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BYZANTIUM

1057-1204
TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION
Chapter 1. KOMNENOS, EMPERORS 1057-1059, 1081-1185
ISAAKIOS I 1057-1059
ALEXIOS I 1081-1118
IOANNES II 1118-1143
MANUEL I 1143-1180, ALEXIOS II 1180-1183
ANDRONIKOS I 1183-1185
Chapter 2. DOUKAS, EMPERORS 1059-1068, 1071-1078
A. ORIGINS, Anti-Emperor 913
B. EMPERORS 1059-1068, 1071-1078
KONSTANTINOS X 1059-1067, MIKHAEL VII 1071-1078
Chapter 3. DIOGENES, EMPEROR 1068-1071
ROMANOS IV 1068-1072
Chapter 4. BOTANEIATES, EMPEROR 1078-1081
NIKEPHOROS III 1078-1081
Chapter 5. ANGELOS, EMPERORS 1185-1195
A. ORIGINS
B. EMPERORS 1185-1195
ISAAKIOS II 1185-1195 & 1203-1204, ALEXIOS III 1195-1203, ALEXIOS IV 1203-1204
Chapter 6. MURZUPHLOS, EMPEROR 1204
ALEXIOS V 1204
Chapter 7. FAMILIES of ANTI-EMPERORS
A. BRYENNIOS, 1078
B. MELISSENOS, 1078
C. BRANAS, 1186

INTRODUCTION

The Komnenos family of emperors succeeded in 1057 after Isaakios Komnenos defeated the imperial
army of Emperor Mikhael VI Stratiotikos, the unpopular successor appointed by Empress Theodora.
Years of corruption and outside aggression had depleted the empire of economic resources and territory.
The recovery process was initiated during Emperor Isaakios's brief reign. However, during the interlude
between his abdication in 1059 and the accession of Emperor Alexios I in 1081, the Doukas, Diogenes
and Botaneiates families provided emperors. These were unsuccessful times for the empire, which was
attacked by the Normans of Apulia in the west and the Seljuk Turks in the east, and in addition suffered
incompetent internal government. Emperor Alexios resumed the process of reconstruction. He carried
out a major reorganisation of the administration of the empire, aimed at lightening the bureaucracy, and
introduced a range of new titles which he distributed to the numerous potential challengers from his own
and other ex-imperial families: in descending order of precedence, sébastos, protosébastos,
panhypersébastos, sébastohypertatos, pansébastohypertatos, and protopansébastohypertatos. The grand
admiral of the fleet became megas dux, and the two domestikoi of the west and the east received the title
megas domestikos. He also created the office of logothetis ton sekreton, in charge of all civil
administration of the empire. The themes (regional provinces) were reduced in size and importance.

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The governors of the themes were henceforth all called dux, and their deputies katepan. The title
strategos disappeared. Aiming to humiliate the senatorial class, Alexios also removed the need for
acclamation by the senate after the election of the emperor[1].

The successors of Emperor Manuel Komnenos were unable to maintain their grip on power. Emperor
Manuel's young son Alexios fell under the influence of his mother, a Latin princess from Antioch.
Emperor Andronikos I, the last Komnenos emperor, is remembered for his cruel excesses in attempting
to suppress opposition and in 1185 he was overthrown by Isaakios Angelos. Unfortunately for the
future of the empire, the Angelos rulers proved to be corrupt and profligate. The Fourth Crusade in the
early years of the 13th century was used by the western allies as a pretext to conquer Byzantium. In
March 1204, the crusaders and the Venetians agreed to partition the empire: one quarter of its territory
would be allocated to the newly created Latin empire of Constantinople, while the remainder would be
divided equally between the leaders of the crusade and Venice. Venice renounced direct sovereignty
over its share, which included Epirus, Acarnania, Etolia and Peloponnesos, but took direct possession of
Durazzo and Ragusa on the Adriatic coast, the ports of Koron and Modon in Peloponnesos, and
Adrianople. The crusaders took control of Constantinople 13 April 1204, massacring a large part of the
population.

The Byzantine primary sources so far consulted in the preparation of the present document, which
covers the period 1057 to 1204, include the Chronographia of Mikhael Psellos[2], the History of Ioannes
Kinnamos[3], the History of Nikephoros Briennios[4], the History of Niketas Choniates[5], the Alexeiad
of Anna Comnena[6], the History of Ephræmius[7], the History of Ioannes Zonaras[8], and the Annales
of Georgios Akropolitos[9]. The extracts are quoted from the Latin translations, in the case of sources
in the nineteenth century Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ series, rather than the original Greek
(unless a conflict is obvious), because it is assumed that more users of Medieval Lands will be familiar
with Latin than Greek (also because the compiler has only restricted knowledge of the Greek language).
The on-line Prosopography of the Byzantine World database (2006.02) produced by King's College,
London[10] has also been consulted, especially for Skylitzes and Skylitzes Continuatus (the original
texts of which have not been seen) and seals. References in western primary sources to the Byzantine
emperors and their families have also been incorporated. General historical information has been
extracted and incorporated from secondary sources. As will be seen, there remain many relationships
which have not yet been confirmed, particularly among the later generations of the younger branches of
the Komnenos family. These have been reproduced in this document from the relevant tables in
Europäische Stammtafeln[11], but the suspicion remains that some of the relationships shown were
originally based on speculation, although final confirmation of this will have to await the identification
and checking of more sources.

An earlier version of this document was reviewed in detail by Morris Bierbrier, who has made additions
and corrections where indicated ("MB" in the footnotes), and has also supplied a copy of the list of
obituaries of Empress Eirene Doukas's family[12]. I am grateful for his helpful collaboration.

Chapter 1. KOMNENOS, EMPERORS 1057-1059, 1081-1185

ISAAKIOS I 1057-1059

1. NIKEPHOROS Komnenos (-[1026]). Cedrenus records that Emperor Basileios II appointed


"missus Nicephorus Comnenus protospatharius" as governor of Vaspurakan after dismissing "Basilium
patricium Argyrum"[13]. Sturdza suggests that he was the son of Manuel "Erotikos" Komnenos by a

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supposed first marriage[14], but there is no primary source evidence has been found to support this[15].
Cedrenus records that Emperor Konstantinos VIII, after his accession (in 1025), recalled "Nicephorum
Comnenum…qui Aspracaniæ præfectus…subegerat" to Constantinople and blinded him without just
cause[16].

2. MANUEL "Erotikos" Komnenos, son of --- (-before 1025). A Thracian soldier, originally from
Comne near Adrianople. He became a general in the army of Emperor Basileios II and received lands
from him in the Castamon district of Paphlagonia, where he built the castle known as Castra
Komnenon[17]. Cedrenus names "in Paphlagoniam Castamonem" as "domus Isaacii Comneni" but does
not state that it was built by his father[18]. The Alexeiad names "Manuel, father of the previous
emperor Isaakios Komnenos and his brother Ioannes (who was my grandfather on the paternal side)"
when recording that he was "promoted supreme commander of all the east by the then emperor
Basileios"[19]. Cedrenus records that "Manuelum Eroticum, nobili genere orto" fought in the war
against Bardas Skleros, dated to [978][20]. Nikephoros Bryennios records that Manuel entrusted his
sons to the emperor (Basileios II) when dying[21]. m ([1005]) ---. The name of Manuel's wife is not
known. Nikephoros Bryennios records that she had been dead for a long time when her husband
entrusted their sons to the emperor[22]. Manuel Komnenos & his wife had three children:
a) ISAAKIOS Komnenos ([1005/10]-Studion monastery 1061). Nikephoros Bryennios names
"maiori natu Isaacio…iunior Ioannes" as the two sons of "Comneni Manuelis"[23]. There is little
indication about his date of birth but the chronology of the descendants of his brother Ioannes suggests
that Isaakios may have been born in [1005/10]. The Alexeiad names "Manuel, father of the previous
emperor Isaakios Komnenos and his brother Ioannes (who was my grandfather on the paternal side)"
when recording that he was "promoted supreme commander of all the east by the then emperor
Basileios"[24]. Domestikos 1042-[1054/57]. He led the troops which crushed the revolt of the generals
of Asia. Cedrenus records that Empress Theodora sent "magistro Isaacio Comneno" to fight the Turks
after her accession (in 1055)[25]. Cedrenus names "magister Isaacius Comnenus, magister Catacalo
Ambustus" as leaders of the noble party in the army who opposed the succession of Emperor Mikhael
VI Stratiotikos, adding that the latter had abrogated the appointment of "Catacalo Ambustus" as
magister and "dux Antiochiæ" and replaced him by "Michaelum patruelem suum"[26]. Isaakios was
acclaimed Emperor ISAAKIOS I on the plain of Gunaria in Paphlagonia 8 Jun 1057. Cedrenus records
the acclamation 8 Jun "indictione 10" of Isaakios Komnenos as emperor[27]. He defeated the imperial
army at Hades near Nikaia 20 Aug 1057. Isaakios's army marched on Constantinople, and Emperor
Mikhael VI abdicated before Isaakios entered the city 1 Sep 1057, and was crowned there the same day
by Patriarch Mikhael Keroularios. Despite a short reign, he succeeded in consolidating the military
position of the empire. He practised all kinds of economy to restore financial stability, confiscating
assets which had previously been distributed by his predecessors. The process included the confiscation
of property donated to the church which led Isaakios into conflict with the Patriarch, culminating in the
latter being sent into exile 8 Nov 1058. Isaakios abdicated 25 Dec 1059, due to illness, in favour of
Konstantinos Doukas, President of the Senate, having first offered the throne to his younger brother
Ioannes who refused it. He became a monk at the monastery of Studion. m EKATERINA of Bulgaria,
daughter of IVAN VLADISLAV Tsar of the Bulgarians & his wife Marija --- (-convent of Myrelaion
after 1061). Her parentage is deduced by reading Cedrenus, who names "Aarone Duca magistro
magistro, fratre uxoris Comneni"[28] (although the origin of his being named "Doukas" has not been
ascertained), together with Nikephoros Bryennios who records that "Isaacio" married "maxima natu
filiarum Samuelis regis Bulgarorum…Aecatharinæ"[29]. It is chronologically improbable for Ekaterina
to have been the daughter of Tsar Samuil, whose marriage is recorded in 970 (see BULGARIA). It is
supposed therefore that she was the daughter of Samuil's successor, Ivan Vladislav, and that "Aarone
Duca" named by Cedrenus was Ivan Vladislav´s son. She brought a substantial dowry to her
husband[30]. Skylitzes records that advice from "Æcaterina Augusta" helped her husband decide on his
abdication and that she "eiusque filia Maria" were tonsured "in palatiis Myrelæi" (the convent of
Myrelaion), adding in a later passage that Empress Ekaterina adopted the monastic name HELENA[31].
Her death date is estimated from Psellos recording that "the empress" (whom he does not name) "a most

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remarkable woman, descended from a very noble family" was present with their daughter at her
husband's deathbed[32]. Mikhael Glykas names "imperatrix Haecaterina cum Maria filia" when
recording that they both became nuns "in mansionem Myrelæi" (in [1059])[33]. Emperor Isaakios I &
his wife had two children:
i) MANUEL Komnenos (-[1042/57]). Mikhael Glykas names "Manuelus et Maria" as the children
of Emperor Isaakios[34]. Skylitzes names "Manuel et Maria" as the children of Emperor Isaakios[35].
m ---, daughter of --- Helios protospatharios & his wife ---. The primary source which confirms her
parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.
ii) MARIA Komnene. Mikhael Glykas names "imperatrix Haecaterina cum Maria filia" when
recording that they both became nuns "in mansionem Myrelæi" (in [1059])[36]. Her parentage is
confirmed by Psellos recording that "the empress" was present with their daughter at her husband's
deathbed[37]. Skylitzes records that advice from "Æcaterina Augusta" helped her husband decide on his
abdication and that she "eiusque filia Maria" were tonsured "in palatiis Myrelæi"[38].
b) daughter ([1012]-). Her parentage and marriage are deduced from the Alexeiad naming
"Dokeianos, nephew of the former emperor Isaakios Komnenos and cousin of Alexios" when recording
his approval of the humane treatment accorded to Roussel after the latter's rebellion was crushed, dated
to 1073[39]. m ([1031]) MIKHAEL Dokeianos, son of --- (-killed in battle Adrianople 1050). Patrikios
protospatharios. Bestiarios. Prefect [Katepan] of Italy.
c) IOANNES Komnenos ([1015]-12 Jul 1067). Nikephoros Bryennios names "maiori natu
Isaacio…iunior Ioannes" as the two sons of "Comneni Manuelis"[40]. His parentage is confirmed by
the Alexeiad which describes Emperor Isaakios Komnenos as brother-in-law of Anna Dalassena, an
earlier passage naming him Ioannes[41].
- see below.

IOANNES Komnenos, son of MANUEL Erotikos Komnenos & his wife --- ([1015]-12 Jul 1067).
Nikephoros Bryennios names "maiori natu Isaacio…iunior Ioannes" as the two sons of "Comneni
Manuelis"[42]. His parentage is confirmed by the Alexeiad which describes Emperor Isaakios
Komnenos as brother-in-law of Anna Dalassena, an earlier passage naming him Ioannes[43]. Patrikios.
Skylitzes records that Emperor Isaakios created "Joannem fratrem et Catacalon Combustum curopalatas"
and "fratrem suum magnum domesticum" after his accession, in 1057[44]. His brother abdicated in his
favour 25 Dec 1059, but Ioannes refused the throne[45]. He became a monk as IOANNES. The list of
obituaries of Empress Eirene Doukas's family records the death "12 Jul, monk John father of
Emperor"[46].
m ([1042]) ANNA Dalassena, daughter of ALEXIOS Kharon Prefect of Italy & his wife --- Dalassena (-
1 Nov/27 Apr [1100/01]). Nikephoros Bryennios records the marriage of "Ioanni" and "filia Charonis
Alexii…Anna", recording that her mother was "genus a Dalassenis"[47]. The Alexeiad names "Anna
Dalassena, the mother of the Komneni" when recording that she arranged the marriage of "the grandson
of Botaneiates and the daughter of Manuel her eldest son"[48]. Despoina 1048/57. Regent of
Byzantium 1081 and 1094-1095. She became a nun at Pantopopte convent which she founded. The list
of obituaries of Empress Eirene Doukas's family records the death "1 Nov, Anna, mother of the
Emperor"[49].
Ioannes Komnenos & his wife had eight children:
1. MANUEL Komnenos (-killed in battle Bithynia 17 Apr [1070/early 1071]). Nikephoros
Bryennios names (in order) "Manuel, Isaacius, Alexius, Adrianus, Nicephorus" as the five sons of
"Ioanni" and his wife Anna[50]. The Alexeiad records that "Isaakios and Alexios had an elder brother
Manuel, the first-born of all the children [of] Ioannes Komnenos" and that he was appointed
"commander-in-chief of the whole of Asia" by Emperor Romanos Diogenes[51]. Nikephoros Bryennios
records that "Manuel" was invested as "curopalates, dux summus Orientalium" by Emperor Romanos
but was captured by the Turks "cum duobus sororem suarum viris, Melisseno et Taronita"[52].
Protoproedros. Kuropalates [1068]. Protostrator and strategos autokrator in Anatolia 1067/71. His
death is dated from the Alexeiad recording that the mother of the future Emperor Alexios I prevented

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her son from campaigning with Emperor Romanos Diogenes because "she was mourning the recent
death of her eldest son Manuel"[53]. The list of obituaries of Empress Eirene Doukas's family records
the death "17 Apr, Manuel brother of the Emperor"[54]. m ([1068]) --- Diogene, relative of
ROMANOS Diogenes, daughter of ---. The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage
has not yet been identified. The name of Manuel's wife is not known. The list of obituaries of Empress
Eirene Doukas's family records the death "15 May, Irene, wife of brother of the Emperor"[55], without
specifying to which brother this refers. It is probable that it refers to Irena, wife of Isaakios. However,
Irena is recorded as having become a nun as Xene and, as the list of obituaries mainly uses the monastic
names of all individuals where relevant, it is not impossible that it relates to the wife of one of the
emperor's other brothers, Manuel or Nikephoros, whose wives' names are not otherwise known. It is felt
least likely that it refers to the wife of Manuel, as she probably remarried after her husband's early death
and may not thereafter have been considered a member of the family whose death needed to be recorded
in the list of obituaries. Manuel Komnenos & his wife had one child:
a) [ANNA] Komnene (1069-). The Alexeiad records that "Anna Dalassena, the mother of the
Komneni" arranged the marriage of "the grandson of Botaneiates and the daughter of Manuel her eldest
son"[56]. The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified. Betrothed (1081) to
--- [Botaneiates], grandson of Emperor NIKEPHOROS III Botaneiates, son of ---.
2. MARIA Komnene ([1045]-[18 Aug] ----). Nikephoros Bryennios names (in order) "Maria,
Eudocia et Theodora" as the three daughters of "Ioanni" and his wife Anna[57]. Nikephoros Bryennios
records the marriage of "Ioannes…Comnenus curopalates…maior…natu [filia] Maria" and "Taronitæ
Michaeli"[58]. Her origin is also deduced from the Alexeiad naming "Mikhael" as the husband of the
niece of the Komnenoi brothers, although the text does not name her or her daughter[59]. The
relationship is clarified in a later passage which records that "Taronites…had married the emperor's
sister Maria"[60]. She became a nun as ANNA. The list of obituaries of Empress Eirene Doukas's
family records the death "18 Aug, Maria sister of Emperor"[61]. It is not certain that this refers to
Maria, wife of Mikhael Taronites, as the list mainly uses monastic names where appropriate. In
addition, the list appears not to include the names of married female members of the family, except for
direct ancestors and the wives of males in the family. It is possible therefore that the entry refers to an
older daughter Maria who died young. m (1062) MIKHAEL Taronites, son of --- & his wife ---
[Aneme] (-[12 Mar] after [1094]).
3. ISAAKIOS Komnenos ([1047]-[1102/Nov 1104], before 1 Oct 1107). Nikephoros Bryennios
names (in order) "Manuel, Isaacius, Alexius, Adrianus, Nicephorus" as the five sons of "Ioanni" and his
wife Anna[62]. The Alexeiad names "Isaakios and Alexios" when recording that they had "an elder
brother Manuel, the first-born of all the children [of] Ioannes Komnenos" and states that Isaakios
became "duke of Antioch after being elected by lot"[63]. He was captured fighting the Seljuk Turks in
[1073] after Roussel de Bailleul and his troops mutinied[64]. Domestikos in Anatolia 1073.
Nikephoros Bryennios records that "Isaacium Comnenum Alexii fratrem" was declared "ducem
Antiochiæ"[65]. Dux of Antioch from 1074 to 1078. Sébastos 1078. The Alexeiad records that he was
granted the new title of sébastokrator by his brother Emperor Alexios I in 1081, combining the words
sébastos and autokrator, in order to give him precedence over their brother-in-law Nikephoros
Melissenos[66]. Governor of Constantinople [1081/82]. He became a monk as IOANNES. The list of
obituaries of Empress Eirene Doukas's family records the death "19 Feb, monk John, brother of the
Emperor"[67]. m ([1072/73]) [IRENA], daughter of --- [of Georgia] & his wife --- (-[15 May] 1108).
The Alexeiad records that Isaakios married the cousin of Empress Maria but does not name her[68]. She
is named Eirene in Byzantine sources, but it is not known whether this was her original Georgian name.
A seal dated to [1074/78] names "Eirene protoproedrissa daughter of the ruler of Alania"[69]. The
primary source which confirms her precise parentage has not yet been identified. The Empress Maria is
recorded on other primary sources as the daughter of Bagrat IV King of Georgia, probably by his second
wife Borena of Ossetia. The relationship "cousin", specified by the Alexeiad, could indicate that Irena
was more distantly related than first cousin, and in any case the connection could either be through the
empress's maternal or paternal families. The question is further complicated by the second wife of
Theodoros Gabras and Irena, wife of Isaakios Komnenos, being described as daughters of two brothers.

