservers. you wo uldn t. however. If the above said server are Java Enabled Web Severs. As you learn Servlets. these companies also distribute Web server software (in our case we uses JW S Java Web Browser).
.http (extension of the Servlets frame work for Servlets that answer HTTP requests). e.HTTP and its implementation in the HttpSetvlet class. It will not work with Servlet en gines.0 or 2. Servlets make use of the Java standard extension classes in th e packages javax.servlet and javax. •Providing synergic content. for an online shopping chart system which manages shopping charts for many concurrent customers and maps every request to the right customer.g. Servlets are not tied to a specific clientserver protocol but they are mos t commonly used with Http and the word "SERVLET" is often used in the meaning of "HTTP Servlets".0 of the Servlet API. Typical uses for HTTP Servlets include: •Processing and/or storing data submitte d an HTML form. Since Servlets are written in the highly portable Java Language and follow a standard framework.g. The Servlet Environment: Inter-Servlet communication The inter Servlet communication method which is described in this section can only be used with Servlet engines which i mplement version 1.servlet. e. which comply strictly. to version 2. returning the results of a datab ase query to the client. What is Servlets? Servlets are modules of Java code that run in a server application to answer client requ ests. they provide a me ans to create server extensions in a server and operating system independent way . •Managing state information on top of the stateless HTTP.
servlet.servletContext. Only a classloader object with all loaded classes ca n be replaced.Servlets are not alone in a web server. A class literal FooServlet ( as used in a type cast like "FooServlet foo ((FooServlet) context. which are not declared in java x. Methods. which are loaded by a Servlet class load er. A Servlet can get a list of a ll othg3r Servlets in the Servlet context by calling get Servlet Names on the Se rvlet Context object.Servelet but in a subclass thereof can. cannot be used for inter-Servlet communication. Note that in Java the identity of a class is not only defined by the class name but also by the Class Loader by which it was loaded. This means that classes.getServlet ("F ooServlet")") which is used in class BarServlet is different from the class lite ral FooServlet as used in FooServlet
. They have access to other Servlets in th e same Servlet context (usually a Servlet directory). After obtaining the reference to another Serv let that Servlets methods can be called. Note that this method can throw a Servle tException because it may need to load and initialize the requested ServletExcep tion if this was not already done. called by casting the returned object to the required class type. A Servlet for a known name (probably obtained through getS ervletNames) is returned by getServlet.servlet. The Servlet Context is available through the S ervlet Config object s get Servlet context method. Web servers usually load each Servlet with a different class loader. Th is is necessary to reload Servlets on the fly because single classes cannot be r eplaced in the running JVM. represented by an instance of javax.
these classes are usually located in the class p ath (as defined by the CLASSPATH environment variable) Sharing Data between Serv lets Version 2. In addition to the user-defined attributes there may also be prede fined attributes. a Servlet com. The attribute name should follow the same nam ing convention as a package name (e.foo. Public Objec t getAtributes (String name) returns the name object or null if the attribute do es not exist.bar).fooservlet. which is written in Java.foo. Object) adds a new object or replaces an old object by the specified name. which
. A way to overcome 5this problem is using a supercalss or and interface w hich is loaded by the system loader and thus shared by all Servlets. Just like a custom ServletRequest attribute an object which is stored as a ServletContext attribute should also be serializ able to allow attributes to be shared by Servlets which are running in different JVMS on different machines in a load balancing server environment. as you’ll see below) by binding the objects to the ServletContext object which i s shared by several Servlets.1 of the Servlet API offers a new way of sharing named objects be tween all the Servlets in a Servlets in Servlet context (and also other contexts . The ServletContext class has several for accessing the shared objects: methods Public void setAttributes (string name. In a Web Se rver.fooservlet could have a n attribute com.itself.g.
