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Report 1994:17 (English)

Equations and formulas for air and air


contaminants
A literature review

Lars Olander
Foreword
This publication has been compiled because I have missed such a publication. Naturally
this means that the selection has been influenced by my views. However, in most cases I
have included a formula rather than exclude it. To make the number of pages limited
the explanations are as short as possible. The result is that this formula compilation can
not be used as a text book but only as a reference book or as a guideline to the literature
in one specific field.

For this, the third edition (in English) dr. techn. Y. Jin has done a lot of work to check
and complete formulas and literature references. I have not had the opportunity to make
the formulas available in a form direct usable for computers. To make calculations it is
necessary to transfer actual formula to a suitable program. To facilitate using and
searching in this compilation a diskette with all the formulas is included. The formulas
are there written in WordPerfect 5.1 (DOS/Windows).

This revised version has been transferred to Word (Microsoft © Word 97), probably the
Equation Editor must be installed to read the formulas. Since the equation editors in
Word and WordPerfect do not agree on how to treat different symbols, there could be
some difficulties with differentiating some symbols.

ii
Contents

Page nr
Introduction 1

Books of tables and reference books 3


Text books 4

1 Properties of air and water vapor 7


1.1 The Ideal-Gas Law 8
1.2 Beattie-Bridgeman equation of state 9
1.3 Specific heat capacity for ideal gases 9
1.4 Temperature variation of specific heat capacity, viscosity and diffusion
coefficient 9
1.5 Air properties (at 100 kPa) 11
1.6 Water properties (at 100 kPa) 12
1.7 van der Waal's equation of state for water vapor 12
1.8 Water vapor pressure between 275 and 647 K 13
1.9 Mixture of air and water vapor: Density and vapor pressure 13
1.10 Specific enthalpy of air 15
1.11 Calculation of humid air's properties 15
1.12 Psychrometer formula 16
1.13 Air pressure variation with height 16
1.14 Connections between sight lenght and contaminant concentration 17

2 Basic flow equations 18


2.1 Navier - Stokes' equation 18
2.2 Euler's equations for frictionless flow 19
2.3 Bernoulli's equation 19
2.4 Equation of continuity 20
2.5 Dimensionsless numbers 21

3 Flow generation 26
3.1 Theoretical total pressure change for fans 26
3.2 Flow variations for fans 27
3.3 Pressure variations for fans 27
3.4 Power dependence for fans 27
3.5 Efficiency for fans 27
3.6 Air flow rate through critical orifice 27
3.7 Temperature increase of air in fans and ducts 29

4 Equations for pipe flow 30


4.1 General equations 31

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4.2 Laminar flow (Re <2300), smooth pipes 32
4.3 Turbulent flow (Re <80000), smooth pipes 32
4.4 Turbulent flow, smooth pipes, Prandtl's universal velocity distribution 32
4.5 Turbulent flow, rough pipe 33
4.6 Turbulent flow, transition smooth - rough pipes after Colebrook 33
4.7 Velocity distribution, laminar flow 34
4.8 Velocity distribution, turbulent flow 34
4.9 Cirkular and rectangular ducts with identical properties 35
4.10 Boundary layer thickness for pipe flow 35
4.11 Heat transfer in pipes 36
4.12 Deposition of particles in ducts with turbulent flow 38
4.13 Leakage from flexible ducts 38
4.14 Leakage from ducts 38
4.15 Ducts not made of sheet metal 39

5 Measuring 40
5.1 Pitot tube use in circular ducts 41
5.2 Orifice plate 42
5.3 Correction for pressure drop when measuring flow rate through terminal device43
5.4 Rotameter 43
5.5 Bag method 44
5.6 Tracer gas measurements 45
5.7 Kata thermometer 46
5.8 Hot wire anemometer 47
5.9 Sampling of aerosols in ducts 47
5.10 Sampling of aerosols in calm air 48
5.11 Tests of laboratory fume hoods 49