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As shown in the document GEORGIA, the primary sources so far consulted only name one brother of
King Bagrat, Demetre. It is therefore more probable that the relationship between Irena and Empress
Maria was through the family of the latter's supposed mother, who is described in the Georgian
Chronicle (13th century) as the daughter of the Ossetian king. The primary sources so far consulted
name only one brother of the Empress Maria's supposed mother, Durghulel, but this does not exclude
there having been other brothers who are unrecorded. Until further information emerges from other
primary sources, it is felt that further speculation on Irena's precise parentage would not be helpful. She
became a nun as XENE. The list of obituaries of Empress Eirene Doukas's family records the death "15
May, Irene, wife of brother of the Emperor"[70], without specifying to which brother this refers. It is
probable that this refers to Irena, wife of Isaakios. However, she is recorded as having become a nun as
Xene and, as the list of obituaries mainly uses the monastic names of all individuals where relevant, it is
not impossible that this entry refers to the wife of one of the emperor's other brothers, Manuel or
Nikephoros, whose names are not otherwise known. If the entry does not refer to the wife of Isaakios,
there is no other entry in the list which could relate to her. The reason for her being excluded from the
list would be unclear. Isaakios Komnenos & his wife had ten children:
a) [ANNA] Komnene. The poet Theodore Prodromos states that Isaakios's eldest daughter married
a grandson of the cæsar Ioannes Doukas[71]. She is named Anna by Sturdza[72], but presumably this is
an informed guess as it is the name which would normally have been given to Isaakios's eldest daughter
in line with contemporary family naming patterns among Byzantine nobility (being the name of her
paternal grandmother)[73]. An alternative possibility is that the oldest daughter, Anna, died young and
that the wife of Doukas was the oldest surviving daughter. The name and precise parentage of her
husband are not known. Polemis assumes that he was an otherwise unknown son of Konstantinos
Doukas since he assumes that the brothers of Empress Eirene, sons of Andronikos Doukas, would not
have married a niece of their sister's husband[74]. He is named Ioannes by Sturdza[75], but the basis for
this is not known. m [---] Doukas, son of [KONSTANTINOS Doukas & his wife ---].
b) IOANNES Komnenos ([1073]-[1106]). The Alexeiad names "Ioannes the son of Isaakios the
sebastocrator…Duke of Dyrrachium" when recording that the emperor instructed him to watch for the
arrival of Hugues "Magnus" Comte de Vermandois[76]. He was appointed dux of Durrazzo in 1092 by
his uncle Emperor Alexios I. He was accused of involvement in a plot against his uncle in 1092[77].
The Alexeiad records that "John the sebastocrator's son" was defeated in Dalmatia, that the emperor
"sent a considerable force to help him but Bolkan very craftily made inquiries about peace
negotiations…[and] provided the hostages Alexius had demanded", dated to end 1104 from the
context[78]. Protosébastos 1105. same person as…? IOANNES Komnenos . A transcript of tomb
inscriptions from the Church of St Mary Pammakaristos, now Fethiye Camii, lists the individuals named
below as descendants of the church's founders Ioannes Komnenos and Anna Doukaina[79]. There is
doubt regarding the identity of this couple, as explained below.
- see below.
c) ALEXIOS Komnenos (-after 1143). The Alexeiad records that "the second son of the
sebastocrator Isaakios" was appointed governor of Durazzo, naming him "Alexios, the emperor's
nephew" in a later passage[80]. Dux of Durazzo 1105-1108. Pansébastos 1134/1143. m ZOE, daughter
of ---. The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified. She died after
treatment by a magician[81]. Alexios & his wife had [two possible children]:
i) [IOANNES Komnenos . Magdalino names him as son of Alexios, and names his wife, but the
primary source on which this is based has not been identified[82]. m EUDOKIA, daughter of ---. The
primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.]
ii) [MARIA Komnene . Magdalino names her as possible daughter of Alexios, and names her
husband, but the primary source on which this is based has not been identified[83]. m MIKHAEL
Branas .]
d) [MARIA] Komnene (-after 1091). The Alexeiad records the betrothal of "Gabras's son Gregory"
to one of the (unnamed) daughters of "the sebastocrator Isaakios Komnenos" and states that the betrothal
was terminated after the second marriage of Theodoros Gabras to the cousin of Isaakios's wife, which
meant that the marriage was thereby prohibited under ecclesiastical law[84]. Sturdza names her

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Maria[85], but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified. Betrothed ([1091])
to GREGORIOS Gabras, son of THEODOROS Gabras dux of Trebizond, who later married Maria
daughter of Emperor Alexios I.
e) KONSTANTINOS Komnenos (-after [1147]). Theophylact of Ohrid sent a letter addressed to
Konstantinos dux of Berroia, son of Isaakios[86]. Pansébastos. Megas drongarios [1136/43]-[1147]. m
--- Antiochena Euphorbena, daughter of ---. The primary source which confirms her origin and
marriage has not yet been identified. Konstantinos Komnenos & his wife had [three] children:
i) IOANNES Komnenos. He is attested as son of Konstantinos in a contemporary letter[87].
Sébastos. Monk.
ii) STEPHANOS Komnenos (-after 1156). The primary source which confirms his parentage has
not yet been identified. Pansébastos. Megas drongarios. Member of the Synod 26 Jan 1156. m
([1147/51]) EVDOKIA Axuchina, daughter of IOANNES Axuches [megas domestikos] & his wife ---.
The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified. Stephanos
Komnenos & his wife had [four] children:
(a) KONSTANTINOS Komnenos. The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet
been identified.
(b) [EIRENE Komnene ([1155]-). The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage
has not yet been identified. m ([1170]) ISAAKIOS Komnenos Batatzes, son of THEODOROS Batatzes,
sébastohypertatos, dux of Cilicia & his wife Eudoxia Komnene. Blinded 1182.]
(c) [son (-young). The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.]
(d) [son (-young). The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.]
iii) [ISAAKIOS Komnenos . Magdalino, following Varzos, names him as son of Konstantinos, but
the primary source on which this is based has not been identified[88].]
f) ADRIANOS Komnenos (-[1164]). The primary source which confirms his parentage has not
yet been identified. Pansébastos. He became a monk as IOANNES. Metropolitan of Ochrid [1139/20
Aug 1143]-[13 May 1157/10 Feb 1164]. m ([1110]) ---. The name of Adrianos's wife is not known.
Adrianos Komnenos & his wife had one child:
i) THEODORA Komnene ([1110]-). The primary source which confirms her parentage and
marriage has not yet been identified. m ANDRONIKOS Kontostephanos, son of [ISAAKIOS
Kontostephanos & his wife --- (-1156 or after).
g) SOPHIA Komnene. The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet
been identified. 1108. She became a nun as SUZANNA. m NIKOLAOS Dokeianos, son of ---.
Magdalino and Cheynet name him Theodoros, but the primary source on which this is based has not
been identified[89]. Sébastos.
h) EVDOKIA Komnene. The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not
yet been identified. 1108. m NIKEPHOROS Botaneiates, son of ---.
i) son (-young). The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.
1108.
4. EVDOKIA Komnene ([1050]-). Nikephoros Bryennios names (in order) "Maria, Eudocia et
Theodora" as the three daughters of "Ioanni" and his wife Anna[90]. Nikephoros Bryennios records the
marriage of "Ioannes…Comnenus curopalates…Eudocia…secundo genita [filia]" and "Melisseno
Nicephoro"[91]. The Alexeiad names Nikephoros Melissenos as the brother-in-law of Emperor Alexius
but does not name his wife[92]. m (1067) NIKEPHOROS Melissenos, son of --- (-shortly after
1107[93]).
5. THEODORA Komnene ([1053]-after [1094/95]). Nikephoros Bryennios names (in order)
"Maria, Eudocia et Theodora" as the three daughters of "Ioanni" and his wife Anna[94]. Nikephoros
Bryennios records the marriage, after her father's death "matris voluntate", of "Ioannes…Comnenus
curopalates…postrema Theodora [filia]" and "Constantino Diogenis iam imperatoris filio"[95]. The
Alexeiad names "Theodora, the emperor's sister…widow of Diogenes's murdered son" when recording
her reaction to an imposter pretending to be her husband who had been killed in Antioch[96]. The text
names the son "Leon" but it is clear from the context that it must refer to Konstantinos, who was killed
when his half-brother Leon was still an infant. She became a nun as XENA. m ([1068/71])

7
KONSTANTINOS Diogenes, son of Emperor ROMANOS Diogenes & his first wife [Anna] Alusiane
[of Bulgaria] (-killed in battle Antioch [1074]).
6. ALEXIOS Komnenos ([1056/57]-15 Aug 1118). Nikephoros Bryennios names (in order)
"Manuel, Isaacius, Alexius, Adrianus, Nicephorus" as the five sons of "Ioanni" and his wife Anna[97].
His parentage is confirmed by the Alexeiad naming "Ioannes Komnenos, my grandfather on my father's
side"[98]. He succeeded 4 Apr 1081 as Emperor ALEXIOS I, after obliging Nikephoros Botaneiates to
abdicate.
- see below.
7. ADRIANOS Komnenos ([1058/63]-19 Apr 1105). Nikephoros Bryennios names (in order)
"Manuel, Isaacius, Alexius, Adrianus, Nicephorus" as the five sons of "Ioanni" and his wife Anna[99].
The Alexeiad names Adrianos as brother of Emperor Alexios, recording that the latter granted him the
title "Most Illustrious Protosébastos" at the time of his accession in 1081[100]. Leader against the
Normans 1083. Megas domestikos [1087/97]. Panhypersébastos. He became a monk as IOANNES.
The list of obituaries of Empress Eirene Doukas's family records the death "19 Apr, monk John brother
of the emperor"[101]. m (after Oct 1081) ZOE Doukaina porphyrogeneta, daughter of Emperor
KONSTANTINOS X & his second wife Evdokia Makrembolitissa (1062-28 Aug before 1136). The
Alexeiad names "the Porphyrogenita Zoe" as daughter of Empress Eudoxia, suggesting that her mother
planned to marry her to Emperor Nikephoros Botaneiates after the latter's accession in 1078[102]. The
primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified. The list of obituaries of
Empress Eirene Doukas's family records the death "28 Aug, Porphyrogenita Zoe"[103]. She was named
"Anna" in a poem concering the ancestors of Giorgios Palaiologos. Magdalino and Cheynet both
assume that this was her monastic name, but it may be a mistake resulting from confusion with her sister
of the same name[104]. Adrianos Komnenos & his wife had [one child]:
a) [ALEXIOS Komnenos. The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been
identified.] m ---. The name of Alexios's wife is not known. Alexios Komnenos & his wife had [one]
child:
i) [--- Komnene ([1100/05]-). The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has
not yet been identified. m ALEXIOS Doukas Palaiologos, son of GEORGIOS Palaiologos & his wife
Anna Doukaina ([1095/1100]-after 1143).]
8. NIKEPHOROS Komnenos ([1060/65]-[Oct 1136/43][105]). Nikephoros Bryennios names (in
order) "Manuel, Isaacius, Alexius, Adrianus, Nicephorus" as the five sons of "Ioanni" and his wife
Anna[106]. The Alexeiad names Nikephoros as youngest brother of Emperor Alexios, recording that
the latter installed him as "Great Drungarius of the Fleet" and awarded him the title sébastos at the time
of his accession in 1081[107]. The list of obituaries of Empress Eirene Doukas's family records the
death "18 Jul, Nicephorus brother of the Emperor"[108]. m ---. Theophylaktos of Ohrid refers to
Nikephoros Komnenos and Adrianos Komnenos as brothers-in-law ("γαμβρός") of Gregorianos
Pakourianos[109]. As Adrianos´s wife is already recorded (see above), this could mean that Nikephoros
´s wife was Gregorianos´s sister. Alternatively, Gregorianos could have been married to an otherwise
unrecorded sister of both Adrianos and Nikephoros. The name of the wife of Nikephoros is not known.
The list of obituaries of Empress Eirene Doukas's family records the death "15 May, Irene, wife of
brother of the Emperor"[110], without specifying to which brother this refers. It is probable that this
refers to Irena, wife of Isaakios. However, Irena is recorded as having become a nun as Xene and, as the
list of obituaries mainly uses the monastic names of all individuals where relevant, it is not impossible
that this entry refers to the wife of one of the emperor's other brothers, Manuel or Nikephoros, whose
names are not otherwise known. If the entry does not refer to the wife of Nikephoros, there is no other
entry in the list which could relate to her. The reason for her exclusion from the list is unclear.

A transcript of tomb inscriptions from the Church of St Mary Pammakaristos, now Fethiye Camii, lists
the individuals named below as descendants of the church's founders Ioannes Komnenos and Anna
Doukaina[111]. There is doubt regarding the identity of this couple, whom Polemis refuses to identify.
The source quoted by Polemis, a saint's life, states that an unnamed daughter of Mikhael Doukas

8
married Ioannes, a nephew of Emperor Alexios I[112]. However, Emperor Alexios had two known
nephews named Ioannes, Ioannes Komnenos and Ioannes Taronites, so it is not certain to whom this
refers. Another possibility is that "Ioannes" was a monastic name which, if correct, could refer to
Adrianos Komnenos, brother of Emperor Alexios I, his wife Zoe Doukaina being referred to as Anna in
one source (see above). Magdalino, following Varzos, and Cheynet in Etudes Prosopographiques both
propose that the named individuals were descendants of Adrianos[113]. However, the fact that one of
the couple's sons was named Adrianos suggests that this hypothesis is incorrect, as sons were rarely
named after their fathers in Byzantine noble families. Magdalino, after Varzos and Cheynet, names the
wife of Ioannes, son of Isaakios, as Maria[114].
1. IOANNES Komnenos, son of [ISAAKIOS Komnenos, sébastokrator & his wife Irena of
Georgia] . m ANNA Doukaina, daughter of [MIKHAEL Doukas & his wife ---]. A transcript of tomb
inscriptions from the Church of St Mary Pammakaristos, now Fethiye Camii, lists the individuals named
below as descendants of the church's founders Ioannes Komnenos and Anna Doukaina[115]. There is
doubt regarding the identity of this couple, as discussed above. Ioannes Komnenos & his wife had four
children (named in the transcript of tomb inscriptions from the Church of St Mary Pammakaristos as
descendants of the church's founders Ioannes Komnenos and Anna Doukaina[116]):
a) EVDOKIA Komnene. m ALEXIOS Tarchanaiotes, son of ---.
b) ANDRONIKOS Komnenos. m EVDOKIA Doukaina, daughter of ---. [Andronikos Komnenos
& his wife had one child:]
i) [ANNA Komnene Doukaina. Sturdza records Anna as daughter of Andronikos Komnenos and
his wife, and names her husband[117]. The primary source on which this is based is not known, as this
couple is not named in the documentation of the church of St Mary Pammakaristos referred to above.
Her name Anna is recorded in a poem by Proedros, in which she is called Dukoblastos without giving
any parentage. It is assumed that the parentage suggested by Sturdza is no more than a guess[118]. m
ALEXIOS Komnenos Anemas, son of MANUEL Anemas & his wife Theodora Komnene.]
c) ALEXIOS Komnenos. Sébastos. Betrothed ([1148/51]) to EIRENE Axuchina, daughter of
IOANNES Axuches megas domestikos & his wife ---. m EIRENE Synadene, daughter of ---. Alexios
Komnenos & his wife had one child:
i) ADRIANOS Komnenos. m ANNA Kontostephanina, daughter of ---.
d) ADRIANOS Komnenos. The name Adrianos suggests that this family could not have been
children of Adrianos Komnenos, brother of Emperor Alexios, as sons were never named after their
fathers in Byzantium. However, it is not impossible that Adrianos was his monastic name.