except for JSDK provi ding supporting for the other servers like IIS and other third party vendors.servlet and javax. Compiling Servlets Servlets can be compiled with the JDK and other Java compilers. Public void remove Attribu te (String name) removes the attributes with the specified name if it exists. If the Servlet packages javax. Th e Servlet Context objects of a Servlet with a known local URL can be retrieved w ith the method public Servlet Context getContext (String unipath) of the Servlet s own Servlet Context. Both JSDK and JWS follow the same rules.servlet. Public environment getAtributes name () returns an Enumeration of the names of all available attributes.http are not incl uded with the compiler or your Servlet engine you have to install them separatel y by downloading the JSDK (Java Servlet Development Kit) and including the JSDK classes in your CLASSPATH environment variable.
. Th e separation of Servlets into Servlet contexts depends on the Servlet engine.are specific to the Servlet engine and provide additional information about a Se rvlet (Context) environment. This method returns null if there is no Servlet for the s pecified path or if this Servlet is not allowed to get the Servlet Context for t he specified path due to security restrictions. just like Applets and Applica tions. They can also be worked out with Java Web Server.
satellite links etc. but information that would link easily to others piec es of information so that the relevant data can be quickly found by a user. Importantly these LAN s are connected to form Wan’s through special computers called Routers. The internet stemmed from the concept of universal database: data that would not only be accessible t o people around the world. After that c omputers in government and universities were voluntarily linked. The Internet first began in 1969 when the United States Department of Defense re searched ways of communication via decentralized computer networks. This quickly sp read to other institutions around the world where today there are an estimated 2 0 million computers linked together.Introduction to world wide web Internet: The Internet is a network. These Wa n s are connected via telephone line. When a group of LAN s are connected together they are called Wan’s.
. Its consists of thousands of interconnected networks consisting of different types of comput ers. It is the worldwide access to people and information. In 1 960s this was explored revolution all aspects of human-information interaction. The job o f a Router is to provide a link from one network to other where networks can be LAN’s to form Wan’s to become even larger Wan s. UNDERSTANDING INTERNET A network in which c omputers are connected using cables or some other direct media are said to be in LAN.
3. Protocols.HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS: If Internet being accessed through a telephone line Then we need •A computer with minimum requirements •A modem •A telephone Taking a first iss ue of computers with minimum requirements may put everyone wondering what could be the requirements? It would be safe enough to use the 486 or higher processors for a computer to be fast enough with at least 16MB to 64MB MEMORY. The web realize on three mechanism to make the resources readily available to the widest possible audience: 1.URLs) locating 2.g.g. A Uniform name is scheme for resources on the w eb (E. INTRODUCTION TO HTML WHAT IS World Wide Web? The World Wide Web is a network of information resources . for easy resources (E. for access to named resources over the web (E.: . Hype rtext.: .http).g.: .HTML) navigation among The ties between the three mechanisms are
apparent throughout this specification. Introduction to URLs Every resource avai lable on the web-TML document, image, video clips, program, etc. Has an address that may be an encoded by a Uniform Resource Locator, or "URL" URLs typically co nsist of three pieces: 1. The naming scheme of the mechanism used to access the resource. 2. The name resource. of the machine hosting the 3. The name of the resource itself, given as a path. Consider the URL that desig nates current html specification: http://www.w3.org//TR/Pr-html4/cover.html This URL may be read as follows: They’re a document available via an http protocol, re siding on the machine www.w3.org Accessible Via the path" TR/Prhtml4/cover.html" . Other schemes you may see in HTML documents include "mailto " for E-mail and F TP for FTP. Here is another example if a URL. • This one refers to a User s mailbo x: This is text.... For all comments, please send E-mail to <A href="mailto:Joe@ omeplace.com> JoeCool</a>. Fragment Identifiers the
Some URLs refer to a location within a resource. This kind of URL ends with "#" followed by an anchor identifier (called the "fragment identifier"). Relative UR Ls A relative URL doesn t contain any naming scheme information. Its path genera lly refers to a resource on the same on the same machine as the current document . Relative URLs may contain relative path components (".." means one level up in the hierarchy defined by the path), and may contain fragment identifiers. Relat ive URLs are resolved to full URLs using a base URL. As an example of relative U RL resolution, assume we have the base URL http://www.ame.com/support/intro.html . The relative URL in the following markup for a hypertext link: <A href="suppli es.html"> Supplies </a> In HTML, URLs play a role in these situations: •Linking to another document or resource. •Linking to an external style sheet for inclusion i n a page. •Images objects and applets for inclusion in a page. •Image maps. •Form subm ission •Frames •Citing an external reference. •Referring to metadata conventions descr ibing a document. What is HTML?
