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contaminants

A literature review

Lars Olander

Foreword

This publication has been compiled because I have missed such a publication. Naturally

this means that the selection has been influenced by my views. However, in most cases I

have included a formula rather than exclude it. To make the number of pages limited

the explanations are as short as possible. The result is that this formula compilation can

not be used as a text book but only as a reference book or as a guideline to the literature

in one specific field.

For this, the third edition (in English) dr. techn. Y. Jin has done a lot of work to check

and complete formulas and literature references. I have not had the opportunity to make

the formulas available in a form direct usable for computers. To make calculations it is

necessary to transfer actual formula to a suitable program. To facilitate using and

searching in this compilation a diskette with all the formulas is included. The formulas

are there written in WordPerfect 5.1 (DOS/Windows).

This revised version has been transferred to Word (Microsoft © Word 97), probably the

Equation Editor must be installed to read the formulas. Since the equation editors in

Word and WordPerfect do not agree on how to treat different symbols, there could be

some difficulties with differentiating some symbols.

ii

Contents

Page nr

Introduction 1

Text books 4

1.1 The Ideal-Gas Law 8

1.2 Beattie-Bridgeman equation of state 9

1.3 Specific heat capacity for ideal gases 9

1.4 Temperature variation of specific heat capacity, viscosity and diffusion

coefficient 9

1.5 Air properties (at 100 kPa) 11

1.6 Water properties (at 100 kPa) 12

1.7 van der Waal's equation of state for water vapor 12

1.8 Water vapor pressure between 275 and 647 K 13

1.9 Mixture of air and water vapor: Density and vapor pressure 13

1.10 Specific enthalpy of air 15

1.11 Calculation of humid air's properties 15

1.12 Psychrometer formula 16

1.13 Air pressure variation with height 16

1.14 Connections between sight lenght and contaminant concentration 17

2.1 Navier - Stokes' equation 18

2.2 Euler's equations for frictionless flow 19

2.3 Bernoulli's equation 19

2.4 Equation of continuity 20

2.5 Dimensionsless numbers 21

3 Flow generation 26

3.1 Theoretical total pressure change for fans 26

3.2 Flow variations for fans 27

3.3 Pressure variations for fans 27

3.4 Power dependence for fans 27

3.5 Efficiency for fans 27

3.6 Air flow rate through critical orifice 27

3.7 Temperature increase of air in fans and ducts 29

4.1 General equations 31

iii

4.2 Laminar flow (Re <2300), smooth pipes 32

4.3 Turbulent flow (Re <80000), smooth pipes 32

4.4 Turbulent flow, smooth pipes, Prandtl's universal velocity distribution 32

4.5 Turbulent flow, rough pipe 33

4.6 Turbulent flow, transition smooth - rough pipes after Colebrook 33

4.7 Velocity distribution, laminar flow 34

4.8 Velocity distribution, turbulent flow 34

4.9 Cirkular and rectangular ducts with identical properties 35

4.10 Boundary layer thickness for pipe flow 35

4.11 Heat transfer in pipes 36

4.12 Deposition of particles in ducts with turbulent flow 38

4.13 Leakage from flexible ducts 38

4.14 Leakage from ducts 38

4.15 Ducts not made of sheet metal 39

5 Measuring 40

5.1 Pitot tube use in circular ducts 41

5.2 Orifice plate 42

5.3 Correction for pressure drop when measuring flow rate through terminal device43

5.4 Rotameter 43

5.5 Bag method 44

5.6 Tracer gas measurements 45

5.7 Kata thermometer 46

5.8 Hot wire anemometer 47

5.9 Sampling of aerosols in ducts 47

5.10 Sampling of aerosols in calm air 48

5.11 Tests of laboratory fume hoods 49

6 Air jets 51

6.1 Circular, isothermal free jets' velocity distribution and flow rate - after Baturin52

6.2 Circular, isothermal free jets' velocity distribution and flow rate - after Nielsen52

6.3 Plane, isothermal free jets' velocity distribution and flow rate - after Baturin 53

6.4 Plane, isothermal free jets' velocity distribution and flow rate - after Nielsen 54