6 Air jets 51
6.1 Circular, isothermal free jets' velocity distribution and flow rate - after Baturin52
6.2 Circular, isothermal free jets' velocity distribution and flow rate - after Nielsen52
6.3 Plane, isothermal free jets' velocity distribution and flow rate - after Baturin 53
6.4 Plane, isothermal free jets' velocity distribution and flow rate - after Nielsen 54
6.5 Circular (radial) isothermal jets' velocity distribution - after Nielsen 54
6.6 Flow rate in jets - after Eck 55
6.7 Velocity distribution across plane, isothermal free jet 56
6.8 Velocity distribution across circular and plane isothermal free jet 56
6.9 Temperature and concentration distribution along and across free jets 56
6.10 Temperature distribution along circular free jet - after Baturin 57
6.11 Temperature distribution along plane jet 58
6.12 Temperature change for cold, free jet 58
6.13 Velocity and temperature decrease for vertical rising jets and bouyant plumes 58
6.14 Vertical air jets' throw lengths in room and horisontal jets' change of height 60

7 Contaminant generation 62
7.1 Solubility of gases in liquids 66
7.2 Evaporation from horisontal surfaces 68

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7.3 Evaporation from liquid baths 71
7.4 Evaporation from water baths 71
7.5 Evaporation from water surfaces 72
7.6 Evaporation from surfaces 73
7.7 Evaporation from open vessels 74
7.8 Leakage from vessels and pipes under pressure 75
7.9 Heat generation from electrical motors to the surroundings 75
7.10 Fibre generation from new fibre filters 76
7.11 Ozon generation from electrostatic filters 76
7.12 Corrosion of ducts 77
7.13 Vaporization of additives from plastic folie (PVC) 77
7.14 Vaporization of F-11 from polyurethan plates 77
7.15 Grinding machines 77
7.16 Falling powders' dust generation 79
7.17 Air flow generated by falling powder 80
7.18 Dust generation from pressure vessels containing powder 80
7.19 Particle generation from gas shielded welding 81
7.20 Airborne droplets from release of liquids under pressure 81
7.21 Vaporization of oil spill 81
7.22 Vaporization of organic solvents from water surfaces 83
7.23 Evaporation of solvents 84
7.24 Evaporation of liquid spills 94
8 Heat and contaminants from man 95
8.1 Man's heat balance 96
8.2 Fanger's comfort equation 96
8.3 Perception of thermal climate 97
8.4 Perception of heat 98
8.5 Perception of draught 99
8.6 Particle generation from man 100
8.7 Contaminant generation from man 101
8.8 Heat losses at low temperatures 101

9 Contaminants 102
9.1 Contaminants in rooms 103
9.2 Particle deposition on surfaces 103
9.3 Ozone in rooms 104
9.4 Resuspension 104
9.5 Permeability of water vapor through color layers 104
9.6 Heights of welding plumes in stable conditions with temperature gradient 105
9.7 Life-times for water drops 106
9.8 Vaporization of drops in air 106
9.9 Diesel exhausts in mines 107

10 Contaminant concentrations - air flow rates in rooms 108


10.1 Ideal steady-state, total mixing 110
10.2 Time dependent total mixing 110
10.3 Correction for non-ideal mixing 110

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10.4 Time dependent total mixing with incoming concentration 110
10.5 Ozone in room with copying machines 110
10.6 Concentration in rooms of Radon (222) 111
10.7 Concentration in rooms of Thoron (Rn 220) 111
10.8 Radon concentration in room 112
10.9 Time dependent contaminant generation 112
10.10 Ideal mixing, separate recirculation system, separate local exhaust with outlet
outside the room and with capture efficiency α 113
10.11 Age of air 115
10.12 Tracer gas measurements 115
10.13 Ventilation efficiency, definition 116
10.14 Air exchange efficiency, definition 116
10.15 Transport efficiency for air cooling systems - ATF 116

11 Contaminant concentrations - air flow with recirculation 117


11.1 Central recirculation, total mixing 118
11.2 Central recirculation, total mixing, steady-state 118
11.3 Local recirculation (local exhaust), total mixing 118
11.4 Local recirculation, total mixing 119
11.5 Local recirculation, staedy-state, total mixing 119
11.6 Local recirculation, steady-state, total mixing 119
11.7 Local and central recirculation, steady-state 119
11.8 Central recirculation 120
11.9 Contaminant concentration in occupied zone and from room air cleaner at recirculation 120
11.10 2-zone model with local exhaust and with leakage and recirculation 121
11.11 Room air cleaner's effect on contaminant concentration 121