To publish information for global distribution, one needs a universally understo od language, a kind of publishing mother tongue that all computers may potential ly understand. The publishing language used by the World Web is HTML (from Hyper TextMarkupLanguage). HTML gives authors the means to: Publish online documents w ith headings, text, tables, lists, photos, etc. Retrieve online information via hypertext links, at the click of a button. Design forms for conducting transacti on with remote services, for use in searching for information, making reservatio ns, ordering products, etc. Include spreadsheets, video clips, sound clip, and other applications directly i n their documents. A brief History of HTML HTML was originally developed by Tim Berners-Lee while at CERN, and popularized by the Mosaic browser developed at NC SA. During the course of the 1990s it has blossomed with the explosive growth of the Web. During this time, HTML has been extended in a number of ways. The Web depends on Web page others and vendors sharing the same conventions for HTML. Th is has motivated joint work on specification for HTML. HTML 2.0 (November 1995) was developed under the aegis of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) to c odify common practice in late 1994. HTML+(1993) and [HTML 3.0] (1995)
0 extend s HTML with mechanism for style sheets. PCs with graphics displays of varying resolution and color de pths. HTML has been developed with the vision that all manner of devices should be able to use infor mation on the Web. offering improved accessibility for people with disabilitie s. so that document may be written in e very language and web transported easily
. these drafts led to the adoption of a range of new features. Most people agree that HTML documents should work well across different browsers and platforms. Achieving in teroperability lowers costs to content provides since that must develop only one version of a document. embedding objects. devices for speech for output and input.0 HTML 4. richer tables. there is much greater risk th at the Web will evolve into a proprietary world of incompatible formats. hand held devices. and so on.2(January 1997).Despite never receiving consensus in stand ard discussions. scripting. im proved support for right to left and mixed direction text. Th e efforts of the World Wide Web Consortium’s Html working group to codify common p ractice in 1996 resulted in HTML 3. and en hancements to forms. ultimat ely reducing the Web s commercial potential for all participants. If the effort is not made.proposed much richer versions of HTML. HTML 4. Internalization This version of HTML has been designed with the help of exper ts in the field of international -libation. computers with high or low bandwidth. cellular telephones. frames.
higher-quality typography. Accessibility As the Web community grows and its members diversify in their abil ities and skills. it is crucial that the underlying technologies be appropriate to their specific needs. HTML has been designed to make Web pages more accessibl e to those with physical limitations. Providing label s for form fields. etc. One important step has been the adop tion of the ISO? IEC: 10646 Standard (ISO10646) as the document character set fo r HTML. HTML 4. which d eals with the internationalization of HTML. HTML now offers greater support for diverse human langu ages within a document.around the world. punctuation.0 developments in the area of acces sibility include: Encouraging the use of style sheets to achieve layout effect. better text-to-text-speech conversio n. This allows for more effective indexing of documents for search engines. alternate non-visual
. Making it easier to provide descriptions of images for browsers. test direction. correct hyphenation. This has been accomplished by incorporating [RFC2070]. and othe r world language issues. This is the world s most inclusive standard dealing with issues of the r epresentation of international characters.