6.5 Circular (radial) isothermal jets' velocity distribution - after Nielsen 54

6.6 Flow rate in jets - after Eck 55

6.7 Velocity distribution across plane, isothermal free jet 56

6.8 Velocity distribution across circular and plane isothermal free jet 56

6.9 Temperature and concentration distribution along and across free jets 56

6.10 Temperature distribution along circular free jet - after Baturin 57

6.11 Temperature distribution along plane jet 58

6.12 Temperature change for cold, free jet 58

6.13 Velocity and temperature decrease for vertical rising jets and bouyant plumes 58

6.14 Vertical air jets' throw lengths in room and horisontal jets' change of height 60

7 Contaminant generation 62

7.1 Solubility of gases in liquids 66

7.2 Evaporation from horisontal surfaces 68

iv

7.3 Evaporation from liquid baths 71

7.4 Evaporation from water baths 71

7.5 Evaporation from water surfaces 72

7.6 Evaporation from surfaces 73

7.7 Evaporation from open vessels 74

7.8 Leakage from vessels and pipes under pressure 75

7.9 Heat generation from electrical motors to the surroundings 75

7.10 Fibre generation from new fibre filters 76

7.11 Ozon generation from electrostatic filters 76

7.12 Corrosion of ducts 77

7.13 Vaporization of additives from plastic folie (PVC) 77

7.14 Vaporization of F-11 from polyurethan plates 77

7.15 Grinding machines 77

7.16 Falling powders' dust generation 79

7.17 Air flow generated by falling powder 80

7.18 Dust generation from pressure vessels containing powder 80

7.19 Particle generation from gas shielded welding 81

7.20 Airborne droplets from release of liquids under pressure 81

7.21 Vaporization of oil spill 81

7.22 Vaporization of organic solvents from water surfaces 83

7.23 Evaporation of solvents 84

7.24 Evaporation of liquid spills 94

8 Heat and contaminants from man 95

8.1 Man's heat balance 96

8.2 Fanger's comfort equation 96

8.3 Perception of thermal climate 97

8.4 Perception of heat 98

8.5 Perception of draught 99

8.6 Particle generation from man 100

8.7 Contaminant generation from man 101

8.8 Heat losses at low temperatures 101

9 Contaminants 102

9.1 Contaminants in rooms 103

9.2 Particle deposition on surfaces 103

9.3 Ozone in rooms 104

9.4 Resuspension 104

9.5 Permeability of water vapor through color layers 104

9.6 Heights of welding plumes in stable conditions with temperature gradient 105

9.7 Life-times for water drops 106

9.8 Vaporization of drops in air 106

9.9 Diesel exhausts in mines 107

10.1 Ideal steady-state, total mixing 110

10.2 Time dependent total mixing 110

10.3 Correction for non-ideal mixing 110

v

10.4 Time dependent total mixing with incoming concentration 110

10.5 Ozone in room with copying machines 110

10.6 Concentration in rooms of Radon (222) 111

10.7 Concentration in rooms of Thoron (Rn 220) 111

10.8 Radon concentration in room 112

10.9 Time dependent contaminant generation 112

10.10 Ideal mixing, separate recirculation system, separate local exhaust with outlet

outside the room and with capture efficiency α 113

10.11 Age of air 115

10.12 Tracer gas measurements 115

10.13 Ventilation efficiency, definition 116

10.14 Air exchange efficiency, definition 116

10.15 Transport efficiency for air cooling systems - ATF 116

11.1 Central recirculation, total mixing 118

11.2 Central recirculation, total mixing, steady-state 118

11.3 Local recirculation (local exhaust), total mixing 118

11.4 Local recirculation, total mixing 119

11.5 Local recirculation, staedy-state, total mixing 119

11.6 Local recirculation, steady-state, total mixing 119

11.7 Local and central recirculation, steady-state 119

11.8 Central recirculation 120

11.9 Contaminant concentration in occupied zone and from room air cleaner at recirculation 120

11.10 2-zone model with local exhaust and with leakage and recirculation 121

11.11 Room air cleaner's effect on contaminant concentration 121

12.1 Wind pressure for free flow 122

12.2 General infiltration equation 123

12.3 Theoretical natural draught 123

12.4 Flow rates from thermal differences 124