12 Leakage: Flow rates and concentrations 122


12.1 Wind pressure for free flow 122
12.2 General infiltration equation 123
12.3 Theoretical natural draught 123
12.4 Flow rates from thermal differences 124
12.5 Air lock, steady-state concentration, total mixing 124
12.6 Contaminant concentration, recirculation and leakage, total mixing 125
12.7 Contaminant concentration, leakage, total mixing 127

13 Properties of mixtures 129


13.1 General equation for density of mixtures 129
13.2 Density of vapor-air-mixture 130
13.3 Concentration conversion 130
13.4 Viscosity of mixtures 131
13.5 Viscosity of vapor-air at different temperatures 131
13.6 Ions on particles at steady-state 132
13.7 Ions in air 132
13.8 Energy from electrostatic discharges 133

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14 Convective flow rates and velocities 134
14.1 Criteria for draught (Rydberg) 135
14.2 Cold draught from windows 135
14.3 Air velocities from cold draught 136
14.4 Heat exchange between room air and surfaces I 137
14.5 Heat exchange between room air and surfaces II 138
14.6 Heat exchange between room air and vertical, plane surfaces 138
14.7 Heat transfer from different surfaces through bouyancy 138
14.8 Natural ventilation 140
14.9 Influence of wind velocity and temperature difference on natural ventilation 141
14.10 Air velocity in plume above point heat source 141
14.11 Air flow rate in plume above point heat source 141
14.12 Air flow rate in plumes above hot sources 142
14.13 Air flow rate at upper edge of vertical surface of hot body 142
14.14 Air flow rate into hood close above heat source 143
14.15 Air flow rate into hood above heat source 144
14.16 Air flow rate above horizontal surface 144

15 Local exhausts 145


15.1 Velocity distribution from a point sink 146
15.2 Centerline velocity for tube end (free hood), circular or rectangular with a
length-width ratio less than 5 146
15.3 Centerline velocity from a flanged circular hood 147
15.4 Centerline velocity from a slot (aspect ratio larger than 5) 147
15.5 Centerline velocity from a flanged slot 147
15.6 Capturing hood above bath 148
15.7 Capture efficiency 148
15.8 Capture efficiency for hood above emission source 148
15.9 Exhaust flow rate for contained process with heat generation 149
15.10 Push-pull-system for surface treatment 149
15.11 Push-pull-system 150

16 Air cleaning 151


16.1 Filtration efficiency for fibrous filters 152
16.2 Filtration efficiency for electrostatic filters 154
16.3 Efficiency for cyclones 155
16.4 Efficiency for venturi precipitators 157
16.5 Efficiency for wet scrubbers 158
16.6 Efficiency for settlement chambers 160
16.7 Pressure loss in fibrous filter 161
16.8 Costs for fibrous filters 163
16.9 Absorption of gases in moving drops 163
16.10 Adsorption of gases in materials 164
16.11 Cleaning from gases by condensation 164
16.12 Break-through for solvents in breathing masks 164
17 Outside dispersion 166
17.1 Gaussian plume model 167

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17.2 Exhausts of hot gases from smoke stacks (Oak Ridge model) 168
17.3 Exhausts of cold gases from smoke stacks (Sutton's model) 168
17.4 Concentration from exhaust of cold gas from smoke stacks 168
17.5 Lowest exhaust height 169
17.6 Demands on dilution of exhausts from buildings 169
17.7 Exhausts from roof or on lee-side 170
17.8 Concentrations from exhausts 171
17.9 Velocity and concentration distribution for bouyant plumes in homogenous
surroundings 171
17.10 Particle transport in convection plumes 172
17.11 Dispersion of traffic contaminants 174
17.12 Road tunnel ventilation 175

18 Summary 176

viii
Introduction

The introduction has not been translated since it only dscribes the reason for the
compilation of these formulas. It also describes why certain areas are not covered in this
report. Since the introduction is included in the Swedish version, anyone interested
could look there.

Books of tables and reference books


Arbeitsmappe Heizung, Lüftung, Klimatechnik. Düsseldorf, VDI-Verlag 1968-1971.

ASHRAE Handbook 1986-1989 (4 vol.). Fundametals, Equipment, HVAC Systems and


Applications, Refrigeration (SI-edition) American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-
Conditioning Engineer. New York 1986-1989.