Tables Authors now have greater control over structure and layout (e. colors. Before the advent of style sheets. etc. column groups). Style Sheets Style Sheets simplify HTML markup and largely relieve HTML of the r esponsibilities of presentation. sound. specialized applications. Compound Documents HTML now offers a standard mechanism for embedding generic media objects and applications in HTML documents. The OBJECT element (to gether with its more specific ancestor elements IMG and APPLET) provides a mecha nism for including images. alignment. The abilit y of designers to recommend column widths allows user agents to display table da ta incrementally as it arrives rather than waiting for the entire table before r endering. They give both authors and users control over t he presentation of documents-font information. authors and had limited contro l over rendering. It also allows authors to specify a hierarchy o f alternate renderings for user agents that don t support a specific rendering..g. The mecha nism for associating a style sheet with a document is independent of the style s heet language.Providing labeled hierarchical groupings for form fields. mathematics. Providing the ability to associate a longer text description with an HTML element. and other objects in a document. HTML 3. video.2 included a number of
Al so. images. COMP ONENTS OF WWW: WEBPAGE: The part of the Web the user sees the front-end" is know n as a Web page. the default homepage for a browser can be changed. Web docum ents are files of information residing at a Web site. These documents are usuall y coded in HyperTextMarkupLanguage (HTML) HOME PAGE: Home page is the first page of web documents. sore to an entirely different site. Home page is the entry point for that particular WWW site. LINK: A link can be anything on a page such as text or graphics. Authors also exploited tables and images as a means for laying out pages. and text col or. since style sheets often more powerful presentation mechanisms. However. font size. made up of links. etc.attributes and elements offering control over alignment. Th e relatively long time it takes for users to upgrade their browser’s means that th ese features will continue to be used for some time. home page is the page a browser loads. navigation tools text. the World Wide Web consortium will eventually phases out many of HTML s presentation elements and attributes. is a gateway to another page within the sight. However. WEB SITES: -
. Every browser has its own home page.
These programs add a new level of interactivity on the web not possible by simple HTML documents. can create a complex virtual web of connections. or end point. from the interdependent ne twork of server’s worldwide. hypertext link s. individuals. called hyper links. institutions. Servers run all the time and wait for users to request information. The web gets its name. Government agencies. etc maintain the web sites.A group of related pages is a site. W EB SERVERS: Web sites are housed on a server. searched or editedwith an important extension: Hypertext contains con nections with in the text to other documents. which is a computer design to "ser ve" the file up to the user in a proper format. GATEWAY PROGRAMS: Programs that accept and process request from a web server and generat e new web pages. in t his network. It is also refer to as the "Back -end" and is actually software that runs at a web site and returns web documents upon request by the web browser. In this way. The user s computer is a terminal. HEPERTEXT: The operation web realizes on hypertext as its means of interacting with users. These programs usually
. This new text would themselves hav e links and a connection to others documents. Continually selecting Hypertext is like taking a free-associative tool of information. They are the pages to go on he Web. in fact. Hypertext is basically the same regular textit can be st ored read. Companie s.
PROTOCAL: A protocol is a set of rules for two computers to use when transferrin g data. especially design for the needs of a distributed hypertext system. object oriented protocol called hypertext transfer Protoco l Handle Client Requests
. While the World Wide Web encompasses previously existing protocols such as GOPHER and FTP.Server SERVER Client Client SERVER handle requests to run a certain program or access information from a database. It is a fast. also critical to the WWW proposal was the development of new protocol. stateless.