12.5 Air lock, steady-state concentration, total mixing 124

12.6 Contaminant concentration, recirculation and leakage, total mixing 125

12.7 Contaminant concentration, leakage, total mixing 127

13.1 General equation for density of mixtures 129

13.2 Density of vapor-air-mixture 130

13.3 Concentration conversion 130

13.4 Viscosity of mixtures 131

13.5 Viscosity of vapor-air at different temperatures 131

13.6 Ions on particles at steady-state 132

13.7 Ions in air 132

13.8 Energy from electrostatic discharges 133

vi

14 Convective flow rates and velocities 134

14.1 Criteria for draught (Rydberg) 135

14.2 Cold draught from windows 135

14.3 Air velocities from cold draught 136

14.4 Heat exchange between room air and surfaces I 137

14.5 Heat exchange between room air and surfaces II 138

14.6 Heat exchange between room air and vertical, plane surfaces 138

14.7 Heat transfer from different surfaces through bouyancy 138

14.8 Natural ventilation 140

14.9 Influence of wind velocity and temperature difference on natural ventilation 141

14.10 Air velocity in plume above point heat source 141

14.11 Air flow rate in plume above point heat source 141

14.12 Air flow rate in plumes above hot sources 142

14.13 Air flow rate at upper edge of vertical surface of hot body 142

14.14 Air flow rate into hood close above heat source 143

14.15 Air flow rate into hood above heat source 144

14.16 Air flow rate above horizontal surface 144

15.1 Velocity distribution from a point sink 146

15.2 Centerline velocity for tube end (free hood), circular or rectangular with a

length-width ratio less than 5 146

15.3 Centerline velocity from a flanged circular hood 147

15.4 Centerline velocity from a slot (aspect ratio larger than 5) 147

15.5 Centerline velocity from a flanged slot 147

15.6 Capturing hood above bath 148

15.7 Capture efficiency 148

15.8 Capture efficiency for hood above emission source 148

15.9 Exhaust flow rate for contained process with heat generation 149

15.10 Push-pull-system for surface treatment 149

15.11 Push-pull-system 150

16.1 Filtration efficiency for fibrous filters 152

16.2 Filtration efficiency for electrostatic filters 154

16.3 Efficiency for cyclones 155

16.4 Efficiency for venturi precipitators 157

16.5 Efficiency for wet scrubbers 158

16.6 Efficiency for settlement chambers 160

16.7 Pressure loss in fibrous filter 161

16.8 Costs for fibrous filters 163

16.9 Absorption of gases in moving drops 163

16.10 Adsorption of gases in materials 164

16.11 Cleaning from gases by condensation 164

16.12 Break-through for solvents in breathing masks 164

17 Outside dispersion 166

17.1 Gaussian plume model 167

vii

17.2 Exhausts of hot gases from smoke stacks (Oak Ridge model) 168

17.3 Exhausts of cold gases from smoke stacks (Sutton's model) 168

17.4 Concentration from exhaust of cold gas from smoke stacks 168

17.5 Lowest exhaust height 169

17.6 Demands on dilution of exhausts from buildings 169

17.7 Exhausts from roof or on lee-side 170

17.8 Concentrations from exhausts 171

17.9 Velocity and concentration distribution for bouyant plumes in homogenous

surroundings 171

17.10 Particle transport in convection plumes 172

17.11 Dispersion of traffic contaminants 174

17.12 Road tunnel ventilation 175

18 Summary 176

viii

Introduction

The introduction has not been translated since it only dscribes the reason for the

compilation of these formulas. It also describes why certain areas are not covered in this

report. Since the introduction is included in the Swedish version, anyone interested

could look there.

Arbeitsmappe Heizung, Lüftung, Klimatechnik. Düsseldorf, VDI-Verlag 1968-1971.

Applications, Refrigeration (SI-edition) American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-

Conditioning Engineer. New York 1986-1989.

Charlesworth PS: Air exchange rate and airtightness measurement techniques - An application

guide. International Energy Agency, Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre, Coventry, 1988.

für Arbeitsschutz, Fb Nr 438, Dortmund 1985.

Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. 1992.

International Energy Agency, Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre, Coventry, 1986.

Lide DR (Ed.): CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 73th edition. 1993.

Perry RH, Green DW and Maloney JO (Eds): Perry's Chemical Engineer's Handbook. 6th

edition. McGraw Hill, New York 1984.

Band: Grundlagen, Systeme, Ausführung. 1968. Zweiter Band: Verfahren und Unterlagen zur

Berechnung. 1970.

Rohsenow WM and Hartnett JP (Ed.): Handbook of Heat Transfer, McGraw Hill, New York

1973.

Text books

1

Basic theory and measurements

Beckwiht TG, Marangoni RD, and Lienhard JH: Mechanical Measurements (5th edition),

Addison-Wesley, New York 1993.

Bird RB, Steward WE and Lightfood EN: Transport Phenomena, Wiley & Sons, New York

1960.

Doebelin EO: Measurement systems - Application and design. McGraw-Hill, New York,

1966.

Schlichting H: Boundary-Layer Therory (7th editon), McGraw Hill, New York 1979.

Alden L, Kane JM: Design of Industrial Ventilation Systems. 5th edition. Industrial Press,

New York 1982.

Airborne Contaminants in the Workplace. B.O.H.S. Technical Guide No 7, Science Reviews

Ltd, Leeds 1987.

Burgess WA, Ellenbecker MJ, Treitman RD: Ventilation for control of the work environment.

John Wiley & Sons, New York 1989.

Dorman RG: Dust Control and Air Cleaning. Pergamon Press, Oxford 1974.

Chemical Engineering Monographs Vol. 23. Elsevier, Amsterdam 1985.

Goodfellow, H.D. (Ed.): Ventilation '85. Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on

Ventilation for Contaminant Control, October 1-3 1985, Toronto, Canada. Elsevier,

Amsterdam 1986

Heinsohn RJ: Industrial Ventilation. John Wiley & Sons, New York 1991.

Hemeon WCL: Plant and process ventilation. The Industrial Press, New York 1963.

Hughes, R.T., Goodfellow, H.D., Rajhans, G.S. (Eds): Ventilation '91. Proceedings of the 3rd

International Symposium on Ventilation for Contaminant Control, September 16-20, 1991,

2

Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists,

Cincinnati, Ohio USA 1993.

Jansson, A., Olander, L. (Eds): Ventilation '94. Proceedings of the 4th International

Symposium on Ventilation for Contaminant Control, held in Stockholm, September 5-9,

1994. Arbete och HΣlsa 1994:18 (2 vols). National Institute of Occupational Health, Solna,

Sweden 1994.

Licht W: Air Pollution Control Engineering. 2nd Ed. Marcel Dekker, New York 1988.

McDermott HJ: Handbook of Ventilation for Contaminant Control. Ann Arbor Science 1976.

McQuiston FC and Parker JD: Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning - Analysis and

Design (3rd edition), John Wiley & Sons, News York 1988.

Mⁿrmann H: Lufttechnische Anlagen für gewerbliche Betriebe. Carl Marhold, Berlin 1980.

Ventilation for Contaminant Control, 20-23 September 1988, London, England, UK.

Pergamon Press, Oxford 1989

Aerosols

A bibliography of Aerosol Science and Technology. Aerosol Science and Technology, vol.14,

sid 1-4, 1991.

Lippmann, Clark, Durham. University Presses of Florida 1979.

Calvert S, Englund HM (Eds): Handbook of Air Pollution Technology, John Wiley & Son,

New York 1984.

Airborne Particles: Airborne Particles. University Park Press, Baltimore 1979.

Friedlander SK: Smoke, Dust and Haze Fundamentals of Aerosol Behavior. Wiley-

Interscience, New York 1977.

Fuchs NA: The Mechanics of Aerosols. Pergamon Press 1964. (Reprint Dover 1989)

Heskett HE: Fine Particles in Gaseous Media. 2nd Ed. Lewis Publishers, Michigan 1986

Particles. Wiley-Interscience, New York 1982.

Conference, September 1986. Pergamon Press, Oxford 1986.