Charlesworth PS: Air exchange rate and airtightness measurement techniques - An application
guide. International Energy Agency, Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre, Coventry, 1988.

Dittes W, Goettling O, Wolf H: Arbeitsplatzluftreinhaltung. Schriftenreihe der Bundesanstalt


für Arbeitsschutz, Fb Nr 438, Dortmund 1985.

Industrial Ventilation. A manual of recommended practice. 21th edition. American


Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. 1992.

Liddament MW: Air infiltration and calculation techniques - An application guide.


International Energy Agency, Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre, Coventry, 1986.

Lide DR (Ed.): CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 73th edition. 1993.

Perry RH, Green DW and Maloney JO (Eds): Perry's Chemical Engineer's Handbook. 6th
edition. McGraw Hill, New York 1984.

Rietschel/Raiss: Heiz- und Klimatechnik. 15:e upplagan. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. Erster


Band: Grundlagen, Systeme, Ausführung. 1968. Zweiter Band: Verfahren und Unterlagen zur
Berechnung. 1970.

Rohsenow WM and Hartnett JP (Ed.): Handbook of Heat Transfer, McGraw Hill, New York
1973.

Teasler R: Klimatdata för Sverige. Statens råd för byggnadsforskning. 1972.

VVS-handboken, Tabeller och diagram. Förlags AB VVS. Stockholm 1974.

Text books

1
Basic theory and measurements

Beckwiht TG, Marangoni RD, and Lienhard JH: Mechanical Measurements (5th edition),
Addison-Wesley, New York 1993.

Bird RB, Steward WE and Lightfood EN: Transport Phenomena, Wiley & Sons, New York
1960.

Doebelin EO: Measurement systems - Application and design. McGraw-Hill, New York,
1966.

Schlichting H: Boundary-Layer Therory (7th editon), McGraw Hill, New York 1979.

Ventilation and contaminant control

Alden L, Kane JM: Design of Industrial Ventilation Systems. 5th edition. Industrial Press,
New York 1982.

Awbi HB: Ventilation of Buildings. Chapmann & Hall, London 1991.

Baturin VV: Fundamentals of Industrial Ventilation. Pergamon Press 1972.

British Occupational Hygiene Society, Working Group on Ventilation Design: Controlling


Airborne Contaminants in the Workplace. B.O.H.S. Technical Guide No 7, Science Reviews
Ltd, Leeds 1987.

Brown RC: Air filtration. Pergamon Press, Oxford 1993.

Davies CN: Air filtration. Academic Press, London 1973.

Burgess WA, Ellenbecker MJ, Treitman RD: Ventilation for control of the work environment.
John Wiley & Sons, New York 1989.

Dorman RG: Dust Control and Air Cleaning. Pergamon Press, Oxford 1974.

Goodfellow HD: Advanced Design of Ventilation Systems for Contaminant Control.


Chemical Engineering Monographs Vol. 23. Elsevier, Amsterdam 1985.

Goodfellow, H.D. (Ed.): Ventilation '85. Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on
Ventilation for Contaminant Control, October 1-3 1985, Toronto, Canada. Elsevier,
Amsterdam 1986

Heinsohn RJ: Industrial Ventilation. John Wiley & Sons, New York 1991.

Hemeon WCL: Plant and process ventilation. The Industrial Press, New York 1963.

Hughes, R.T., Goodfellow, H.D., Rajhans, G.S. (Eds): Ventilation '91. Proceedings of the 3rd
International Symposium on Ventilation for Contaminant Control, September 16-20, 1991,

2
Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists,
Cincinnati, Ohio USA 1993.

Jansson, A., Olander, L. (Eds): Ventilation '94. Proceedings of the 4th International
Symposium on Ventilation for Contaminant Control, held in Stockholm, September 5-9,
1994. Arbete och HΣlsa 1994:18 (2 vols). National Institute of Occupational Health, Solna,
Sweden 1994.

Licht W: Air Pollution Control Engineering. 2nd Ed. Marcel Dekker, New York 1988.

McDermott HJ: Handbook of Ventilation for Contaminant Control. Ann Arbor Science 1976.

McQuiston FC and Parker JD: Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning - Analysis and
Design (3rd edition), John Wiley & Sons, News York 1988.

Mⁿrmann H: Lufttechnische Anlagen für gewerbliche Betriebe. Carl Marhold, Berlin 1980.