BUSSINE SS PROCESS MODEL The end-user of this product is a
.SYSTEM SPECIFICATION The application ONLINE designed into two modules SHOPPING was the and the 1. For the storekeeper who maintains up dates the information pertaining to articles and those of the customers. For the customers who wish to buy articles? 2.
after that he enter in to the order form he fills the order form. E very time he has access the insertion Updating and deletion when and where ever he wants. which is maintained in database. Once the authorized personnel feed relevant data into the system. Initially marchant enter with login. Here marchant can be stored the customer shipp ed address. several repo rts could be generated as per the security.departmental store where the application is hosted on the web and the administra tor maintains the database. and also maintain the product details in the database. The application which is deployed at the departmenta l stores will automate the customer details that are appended to the customers d atabase. and customer details. after that custo mer gives the credit card number. the details of the items are brought forward from the database for the customers view based on the selection through the menu and the database of all t he products are updated at the end of each transaction. Bill is send by merchant the address specified by the customer. After filling order form merchant shipped the product to address specified by the Customer. If the customer wants to buy the pro duct he wants to enter into the shopping chart. The central concept of the application is to allow the Customer to sho p virtually using
. Data entry into the appl ication can be done through various screens designed for various levels of users . He selects the desired product.
. color. Within Hyper text there will be an indication of the start and end of the paragraph. Hence HTML would contain plan ext. having the addresses of those
. The information pertaining to the products are stored on an RDBMS at the server side (store). The importance of HTML lies with Internet because one doesn’t know about the end u ser since there are different user types on the NET. etc. The purpose of a browser becomes to act as a presentation engi ne. It left to the browser how information should be dis played. file would occupy less space than a ny other graphics file but. HTML is a formal set of spe cifications used to define information. The purpose of HTML is to specify how the text sho uld be processed. It will cont ain the basic information about the link but no specifications about how to disp lay the highlight the link. If HTML would be a language having instructions about the colors. fonts. to interpret HTML & display the contents in appropriate manner.the Internet and allow customers to buy the items and articles of their desire f orm the store. The Server processes the customer s request and the items are shipped to the address submitted by them. sizes & fonts it would be subjected to a specific environment> Secondly as the number of users grow day by day one should think of minimizing the amount of information to be passed from one system to t he other. which can be added to the content of a d ocument as an aid processing. there w ill be no explicit instructions about the size.
testing and maintenance activities. FESIBILITY STUDY: Feasibil ity study is conducted once the problem is clearly understood. SYSTEM DESIGN Design of software involves conceiving. If hypertext one must send information for displaying the text and th ese instructions are embedded in the text itself. planning out and specifying the external ly observable characteristics of the software product. arch itectural design and user interface design in the design process. These are expl ained in the following section. DATA DESIGN: The p rimary activity during data design is to select logical representations of data objects identified during requirement analysis and software analysis. Feasibility study is a high level capsule version of the entire system analysis and design proces s. The goal of design process is to provide a blue print for implementation. A data dic tionary explicitly represents the relationships among data objects and the const rains on the elements of the data structure. We have data design. The objective is to determine quickly at a minimum expense how to solve a pro blem. The purpose of feasibility is not to solve the problem but to determine if the problem is worth solving. A data dictionary should be establi shed and used to define both data and program design. The
Operational Feasibility.system has been tested for feasibility in the following points. because precious time can be wanted by manually. 1. availability and compatibility. Technical Feasibility 2. Economical Feasibility 3. Technical Feasibility: The project entitles "Project Monitoring System" is te chnically feasibility because of the below mentioned feature. Economical Feasibility: The computerized system will help in automate the se lection leading the profits and details of the organization.
. the machine and manpower utilization are expected to go up by 80-90% approximat ely. The costs incurred of not creating the system are set to be great. It provides the high level of re liability. the management will know the details of each project where he may be prese nted and the data will be maintained as decentralized and if any inquires for th at particular contract can be known as per their requirements and necessaries. With this software. The project was de veloped in Java which Graphical User Interface. 2. Operational Feasibility: In this pro ject. 3. 1. All these make Java an appropriate la nguage for this project. Thus the existing software Java is a powerful language.