The connection between the following individuals and the main Komnenos family is not known.
1. [BARBARA] Komnene (-1125). Baumgarten cites one secondary source confirming Barbara
Komnene as third wife of Grand Prince Sviatopolk II[119]. The Translatio Manus Sancti Stephani,
included in Orlieb's Zwiefaltensis Chronicon, records the marriage of "Bolezlai Boloniorum…ducis"
and "ex nobilissimis principibus Grecorum filiam suam cuidam tradidit in matrimonium regi
Rutenorum", the editor of the compilation consulted identifying "rex Rutenorum" as "Swiatopolk
Michael princeps Kiewensis, cuius coniux altera filia aut cognate fuit imperatoris Alexii"[120]. Neither
source specifies her precise parentage. Sturdza refers to her as the daughter of Isaakios Komnenos,
brother of Emperor Alexios I, although he does not name her[121]. The primary source on which this is
based has not yet been identified. There must be some doubt whether her name can be correct as it is
rare among Byzantine families[122]. m ([1103]) as his third wife, SVIATOPOLK II Iziaslavich Grand
Prince of Kiev, son of IZIASLAV I Iaroslavich Grand Prince of Kiev & his wife Gertrud of Poland
(1050-16 Apr 1113).

2. EVDOKIA Komnene. The primary source which confirms her possible marriage has not yet
been identified. According to Europäische Stammtafeln[123], Evdokia was the daughter of Isaakios
Komnenos cæsar, son of Emperor Alexios I, but the basis for this is not known. [m KONSTANTINOS
Palaiologos Doukas Komnenos, son of ---].

9
3. [HELENA] [Komnene] (-[1183]). Baumgarten cites one secondary source which discusses "the
probability" that the second wife of Prince Iurii was of Byzantine origin, suggesting her possible name
on a subsequent page[124]. Although the date of Iurii's second marriage is not known, the general
chronology suggests that his wife may have belonged to the Komnenos family if she was indeed of
Byzantine origin. Sturdza states[125] that she was the daughter of Isaakios Komnenos cæsar, son of
Emperor Alexios I, but the primary source on which this might be based has not yet been identified. m
as his second wife, IURII Vladimirovich of Kiev, son of VLADIMIR Vsevolodich "Monomach" Grand
Prince of Kiev & his second wife --- (-15 May 1158). Prince of Rostov-Suzdal 1125-1157. He
succeeded in 1149 as IURII "Dolgorukiy/Longarm" Grand Prince of Kiev.

ALEXIOS I 1081-1118

ALEXIOS Komnenos, son of IOANNES Komnenos, kuropalates and domestikos & his wife Anna
Dalassena ([1056/57]-15 Aug 1118). Nikephoros Bryennios names (in order) "Manuel, Isaacius,
Alexius, Adrianus, Nicephorus" as the five sons of "Ioanni" and his wife Anna[126]. His parentage is
confirmed by the Alexeiad naming "Ioannes Komnenos, my grandfather on my father's side"[127]. His
birth date is estimated from the Alexeiad recording that he was "only fourteen years old" when he
wished to campaign with Emperor Romanos Diogenes "against the Persians"[128], assumed to refer to
the campaign against the Seljuks which culminated in the battle of Manzikert in 1071. Proedros 1074.
Stratopedarchos. Appointed dux and megas domestikos 1078 by Emperor Nikephoros Botaneiates.
Sébastos 1079. Following a Doukas/Komnenos family council at Tzurullon in Thrace, Alexios invaded
Constantinople. He succeeded 4 Apr 1081 as Emperor ALEXIOS I, after rebelling against Emperor
Nikephoros Botaneiates who was obliged to abdicate. Faced with an empire weakened by the loss of
most of Asia Minor as well as its Italian possessions, in economic ruin, and with a depleted army and
navy, Emperor Alexios set about the slow process of reconstruction and restoring the power of
Byzantium. He allied himself with Venice to prevent Robert "Guiscard" Duke of Apulia from capturing
Durazzo. He granted Venice duty-free trade throughout the empire and the right to establish colonies
under its own administration, as a reward for having defeated the Norman fleet in 1081. The setback for
the Normans was short-lived as Durazzo fell to Robert "Guiscard" in Oct 1081, although it was
recaptured in 1085 by Byzantium[129]. In 1085, Emperor Alexios agreed a treaty with the Seljuks
under which Nikomedia and parts of the Anatolian coast were returned to Byzantium, although Chaka, a
rival Turkish leader, captured the islands of Lesbos, Chios, Samos and Rhodos in the 1080s[130].
Emperor Alexios also allied himself with the Kumans [Polovtsy] to beat the Pechenegs at Mount
Lebounion 29 Apr 1091. The emperor suppressed rebellions led by Theodoros Gabras in 1092[131] and
Nikephoros Diogenes in 1094[132]. Good relations were restored with the papacy in Sep 1089 when, at
the Council of Melfi, Pope Urban IV lifted the papal excommunication on the emperor[133]. After the
armies of the First Crusade arrived in Constantinople, their relations with Emperor Alexios I were tense.
Albert of Aix records that the emperor gave "filium suum Johannem" as hostage to guarantee the army´s
safe passage through imperial territory, dated to end 1096[134]. Godefroi de Bouillon [Duke of Lower
Lotharingia] finally swore allegiance to the emperor on Easter Sunday in 1097, agreeing that the
emperor should become overlord of any new principalities founded in the Levant by the crusaders and
that any land captured which had previously belonged to the empire should be handed back to
Byzantium[135]. Building on the crusading army's capture of Nikaia, Alexios recaptured Smyrna,
Ephesus and Sardes from the Turks. After the fall of Antioch 3 Jun 1098, Bohémond of Apulia refused
to acknowledge the emperor as his overlord in breach of the earlier agreement and declared himself
Prince of Antioch. The threat to Byzantine interests posed by this new principality on its borders
provoked Emperor Alexios to attack. Bohémond left his nephew Tancred as regent in Antioch and
returned to Europe to prepare a larger-scale campaign against Byzantium. Alexios defeated him at
Avlona on the Adriatic coast in Oct 1107, and forced Bohémond to recognise his suzerainty in 1108.
Emperor Alexios carried out a major reorganisation of the administration of the empire, aimed at

10
lightening the old bureaucracy and introduced a range of new titles which he distributed to the numerous
potential challengers from his own and other ex-imperial families (see Introduction). The list of
obituaries of Empress Eirene Doukas's family records the death "15 Aug, Alexius I Comnenus"[136].
m firstly ([1075]) --- Argyre, daughter of --- Argyros & his wife --- (-before Oct 1077). Nikephoros
Bryennios records that "Alexium Comnenum" married "filia Argyri…viri nobilis" as his first wife[137].
m secondly (betrothed before Oct 1077, [1078]) EIRENE Doukaina, daughter of [ANDRONIKOS
Doukas & his wife Maria Troiane] ([1066]-19 Feb 1123). The Alexeiad records that Eirene, mother of
Anna Komnene, was "kinswoman" of the Doukas family and "legal wife of my [Anna Komnene's]
father" but does not name her parents[138]. This passage follows soon after the text which names
Mikhael and Ioannes as grandsons of "the Cæsar Ioannes" and "Georgios Palaiologos the husband of
their sister"[139]. The omission of Eirene from this list of brothers and sister suggests that she was not
the daughter of Andronikos Doukas. In another passage, the Alexeiad records that Anna "on my
mother's side [was] related to the Doukas"[140]. Any doubts about her parentage are resolved in a
further passage which records that, at the time of the Komnenoi rebellion in 1081, the future Emperor
Alexios left "his wife, fifteen years old at the time…in the 'lower' palace with her sisters and mother and
the Cæsar, her grandfather on the paternal side", and in yet another passage which explicitly states that
she was "a daughter of Andronikos, the Cæsar's eldest son"[141]. Nikephoros Bryennios records that
"Alexium Comnenum" married "primogenitam…filiarum" of Andronikos[142]. The Alexeiad records
that she was crowned empress "on the seventh day after the public proclamation" of her husband's
accession[143]. She supported her daughter's attempt to have the latter's husband Nikephoros Briennios
succeed her husband as emperor, but retired to a convent after her husband died.
Emperor Alexios I & his second wife had nine children:
1. ANNA Komnene Doukaina (2 Dec 1083-[1149/54]). Niketas Choniates names "Anna…
primogenita…Cæsarissa appellata" as daughter of "Alexius Comnenus imperator" and wife of
"Nicephoro Bryennio"[144]. Zonaras records that "Anna" was betrothed to "Constantino filio reginæ
Mariæ Alanæ" who died before the marriage, and afterwards married "filio natu maiori Nicephori
Bryennii"[145]. A prolific writer and historian, she was the author of a history of her father The
Alexeiad, which in its preface records her as "Anna daughter of the Emperor Alexius and the Empress
Irene, born and bred in the Purple"[146] She and her mother tried to persuade her father to leave the
throne to her husband. After her brother succeeded, she led an unsuccessful rebellion against him[147].
She became a nun at Kecharitomenes convent after the death of her husband in [1136/37]. Betrothed
(1084, contract broken Dec 1090) to KONSTANTINOS Doukas porphyrogenetos co-Emperor, son of
Emperor MIKHAEL VII "Parapinakes" & his wife Maria of Georgia (-[1092/97]). m (1097)
NIKEPHOROS Bryennios, son of NIKEPHOROS Bryennios dux of Durazzo & his wife --- (-
Constantinople [1136/37]). The Alexeiad names "the Cæsar Nicephorus…descended from the
Bryennii" as the husband of Anna when recording that he campaigned in Syria with her brother Emperor
Ioannes[148]. Supported by his wife and mother-in-law, he claimed the imperial throne on the death of
his father-in-law. Panhypersébastos. Cæsar.
2. MARIA Komnene (19 Sep 1085-after 1136). The Alexeiad records the birth of a second
daughter before a son was born to Emperor Alexios, but does not name her[149]. Zonaras names
"Maria, Eudocia, Theodora" as the three other daughters, stating that Maria married "Gabræ…Theodori
sebasti et martyris filio", the marriage being annulled for consanguinity, and afterwards married
"Phorbeni Catacalonis filium Nicephorum"[150]. In a later passage, the Alexeiad records that
Nikephoros, son of Konstantinos Euphorbenos, "afterwards became my brother-in-law when he married
my younger sister Maria Porphyrogenita"[151]. m firstly (annulled) GREGORIOS Gabras, son of
THEODOROS Gabras dux of Trebizond & his wife ---. m secondly (before 1120) NIKEPHOROS
Euphorbenos, Katakalon son of KONSTANTINOS Euphorbenos & his wife --- (-[1118/30]).
Panhypersébastos, sébastokrator.
3. IOANNES Komnenos Doukas ([1 Sep 1087/1 Sep 1088]-in Cilicia 8 Apr 1143). Named
"Ioannem Imperatoris filium" by William of Tyre in 1097, when he recounts that he was briefly given to
the crusading army as a hostage[152]. He succeeded his father in 1118 as Emperor IOANNES II.
- see below.

11
4. ANDRONIKOS Komnenos (18 Sep 1091-[1130/31]). Niketas Choniates names "Andronicum"
as second son of "Alexius Comnenus imperator"[153]. Sebastokrator. m (betrothed 20 Aug 1104)
[IRINA Volodarovna of Tmutorokan, daughter of VOLODAR Rostislavich Prince of Peremysl & his
wife [Anna] of Pomerania]. The Primary Chronicle records that the daughter of Volodar was taken to
Tsargrad 20 Jul 1104 to become the wife of the son of Emperor Alexios[154]. The primary source
which names her and confirms that her husband was Andronikos has not yet been identified. There
appears to be no more basis for supposing that her husband was Andronikos Komnenos than his younger
brother Isaakios. Andronikos Komnenos & his wife had [four] children:
a) ALEXIOS Komnenos (-young before [1130/31]). The primary source which confirms his
parentage has not yet been identified.
b) IOANNES Doukas (-after 6 Mar 1166). Ioannes Kinnamos records that "Ioannes Andronici
sebastocratoris filius…adolescens…protovestiarii primum" was installed as protosébastos[155].
Protobestiarios.
c) MARIA Komnene (-3 Feb ----). The list of obituaries of Empress Eirene Doukas's family
records the death "3 Feb, Maria, daughter of the Sebastocrator Andronicus"[156].
d) ANNA Komnene (-[18 Jul/12 Aug] ----). The list of obituaries of Empress Eirene Doukas's
family records the death "Anne, da of Sebastocrator"[157], which presumably refers to Andronikos
Komnenos who is the only son of Emperor Alexios recorded with the title sebastocrator. The entry is
not dated, but is listed between entries for 18 Jul and 12 Aug.
5. EVDOKIA Komnene (14 Jan 1094-[1130/31]). The Alexeiad names "Porphyrogenita Eudocia"
as the third daughter of Emperor Alexios[158]. Zonaras names "Maria, Eudocia, Theodora" as the three
other daughters, stating that Evdokia married "Iasitæ Constantini filium"[159]. Nun at the convent of
Kocharitomenes. m ([1116]) MIKHAEL Iasites, son of KONSTANTINOS Iasites & his wife --- ([-
1117]).
6. THEODORA Komnene (15 Jan 1096-). Zonaras names "Maria, Eudocia, Theodora" as the three
other daughters[160]. Niketas Choniates names "Theodoram Alexii avi Manuelis filiam" as wife of
"Constantinum Angelum"[161]. m (before 1120) KONSTANTINOS Angelos, son of MANUEL
Angelos & his wife --- (-after Jul 1166).
7. ISAAKIOS Komnenos (16 Jan 1093-after 1152). Niketas Choniates names "Isaacium" as third
son of "Alexius Comnenus imperator"[162]. Cæsar. Sebastocrator [1122]. Claimant to the imperial
throne 1129/1143. Stratopedarchos. He fled from court in 1130. m EIRENE, daughter of ---. The
primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified. As noted above, it is possible
that Isaakios was the son of Emperor Alexios who married the daughter of Volodar Rostislavich Prince
of Peremysl, according to the Primary Chronicle which records that the daughter of Volodar was taken
to Tsargrad 20 Jul 1104 to become the wife of the son of Emperor Alexios[163]. She is named above as
the possible wife of the son Andronikos, but there appears to be no more basis for supposing that her
husband was Andronikos Komnenos than his younger brother Isaakios. Isaakios Komnenos & his wife
had six children:
a) IOANNES Komnenos Tzelepes (after 1114-[1145]). Niketas Choniates names "Iohannes Isaacii
sebastocratoris filius" when recording his marriage[164]. He deserted to the Turks, converted to Islam
in 1140, married the daughter of the Seljuk Sultan as his second wife[165], and became a noted scholar.
m firstly (1131) --- (-before 1140). The name of Ioannes's first wife is not known. m secondly (1140)
--- of Rum, daughter of MASUD I Seljuk Sultan of Rum & his wife --- Danişmend. Niketas Choniates
records the marriage of "Iohannes Isaacii sebastocratoris filius" and "Masuti filiam"[166]. Ioannes
Komnenos & his first wife had one child:
i) ISAAKIOS Komnenos (-under torture 1184[167]). The primary source which confirms his
parentage has not yet been identified. Usurper.
Ioannes Komnenos & his second wife had one child:
ii) SULEIMAN Shah. The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been
identified. Founder of the Qonya branch (see TURKS). Mohammed the Conqueror Sultan of Turkey
claimed to be descended from him, although the primary source on which this is based has not yet been
identified.

12
b) ANDRONIKOS Komnenos ([1123/24]-murdered Constantinople 12 Sep 1185). The primary
source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. He succeeded in 1183 as Emperor
ANDRONIKOS I.
- see below, after Emperors MANUEL I & ALEXIOS II.
c) [[MARIA] Komnene. Her husband is recorded as gambros of Emperor Manuel I, but his wife
could have been the daughter either of Andronikos or Isaakios, brothers of Emperor Ioannes II[168]. On
balance, it is more probable that she was the daughter of Isaakios. The death of Andronikos's daughter
named Maria is recorded in the list of obituaries of Empress Eirene Doukas's family, and it appears that
this list does not include the names of married female members of the family, except for direct ancestors
and the wives of males in the family. The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been
identified. m (before 1166) IOSEPHOS Bryennios, son of ---. Monomachos, pansebastos.]
d) [ANNA Komnene. Her husband is recorded as gambros of Emperor Manuel I, but his wife
could have been the daughter either of Andronikos or Isaakios, brothers of Emperor Ioannes II[169]. On
balance, it is more probable that she was the daughter of Isaakios. The death of Andronikos's daughter
named Anna is recorded in the list of obituaries of Empress Eirene Doukas's family, and it appears that
this list does not include the names of married female members of the family, except for direct ancestors
and the wives of males in the family. The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been
identified. m IOANNES Arbantenos, son of ---. Pansebastos.]
8. MANUEL Komnenos (Feb 1097-16 May ----). Niketas Choniates names "natu minimum
Manuelem" as fourth son of "Alexius Comnenus imperator", in a later passage describing his military
expeditions to Syria[170], which confirms that he survived at least into early adulthood. The list of
obituaries of Empress Eirene Doukas's family records the death "16 May, Manuel son of the
Empress"[171].
9. ZOE Komnene (Mar 1098-17 Sep ----). The list of obituaries of Empress Eirene Doukas's
family records the death "17 Sep, Porphyrogenita Zoe, daughter of the Empress"[172].