Olander L: Ventilation. Studentlitteratur 1982.

Vincent, J.H. (Ed.): Ventilation '88. Proceedings of the 2d International Symposium on


Ventilation for Contaminant Control, 20-23 September 1988, London, England, UK.
Pergamon Press, Oxford 1989

Aerosols

A bibliography of Aerosol Science and Technology. Aerosol Science and Technology, vol.14,
sid 1-4, 1991.

Aerosol Measurement Workshop: Aerosol Measurement. Eds. Lundgren, Harris, Marlow,


Lippmann, Clark, Durham. University Presses of Florida 1979.

Calvert S, Englund HM (Eds): Handbook of Air Pollution Technology, John Wiley & Son,
New York 1984.

Committee on Medical and Biologic Effects of Environmental Pollutants, Subcommittee on


Airborne Particles: Airborne Particles. University Park Press, Baltimore 1979.

Friedlander SK: Smoke, Dust and Haze Fundamentals of Aerosol Behavior. Wiley-
Interscience, New York 1977.

Fuchs NA: The Mechanics of Aerosols. Pergamon Press 1964. (Reprint Dover 1989)

Heskett HE: Fine Particles in Gaseous Media. 2nd Ed. Lewis Publishers, Michigan 1986

Hinds WC: Aerosol Technology. Properties, Behavior, and Measurement of Airborne


Particles. Wiley-Interscience, New York 1982.

Israel G: Aerosols. Formation and Recetivity. Proceedings Second International Aerosol


Conference, September 1986. Pergamon Press, Oxford 1986.

3
Liu BYH (Ed.): Fine particles. Aerosol Generation, Measurement, Sampling and Analysis.
Academic Press, New York 1976.

Liu BYH, Pui DYH, Fissan HJ (Eds): Aerosols. Science, Technology and Industrial
Applications of Airborne Particles. First International Conference, Elsevier 1984.

Marple VA, Liu BYH (Eds): Aerosols in the Mining and Industrial Work Environments. 3
Vol. Ann Arbor Science 1983.

Reist PC: Introduction to Aerosol Science. MacMillan 1984.

Shaw DT (Ed.): Fundamentals of Aerosol Science. Wiley-Interscience, New York 1978.

Shaw DT (Ed.): Recent Developments in Aerosol Science. Wiley-Interscience, New York


1978.

Willeke K, Baron PA (Eds): Aerosol Measurement. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York 1993.

4
1 Properties of air and water vapor
This chapter includes some properties dependence of pressure, temperature, humidity etc and
data for the most important properties for air and water vapor. First is the ideal-gas law (1),
which is usable for air at normal temperatures. For extreme pressures or temperatures an
equation of state (2) can be used. For ideal gases there exist a number of connections (3),
which can be used for air. Some properties variation with temperature are presented in 4. In 5
are given figures for air and in 6 for water and water vapor. For water vapor can the ideal-gas
law be used for approximative calculations (1). If more accurate values are needed an equation
of state is used (7,8). Mixtures of air and water vapor are frequent and formulas are presented
in 9. In 11 and 12 are formulas to be used when measuring water vapor in air. In 10 are some
formulas for the variation of heat content with temperature and humidity. Air pressure
variation with height are given in 13. Some equations for connection between contaminant
concentration and sight length end this chapter (14).

If the pressure is not given or if it is not a part of the formulas, normal pressure i.e. 1.013 bar
(=101.3 kPa) is presumed.

5
1.1 The Ideal-Gas Law
m
p • v = R • T or p • V = n • R • T or p • V = •R • T
M
p = pressure
v = molecular volume
R = gas constant (8,31441 J/mol,K = 1,9872 cal/K,mol =
0,08205 lit,atm/K,mol = 62,4 lit,mm Hg/K,mol)
T = absolute temperature
V = volume
n = number of mols
m = mass
M = molecular weight.
(Normally used for air, also when some water vapor or contaminants are present.)

1.2 Beattie-Bridgeman equation of state


(Air from - 145 °C to + 200 °C)
  0,01101   4,34 • 10 4 
p • v = R • T •  v + 0,04611 • 1 +
2
 • 1 
  v   v • T 3 
 0,01931 
1,3012 • 1 
 v 

p = pressure, atm
v = molecular volume, lit/mol
R = gas constant 0,08205 lit╖atm/mol╖K
T = temperature, K.