The required hardware software acquisition is carrie d out. It involves careful p lanning. programs are wri tten tested.Implementation: Implementation is the stage where the theoretical design is turned into a workin g system. of and The be and new is TESTING: The testing phase is an important part of
. The user then changes over to his fully tested system and the old s ystem discontinued. For this. The system can be implemented only after thorough testing is done and if it is found to work according to the specification. The more comp lex the system being implemented. investigation of the current system and its constraints on implementati on. system may require some software to developed. design of methods to achieve the change over and an evaluation of change ove r methods a part from planning. The implementation phase co mprises several activities. the more involved will be the systems analysis and design effort required just for implementation. Two major tasks of preparing the implementation are education and training of the users and testing of the system. The most crucial stage in achieving a new successful system and in giv ing confidence on the new system for the users that it will work efficiently and effectively.
Software steps: testing is carried out in three The first includes unit testing. adverse effect on any other or on the global data structures.
. The individual modules are clipped under this major module and tested again and verified the results. Here also some modifications were. I n the completion of the project it is satisfied fully by the end user. Errors are noted down and corrected immediate ly. validity and also determine any missing operations and to verify whe ther the objectives have been met. It need not be the case. where in each module is tested to provide its c orrectness.software development. The final step involves validation and testing which determines which t he software functions as the user expected. The second step includes Integration testing. This is due to poor interfacing. the software whose modules when r un individually and showing perfect results. causing serious p roblems. which ma y results in data being lost across an interface. will also show perfect results when run as a whole. So errors are r ectified easily in particular module and program clarity is increased. Unit testing is the important and major part of the project. In this p roject entire system is divided into several modules and is developed individual ly. It is the process of finding errors and missing operations and also a complete verification to determine whether the objectives are met an d the user requirements are satisfied. So unit testing is conducted to individual modules. A module can have inadvertent.
adaptations required as the software s environment evolves. Correction Adaptation Enha ncement Prevention Correction: Even with the best quality assurance activities is lightly that the customer will uncover defects in the software. A dark cloud appeared on the horizon. Corrective maintenance changes th e software to correct defects. modified as user requirements changed. Four types of changes are encountered during the maintenance phase. Maintenance is a set of software Engineering acti vities that occur after software has been delivered to the customer and put into operation.Maintenance and Enhancement AS the number of computer based systems. These activities were collectively called software Maintenanc e. Software products purchased from the outside added hundre ds of thousands of new statements. The maintenance phase focuses on change that is associated with error correct ion. grieve libraries of computer software b egan to expand. all of those source statements-had to be corrected when false we re detected. or adapted to new hardware t hat was purchased. and changes due to enhancements brought about by changing customer requirements. Software configuration management is a set of tracking and control a ctivities that began when a software project
. In house developed projects produced tones of thousand soft prog ram source statements. All of these programs.
PREVENTION: change. CPU. operating system. Perceptive maintenance extends the software beyond its o riginal function requirements. preventive
. the customer/user will recognize additional functions tha t will provide benefit. ENHANCEMENT : As software is used. ADAPTATION: Over time..begins and terminates only when the software is taken out of the operation. We m ay define maintenance by describing four activities that are undertaken after a program is released for use: Corrective Maintenance Adaptive Maintenance Perfect ive Maintenance or Enhancement Preventive maintenance or reengineering Only abou t 20 percent of all maintenance work are spent "fixing mistakes". external product characteristics) for which the softwar e was developed is likely to change. the original environment (E>G. business rules. Adaptive maintenance results in modificatio n to the software to accommodate change to its external environment. Computer software deteriorate s due to and because of this. and reengineering an applicatio n for use. making enhancements requested by users. The remaining 80 percent are spent adapting existing systems to changes in their external envi ronment.
change to is being that may properly have an others
.maintenance. In essence. Ensure that implemented. often called software re engineering. and enhanced. Software configuration management (SCM) is an umbrella activity that is applied throughout the software process. SCM activities are dev eloped to Identify change. preventive maintena nce makes changes to computer programs so that they can be more easily corrected . must be conducted to enable t he software to serve the needs of its end users. Control chug. Report change interest. adapted.