IOANNES II 1118-1143

IOANNES Komnenos Doukas, son of Emperor ALEXIOS I & his second wife Eirene Doukaina ([1 Sep
1087/1 Sep 1088]-in Cilicia 8 Apr 1143). The Alexeiad records the birth of a son to Emperor Alexios
"in the eleventh indiction", but does not name him[173]. Named "Ioannem Imperatoris filium" by
William of Tyre in 1097, when he recounts that he was briefly given to the crusading army as a
hostage[174]. His father declared him heir in 1092, depriving Konstantinos Doukas, and crowned him
co-emperor in the same year. Albert of Aix records that the emperor gave "filium suum Johannem" as
hostage to guarantee the crusading army´s safe passage through imperial territory, dated to end
1096[175]. On his father's death in 1118, he was acclaimed by the senate and the army as Emperor
IOANNES II, despite attempts by his mother and older sister Anna to persuade his father to leave the
throne to Anna's husband Nikephoros Bryennios[176]. He launched his first campaign against the Turks
in Spring 1119, capturing Laodicea and Sozopolis from the Seljuks as well as attacking the
Danishmends in the east[177]. He attempted unsuccessfully to deprive the Venetians of the commercial
privileges which had been granted in 1082, and after Venetian attacks in the Aegean he was obliged to
confirm these privileges in 1126. Pope Pascal II planned to install him as western Emperor, in
opposition to Emperor Heinrich V[178]. He defeated the Petcheneg invasion in 1122, obliged Serbia to
accept Byzantine suzerainty in 1123, and defeated the Hungarians after their invasion in 1128. He
renewed his attacks on the Danishmend Turks in 1130, defeated the Seljuks in Asia Minor, recaptured
Cilician Armenia in 1137 and besieged Antioch in Aug 1137[179]. He allied himself with the Holy
Roman Empire and Pisa in 1136, with a view to containing any expansion by Roger II King of Sicily.
The emperor launched a new expedition destined for Antioch in 1142, but died en route in Cilicia after
wounding himself with a poisoned arrow during a boar hunt [180].
m ([1104/05]) PIROSKA of Hungary, daughter of [LÁSZLÓ I King of Hungary & his wife Adelheid
von Rheinfelden] ([1085/90]-13 Aug 1134). Zonaras records that "filium regem", referring to Ioannes,

13
married "Ungrorum principis filia"[181]. Ioannes Kinnamos records the marriage of "Ioannes
Imperator" and "Irenam, Vladislai filiam", referring to "Vladislao Hungariæ regi"[182]. Unfortunately,
this apparently straight-forward statement cannot be accepted at face value without further analysis. The
problem is that the same paragraph of Kinnamos's text also names "Almus et Stephanus" as the two sons
of "Vladislæ Hungariæ regi", stating that "Stephanus" succeeded his father and "Almus" fled to
"imperatorem". This report of events in Hungary in the late 11th/early 12th centuries is inconsistent
with other primary sources relating to the Hungarian kings, which name no King Stephen/István at that
time, identify Kálmán and Álmos as the sons of King Géza I (and nephews of King László I), and
suggest that Álmós's rebellion against his half-brother King Kálmán must have taken place after the
estimated date of the marriage of Emperor Ioannes. The marriage of Emperor Ioannes took place during
the reign of King Kálmán. It appears to have been agreed as part of the arrangements to obtain
Byzantine acceptance of Hungarian territorial conquests along the Dalmatian coast[183]. Kálmán had
poor relations with his predecessor László, who had wished to by-pass him in the Hungarian succession.
The question is therefore whether Kálmán would have maintained László's children at court and
included them in his "pool" of marriageable princesses. The passage in question is found in the earliest
part of the narrative of Kinnamos, whose work is dated to the early part of the second half of the 12th
century, so several decades after the events. Some inaccuracies in these early sections of his work
would therefore not be surprising. Nevertheless, there are chronological difficulties assigning Piroska to
other potential parents among the Hungarian royal family. Piroska's birth date range of [1085/90] is
estimated from her having given birth to her first child in early 1106, her husband's own birth date, and
also that she continued to bear children until 1119. It is therefore unlikely that she was the daughter of
Géza I King of Hungary (who died in 1077) and sister of King Kálmán. King Kálmán's own birth is
estimated in [1065], and his first recorded marriage took place in 1097. It is not impossible that Kálmán
married earlier and that Piroska was his daughter by an otherwise unrecorded first marriage. The
primary source which confirms her original Hungarian name has not yet been identified. Piroska
adopted the name EIRENE in Byzantium, as shown by the extract from Ioannes Kinnamos quoted
above. She became a nun as XENA and was canonised by the Greek Orthodox church. Her children
included at least one set of twins.
Emperor Ioannes II & his wife had eight children:
1. ALEXIOS Komnenos (Balabista in Macedonia Feb 1106-Attalia late summer 1142). The
Alexeiad records the birth at Balabista of "the first of the sons of the Basileus Iohannes the
porphyrogenitus with a twin sister"[184]. Twin with his sister Maria. Niketas Choniates names
"Alexius, Andronicus et…Isaacius" as the three brothers of Emperor Manuel, stating that the first two
died before their father[185]. He was crowned co-emperor in 1119. He died with his father while they
were campaigning in the east against the Turks[186]. m ---. The identity of the wife or wives of
Alexios Komnenos has not yet been established satisfactorily from the primary sources so far consulted.
According to Europäische Stammtafeln[187], Alexios married firstly (1122) Dobrodjeja Mstislavna of
Kiev, daughter of Mstislav I Vladimirovich Grand Prince of Kiev & his first wife Christine of Sweden,
and secondly Kata of Georgia, daughter of DAVIT IV King of Georgia & his wife ---, the source adding
that the first wife was also called Eupraxia and the second wife Eirene, presumably their Orthodox
baptismal names. Sturdza[188] agrees, except that he names Alexios's first wife Irena. Baumgarten
does not show this marriage to Alexios Komnenos, instead stating that "Irena [Dobrodeja]", daughter of
Grand Prince Mstislav, married "Andronikos Komnenos", citing Byzantine primary sources in
support[189]. Concerning the alleged second marriage, the Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records
that King Davit sent "sa fille Cata en Grèce pour épouser le fils de l'empereur" in 1116[190]. As
explained more fully in the Introduction to the document GEORGIA, this late source cannot be
considered entirely reliable. The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records more generally that King
Davit "made marriage alliances with the kings of Greece and Shuan giving his daughters to them"[191].
If the marriage is correctly dated to 1116, "the emperor" then reigning was Alexios I and so presumably
one of his sons would have been the bridegroom (the wife of Emperor Alexios's son Isaakios is not
identified in primary sources). There is nothing in the text of either versions of the Georgian Chronicle
which suggests that Kata married Alexios. Until more precise information emerges from other primary

14
sources, it is considered more prudent to leave the identity of Alexios's wife as uncertain. Alexios
Komnenos & his wife had one child:
a) MARIA Komnene (-1167). Niketas Choniates names "Alexius, Andronicus et…Isaacius" as the
three brothers of Emperor Manuel, stating that the first two died before their father and that Alexios left
one daughter who married "magni domestici Alexius"[192]. A seal dated to [1157/67] names "Maria
porphyrogennetos…daughter of Alexius Komnenos the pious porphyrogennetos basileus and wife of
Alexios the protostrator"[193]. She died insane[194]. m ALEXIOS Axuches dux of Cilicia, son of --- (-
after 1170). Protostrator, Pansébastos.
2. MARIA Komnene (Balabista in Macedonia Feb 1106-[1144/51]). The Alexeiad records the
birth at Balabista of "the first of the sons of the Basileus Iohannes the porphyrogenitus with a twin
sister"[195]. Twin with her brother Alexios. Ioannes Kinnamos records that "filiam natu maximum
Ioannis imperatoris" married "Rogerius Cæsar", when recording her serious illness[196]. The primary
source which confirms her name has not yet been identified. m IOANNES Dalassenos Rogerios, son of
ROGER the Norman & his wife --- (-after 1152). Cæsar.
3. ANDRONIKOS Komnenos (Balabista in Macedonia [1108]-Autumn 1142). Niketas Choniates
names "Alexius, Andronicus et…Isaacius" as the three brothers of Emperor Manuel, stating that the first
two died before their father[197]. Sébastokrator. He died at sea while returning to Constantinople with
the body of his older brother Alexios[198]. m ([1124]) EIRENE [Aineiadissa], daughter of --- (-
[1150/51]). The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified. Nun at the
convent of Pantokratoros in 1144. Andronikos Komnenos & his wife had six children:
a) MARIA Komnene ([1126]-). Niketas Choniates names "Alexius, Andronicus et…Isaacius" as
the three brothers of Emperor Manuel, stating that Andronikos left daughters "Mariam, Theodoram et
Eudociam"[199]. Niketas Choniates names "Maria…Andronici sebastocrator…filia" as wife of
"Dasiotes"[200]. Her second marriage is indicated by Ioannes Kinnamos who records that "Ioannes
cognomento…Cantacuzenus" married "Andronici sebastocratoris filiam"[201]. As the marriages of
Maria's known sisters Theodora and Evdokia are recorded in other sources (see below), it is assumed
that Kinnamos is referring to a second marriage of Maria in this passage, unless Andronikos Komnenos
had a fourth daughter who is otherwise unrecorded. m firstly (1139) THEODOROS Dasiotes, son of ---
(-Iconium [1143/44]). He died in prison. m secondly ([1145/50]) IOANNES Kantakouzenos, son of ---
Kantakouzenos & his wife --- (-killed in battle Myriokephalon 17 Sep 1176). Pansébastos.
b) IOANNES Doukas Komnenos ([1128]-killed in battle Myriokephalon shortly after 17 Sep
1176). Niketas Choniates names "Alexius, Andronicus et…Isaacius" as the three brothers of Emperor
Manuel, stating that Andronikos left sons "Ioannem et Alexium"[202]. He was appointed protosébastos
and protobestarios in 1148. Dux of Cyprus 1155. Cyprus was attacked in 1156 by Renaud Prince of
Antioch and Thoros II Lord of the Mountains [Armenia-Rupen] who devastated the island. Ioannes was
captured and taken prisoner to Antioch[203]. Sébastokratoronthes 1170. Strategos of Sardika. m
([1146]) --- Taronitissa, daughter of [IOANNES] Taronites [III] & his wife --- ([1125/30]-after 1176).
An anonymous poem records the marriage of Ioannes Komnenos and his wife "from the family of a
pansebastos…the glory of the Taronites…on her paternal side issued from a branch of the same trunk…
as she descends…from the race of the Komnenoi"[204]. According to Rüdt-Collenberg, she was the
daughter or granddaughter either of Ioannes Taronites [I] or of his brother Gregorios (sons of Mikhael
Taronites)[205]. According to Europäische Stammtafeln[206], she was the possible daughter of
Mikhael Taronites [II]. Jean Claude Chuat first proposed that she was the daughter of Ioannes Taronites
[III][207]. This affiliation appears to satisfy all the requirements of the text of the anonymous poem
quoted above. Her birth date range is estimated on the assumption that she was an adolescent or young
adult at the time of her marriage. She became a nun as MARIA after her husband died. Ioannes Doukas
Komnenos & his wife had two children:
i) MARIA Komnene (1154-before Oct 1217). She is named with her father by William of Tyre
when he records her marriage with King Amaury[208]. Caffaro records that "rex Amarricus" married
secondly after separating from his first wife "Maria neptis imperatoris Manuelis, filiam Iohannis
protosauasto…nepos imperatoris Manuelis ex fratre suo" and that they had "filiam unam…
Ysabella"[209]. Amaury King of Jerusalem sent ambassadors to Constantinople in [1164/65] to ask the

15
emperor for the hand of an imperial princess but received no answer until they landed at Tyre with
Maria Komnene in Aug 1167. Ioannes Kinnamos records the marriage of "una filiarum protosebasti"
and the brother of Baudouin III King of Jerusalem[210]. She was given Nablus as her dower[211]. The
Lignages d'Outremer name "la reyne Marie…niece de l'empereur Manuel" as wife of "Belleem de
Ybelin"[212]. The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records that "relictam regis Almarici…que
fuit de Grecia" married "Bethuliani de Guibelin"[213]. "Hugo…rex Cipri" confirmed the grant to the
church of Nicosia by "Philippus de Ybellino" for the soul of "domine Marie regine, matris sue" by
charter dated Oct 1217[214]. m firstly (Tyre 29 Aug 1167) as his second wife, AMAURY I King of
Jerusalem, son of FOULQUES King of Jerusalem Comte d'Anjou & his second wife Mélisende Queen
of Jerusalem (1136-11 Jul 1174). m secondly ([1177]) BALIAN of Ibelin, son of BALIAN of Ibelin
Lord of Rama & his wife Helvis of Rama ([1142/43]-[1193/94]). Lord of Nablus, by right of his wife.
Lord of Rama and Mirabel.
ii) [ALEXIOS Komnenos (-1187). Niketas Choniates records that "Comnenus Alexius, Manuel
imperatoris ex fratre nepos" rebelled against Emperor Andronikos[215]. The primary source which
confirms his parentage more specifically has not yet been identified, but he may have been the son of
Ioannes Doukas Komnenos. He could not have been the son of Ioannes´s brother Alexios, because of
the Byzantine convention whereby sons were not normally named after their fathers, and no other son of
one of the emperor´s brothers is known to have had sons. With Norman help, he was proclaimed
emperor in Thessaloniki. Imprisoned and blinded 7 Nov 1185, he died in prison.]
c) THEODORA Komnene (-2 Jan 1184, bur Vienna Schottenkloster). Niketas Choniates names
"Alexius, Andronicus et…Isaacius" as the three brothers of Emperor Manuel, stating that Andronikos
left daughters "Mariam, Theodoram et Eudociam"[216]. The Annales Mellicenses in 1149 record the
marriage of "dux Heinricus, filius Liupaldi marchionis" and "filiam…fratris regis Grecorum
Theodora"[217]. It is likely that Theodora, daughter of Andronikos, married Markgraf Heinrich as
Andronikos's brother Isaakios is recorded with a daughter named Theodora and his brother Alexios is
only recorded as having one child. The marriage was arranged by Konrad III King of Germany, her
husband's half-brother, while he was staying with Emperor Manuel I recuperating from ill-health. The
marriage took place during a second visit after King Konrad had left Palestine and was on his way home
to Germany[218]. She was invested jointly with her husband with the march of Austria in 1156[219].
She adopted the name GERTRUD in Austria. The Annales Mellicenses in 1185 record the death of
"Theodora que et Gerdrudis ducissa"[220]. The Continuatio Zwetlensis Altera records the death "1184
IV Non Ian" of "Theodora ducissa Austrie"[221]. The necrology of Seccovi records the death "IV Non
Jan" of "Theodora ducissa Austrie"[222]. The necrology of Kloster Neuburg records the death "IV Non
Jan" of "Theodora ux Heinrici ducis"[223]. m (betrothed early 1148, [Sep] 1148) as his second wife,
HEINRICH II "Jasomirgott" Markgraf of Austria, son of LEOPOLD III "der Heilige" Markgraf of
Austria & his second wife Agnes of Germany [Staufen] (1112-13 Jan 1177, bur Vienna
Schottenkloster). Markgraf Heinrich was installed as Duke of Austria in 1156.
d) EVDOKIA Komnene. Niketas Choniates names "Alexius, Andronicus et…Isaacius" as the three
brothers of Emperor Manuel, stating that Andronikos left daughters "Mariam, Theodoram et Eudociam",
adding that Evdokia became the mistress of Andronikos Komnenos after the death of her husband[224].
This must refer to a first marriage which is unrecorded elsewhere, as her marriage to Mikhael Gabras is
recorded subsequent to her affair with Andronikos Komnenos. Europäische Stammtafeln[225] suggests
that Evdokia married firstly ([1140/42], divorced 1149) Thoros II Lord of the Mountains, but there
seems to be no basis for this. Rüdt-Collenberg says that "a first marriage with a Byzantine princess,
mentioned by Tchamitch for the years 1140-1142, is more than doubtful"[226]. In any case, assuming
that the report by Niketas Choniates is correct, Evdokia's first marriage was ended by the death of her
husband, not divorce. In a later passage, Niketas Choniates records the marriage of "Eudocia Comnenia
Andronici amica" and "Michæle…Gabra"[227]. Ioannes Kinnamos records that "Michael cognomento
Gabras" married "ex fratre Manuelis neptim"[228]. m firstly --- (-1150 or before). The identity of
Evdokia's first husband is not known. Mistress ([1150/52]) of her cousin ANDRONIKOS Komnenos,
who later succeeded as Emperor ANDRONIKOS I. m secondly ([1152/53]) MIKHAEL Gabras, son of
--- (-after 1170). Sébastos.