(To be used at extreme pressures or temperaturs, or when more accurate values than
from (1) are needed).

1.3 Specific heat capacities for ideal gases


Cp = Cv + R

a = κ •p / ρ = κ •R•T

Cp = specific heat capacity at constant pressure


Cv = specific heat capacity at constant volume
a = air velocity

6
κ = isentrop exponent = Cp/Cv
ρ = density
R, T, p see 1.2.

1.4 Temperature variation of specific heat capacity, viscosity (see also


13.4) and diffusion coefficient
a)
C p = 6,386 + 1,762 • 10 • T 0,2656 • 10 • T
3 6 2

Cp in cal/mol,K in the temperature interval 300-1500 K.

b)
T
η = 150,3 • 108 •
123,6
1+
T

η = viscosity in the interval 273-673 K, N,s/m2


T = temperature, K.

c) Another expression is
3/ 2
η = 1.45 • 106 • T
T + 110

η = viscosity, kg/m,s
T = temperature, K.

d)
3
η T 2 + 110
= ( ) • T0
η 0 T0 T + 110

η = viskosity at temperature T
η0 = viskosity at temperature T0.
e) In small intervals this can be simplified to

7
ω
η T
=( )
η 0 T0

where 0.5 < ω < 1 depends on interval.

f)
1.80
805 T
D (H 2 O in air) = •( )
p T0

D(H2O in air) = diffusion coefficient for water vapor in air, m2/h


p = total pressure, kPa/m2
T0 = 273 K.

g) For p = 760 mm Hg this will be

1.80
T
D = 0.216 • ( ) (cm2 /s)
273

h) Another empirical formula for water vapor in air up to 1350 K is

2.5
0.926 T
D=( )•( )
p T + 245

D = diffusion coefficient for water vapor in air, mm2/s


p = pressure, kPa
T = temperature, K.

8
1.5 Air properties (at 100 kPa)
Molecular weight M = 28.962458 g/mol
Density at 0°C (dry air) ρ = 1.2929 kg/m3
at 15°C, 0% R.H, 105 Pa 1.2094 kg/m3
at 15°C, 50% R.H, 105 Pa 1.2055 kg/m3
at 15°C, 100% R.H, 105 Pa 1.2017 kg/m3
at 20°C, 0% R.H, 105 Pa 1.1887 kg/m3
at 20°C, 50% R.H, 105 Pa 1.1834 kg/m3
at 20°C, 100% R.H, 105 Pa 1.1783 kg/m3
Heat conductivity at 18°C λ = 0.025 W/m╖°C
Specific heat capacity at 0°C Cp = 1.00 kJ/kg,°C
Cp = 29.0 kJ/kmol,K
Viscosity at 0°C η = 17.0 ⋅ 10-6 kg/s,m
Viscosity at 20°C η = 18.192 ⋅ 10-6 kg/s,m
Critical temperature Tc = 132.5 K
Critical pressure Pc = 36 bar
Melting point Ts = 60.1 K
Boiling point Tk = 80.2 K
Density at boiling point ρ = 880 kg/m3

Components of dry atmospheric air

N2 78.084 vol %
O2 20.946 "
Ar 0.934 "
CO2 0.033 " (variabel)
Ne 18.18 ppm
He 5.24 "
Kr 1.14 "
H2 0.5 "
Xe 0.087 "
CH4 2 "
N2O 0.5 "
O3 0.01 " (variabel)
Rn 6 ⋅10-14 " (variabel)

Mean free path

η π
l= •
I 8• ρ • P

l = mean free path of air molecules, m (15-25°C, 0-100% RH)


η = air viscosity, kg/m,s
ρ = air density, kg /m3
P = air pressure, Pa

9
I = constant = 0.4987445.
1.6 Water properties (at 100 kPa)
Molecular weight M = 18.0152 g/mol
Density at 0°C ρ = 999.84 kg/m3
at 20°C = 998.205 kg/m3
Heat conductivity at 20°C λ = 0.598 W/m,°C
Specific heat capacity at 0°C Cp = 4.218 kJ/kg,K
at 20-100°C Cp = 4.18 kJ/kg,K
Viscosity at 0°C η = 1792⋅10-6 kg/s,m
at 20°C = 1002⋅10-6 kg/s,m
Melting point ts = + 0°C
Melting heat Qs = 334 kJ/kg
Boiling point tk = + 100°C
Vaporization enthalpy Qk = 2257 kJ/kg
Density at boiling point (1.013 bar) ρ = 958.35 kg/m3
Critical temperature Tc = 647.4 K
Critical pressure Pc = 221.3 bar