TABLES Table Name: PRODUCT ----------------------------------------------------Column N ame Type ----------------------------------------------------Product Id Int Prod uct Name Varchar Product Type Varchar UnitPrice Float
Quantity Varchar Units in stock Int Units on Order Int ---------------------------------------------------Table Name: CUSTOMER ----------------------------------------------Column Name Type -----------------------------------------------O rder Number Int Order Date Date CustomerName Varchar BillAddress Varchar Shippin gAddress Varchar PhoneNumber Varchar Email-Id Varchar Amount Float Shipped Statu s Varchar -----------------------------------------Table Name: PRODTABLE -----------------------------------------------Column Name Type -----------------------------------------------ProdId Int ProductName Varc har Price Float
-----------------------------------------------Table Name: CREDITCARD ----------------------------------------------Column Name Type ----------------------------------------------CardType Varchar CardNumber Varchar -----------------------------------------------
Merchant Customer CONTEXT DIAGRAM Product details Enhance Update Delete Order Customer Details FIRST LEVEL DATA FLOW DIAGRAM FOR MARCHANT
Merchant Enhance stores LOGIN TO ENHANCE STORES Merchant Details Store Details
Merchant Delete Or Update FIRST LEVEL DATA FLOW LOGIN TO ENHANCE STORES DIAGRAM FOR MARCHANT Merchant Details Updated store Details
Customer Product type FIRST LEVEL DATAFLOW PROCESSING ON PRODUCTS DIAGRAM FOR CUSTOMER Product details Customer Details Amount Payable
Customer Order Bill Specified by AddressShipment the Customer SECOND LEVEL SHIPMENT DATA FLOW DIAGRAM FOR BILL Product details Shipment Address
it can be simply Achieved by a separate module to the main menu without affe cting the design of the system. Requirements the Present the System. if it is required to generate reports other than provided by the syst em. Although the system has been designed keeping In future. ADVANTAGES
. The Proper consideration has been giv en through out the development of for a wide range of new enhancements in future . The system is developed user friendly.INTERPRETATION OF THE RESULT The system has been implemented and tested successf ully. and future requirements in mind and made very flexible. There are limitations of It meets the information speci fied to the great extent. system.
• User can easily access the syste m without much experience. • Provide Hardware and software securities. •User friendly screen to enter the data and Enquire the database tables.
. • Every Transaction i s obtained and processed immediately.• It simplifies the operation. • It avoids a lot of manual work. • Avoids errors by avoiding the manual work. • Portable an d flexible for further extension. • Online h elp messages available to the operating system.
and the The buy the items The Server proces s the customers are shipped was to the address into for two the the and is a is submitted by them. the maintains the database. The information pertaining to the products are stores on an RDBMS at the server side (store). application articles. deployed The application which customer details of the items are brought forward from the database for the customer view based on the selection through the menu and the database of all the products ar e updated at the end of each transaction.CONCLUSION The central concept of the application is to allow the customer to shop virtuall y using the Internet and allow customers to buy the items and articles of their desire from the store.
. who pertaining end the at user web the designed is modules first Os for the customers who wish to Second and the this t he the to of and storekeepers information The departmental hosted is on maintain s updates articles product those of the customers? store where application administrator database.
personnel Once the authorized relevant system.
.Data entry into the application can be done through feed various the screens des igned data into for the various levels of users. several reports could be generated as per the requirements. This system offers information relevant to the user accessing unnecessary the application an d at thus the avoiding overloading same time maintaining the security.
. Software Engineering Analysis & Design Of Information . . Senn. John -Patricknaughton Java Network programming .BIBILIOGRAPHY HTML Publishing Bible Netscape Java Script The Complete Reference OfJava .RustyHarod.James A.Fairly.Alan Simpson.Peter& Kent.