3

Liu BYH (Ed.): Fine particles. Aerosol Generation, Measurement, Sampling and Analysis.

Academic Press, New York 1976.

Liu BYH, Pui DYH, Fissan HJ (Eds): Aerosols. Science, Technology and Industrial

Applications of Airborne Particles. First International Conference, Elsevier 1984.

Marple VA, Liu BYH (Eds): Aerosols in the Mining and Industrial Work Environments. 3

Vol. Ann Arbor Science 1983.

1978.

Willeke K, Baron PA (Eds): Aerosol Measurement. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York 1993.

4

1 Properties of air and water vapor

This chapter includes some properties dependence of pressure, temperature, humidity etc and

data for the most important properties for air and water vapor. First is the ideal-gas law (1),

which is usable for air at normal temperatures. For extreme pressures or temperatures an

equation of state (2) can be used. For ideal gases there exist a number of connections (3),

which can be used for air. Some properties variation with temperature are presented in 4. In 5

are given figures for air and in 6 for water and water vapor. For water vapor can the ideal-gas

law be used for approximative calculations (1). If more accurate values are needed an equation

of state is used (7,8). Mixtures of air and water vapor are frequent and formulas are presented

in 9. In 11 and 12 are formulas to be used when measuring water vapor in air. In 10 are some

formulas for the variation of heat content with temperature and humidity. Air pressure

variation with height are given in 13. Some equations for connection between contaminant

concentration and sight length end this chapter (14).

If the pressure is not given or if it is not a part of the formulas, normal pressure i.e. 1.013 bar

(=101.3 kPa) is presumed.

5

1.1 The Ideal-Gas Law

m

p • v = R • T or p • V = n • R • T or p • V = •R • T

M

p = pressure

v = molecular volume

R = gas constant (8,31441 J/mol,K = 1,9872 cal/K,mol =

0,08205 lit,atm/K,mol = 62,4 lit,mm Hg/K,mol)

T = absolute temperature

V = volume

n = number of mols

m = mass

M = molecular weight.

(Normally used for air, also when some water vapor or contaminants are present.)

(Air from - 145 °C to + 200 °C)

0,01101 4,34 • 10 4

p • v = R • T • v + 0,04611 • 1 +

2

• 1

v v • T 3

0,01931

1,3012 • 1

v

p = pressure, atm

v = molecular volume, lit/mol

R = gas constant 0,08205 lit╖atm/mol╖K

T = temperature, K.

(To be used at extreme pressures or temperaturs, or when more accurate values than

from (1) are needed).

Cp = Cv + R

a = κ •p / ρ = κ •R•T

Cv = specific heat capacity at constant volume

a = air velocity

6

κ = isentrop exponent = Cp/Cv

ρ = density

R, T, p see 1.2.

13.4) and diffusion coefficient

a)

C p = 6,386 + 1,762 • 10 • T 0,2656 • 10 • T

3 6 2

b)

T

η = 150,3 • 108 •

123,6

1+

T

T = temperature, K.

c) Another expression is

3/ 2

η = 1.45 • 106 • T

T + 110

η = viscosity, kg/m,s

T = temperature, K.

d)

3

η T 2 + 110

= ( ) • T0

η 0 T0 T + 110

η = viskosity at temperature T

η0 = viskosity at temperature T0.

e) In small intervals this can be simplified to

7

ω

η T

=( )

η 0 T0

f)

1.80

805 T

D (H 2 O in air) = •( )

p T0

p = total pressure, kPa/m2

T0 = 273 K.

1.80

T

D = 0.216 • ( ) (cm2 /s)

273

2.5

0.926 T

D=( )•( )

p T + 245

p = pressure, kPa

T = temperature, K.