16
e) ALEXIOS Komnenos ([1136]-murdered 1183). Niketas Choniates names "Alexius, Andronicus
et…Isaacius" as the three brothers of Emperor Manuel, stating that Andronikos left sons "Ioannem et
Alexium"[229]. He was captured by Egyptians in Cyprus in 1158 and taken to Cairo, but sent back
unharmed to Constantinople[230]. Protostrator. Protosébastos 1176. Protobestarios and
sébastokratoronthes. He was the lover of dowager Empress Maria, and headed her Regency Council
1180-1182. Niketas Choniates names "protosebastus et protovestiarius Alexius Comnenus, Manuelis
patruelis" when recording that he was adviser to Emperor Alexios with the latter's mother[231].
Unpopular because of his reliance on Latin advisers, he was captured by rioters, but released by
Andronikos Komnenos (later Emperor Andronikos I) only to be blinded and murdered by him later. m
MARIA Doukaina, daughter of ---. The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been
identified. Mistress: MARIE of Antioch, widow of Emperor MANUEL I, daughter of RAYMOND de
Poitiers Prince of Antioch & his wife Constance Pss of Antioch (1145-murdered 27 Aug 1182). Alexios
Komnenos & his wife had two children:
i) ANDRONIKOS Komnenos (-young). The primary source which confirms his parentage has not
yet been identified. He died after falling from his horse.
ii) son (-young). The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.
4. ANNA Komnene ([1110]-). The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has
not yet been identified, although Niketas Choniates names "Stephano Contostephano sororio" of
Emperor Manuel I[232]. The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified. m
([1125]) STEPHANOS Kontostephanos, son of --- (-killed in battle Corfu 1149). Panhypersébastos.
Megas dux.
5. ISAAKIOS Komnenos ([1115]-[1154/74]). Niketas Choniates names "Alexius, Andronicus et…
Isaacius" as the three brothers of Emperor Manuel, stating that the first two died before their father[233].
In an earlier passage, Niketas Choniates names "Isaacius…Manuelis frater sebastocrator"[234]. He was
passed over by his father who nominated his younger brother Manuel as his successor. m firstly (1134)
THEODORA, daughter of --- (-[1144]). The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet
been identified. m secondly (1146) EIRENE Diplosynadene, daughter of --- Synadenos & his wife ---
Synadene. The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.
Isaakios Komnenos & his first wife had five children:
a) ALEXIOS Komnenos ([1134/35]-before 1136). The primary source which confirms his
parentage has not yet been identified.
b) IOANNES Komnenos ([1134/36]-before [1136/37]). The primary source which confirms his
parentage has not yet been identified.
c) --- Komnene. Niketas Choniates records that "Isaacius" was "Isaacii sebastocratoris, quem fratre
fuisse Manuelis, ex filia nepos"[235]. Her name is not known. She is named Eirene in Europäische
Stammtafeln[236], but it appears that this is not based on any primary source[237]. m ---. The identity
of the father of Isaakios Doukas is not known. According to Sturdza[238], he was Andronikos Doukas
Kamateros, drongarios of the fleet, who was executed in 1185 on the orders of Emperor Andronikos I.
Rüdt-Collenberg[239] excludes his belonging to the Kamateros family, which Niketas Choniates
described as "neither elegant nor well-off"[240] while the family of Isaakios was "excellent" according
to the same source, although it is not clear whether he was referring to Isaakios's paternal or maternal
ancestors. Rüdt-Collenberg also highlights[241] the speculation of R. P. L. Stiernon of Paris that
Isaakios may have been the illegitimate son of Emperor Manuel I by Eirene Komnene, but this is pure
conjecture. One child:
i) ISAAKIOS Doukas ([1155/60]-murdered [end 1195/early 1196]). Niketas Choniates records
that "Isaacius" was "Isaacii sebastocratoris, quem fratre fuisse Manuelis, ex filia nepos"[242]. The birth
date range of Isaakios is estimated by Rüdt-Collenberg on the basis of Isaakios being described as
"admodum juvenis" on his appointment as Governor of Cilicia by Nephytos[243]. He proclaimed
himself ISAAKIOS Despot [of Cyprus] in 1184, and assumed the title Emperor in 1185, adopting the
name "Komnenos" to justify his pretention.
- see CYPRUS.

17
d) [--- Komnene. Niketas Choniates records that "Macroducæ Constantini" married "materteram
Isaacii" (referring to Isaakios Doukas, later Emperor in Cyprus)[244]. If matertera in this passage is
interpreted strictly, Konstantinos´s wife was the daughter of Isaakios Komnenos. However, Ioannes
Kinnamos records that "Constantino Ducas" married "imperatoris ex sorore neptim"[245], which
indicates that Konstantinos´s wife was the daughter of one of Emperor Manuel I´s sisters. It is not
known which version might be correct. m (before 1166) KONSTANTINOS Doukas "MakroDoukas",
son of --- (-murdered 30 May 1185). Pansébastos, panhypersébastos.]
e) MARIA Komnene ([1144]-1190). Ioannes Kinnamos records the betrothal of "Fredericus
Conradi Alemannorum principis ex fratre nepos" and "Mariam Isaacii sebastocratoris filiam"[246].
Niketas Choniates names "Stephanum et Bladisthlabum" as the two brothers of "Hunnorum princeps
Iazas", stating that István married "Mariam…imperatoris neptem, Isaacio sebastocratore natam"[247].
Ioannes Kinnamos records the marriage of "Geizæ…fratres…Stephanus" and "ex fratre neptem…
Mariam, Isaacii sebastocratoris filiam"[248]. Her marriage was arranged by her uncle Emperor Manuel
I while her husband was staying in Constantinople. Betrothed (1153) to FRIEDRICH I "Barbarossa"
King of Germany, son of FRIEDRICH II "der Einäugige" von Staufen Duke of Swabia & his first wife
Judith of Bavaria (1122-drowned Göks or Saleph River, Asia Minor 10 Jun 1190). Crowned Emperor at
Rome 18 Jun 1155. m (1156) ISTVÁN of Hungary, son of BÉLA II "the Blind" King of Hungary & his
wife Jelena of Serbia (-murdered 11 Apr 1165). After his brother's death, he and his brother István were
supported by Emperor Manuel I against their nephew King István III. He succeeded his brother 1163 as
ISTVÁN IV King of Hungary.
Isaakios Komnenos & his second wife had two children:
f) THEODORA Komnene ([1146]-). William of Tyre names her, specifies that her father Isaakios
was the brother of the emperor, and that she was 13 years old when she married[249], indicating that she
must have been born from her father's second marriage assuming that the dates relating to his first and
second wives are correct as shown above. Ioannes Kinnamos names "imperatoris ex fratre neptis" as the
wife of "Balduinus…Palestinæ rex", when recording her husband's death[250]. Her marriage was
arranged after King Baudouin sent a mission to Constantinople in Summer 1157 to request a bride from
the imperial family. She had a dowry of 100,000 golden hyperperi, and in return was given Acre as her
dower. She arrived at Acre from Constantinople in Sep 1158[251]. After her husband's death, she
retired to Acre where she met Andronikos Komnenos, to whom Amaury I King of Jerusalem had
recently given the fief of Beirut[252], and lived with him as his mistress at Beirut from 1167. The
Chronicle of Patriarch Michel le Grand records that "Andronic cousin de l´empereur Emmanuel" left
Cilicia for Acre where he met "la fille de son frère veuve du roi de Jérusalem" with whom he committed
adultery, and went together "à Harran" where their child was born[253]. Niketas Choniates names
"Theodora Comnenia, Isaacii sebastocratoris filia" as mistress of "Comnenus Andronicu s imperatoris
Manuelis patrueli"[254]. Emperor Manuel demanded the recall of Andronikos, but the couple fled to
Damascus and sought refuge with Nur ed-Din. Thereafter they lived together in various locations in the
Muslim world until Andronikos was given a castle in Paphlagonia where they settled. When they left
Palestine, King Amaury I confiscated Acre[255]. m (Jerusalem [Oct] 1158) BAUDOUIN III King of
Jerusalem, son of FOULQUES Comte d'Anjou King of Jerusalem & his wife Mélisende Queen of
Jerusalem (1131-poisoned Beirut 10 Feb 1163). Mistress: (1167-1185) of ANDRONIKOS Komnenos,
son of ISAAKIOS Komnenos, sébastokrator & his wife --- ([1123/24][256]-murdered Constantinople 12
Sep 1185). He succeeded in 1183 as Emperor ANDRONIKOS I.
g) EVDOKIA Komnene. The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been
identified. There does not seem to be any proof to link Evdokia, daughter of Isaakios Komnenos, with
these two Italian marriages[257], which are referred to in Sturdza[258]. [m firstly (Rome 1170)
ODONE Frangipani, son of --- (-[1176]). A Roman lord and Guelf leader. m secondly (1179)
GUELFO [Paganello] di Porcaria, from Siena.]
6. THEODORA Komnene ([1116]-12 May 1157[259]). The primary source which confirms her
parentage and marriage has not yet been identified. She became a nun after her husband died. m
MANUEL Anemas, son of --- (-[1146/47]). Panhyperprotosebastypértatos.

18
7. MANUEL Komnenos (Constantinople [15 Aug 1118]-24 Sep 1180, bur Monastery of Christ
Pantocrator). Ioannes Kinnamos names "Manuel…liberorum Ioannis minimus"[260]. He succeeded his
father in 1143 as Emperor MANUEL I.
- see below.
8. EVDOKIA Komnene ([1119]-). Her parentage and marriage are indicated by the seal dated to
[1163] which names "Andronikos Komnenos, (son) of Eudokia, a branch sprung from a purple-born
root, nephew of the basileus Manuel, son of Theodoros Batatzes"[261]. Her marriage is also indicated
by Ioannes Kinnamos who names "Theodorum Batatzem sororium sum", referring to Emperor Manuel
I[262]. m THEODOROS Batatzes, son of --- (-killed in battle Neocæsarea 1176). He took part in the
invasion of Cilicia in 1158 with his brother-in-law Emperor Manuel and occupied Tarsus[263].
Sébastohypertatos. General. Dux of Cilicia.

The precise relationships between the following individuals and the main Komnenos family is not
known:
1. THEODORA Komnene. The Lignages d'Outremer name "Erine, niesce de l'empereour Manuel"
as wife of "Beymont" son of "Reimont le fill au comte de Poitiers", stating that her husband expelled her
and her daughter "en Romanie" after the death of Emperor Manuel[264]. The parentage of Theodora is
not known. According to Sturdza[265], she was the daughter of Ioannes Komnenos, son of
sébastocrator Andronikos Komnenos (older brother of Emperor Manuel I) but the primary source on
which this is based has not yet been identified. William of Tyre records that "dominus Boamundus
Antiochiæ princeps" repudiated "domina Theodora uxore sua, domini imperatoris neptis" and married
"quandam Sibyllam, maleficiis utentem, ecclesiastica severitate contempta"[266]. Runciman speculates
that this occurred after Bohémond learnt of the death of Emperor Manuel I, which is recorded in the
previous passage of William of Tyr who does not make the connection between the two events[267].
The Lignages d'Outremer record that "Gautier" son of "Gremont le seignor de Bessan" married secondly
"Latomena"[268]. Another manuscript of the Lignages names the second wife of Gauthier de Bethsan
as "une dame de Romanie, qui avoit nom Thodore Lathoumena"[269]. It is not clear from these sources
that the second wife of Bohemond III Prince of Antioch was the same person as the second wife of
Gauthier of Bethsan. m [firstly] ([1175/77], divorced 1180) as his second wife, BOHEMOND III Prince
of Antioch, son of RAYMOND [de Poitiers] Prince of Antioch & his wife Constance Pss of Antioch
([1144]-[20 Mar/1 Oct] 1201). [m secondly (after 1180) as his second wife, GAUTHIER of Bethsan,
son of GREMONT [I] Lord of Bethsan & his wife Marguerite of Beirut. 1210.]

2. EVDOKIA Komnene ([1167][270]-after 4 Nov 1202). The parentage of Evdokia is not known.
According to Sturdza[271], she was the daughter of Alexios Komnenos, son of sébastocrator
Andronikos Komnenos (older brother of Emperor Manuel I) but the primary source on which this is
based, if any, is not known. Barzos suggests[272] that she was the daughter of Isaakios Komnenos, son
of Emperor Ioannes II, writing that "if Eudokia [K. 143, according to his numbering] were not the
daughter of Isaakios [K. 78], then she would be a daughter of Ioannes [K. 128] [son of Andronikos
Komnenos sébastocrator]". However, there appear to be too many unknown factors in the genealogy of
the Komnenos family for arguments by elimination to be reliable. The Histoire de Montpellier recounts
that Evdokia travelled to Europe to marry Alfonso II King of Aragon, but found that he was already
married when she arrived, that she and her retinue waited for instructions from the emperor at
Montpellier, where Guillaume [VII] proposed marriage to her[273]. The Annales Pisani (probably
written [1182]) records that "l'Imperatore Emanuel" sent his envoys to arrange the betrothal of "una sua
nepote…al fratello del Re di Aragona" (Raymond Bérenger III Comte de Provence), the projected
marriage aimed at thwarting the influence of the Emperor Friedrich "Barbarossa" through an alliance
with Emperor Manuel I, but the betrothal was terminated by Emperor Friedrich as suzerain over the
Comté de Provence, the emperor proposing "Goglielmo di Mompellieri" [Guillaume [VIII]] as a suitable
alternative[274]. She became a Benedictine nun at Aniane. Betrothed ([1176/78], broken 1178) to
RAYMOND BERENGER III Comte de Provence, Infante de Aragón, son of RAMÓN BERENGUER

19
IV Count of Barcelona & his wife Petronilla Queen of Aragon ([1158]-murdered Montpellier 5 Apr
1181). m ([1178/79], divorced Apr 1187) as his first wife, GUILLAUME [VII] Seigneur de
Montpellier, son of GUILLAUME [VI] Seigneur de Montpellier & his wife Mathilde de Bourgogne
[Capet] (-[Nov/Dec] 1202).

3. THEODORA [Komnene] . Niketas Choniates names "Comnenus Alexius, nothus Manuelis


filius ex nepte Theodora"[275]. The precise paternity of this supposed niece of Emperor Manuel is not
known. According to Sturdza, she was the daughter of Evdokia (sister of Emperor Manuel) and her
husband Theodoros Vatatzes, but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.
It may be based only on speculation, after eliminating all the other brothers and sisters of the emperor
whose daughters named Theodora are recorded elsewhere. However, as noted above, there appear to be
too many unknown factors in the genealogy of the Komnenos family for arguments by elimination to be
reliable. Theodora may have later married strategos Nikephoros Katuphes[276], but this is not certain as
Magdalino and Cheynet both show the name of his wife as not known[277]. Mistress: of her maternal
uncle, Emperor MANUEL I, son of Emperor IOANNES II & his wife Piroska [Eirene] of Hungary
(Constantinople [15 Aug 1118]-24 Sep 1180, bur Monastery of Christ Pantocrator).

4. DAVID Komnenos (-after [1183/85]). Niketas Choniates names "Davidis Comnenis præfecti
urbis [Thessalonicæ]", commenting that he was "ignavus"[278].

5. IOANNES Komnenos "Crassus" (-[1200]). Niketas Choniates records the rebellion of "quidam
ex Comnenia familia…Iohannes…Crassi cognomentum" against Emperor Alexios III, and his capture
and murder[279].

MANUEL I 1143-1180, ALEXIOS II 1180-1183

MANUEL Komnenos, son of Emperor IOANNES II & his wife Piroska [Eirene] of Hungary
(Constantinople [15 Aug 1118]-24 Sep 1180, bur Monastery of Christ Pantocrator[280]). Ioannes
Kinnamos names "Manuel…liberorum Ioannis minimus"[281]. Niketas Choniates names Manuel as son
of Emperor Ioannes[282]. Sébastokrator 1122. Named successor after the death of his two oldest
brothers in 1142, he succeeded his father in 1143 as Emperor MANUEL I. A successful administrator,
his reign marked a further step in the revival of Byzantine power. He was much influenced by western
ways, introducing western customs and western advisers to his court at Constantinople, to the
displeasure of the Greeks. After confirming his alliance with Germany by his first marriage, he was
isolated when his brother-in-law Emperor Konrad III joined the Second Crusade later in 1146. He
attempted to require homage from the Crusade's leaders, as his grandfather had from the leaders of the
First Crusade. At the same time, Roger II King of Sicily captured Corfu, Corinth and Thebes (1147),
but with Venetian help Emperor Manuel recapture Corfu in 1149. Taking advantage of Roger's death in
1154, Manuel I launched an attack on Norman Italy and captured large parts of Apulia. His ambition to
recreate a single universal empire was thwarted by Guillaume I King of Sicily who recaptured all the
lost territory and defeated the emperor at Brindisi in 1156. On the other hand, Manuel had more success
in the east, submitting Armenia and Antioch to his suzerainty in [1158/59][283]. He also succeeded in
conquering Dalmatia, and part of Croatia, Bosnia and Srem from Hungary by 1167, although this
resulted in increased tension with Venice whose interests were threatened[284]. On 12 Mar 1171, all
Venetians in Byzantium were arrested and their assets confiscated. Venice counter-attacked and
captured Khios and Lesbos. These costly wars on several fronts ended by weakening the state. In a
final push against the Turks in Asia Minor, Emperor Manuel was defeated in 1176 at Myriokephalon by
Kilij Arslan Sultan of Ikonium/Konya, a major setback for the Byzantine war machine[285]. A devotee
of astrology, he had the horoscopes of all the members of his family prepared[286]. He became a monk
as MATHAIOS in 1180. Niketas Choniates records the death of Emperor Manuel "mense
Septembri"[287].