Diffusion coefficient for water vapor in air


at 0°C D = 0.216 cm2/s
at 20°C D = 0.245 cm2/s

Schmidt number for water vapor in air

ν 0.616 (0° C)
Sc = ={
D 0.617 (20° C)

Lewis number for water vapor in air

Sc
Le = = 0.866 (0 − 20° C)
Pr

1.7 van der Waal's equation of state (water vapor)

5.454 • 106
(p + 2
) • (v 30.42) = R • T
v

p in atmospheres
v in cm3/mol

10
T in K
R = 82.054 atm,cm3/mol,K.

1.8 Water vapor pressure between 275 and 647 K

 p vp  7.76451 • x+ 1.45838 • x 1.5 2.77580 • x 3 1.23303 • x 6


ln  =
 221.2  1x
 

T
x =1 −
647 . 3
T = temperature, K
pvp = vapor pressure, bar.

1.9 Mixture of air and water vapor: Density and vapor pressure
a)
P p
ρ = 0.465 ( ) − 0.176 ( v )
T T

This can also be written in the following way:

273.13  P − 0.3783 • pv 
ρ = ρt • • 
T  760 

ρ = density for humid air, kg/m3


ρt = density for dry air, kg/m3
P = total pressure, mm Hg
Pv = partial pressure of water vapor, mm Hg
T = absolute temperature, K.
b)

x
pv = 18 • 1013
1 x
+
29 18

pv = partial pressure for water vapor, in mbar, with water content x


(kg H2O / kg dry air)

11
(If 1013 is changed to 760 the partial pressure is expressed in mm Hg.)

c)
ρ = ρ t • (1 + x)

ρ, ρt and x see above.

pv
x = 0 . 622 •
P − pv

(0.622 is MH O/Mair = 0.62198)


2

x, pv, P see above

d)

td
x = 4.8 • 10 3 • 10 38

x = water content, kg/m3


td = dew point, °C.

The partial pressure of water vapor for a specific dew point can be calculated by using
dew point temperature instead of air temperature in e or f.

e) Dry temperature above 0 °C

 273.16   T 
log ( pm ) = 10.79586 • 1 −  − 5.02808 log  
 T   273.16 
+ 1.50474 • 10− 4 • 1 − 10 −8.29692 •  273.16 − 1  +
 T 

 
+ 0.42873 • 10−3 • 104.76966 •  1 − T  − 1 + 0.78613974
 273.16 

 

f) Dry temperature below or equal to 0 °C

 273 . 16   273 . 16 
log ( pm ) = − 9. 096936   − 3. 56654 • log  
 T   T 
 T 
+ 0. 876817 • 1 −  + 0. 78613974
 273 . 16 

pm = saturation pressure for water vapor, in mbar, at absolute temperature T.

12
g)

−2
pm = 0.62796 • e6.5557 • 10 •t
(0 − 26 ° C)

h)

−2
pm = 0 . 83721 • e5. 4169 • 10 •t
(26 − 50 ° C)

pm = saturation pressure for water vapor, kPa


t = air temperature, °C.

i) Air humidity variation with barometric pressure

pf (b • ∆ t / 1510)
ϕ=
ps

φ = ptr / ps equal to relative humidity


ptr = vapor pressure in air with temperature ttr
ps = saturation vapor pressure at temperature ttr , mm Hg
pf = vapor pressure in air at temperature tf , mm Hg
tf = wet temperature, °C
ttr = temperature (dry thermometer for air), °C
b = barometric pressure, mm Hg
∆t = ttr - tf
1510 = 755/k, where 755 = initial barometric pressure, mm Hg
k = 0.5 mm Hg/K for water-air
= 0.4 mm Hg/K for ice-air.