8

1.5 Air properties (at 100 kPa)

Molecular weight M = 28.962458 g/mol

Density at 0°C (dry air) ρ = 1.2929 kg/m3

at 15°C, 0% R.H, 105 Pa 1.2094 kg/m3

at 15°C, 50% R.H, 105 Pa 1.2055 kg/m3

at 15°C, 100% R.H, 105 Pa 1.2017 kg/m3

at 20°C, 0% R.H, 105 Pa 1.1887 kg/m3

at 20°C, 50% R.H, 105 Pa 1.1834 kg/m3

at 20°C, 100% R.H, 105 Pa 1.1783 kg/m3

Heat conductivity at 18°C λ = 0.025 W/m╖°C

Specific heat capacity at 0°C Cp = 1.00 kJ/kg,°C

Cp = 29.0 kJ/kmol,K

Viscosity at 0°C η = 17.0 ⋅ 10-6 kg/s,m

Viscosity at 20°C η = 18.192 ⋅ 10-6 kg/s,m

Critical temperature Tc = 132.5 K

Critical pressure Pc = 36 bar

Melting point Ts = 60.1 K

Boiling point Tk = 80.2 K

Density at boiling point ρ = 880 kg/m3

N2 78.084 vol %

O2 20.946 "

Ar 0.934 "

CO2 0.033 " (variabel)

Ne 18.18 ppm

He 5.24 "

Kr 1.14 "

H2 0.5 "

Xe 0.087 "

CH4 2 "

N2O 0.5 "

O3 0.01 " (variabel)

Rn 6 ⋅10-14 " (variabel)

η π

l= •

I 8• ρ • P

η = air viscosity, kg/m,s

ρ = air density, kg /m3

P = air pressure, Pa

9

I = constant = 0.4987445.

1.6 Water properties (at 100 kPa)

Molecular weight M = 18.0152 g/mol

Density at 0°C ρ = 999.84 kg/m3

at 20°C = 998.205 kg/m3

Heat conductivity at 20°C λ = 0.598 W/m,°C

Specific heat capacity at 0°C Cp = 4.218 kJ/kg,K

at 20-100°C Cp = 4.18 kJ/kg,K

Viscosity at 0°C η = 1792⋅10-6 kg/s,m

at 20°C = 1002⋅10-6 kg/s,m

Melting point ts = + 0°C

Melting heat Qs = 334 kJ/kg

Boiling point tk = + 100°C

Vaporization enthalpy Qk = 2257 kJ/kg

Density at boiling point (1.013 bar) ρ = 958.35 kg/m3

Critical temperature Tc = 647.4 K

Critical pressure Pc = 221.3 bar

at 0°C D = 0.216 cm2/s

at 20°C D = 0.245 cm2/s

ν 0.616 (0° C)

Sc = ={

D 0.617 (20° C)

Sc

Le = = 0.866 (0 − 20° C)

Pr

5.454 • 106

(p + 2

) • (v 30.42) = R • T

v

p in atmospheres

v in cm3/mol

10

T in K

R = 82.054 atm,cm3/mol,K.

ln =

221.2 1x

T

x =1 −

647 . 3

T = temperature, K

pvp = vapor pressure, bar.

1.9 Mixture of air and water vapor: Density and vapor pressure

a)

P p

ρ = 0.465 ( ) − 0.176 ( v )

T T

273.13 P − 0.3783 • pv

ρ = ρt • •

T 760

ρt = density for dry air, kg/m3

P = total pressure, mm Hg

Pv = partial pressure of water vapor, mm Hg

T = absolute temperature, K.

b)

x

pv = 18 • 1013

1 x

+

29 18

(kg H2O / kg dry air)

11

(If 1013 is changed to 760 the partial pressure is expressed in mm Hg.)

c)

ρ = ρ t • (1 + x)

pv

x = 0 . 622 •

P − pv

2

d)

td

x = 4.8 • 10 3 • 10 38

td = dew point, °C.

The partial pressure of water vapor for a specific dew point can be calculated by using

dew point temperature instead of air temperature in e or f.