20
m firstly (Jan 1146) BERTHA von Sulzbach, daughter of BERENGAR I Graf von Sulzbach & his
second wife Adelheid von Wolfratshausen (-28 Sep [1159/60]). As the sister-in-law of Konrad III King
of Germany, her marriage was arranged to seal the Byzantine/German alliance in 1140. Otto of Freising
refers to the proposed marriage of the sister of King Konrad's wife to the son of Emperor Ioannes, in a
letter from the king to the emperor which he quotes in full in the Gesta Friderici[288]. However, after
the death of Manuel's older brothers and Manuel's accession as emperor, Bertha was no longer
considered of sufficiently noble birth to be his bride. The marriage was further delayed when Manuel
made additional dowry demands (including Apulia, territory of Roger II King of Sicily[289]). In 1145,
Emperor Konrad III declared Bertha his adopted daughter and the marriage proceeded[290]. Bertha
adopted the name EIRENE in Byzantium[291]. The necrology of Kloster Neuburg records the death
"IV Kal Sep" of "Berhta imperatrix Grecorum"[292]. Ioannes Kinnamos records the death of
"imperatrix Irene" without male children, undated but dateable from the context to the late 1150s[293].
Betrothed ([1159/60]) to MELISENDE of Tripoli, daughter of RAYMOND II Count of Tripoli
[Toulouse] & his wife Hodierne of Jerusalem (-after 1162). Ioannes Kinnamos records that "Ioannem
Contostephanum sebastum et Theophylactum virum Italum" were sent to negotiate a marriage with
"puella Tripoli in Phoenicia, gente quidem Latina"[294]. She was nominated by Baudouin III King of
Jerusalem in 1159 as a prospective bride when the emperor asked the king to choose a wife for him from
among the princesses of Outremer. However, Manual repudiated the betrothal in [Jul] 1161, apparently
after being told that there were doubts about Mélisende's legitimacy based on her mother's known
quarrel with her father[295].
m secondly (25 Dec 1161) MARIE of Antioch, daughter of RAYMOND de Poitiers Prince of Antioch
& his wife Constance Pss of Antioch (1145-murdered 27 Aug 1182). The Lignages d'Outremer name
"Beymont et Marguerite" as the two children of "Reimont le fill au comte de Poitiers" & his wife, stating
that "Marguerite" married "l'empereour Manuel"[296]. Ioannes Kinnamos records that "Basilium
quondam, cognomento Camaterum" was sent to negotiate a marriage with "Raimundo Antiochiæ
principi filiæ…Maria"[297]. After her mother Constance Pss of Antioch appealed to Emperor Manuel,
following Baudouin III King of Jerusalem's decision to set aside her rights to rule in Antioch in favour
of her son Bohémond, the emperor sent ambassadors to Antioch to negotiate a marriage with her
daughter Marie. Marie set sail for Constantinople in Sep 1161, and was married the following
December[298]. After the death of her husband in 1180, she was required to become a nun (as XENA)
as a condition for being appointed regent for her son[299]. She became the mistress of Alexios
Komnenos, with whom she shared the regency, becoming unpopular because of her Catholic
background and their reliance on Latin advisers. Andronikos Komnenos accused her of soliciting help
from Hungary, and ordered her imprisonment. After Andronikos forced her son Emperor Alexios to
order her death, she was strangled and her body thrown into the sea.
Mistress (1): his niece, THEODORA [Komnene], daughter of ---. Niketas Choniates names "Comnenus
Alexius, nothus Manuelis filius ex nepte Theodora"[300]. The precise paternity of this niece of Emperor
Manuel is not known. According to Sturdza, she was the daughter of Evdokia (sister of Emperor
Manuel) and her husband Theodoros Vatatzes, but the primary source on which this is based has not yet
been identified. It may be based only on speculation, after eliminating all the other brothers and sisters
of the emperor whose daughters named Theodora are recorded elsewhere. However, as noted above,
there appear to be too many unknown factors in the genealogy of the Komnenos family for arguments
by elimination to be reliable. Theodora may have later married Nikephoros Katuphes, but this is not
certain as Magdalino and Cheynet both show the name of his wife as not known[301].
Mistress (2): ---. The identity of Emperor Manuel´s second mistress is not known.
Emperor Manuel I & his first wife had two children:
1. MARIA Komnene (Mar 1152-poisoned Jul 1182). Niketas Choniates records the betrothal of
"Iazæ filio Belæ" and "imperator…Mariam filiam"[302]. Ioannes Kinnamos records the betrothal
between "Belam qui post Stephanum Geizæ filius" and "Mariæ filiæ suæ" (Emperor Manuel I)[303].
Niketas Choniates records the proposed betrothal between "Maria filia [Manuelis]" and "Guilielmus
Siciliæ rex"[304]. The Annals of Romoald record that Emperor Manuel sent ambassadors to King
Guillaume II shortly after his accession proposing this marriage to his only daughter, and in a later

21
passage refer to the betrothal of "filiam suam Zura Mariam" in 1172[305]. This betrothal was proposed
by her father in [1166/67] while Maria was still betrothed to Béla of Hungary, to gain support for his
plan to be crowned emperor by the Pope. There is some doubt about how far the negotiations
proceeded. If the betrothal did take place, it was terminated by Maria's father[306]. Niketas Choniates
records the marriage between "Maria filia [Manuelis]" and "filius Montisferrati marchionis,
adolescenti"[307]. William of Tyre names Maria and gives her parentage, when recording her
marriage[308]. Robert of Torigny records the marriage in 1180 of "Manuel imperator
Constantinopolitano…filiam suam natam ex priore uxore sua" and "Rainerio filio Willelmi principis
Montis Ferrati"[309]. She and her husband became the focus of opposition to the regency of the
dowager Empress Maria. She was put to death with her husband by Emperor Andronikos I. Betrothed
firstly (1163, contract broken 1169) to BÉLA of Hungary, son of GÉZA II King of Hungary & his wife
Ievfrosina Mstislavna of Kiev (1149-23 Apr 1196, bur Székesfehérvár, transferred to Coronation Church
Budapest). Under the peace treaty signed 1164 between his brother István III King of Hungary and
Emperor Manuel, Béla was confirmed as Duke of Croatia and Dalmatia, and sent to Constantinople
(where he adopted the name ALEXIOS) as King István's acknowledged successor[310]. Emperor
Manuel granted him the title despot, betrothed him to his daughter Maria and acknowledged him as his
heir in Byzantium. In 1169, when the emperor's own son Alexios was born, Béla was demoted from
despot to cæsar[311]. The betrothal was terminated, although Béla remained in Constantinople as a
member of the imperial family until 1172, when he succeeded his brother as BÉLA III King of Hungary.
Betrothed secondly ([1166/67]) to GUILLAUME II King of Sicily, son of GUILLAUME I "le Mauvais"
King of Sicily & his wife Infanta doña Margarita de Navarra (1155-17 Nov 1189). m (Feb 1180)
RANIERI di Monferrato, son of GUGLIELMO V "il Vecchio" Marchese di Monferrato & his wife
Judith of Austria [Babenberg] (1163-poisoned [19/31] Aug 1182). William of Tyre names him and his
father, when recording his marriage, specifying that he was "adolescens" at the time[312]. The Cronica
of Sicardi Bishop of Cremona records the marriage of "Wilielmi marchioni [filium] Rainerium" and
"Emanuel imperator Constantinopolitanus…filiam suam"[313]. He adopted the name IOANNES in
Byzantium. He was granted the title cæsar by his father-in-law in 1180 along with extensive estates in
Thessaloniki[314]. After the death of Emperor Manuel in 1180, Ranieri and his wife became the focus
of opposition to the regency of her stepmother, dowager Empress Maria. Andronikos Komnenos
ordered their murder after seizing power as co-emperor in May 1182.
2. [ANNA] Komnene ([1154]-1158). Ioannes Kinnamos records that "Irena imperatrix" was
mother of two daughters "quarum natu maior…vixit, altera…obiit, quartum ætatis annum agens"[315].
The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.
Emperor Manuel I & his second wife had one child:
3. ALEXIOS Komnenos (Constantinople 10 Sep 1169-murdered 24 Sep 1183). William of Tyre
names him and specifies his parentage when recording his marriage when aged 13[316]. Niketas
Choniates records the succession of "filius Alexius" after the death of "Manuele Comneno"[317]. He
succeeded his father in 1180 as Emperor ALEXIOS II, under the regency of his mother. The victim of
the manoeuvres of Andronikos Komnenos, the latter overthrew the council of regency, obliged Alexios
to order his mother's death, and accept himself as co-emperor. The senate voted the deposition of
Alexios, who was strangled a few days later, his body thrown into the Bosphorus. m ([2 Mar] 1180) as
her first husband, AGNES de France, daughter of LOUIS VII King of France & his third wife Alix de
Champagne ([1171/72]-[1220 or after 1240]). The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines refers to the
daughter of King Louis VII and his third wife as "imperatricem Grecorum quam duxit Alexius filius
Manuelis"[318]. Her birth is dated to 1171 by Sommerard, but he cites no corresponding primary
source[319]. According to Niketas Choniates, she was 11 years old at the time of her second marriage
(see below), which would place her birth in [1172]. William of Tyre records the marriage "in palatio
domini Constantini senioris…Trullus" of "Manuele Constantinopoleos imperatore…filio…impuberi vix
annorum tredecim Alexio" and "Francorum regis domini Ludovici filiam vix annorum octo Agnetem",
dated to 1180 from the context[320]. Benedict of Peterborough records that "Lodovicus rex Francorum
Agnetem filiam suam quam Ala regina Francorum…peperat" was sent to Constantinople in 1179 to
marry "Alexio filio Manuelis imperatoris Constantinopolis"[321]. She adopted the name ANNA on her

22
marriage. Benedict of Peterborough records the death of her first husband and her second marriage to
his successor[322]. She married secondly (1184) as his second wife, Emperor Andronikos I. Niketas
Choniates records that Andronikos married "Annam imperatoris Alexii sponsam, regis Francorum
filiam", stating that she was only eleven years old[323]. She married thirdly (1204) Theodoros Branas
Duke of Adrianople. The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records that in 1193 "Livernas…
prenominatus" lived with "sororem regis Francorum, imperatricem illam, quam habere debuit Alexius
Manuelis filius" without marrying her, and in a later passage in 1205 that "Livernas", who had lived
with "sororem regis Francorum, imperatricem…absque legalibus nuptiis", married her and married their
daughter to "Nargaldo de Torceio, Guidonis de Dampetra consobrino"[324]. Robert de Clari records in
Sep 1203 that "le sereur le roi de Franche" was alive and married to "li Vernas"[325]. The text also
provides a clue to Alberic´s reference to "Livernas", indicating that it was the old French definite article
combined with a corruption of the name "Branas". No primary source has yet been identified which
records when Agnes died. According to Sommerard, she died in 1220, after the marriage of her
daughter[326]. Kerrebrouck states that she died in 1240[327]. Neither of these authors cites the primary
sources on which they base their statements.
Emperor Manuel I had one illegitimate child by Mistress (1):
4. ALEXIOS Komnenos ([1152/63]-after 1188). Niketas Choniates names "Comnenus Alexius,
nothus Manuelis filius ex nepte Theodora"[328]. The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that
"Polycarpe fils aîné de Manuel empereur de Grèce" fell in love with Thamar Queen of Georgia (in the
late 1170s), commenting that "Andronic" arrested him and killed him when he succeeded to the
throne[329]. No other record has been found of a son of Emperor Manuel of this name, but it is possible
that it refers to Alexios. Sébastokrator. He revolted against Emperor Andronikos I in 1184 and was
blinded. He was recalled by Emperor Isaakios II, made cæsar, then arrested and required to become a
monk at Mount Papykios[330]. m (Summer 1183) EIRENE Komnene, illegitimate daughter of Emperor
ANDRONIKOS I & his mistress Theodora Komnene. Niketas Choniates records the marriage of
"filiam Irenen [Andronici] ex consobrina Theodora Comnena" and "Alexio, Manuelis ex incesto
concubitu…filio"[331].
Emperor Manuel I had [one] illegitimate child by Mistress (2):
5. [--- Komnene (-after 1201). Her supposed origin is deduced from a single primary source as
follows. The eulogy written by Euthymios Tornikes for his father Demetrios, dated 1201, refers to
"λογοθέτου γηνη… σου νυμφη" ("the wife of the logothetes, his daughter-in-law") and adds that the
lady in question was "η εχ της πρώτης χαι Βασιλιχης των Κομνηνων χρυσέας σειρας η ανδρεια χαι
σωφρων" ("descended from the first and imperial series of gold of the Komnenos, brave and wise")
[332]. It is highly probable that the text refers to the wife of Konstantinos Tornikes, who is referred to
as "dromi logothetam Constantinum Tornicem" by Niketas Choniates (see above)[333]. Varzos
interprets the phrase "imperial series of gold of the Komnenos" as meaning that the wife of Konstantinos
Tornikes was "one who emanated from Emperors Alexios, Ioannes and Manuel Komnenos", in other
words from the direct line of the three Komnenos emperors[334]. If this interpretation is correct,
descent from any one or two of these emperors would not constitute a "series", nor would descent from
Emperor Andronikos I who counted only Emperor Alexios among his direct ancestors. This would
necessarily mean that the lady in question was the daughter or granddaughter (the chronology would
support either case) of Emperor Manuel I, evidently illegitimate if she was his daughter. However, it is
not known whether such a poetic turn of phrase in this type of eulogy should be interpreted so literally.
It should also be noted that Varzos´s interpretation does not appear to consign a meaning to the word
"πρώτης" ("first"). m KONSTANTINOS Tornikes, son of DEMETRIOS Tornikes & his wife ---
Malakissa (-killed in Bulgaria [1205/06]).]

ANDRONIKOS I 1183-1185

ANDRONIKOS Komnenos, son of ISAAKIOS Komnenos, sébastokrator & his wife --- ([1123/24]
[335]-murdered Constantinople 12 Sep 1185). The primary source which confirms his parentage has not

23
yet been identified. He lived at the court of the Prince of Galich. Governor [strategos and autokrator] of
Cilicia 1150-1153. Thoros II Lord of the Mountains [Armenia-Rupen] routed his army at Mamistra in
1151 after unsuccessfully attempting to recapture the town from him[336]. Duke of Niš and Braničevo
1153. Claimant to the throne of Byzantium 1154/55. The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records
the visit to Giorgi III King of Georgia (therefore dated to after 1157, the date of his accession) of
"Andronic Comnène, cousin germain, par son père, de manuel le Grand…accompagné de sa femme…de
ses fils et de ceux de sa sœur"[337]. Thoros of Armenia blamed Andronikos for the murder of his half-
brother Stephané in 1162 and attacked the Byzantine garrisons at Mamistra, Anazarbus and Vahka in
reprisal[338]. He was reappointed governor of Cilicia in 1166. After a visit to Antioch he started an
affair with Theodora, sister of Bohémond III Prince of Antioch, and was evicted from Antioch. He was
replaced as governor of Cilicia in 1167 by Konstantinos Kalamanos [Hungary]. He offered his services
to Amaury I King of Jerusalem who gave him the fief of Beirut. He met his cousin Theodora Komnene,
widow of Baudouin III King of Jerusalem, at Acre and she came to live with him at Beirut[339].
Strategos of Paphlagonia 1180/82. Marching on Constantinople with troops from Paphlagonia, he
overthrew the regency of Empress Marie and Alexios Komnenos and obliged Emperor Alexios II to
accept him as co-emperor 16 May 1182. To gain popularity he ordered the massacre of the Latins,
including the papal legate who was beheaded. He ordered the murder of Emperor Alexios II and
usurped the throne in Sep 1183, succeeding as Emperor ANDRONIKOS I. Once emperor, he aimed to
rid the empire of the foreign Latin influence, weaken the aristocracy and land-owners, and eliminate
corruption. Béla III King of Hungary invaded Byzantine territory in 1183, occupied Beograd and
Braničevo and, after forming an alliance with Nemanja Grand Župan of Serbia, sacked Niš and Sardika
(Sofija), later moving into Thrace[340]. Against the threat from the Normans who had captured
Durazzo, Corfu and Thessaloniki, Andronikos allied himself with Venice. Andronikos ruled with
unequalled cruelty, the people of Constantinople eventually revolted against him and proclaimed
Isaakios Angelos as emperor. Andronikos tried to escape disguised as a monk, but was captured and
tortured by his successor, and eventually mangled to death by a mob in Constantinople. His fall
represented a victory for the aristocracy which was to consolidate its power further under his successors
from the Angelos family.
m firstly ---. The name of Andronikos's first wife is not known. A clue is provided by "George" being
called the brother of Andronikos's wife in 1183. However, there is no indication who this George may
have been or which wife (or mistress) of Andronikos was referred to. According to Europäische
Stammtafeln[341], she may have been the sister of Giorgios Palaiologos pansébastos, but this is
presumably nothing more than a guess. According to Sturdza[342], the first wife of Andronikos
Komnenos was Helena of Georgia, daughter of Demetre I King of Georgia, but this does not seem to be
based on a factual source.
m secondly (1184) as her second husband, ANNA [Agnès] de France, widow of Emperor ALEXIOS II,
daughter of LOUIS VII King of France & his third wife Alix de Champagne ([1171/72]-[1220 or after
1240]). The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines refers to the daughter of King Louis VII & his
third wife as "imperatricem Grecorum quam duxit Alexius filius Manuelis"[343]. Her birth is dated to
1171 by Sommerard, but he cites no corresponding primary source[344]. According to Niketas
Choniates, she was 11 years old at the time of her second marriage (see below), which would place her
birth in [1172]. William of Tyre records the marriage "in palatio domini Constantini senioris…Trullus"
of "Manuele Constantinopoleos imperatore…filio…impuberi vix annorum tredecim Alexio" and
"Francorum regis domini Ludovici filiam vix annorum octo Agnetem", dated to 1180 from the
context[345]. Benedict of Peterborough records that "Lodovicus rex Francorum Agnetem filiam suam
quam Ala regina Francorum…peperat" was sent to Constantinople in 1179 to marry "Alexio filio
Manuelis imperatoris Constantinopolis"[346]. She adopted the name ANNA on her first marriage.
Benedict of Peterborough records the death of her first husband and her second marriage to his
successor[347]. Niketas Choniates records that Andronikos married "Annam imperatoris Alexii
sponsam, regis Francorum filiam", stating that she was only eleven years old[348]. She married thirdly
(1204) Theodoros Branas Duke of Adrianople. Her third marriage is deduced from Villehardouin
naming "Theodore Branas, a Greek who was married to the king of France's sister" when recording that