1.10 Specific enthalpy of air


a)

h = t • Cp + t • x • Cp (H 2 O) + x • r

h = specific enthalpy, kJ/kg


t = temperature, °C
Cp = specific heat capacity for dry air 1.0 kJ/kg,°C
Cp (H2O) = specific heat capacity for water vapor 1.9 (1.8516) kJ/kg,°C
x = water content kg H2O/kg dry air
r = specific vaporization enthalpy for water at 0°C = 2500 kJ/kg.

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b)

h = t + (2500 + 1.9 • t) • x

1.11 Calculation of humid air's properties


By using dry temperature (tt), wet temperature (tv) and barometric pressure (P) it is
possible to calculate relative humidity (_), absolute humidity (x) and specific enthalpy
(i):

1 Calculate saturation pressure for water vapor (pm) by using 1.9.e.

2 Calculate absolute humidity for saturated state (xm with 1.9.c). (Put pσ = pm and xm is
the result.)

3 Absolute humidity (x) is calculated from

1.005 ( t v − t t ) + x m • (2 . 27 • t v − 2500)
x= for t x > 0 ° C
4 .19 • t v − 1 . 86 • t t − 2500

or from

1 , 005 ( t t − t v) + x m • (0 . 25 • t v − 2833)
x= for t t ≤ 0 ° C
2 .11 • t v − 1 . 86 • t t − 2833

(tt , tv in °C, x and xm in kg/kg).

4 Relative humidity is calculated in % from φ = x/xm*100

5 Specific enthalpy is calculated from equation 1.10.b.

Dew point, partial pressure and density is calculated by using equations 1.9.d and
1.9.b.

If the starting point is relative humidity instead of the wet temperature the following
calculations are done:

1 Calculate the saturation pressure for water vapor (pm) with 1.9.e.

2 Calculate partial pressure for water vapor (pv) from

14
ϕ • pm
pv =
100

3 Calculate absolute humidity for the saturated state (xm) with 1.9.c.

3 Calculate absolute humidity (x) from

pv • x m
x=
pm

5 Specific enthalpy is calculated from equation 1.10.

1.12 Psychrometer formula


a)

p v = pm − P • A • ( t t − t v )

pv = partial pressure for water vapor


pm = saturation pressure for water vapor
P = total pressure (pv, pm and P in the same units)
tt = dry temperature °C
tv = wet temperature °C
A = psychrometer constant
Thermodynamical constant A = 6.53*10-4/°C
Assmann psychrometer A = 6.62*10-4/°C
Air velocities larger than 5.5 m/sA = 6.5*10-4/°C
Air velocity 0 m/s A = 12*10-4/°C
Natural ventilated thermometer A = 7.9*10-4/°C

For p = 101.3 ⋅ 103 Pa the Assmann psychrometer will give


Pv = pm - 67.1 (tt - tv) [Pa]

1.13 Air pressure variation with height

−4
p = 101 . 86425 • e − 1. 24087 • 10 •h
(0 − 1524 m)

−4
p = 102 . 12563 • e − 1. 25184 • 10 •h
(1525 − 3048 m)

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p = barometric pressure, kPa
h = height over sea level, m.

1.14 Connection between sight length and contaminant concentration


a)
3.91
V=
σ

V = visual sight lenght, km


σ = atmospheric extinktion coefficient, km-1 (σ = σM + σR)
σR = from Rayleigh-scattering, in normal clean atmosphere = 1.167 ⋅ 10-2
σM = from Mie-scattering, is not included in normal atmosphere

Both σm and σR are influenced of contaminant concentration and humidity.

b) One value for σ (0.55 µm) is

M = 3 . 8 • 105 • σ 0.55 µ m

M = contaminant concentration, µg/m3


σ0.55 µm = back-scattering coefficient, m-1, for wavelength 0.55 µm.

A combination of the two equation above results in

1 .8 • 106
M=
L

L = sight length, m
M = contaminant concentration, µg/m3.

c) Diminishing sight length from tobacco smoke.

C = 0 . 20 • σ 0.55 µ m

C = concentration of tobacco smoke in air µg/m3, σ0.55 µm see above.


0.20 = constant with maximum expected systematic error and two standard deviations
equal to + 0,11 and - 0,06, respectivly. A standard deviation = 0.03 * σ0.55 µm has
been given to between 0.1 * 10-4 and 3 * 10-4 m-1 for different degrees of clean
air, in industrial cities = 3 - 15 * 10-4 m-1.

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