273.16 T

log ( pm ) = 10.79586 • 1 − − 5.02808 log

T 273.16

+ 1.50474 • 10− 4 • 1 − 10 −8.29692 • 273.16 − 1 +

T

+ 0.42873 • 10−3 • 104.76966 • 1 − T − 1 + 0.78613974

273.16

273 . 16 273 . 16

log ( pm ) = − 9. 096936 − 3. 56654 • log

T T

T

+ 0. 876817 • 1 − + 0. 78613974

273 . 16

12

g)

−2

pm = 0.62796 • e6.5557 • 10 •t

(0 − 26 ° C)

h)

−2

pm = 0 . 83721 • e5. 4169 • 10 •t

(26 − 50 ° C)

t = air temperature, °C.

pf (b • ∆ t / 1510)

ϕ=

ps

ptr = vapor pressure in air with temperature ttr

ps = saturation vapor pressure at temperature ttr , mm Hg

pf = vapor pressure in air at temperature tf , mm Hg

tf = wet temperature, °C

ttr = temperature (dry thermometer for air), °C

b = barometric pressure, mm Hg

∆t = ttr - tf

1510 = 755/k, where 755 = initial barometric pressure, mm Hg

k = 0.5 mm Hg/K for water-air

= 0.4 mm Hg/K for ice-air.

a)

h = t • Cp + t • x • Cp (H 2 O) + x • r

t = temperature, °C

Cp = specific heat capacity for dry air 1.0 kJ/kg,°C

Cp (H2O) = specific heat capacity for water vapor 1.9 (1.8516) kJ/kg,°C

x = water content kg H2O/kg dry air

r = specific vaporization enthalpy for water at 0°C = 2500 kJ/kg.

13

b)

h = t + (2500 + 1.9 • t) • x

By using dry temperature (tt), wet temperature (tv) and barometric pressure (P) it is

possible to calculate relative humidity (_), absolute humidity (x) and specific enthalpy

(i):

2 Calculate absolute humidity for saturated state (xm with 1.9.c). (Put pσ = pm and xm is

the result.)

1.005 ( t v − t t ) + x m • (2 . 27 • t v − 2500)

x= for t x > 0 ° C

4 .19 • t v − 1 . 86 • t t − 2500

or from

1 , 005 ( t t − t v) + x m • (0 . 25 • t v − 2833)

x= for t t ≤ 0 ° C

2 .11 • t v − 1 . 86 • t t − 2833

Dew point, partial pressure and density is calculated by using equations 1.9.d and

1.9.b.

If the starting point is relative humidity instead of the wet temperature the following

calculations are done:

1 Calculate the saturation pressure for water vapor (pm) with 1.9.e.

14

ϕ • pm

pv =

100

3 Calculate absolute humidity for the saturated state (xm) with 1.9.c.

pv • x m

x=

pm

a)

p v = pm − P • A • ( t t − t v )

pm = saturation pressure for water vapor

P = total pressure (pv, pm and P in the same units)

tt = dry temperature °C

tv = wet temperature °C

A = psychrometer constant

Thermodynamical constant A = 6.53*10-4/°C

Assmann psychrometer A = 6.62*10-4/°C

Air velocities larger than 5.5 m/sA = 6.5*10-4/°C

Air velocity 0 m/s A = 12*10-4/°C

Natural ventilated thermometer A = 7.9*10-4/°C

Pv = pm - 67.1 (tt - tv) [Pa]

−4

p = 101 . 86425 • e − 1. 24087 • 10 •h

(0 − 1524 m)

−4

p = 102 . 12563 • e − 1. 25184 • 10 •h

(1525 − 3048 m)

15

p = barometric pressure, kPa

h = height over sea level, m.

a)

3.91

V=

σ

σ = atmospheric extinktion coefficient, km-1 (σ = σM + σR)

σR = from Rayleigh-scattering, in normal clean atmosphere = 1.167 ⋅ 10-2

σM = from Mie-scattering, is not included in normal atmosphere

M = 3 . 8 • 105 • σ 0.55 µ m

σ0.55 µm = back-scattering coefficient, m-1, for wavelength 0.55 µm.

1 .8 • 106

M=

L

L = sight length, m

M = contaminant concentration, µg/m3.

C = 0 . 20 • σ 0.55 µ m

0.20 = constant with maximum expected systematic error and two standard deviations

equal to + 0,11 and - 0,06, respectivly. A standard deviation = 0.03 * σ0.55 µm has

been given to between 0.1 * 10-4 and 3 * 10-4 m-1 for different degrees of clean

air, in industrial cities = 3 - 15 * 10-4 m-1.

16

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