24
Apros was restored to him in 1205[349]. The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records that in
1193 "Livernas…prenominatus" lived with "sororem regis Francorum, imperatricem illam, quam habere
debuit Alexius Manuelis filius" without marrying her, and in a later passage in 1205 that "Livernas",
who had lived with "sororem regis Francorum, imperatricem…absque legalibus nuptiis", married her
and married their daughter to "Nargaldo de Torceio, Guidonis de Dampetra consobrino"[350]. Robert
de Clari records in Sep 1203 that "le sereur le roi de Franche" was alive and married to "li Vernas"[351].
The text also provides a clue to Alberic´s reference to "Livernas", indicating that it was the old French
definite article combined with a corruption of the name "Branas". No primary source has yet been
identified which records when Agnes died. According to Sommerard, she died in 1220, after the
marriage of her daughter[352]. Kerrebrouck states that she died in 1240[353]. Neither of these authors
cites the primary sources on which they base their statements.
Mistress (1): (1150/52) EVDOKIA Komnene, widow of ---, daughter of ANDRONIKOS Komnenos,
sébastokrator & his wife Eirene [Aineiadissa]. Niketas Choniates names "Alexius, Andronicus et…
Isaacius" as the three brothers of Emperor Manuel, stating that Andronikos left daughters "Mariam,
Theodoram et Eudociam", adding that Evdokia became the mistress of Andronikos Komnenos after the
death of her husband[354]. This must refer to a first marriage which is unrecorded elsewhere, as her
marriage to Mikhael Gabras is recorded subsequent to her affair with Andronikos Komnenos. She
married secondly ([1152/53]) Mikhael Gabras. In a later passage, Niketas Choniates records the
marriage of "Eudocia Comnenia Andronici amica" and "Michæle…Gabra"[355]. Ioannes Kinnamos
records that "Michael cognomento Gabras" married "ex fratre Manuelis neptim"[356].
Mistress (2): ---. The name of Andronikos's second mistress is not known.
Mistress (3): (1166/67) PHILIPPA of Antioch, daughter of RAYMOND de Poitiers Prince of Antioch &
his wife Constance Pss of Antioch ([1148]-1178). Niketas Choniates records that Philippa, sister of
Empress Maria, was mistress of Andronikos Komnenos[357]. Andronikos Komnenos met her while
visiting Antioch in his capacity of governor of Cilicia. She married (after 1166) as his second wife,
Honfroy [II] Lord of Toron, Constable of Jerusalem.
Mistress (4): (1167/85) THEODORA Komnene, widow of BAUDOUIN III King of Jerusalem, daughter
of ISAAKIOS Komnenos sébastokrator & his second wife Eirene Diplosynadene ([1146]-). Niketas
Choniates names "Theodora Comnenia, Isaacii sebastocratoris filia" as mistress of "Comnenus
Andronicus imperatoris Manuelis patrueli"[358]. After her husband's death, she retired to Acre where
she met Andronikos Komnenos, to whom Amaury I King of Jerusalem had recently given the fief of
Beirut, and lived with him as his mistress at Beirut from 1167. The Chronicle of Patriarch Michel le
Grand records that "Andronic cousin de l´empereur Emmanuel" left Cilicia for Acre where he met "la
fille de son frère veuve du roi de Jérusalem" with whom he committed adultery, and went together "à
Harran" where their child was born[359]. Emperor Manuel demanded the recall of Andronikos, but the
couple fled to Damascus and sought refuge with Nur ed-Din. Thereafter they lived together in various
locations in the Muslim world until Andronikos was given a castle in Paphlagonia where they
settled[360].
Emperor Andronikos I & his first wife had three children:
1. MANUEL Komnenos (before 1152-1185 or after). Niketas Choniates names "Iohannes et
Manuel" as the two sons of "Andronici" when recording that "protosebastus" put them in chains during
the reign of Emperor Alexios but were released from prison[361]. In a later passage, Niketas Choniates
clarifies that Manuel was the older brother: "Manuel primogenitus Andronici"[362]. Sebastokrator
1182. Blinded and imprisoned 1185. m [--- of Georgia], daughter of [GIORGI III King of Georgia &
his wife Burdukan of Ossetia]. According to Europäische Stammtafeln[363] and Sturdza[364], the wife
of Manuel Komnenos was the daughter of Davit IV King of Georgia. The primary source on which this
speculation is based has not yet been identified, but the hypothesis is chronologically impossible in view
of King Davit´s death which is recorded in 1125. An alternative indication of her parentage is provided
by the Chronicle of Michael Panaretos which records that her son "Lord Alexios the Grand Komnenos…
marching out from Iberia due to the zeal and labour of his paternal aunt Thamar…took control of
Trebizond in Apr 1204 aged 22"[365]. It is impossible that "Thamar", presumably indicating Queen
Thamar of Georgia, was Alexios´s paternal aunt. However, if the passage (the original Greek has not

25
been seen) could correctly be translated as "maternal aunt", it is possible that Manuel´s wife was the
queen´s younger sister, maybe the same person as the unnamed younger sister who is referred to in the
Georgian Chronicle (18th century) and about whose fate nothing further is revealed in the primary
sources which have been consulted (see GEORGIA). Manuel Komnenos & his wife had two children:
a) ALEXIOS Megas Komnenos (Constantinople [1181/82]-Trebizond 1 Feb 1222). Niketas
Choniates names "David…et Alexius fratres, Manuele Andronici Romanorum tyranny filio nati" when
recording that they governed "alter Ponti Heracleam et Paphlagoniam…alter Alexius Oenæum et
Sinopem urbes et ipsam Trapezuntam"[366]. He founded the empire in Trebizond, declaring himself
Emperor ALEXIOS I in Apr 1204. The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "Lord Alexios the
Grand Komnenos…marching out from Iberia due to the zeal and labour of his paternal aunt Thamar…
took control of Trebizond in Apr 1204 aged 22"[367]. This passage suggests that, following the
overthrow of his father, Alexios had been brought up at the Georgian court where he had sought refuge.
- EMPERORS in TREBIZOND.
b) DAVID Komnenos ([1184]-killed in battle Sinope 13 Dec 1214). Niketas Choniates names
"David…et Alexius fratres, Manuele Andronici Romanorum tyranny filio nati" when recording that they
governed "alter Ponti Heracleam et Paphlagoniam…alter Alexius Oenæum et Sinopem urbes et ipsam
Trapezuntam"[368]. He escaped to Georgia with his brother on the overthrow of their grandfather.
With Georgian military support, he conquered Herakleia and, after advancing westwards, Sinope,
Kastamouni and Paphlagonia[369]. He became a vassal of the Latin Empire of Constantinople in 1214,
but was defeated by Theodoros Laskaris Emperor of Nikaia who annexed Sinope later in 1214[370],
although it was seized by the Seljuk Sultan of Iconium soon afterwards.
2. IOANNES Komnenos ([1158/59]-murdered 1185). Niketas Choniates names "Iohannes et
Manuel" as the two sons of "Andronici" when recording that "protosebastus" put them in chains during
the reign of Emperor Alexios but were released from prison[371]. In an earlier passage, Niketas
Choniates names "Iohanne" as the son of Andronikos Komnenos by his legitimate wife and states that he
was taken to Emperor Manuel at Constantinople[372]. His father declared him heir to the imperial
throne in 1183.
3. MARIA Komnene (before 1160-). The primary source which confirms her parentage and
marriage has not yet been identified. m (after 1184) THEODOROS Synadenos, son of ---.
Emperor Andronikos I had [two] illegitimate children by Mistress (1):
4. [ALEXIOS Komnenos ([1150/52]-). The primary source which confirms his parentage has not
yet been identified. The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) names "Alexis, un de ses proches parents,
un neveu paternal de l'empereur de Grèce, qui se trouvait pour lors dans notre pays" as an unsuccessful
candidate for Queen Thamar's hand in marriage (in the late 1170s)[373]. Alexios, son of the future
Emperor Andronikos I, is the only known member of the Komnenos family who fits this description.
He fled Constantinople in 1185.]
5. [EIRENE Komnene ([1150/52]-). The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet
been identified. It is highly unlikely that she married Nikephoros Palaiologos, dux in Trebizond. The
alleged marriage first appears in Rüdt-Collenberg who does not cite any sources[374].]
Emperor Andronikos I had one illegitimate child by Mistress (2):
6. daughter. The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been
identified. m (before 1184) ROMANOS ---, a Slav. He was a former slave according to Sturdza[375].
Governor of Durazzo.
Emperor Andronikos I had two illegitimate children by Mistress (4):
7. EIRENE Komnene (Harran after 1168-). Niketas Choniates names "Alexio et Irene" as two
children of Andronikos Komnenos by his mistress Theodora who were taken to Emperor Manuel I at
Constantinople[376]. The Chronicle of Patriarch Michel le Grand records that "Andronic cousin de l
´empereur Emmanuel" left Cilicia for Acre where he met "la fille de son frère veuve du roi de
Jérusalem" with whom he committed adultery, and went together "à Harran" where their child was
born[377]. Niketas Choniates records the marriage of "filiam Irenen [Andronici] ex consobrina
Theodora Comnena" and "Alexio, Manuelis ex incesto concubitu…filio"[378]. m (Summer 1183)

26
ALEXIOS Komnenos, sébastokrator, illegitimate son of Emperor MANUEL I & his mistress Theodora
--- ([1152/63]-after 1188). He was blinded by his father-in-law in 1184.
8. ALEXIOS Komnenos (1170-). Niketas Choniates names "Alexio et Irene" as two children of
Andronikos Komnenos by his mistress Theodora who were taken to Emperor Manuel I at
Constantinople[379].

The relationship between Isaakios Komnenos and the Komnenos family shown above is not known. He
was clearly a close relation as shown by his title sébastokrator, which was only given to sons, brothers,
paternal uncles and great-uncles of the emperor under the system of titles introduced by Emperor
Alexios I.
1. ISAAKIOS Komnenos, son of --- (-in prison Trnovo, soon after 1196). Sébastokrator 1195.
General. He led his father-in-law's campaign in Bulgaria in 1196 but was defeated on the Struma River,
captured and sent to Trnovo where he soon died in prison[380]. m (before 1190) as her first husband,
ANNA Komnene Angelina, daughter of ALEXIOS Angelos [later Emperor ALEXIOS III] & his wife
Euphrosyne Doukas Kamateros ([1175/80]-1212). Niketas Choniates names "Contostephanus
Andronicus et Isaacius Comenus" as "duo generi" of Emperor Alexios[381]. Ephræmius records that
"filiarum…iunior…Anna" married "Comnenorum…Isaacio, qui apud Moesos obiit in vinculis"[382].
She married secondly (1199) Theodoros Komnenos Laskaris, who later succeeded as THEODOROS I
Emperor of Nikaia. Niketas Choniates records the second marriage of "imperator…filias…Annam" and
"Theodoro Lascaro, adolescenti"[383]. Isaakios Komnenos & his wife had one child:
a) THEODORA Angelina Komnene. Niketas Choniates records the marriage of "Isaacii
sebastocratoris…filiæ eius Theodoræ" and "Ibancus", clarifying in a later passage that she was
"immatura ætate" and naming "matris eius Annæ viduæ"[384]. She was a hostage in Constantinople
[1197/99]. Niketas Choniates records the marriage of "neptem Theodoram, pridem Ibanco desponsam"
and "Chrysum"[385]. m firstly ([1196/97]) IVANKO, son of --- [Bulgaria] (-murdered early 1200).
After he murdered Ivan Asen I Tsar of Bulgaria in 1196, and temporarily took control of Trnovo, Ivanko
escaped to Constantinople, where he was offered the emperor's granddaughter as a bride[386]. He
adopted the name ALEXIOS on his marriage. Byzantine military leader. Prince in Central Thrace early
1199. He revolted against Emperor Alexios III and defeated the Byzantine troops sent to attack him. He
was murdered after agreeing a meeting with the emperor[387]. m secondly ([1201/02]) as his third wife,
DOBROMIR Hrs [Chrysos], Lord of Prosek, son of --- (-murdered [1209/11]). He was also known as
"Dobromir Strez", the Slav version of his Greek name "Chrysos". Previously son-in-law of General
Konstantinos Kamytzes[388], whom he had helped escape from Bulgarian captivity, he abandoned his
father-in-law and repudiated his second wife after Emperor Alexios offered him his granddaughter as a
new bride[389]. Sébastokrator.

Chapter 2. DOUKAS, EMPERORS 1059-1068, 1071-1078

A. ORIGINS, Anti-Emperor 913

ANDRONIKOS Doukas. Domestikos 904. Georgius Monachus Continuatus names "Ducem…


Androniki"[390]. He converted to Islam before 908[391].
m ---. The name of Andronikos's wife is not known.
Andronikos Doukas & his wife had two children:

27
1. KONSTANTINOS Doukas (-Jun 913). His parentage is confirmed by Georgius Monachus
Continuatus which names "Gregoram legionum domesticum Iberitzem" as "consocerum" of "Ducem…
Androniki"[392]. Domestikos. Theophanes Continuatus records that "Constantino Duci scholarum
domestico" rebelled after the death of Emperor Alexander in 913[393]. m --- Iberitzaina, daughter of
GREGORAS Iberitzes & his wife ---. Theophanes Continuatus records that "uxorem [Constantini]" was
sent "in illius domum in Paphlagonia" with "eiusque filium Stephanum"[394]. Her parentage is
suggested by Theophanes Continuatus which records that "Gregoras Constantini socero" sought refuge
in "in sanctam dei Sophiam…ecclesiam"[395]. The identity of her father is confirmed by Georgius
Monachus Continuatus which names "Gregoram legionum domesticum Iberitzem" as "consocerum" of
"Ducem…Androniki"[396]. Cedrenus names "Constantinus Ducas Andronicus filius" and "magistri
Gregoræ Iberitzæ soceri sui"[397]. She was sent to Paphlagonia with her son Stephanos in 913.
Konstantinos Doukas & his wife had two children:
a) GREGORAS Doukas (-Constantinople Jun 913). Theophanes Continuatus records that
"Gregoras Ducis filius" (referring to "Constantino Duci") and "Michael eius consobrinus" were killed in
a street fight[398].
b) STEPHANOS Doukas . Theophanes Continuatus records that "uxorem [Constantini]" was sent
"in illius domum in Paphlagonia" with "eiusque filium Stephanum"[399].
2. --- Doukas . m ---. One child:
a) MIKHAEL Doukas (-Constantinople Jun 913). Theophanes Continuatus records that "Gregoras
Ducis filius" (referring to "Constantino Duci") and "Michael eius consobrinus" were killed in a street
fight[400].

It is not known how Andronikos Doukas and the brothers Konstantinos and Ioannes Doukas were
related to the preceding family. However, Psellos indicates that there is a connection when he names
"the Duke Constantine….[descended]…from the celebrated Dukas…Andronicus and Constantine who
are the object of much attention in the writings of historians", when recording that Konstantinos was
chosen to succeed Emperor Isaakios I[401]. He may have originated from Paphlagonia, where the
family owned estates along the River Meander near Nikomedia. The family also owned land in
Macedonia[402].

1. ANDRONIKOS Doukas . Protospatharios and strategos. A seal dated to [1030/50] names


"Andronikas Doukas protospatharios and strategos of Great Preslav"[403].

Two brothers and one sister, parents not known:


1. KONSTANTINOS Doukas ([1006/07]-22 May 1067). Psellos names "the Duke Constantine….
[descended]…from the celebrated Dukas…Andronicus and Constantine who are the object of much
attention in the writings of historians", when recording that he was chosen to succeed Emperor Isaakios
I[404]. Bestarches 1057. President of the Senate. He succeeded in 1059 as Emperor
KONSTANTINOS X.
- see below, Part B.
2. IOANNES Doukas (-12 May [1088]). Psellos records that Emperor Konstantinos "promoted his
brother John to the dignity of cæsar"[405]. In 1073, he was proclaimed emperor at Amorium by Roussel
de Bailleul (commander of the Norman mercenaries), who had mutinied against Emperor Mikhael VII,
and marched on Constantinople. Emperor Mikhael sought help from the Seljuks, promising them east
Anatolia, and they surrounded Roussel's forces on Mount Sophon in Cappadocia[406]. Ioannes became
a monk as IGNATIOS in 1076. The Alexeiad records that "the Cæsar Ioannes, his paternal uncle"
advised Emperor Mikhael Doukas to retire to a monastery after he was deposed[407]. Imperial
counsellor in 1081. The list of obituaries of Empress Eirene Doukas's family records the death "12 May,
Ignatios, grandfather of Empress"[408]. m ([1045]) EIRENE Pegonitissa, daughter of LEON Pegonites,
General & his wife --- (-8 Sep [1060/66]). Psellos names Leon Pegonites as father of Eirene, wife of

28
Ioannes Doukas[409]. The list of obituaries of Empress Eirene Doukas's family records the death "8 Sep
Irene, grandmother of the Empress"[410]. Ioannes Doukas & his wife had two children:
a) ANDRONIKOS Doukas (-14 Oct 1077). The Alexeiad names "Andronikos, the Cæsar's eldest
son" as the father of Empress Eirene[411]. Co-emperor 1067-1070.
- see below.
b) KONSTANTINOS Doukas (-[1075/76]). Mikhael Glykas refers to "Iohanni Cæsari…filiis…
Constantinus…filius alter…Andronicus"[412]. Psellos records that Emperor Mikhael VII appointed
"the cæsar's younger son" as commander-in-chief of his army in 1071, and that he defeated ex-Emperor
Romanos IV on his approach to Constantinople[413]. Protoproedros. Protostrator 1073. m ---. The
name of Konstantinos's wife is not known. Konstantinos Doukas & his wife had one child:
i) [--- Doukas. As noted below, the poet Theodore Prodromos states that a grandson of the cæsar
Ioannes Doukas married the eldest daughter of Isaakios Komnenos[414]. His name and precise
parentage are not known. Polemis assumes that he was an otherwise unknown son of Konstantinos
Doukas since he assumes that the brothers of Empress Eirene, sons of Andronikos Doukas, would not
have married a niece of their sister's husband[415]. He is named Ioannes by Sturdza[416], but the basis
for this is not known. m [ANNA] Komnene, daughter of ISAAKIOS Komnenos, sébastokrator & his
wife Irena of Georgia. The poet Theodore Prodromos states that Isaakios's eldest daughter married a
grandson of the cæsar Ioannes Doukas[417]. She is named Anna by Sturdza[418], but presumably this
is an informed guess as it is the name which would normally have been given to Isaakios's eldest
daughter in line with contemporary family naming patterns among Byzantine nobility (being the name
of her paternal grandmother)[419]. An alternative possibility is that the oldest daughter, Anna, died
young and that the wife of Doukas was the oldest surviving daughter.] --- Doukas & his wife had one
child:
(a) ZOE Doukaina. The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been
identified. 1120. m GEORGIOS Botaneiates, son of ---.
3. MARIA . A seal dated to [1042/67] names "Maria nun and…sister of Konstantinos
despotes"[420].

ANDRONIKOS Doukas, son of IOANNES Doukas, cæsar & his wife Eirene Pegonitissa (-14 Oct
1077). The Alexeiad names "Andronikos, the Cæsar's eldest son" as the father of Empress Eirene[421].
Mikhael Glykas refers to "Iohanni Cæsari…filiis…Constantinus…filius alter…Andronicus"[422]. Co-
emperor 1067-1070. Commander of the imperial fleet in 1068, he fled from the battle scene at
Manzikert in Aug 1071 and deliberately spread the rumour that the battle was lost, which eventually it
was[423]. Protoproedros, Protobestarios. Psellos records that "Andronicus, the elder of the cæsar's
sons, was given command of the imperial armies"[424]. Domestikos of the Orient 1073. He became a
monk as ANTONIOS. The list of obituaries of Empress Eirene Doukas's family records the death "14
Oct, monk Antonios, father of the Empress"[425].
m ([before 1061]) MARIA Troiane, daughter of TROJAN [Troianos] of Bulgaria & his wife --- (-after
1089). Her parentage is confirmed by Nikephoros Bryennios who records that "uxor Andronici" was
"genus a Samuele…Bulgarorum rege, e cuius filio Troianne nata ipsa erat", adding that "materna vero ei
prosapia referebatur ad Contostephanos, Aballantes et Phocadas"[426]. The Alexeiad records that "the
daughter-in-law of the Cæsar Ioannes…protovestiaria" was imprisoned "in the nunnery of Petrion near
the Sidera" when the Komnenoi plot against Emperor Nikephoros Botaneiates was discovered, referring
to her as "kinswoman" of Anna Dalassena and, in a later passage, stating that she "was of Bulgarian
descent"[427]. Protobestiaria. She became a nun as XENE. The list of obituaries of Empress Eirene
Doukas's family records the death "21 Nov, nun Xene mother of the Empress"[428].
Andronikos Doukas & his wife had six children:
1. MIKHAEL Doukas (1061-9 Jan [1108/18]). The Alexeiad names Mikhael and Ioannes as
grandsons of "the Cæsar Ioannes" and "Georgios Palaiologos the husband of their sister"[429]. The list
of obituaries of Empress Eirene Doukas's family records the death "9 Jan, monk Michael, brother of the
Empress"[430]. m [EUPHROSYNE], daughter of ---. The name of Mikhael Doukas's wife is not

29
known. However, a couple named Mikhael Doukas and his wife Euphrosyne are attested, the husband
possibly being the son of Andronikos Doukas[431]. Mikhael Doukas & his wife had four children:
a) KONSTANTINOS Doukas . Theophylact of Ohrid sent three letters addressed to Konstantinos,
son of Mikhael[432]. Sébastos. 1118.
b) THEODOROS Doukas. The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been
identified. Pansébastos. m ([1125]) THEODORA, daughter of ---. The primary source which confirms
her marriage has not yet been identified. Theodoros & his wife had one child:
i) EUPHROSYNE . The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet
been identified. m NIKOLAS Mavrokatakalon.
c) [ANNA] Doukaina. The source quoted by Polemis, a saint's life, states that an unnamed
daughter of Mikhael Doukas married Ioannes, a nephew of Emperor Alexios I[433]. A transcript of
tomb inscriptions from the Church of St Mary Pammakaristos, now Fethiye Camii, published by Peter
Schreiner in Dumbarton Oaks Studies, lists the individuals named below as descendants of the church's
founders Ioannes Komnenos and Anna Doukaina[434], although it is not clear that this refers to the
same couple. m IOANNES Komnenos, son of MIKHAEL Doukas & his wife --- (-[1106]). He was
appointed dux of Durazzo in 1092 by his uncle Emperor Alexios I. Protosébastos 1105.
d) [EIRENE Doukaina. The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet
been identified. m GREGORIOS Kamateros, son of ---. Sébastos.]
2. KONSTANTINOS Doukas (-10 Sep after 1081). The list of obituaries of Empress Eirene
Doukas's family records the death "10 Sep, Sebaste Constantine brother of the Empress"[435]. His
death can be assumed after 1081 as his brother-in-law Emperor Alexios I must have awarded him the
title sébastos after his accession.
3. STEPHANOS Doukas (-10 Sep after 1081). The list of obituaries of Empress Eirene Doukas's
family records the death "20 Oct, Sebaste Stephanos brother of the Empress"[436]. His death can be
assumed after 1081 as his brother-in-law Emperor Alexios I must have awarded him the title sébastos
after his accession.
4. ANNA Doukaina (-[1110/35]). The Alexeiad names Anna as the wife of Georgios Palaiologos,
her origin being deduced from the text stating that "the protovestiaria" was his mother-in-law and
making it clear that the couple married before the Komnenoi plot against Emperor Nikephoros
Botaneiates[437]. It is likely that she was older than her brother Ioannes, who was described in the same
source as "only a young boy" around the same time. m (before 1081) GEORGIOS Palaiologos, son of
NIKEPHOROS Palaiologos & his wife [--- Kurtikina] ([1110/36]).
5. EIRENE Doukaina ([1065/66]-[19 Feb 1123]). The Alexeiad records that Eirene, mother of
Anna Komnene, was "kinswoman" of the Doukas family and "legal wife of my [Anna Komnene's]
father" but does not name her parents[438]. This passage follows soon after the text which names
Mikhael and Ioannes as grandsons of "the Cæsar Ioannes" and "Georgios Palaiologos the husband of
their sister"[439]. The omission of Eirene from this list of brothers and sister suggests that she was not
the daughter of Andronikos Doukas. In another passage, the Alexeiad records that Anna "on my
mother's side [was] related to the Doukas"[440]. Any doubts about her parentage are resolved in a
further passage which records that, at the time of the Komnenoi rebellion in 1081, the future Emperor
Alexios left "his wife, fifteen years old at the time…in the 'lower' palace with her sisters and mother and
the Cæsar, her grandfather on the paternal side", and in yet another passage which explicitly states that
she was "a daughter of Andronikos, the Cæsar's eldest son"[441]. Nikephoros Bryennios records that
"Alexium Comnenum" married "primogenitam…filiarum" of Andronikos[442]. The Alexeiad records
that she was crowned empress "on the seventh day after the public proclamation" of her husband's
accession[443]. She supported her daughter's attempt to have the latter's husband Nikephoros Briennios
succeed her husband as emperor, but retired to a convent after her husband died. m (betrothed before
Oct 1077, [1078]) as his second wife, ALEXIOS Komnenos, son of IOANNES Komnenos, kuropalates
and domestikos & his wife Anna Dalassena ([1048/57]-15 Aug 1118). He succeeded in 1081 as
Emperor ALEXIOS I.
6. EUDOKIA Doukas (-8 Nov ----). The list of obituaries of Empress Eirene Doukas's family
records the death "8 Nov, Eudocia, sister of the Empress"[444].

30
7. IOANNES Doukas (-5 Jan before 1136). The Alexeiad names Ioannes as grandson of "the
Cæsar Ioannes…only a young boy", but does not name his father, when recording that he was living
with his grandfather on the latter's estate at Moroboundos at the time of the Komnenoi plot against
Emperor Nikephoros Botaneiates[445]. His parentage is confirmed from a later passage in the Alexeiad
which names Mikhael and Ioannes as grandsons of "the Cæsar Ioannes" and "Georgios Palaiologos the
husband of their sister"[446]. He was appointed cæsar 1089. Megas dux before 1090 and after
[1092/93]. Dux of Durazzo 1090/92. He became a monk as ANTONIOS. The list of obituaries of
Empress Eirene Doukas's family records the death "5 Jan, monk Antonios, brother of the
Empress"[447].
8. THEODORA Doukaina ([1070]-21 Feb before 1116). Nikephoros Bryennios records that
"mimimam natu [filiarum] Theodoram" devoted herself to God "ab ipsa prima infantia"[448]. She
became a nun as EIRENE. The list of obituaries of Empress Eirene Doukas's family records the death
"21 Feb, nun Irene sister of the Empress"[449].

It is not known how the following individuals were related to the main Doukas family, if at all.

1. ANNA Doukaina, daughter of ---. The primary source which confirms her parentage and
marriage has not yet been identified. m ALEXIOS KomnenoDoukas Palaiologos, son of ---. 1166.

2. EVDOKIA Doukaina, daughter of ---. She is named as wife of Andronikos in a tomb inscription
at the Church of St Mary Pammakaristos, now Fethiye Camii,[450]. m ANDRONIKOS Komnenos, son
of IOANNES Komnenos [dux of Durrazzo] & his wife Anna Doukaina.

3. MARIA Doukaina, daughter of ---. The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet
been identified. m ALEXIOS Komnenos, son of ANDRONIKOS Komnenos, sébastokrator & his wife
Eirene [Aineiadissa] ([1136]-murdered 1183). Head of the Regency Council 1180-1182.

4. ANNA Doukaina. The Chronicle of Otto of Freising records that Boris, while in Greece,
married "consanguineam sibi imperatoris Kaloioannis" but does not specify her name or her precise
parentage[451]. According to Sturdza[452], she was the daughter of Konstantinos Doukas sébastos, son
of Mikhael Doukas protostator and sébastos, but the basis for this is not known. According to
Kerbl[453], her marriage probably took place before the death of Emperor Ioannes II with whom Boris
enjoyed good relations. She became a nun as ARETE. m BORIS KONRAD of Hungary, son of
KÁLMÁN King of Hungary & his second wife Ievfemia Vladimirovna of Kiev ([1113]-killed in battle
[1155/56]). Panhypersébastos. Pretender to the throne of Hungary 1131/55.

1. KONSTANTINOS Doukas "Makrodoukas" (-murdered 30 May 1185). Niketas Choniates


names "Macroducas Constantinus"[454]. Pansébastos, panhypersébastos. He was stoned to death at the
Manganes on the orders of Emperor Andronikos I. m (before 1166) [--- Komnene], daughter of
[ISAAKIOS Komnenos sébastokrator & his first wife Theodora ---]. Niketas Choniates records that
"Macroducæ Constantini" married "materteram Isaacii" (referring to Isaakios Doukas, later Emperor in
Cyprus)[455]. If matertera in this passage is interpreted strictly, Konstantinos´s wife was the daughter
of Isaakios Komnenos. However, Ioannes Kinnamos records that "Constantino Ducas" married
"imperatoris ex sorore neptim"[456], which indicates that Konstantinos´s wife was the daughter of one
of Emperor Manuel I´s sisters. It is not known which version might be correct. Konstantinos
Makrodoukas & his wife had [two possible children]:
a) [ZOE Doukas. According to Sturdza[457], the wife of Ioannes Angelos was Zoe, daughter of
Konstantinos Doukas Makrodoukas & his wife Anna Komnene, but there appears to be no proof that
this person ever existed. The source for Ioannes's wife being named Zoe goes back to an author in 1643
but no further[458]. According to Europäische Stammtafeln[459], Ioannes married twice, both his

31
wives possibly being named Zoe. The speculation concerning his two marriages may result from the
apparent chronological anomaly of his son Theodoros being born when his father must have been in his
fifties or sixties. If Ioannes was married twice, and if the marriage to Zoe Doukas is correct and her
parentage as shown in Sturdza, it is likely that she was Ioannes's second wife and the mother of
Theodoros as her own mother would have been born in [1134/44]. m [as his second wife,] IOANNES
Konstantinos Doukas Angelos, son of KONSTANTINOS Angelos & his wife Theodora Komnene (-
[1200]). Sébastokrator.]
b) ISAAKIOS Makrodoukas (-executed 1185). The primary source which confirms his parentage
has not yet been identified. m as her first husband, MARGIT of Hungary, daughter of GÉZA II King of
Hungary & his wife Ievfrosina Mstislavna of Kiev (posthumously 1162-before 1208). The Chronicon
Posoniense records that "dux Geyza…soror eius" married in Greece but does not name her[460]. The
primary source which confirms her name and the precise identity of her first husband has not yet been
identified. Her second marriage is shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[461], but the source on which
this is based has not yet been identified. She married secondly (after 1186) András Gespan of Somogy.
Isaakios Makrodoukas & his wife had one child:
i) ANDRONIKOS Makrodoukas. The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet
been identified. He lived in Hungary.

B. EMPERORS 1059-1068, 1071-1078

KONSTANTINOS X 1059-1067, MIKHAEL VII 1071-1078

KONSTANTINOS Doukas, son of ANDRONIKOS Doukas & his wife --- ([1006/07]-22 May 1067).
Bestarches 1057. President of the Senate. Proedros in Asia Minor[462]. Zonaras names "Dalassenus"
and "Constantinus Ducas eius gener" when recording that the latter was imprisoned by Emperor Mikhael
IV[463]. Psellos names "the Duke Constantine….[descended]…from the celebrated Dukas…
Andronicus and Constantine", when recording that he was chosen to succeed Emperor Isaakios I[464].
He was nominated as his successor by Emperor Isaakios I and succeeded in 1059 on the latter's
abdication as Emperor KONSTANTINOS X. He reduced the armed forces as a means of controlling the
over-powerful army, a fatal move for the empire which was under threat in the west from the Normans
of Calabria and in the east from the lawlessness which followed the decline of the Abbasid Caliphate in
Baghdad[465]. Seljuk Sultan Alp Arslan intensified raids on Byzantine territory, destroying the former
Armenian capital Ani in 1064, and by 1066 was in full control of Armenia[466]. Emperor Konstantinos
devoted his time to civil administration[467]. Psellos records that Emperor Konstantinos "had lived
slightly over sixty years" when he died[468].
m firstly --- Dalassene, daughter of KONSTANTINOS Dalassenos, General & his wife --- (-after 1039).
Psellos records that Konstantinos's first wife was "the daughter of the great Constantine
Dalassenus"[469]. Zonaras names "Dalassenus" and "Constantinus Ducas eius gener" when recording
that the latter was imprisoned by Emperor Mikhael IV[470].
m secondly (before 1050) EVDOKIA Makrembolitissa, niece of Patriarch MIKHAEL Keroularios,
daughter of IOANNES Makrembolites & his wife --- (-1096). Psellos names "Eudocia" as wife of
Emperor Konstantinos[471]. The Historia of Mikhael Attaliota records that "vestiarius Constantinus
Ducas" married "neptis patriarchæ [Kerularii]"[472]. Nikephoros Bryennios names "eius coniuge
Eudocia, cum Michaele, Andronico et Constantino filiis" as survivors of "Ducas"[473]. The primary
source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified. Regent for her son Emperor Mikhael
VII 1067. Psellos records that her husband on his deathbed made her swear she would never
remarry[474], but she married secondly (1 Jan 1068) Romanos Diogenes, who immediately succeeded
as Emperor Romanos IV. Psellos records the second marriage of "Eudocia" and "Romanus, the son of

32
Diogenes"[475]. On the overthrow of Emperor Romanos, she ruled jointly with her son, but was soon
overthrown and confined to a convent.
Emperor Konstantinos X & his second wife had seven children. Psellos records that they were born "not
only before his accession to the throne but afterwards"[476].
1. MIKHAEL Doukas (-[1090]). Mikhael Glykas names "Michaelum, Andronicum et
Constantinum purpurigenam" as the sons of Emperor Konstantinos & his wife[477]. Nikephoros
Bryennios names "eius coniuge Eudocia, cum Michaele, Andronico et Constantino filiis" as survivors of
"Ducas"[478]. Psellos names Mikhael as eldest child of Konstantinos and his wife[479]. He succeeded
his father in 1067 as Emperor MIKHAEL VII "Parapinakes", under the regency of his mother. After her
remarriage in 1068, Emperor Mikhael was demoted to co-emperor to her second husband Emperor
Romanos IV. The Seljuk Turks raided Neocæsaria and Amorium in 1068, Iconium in 1069 and Chonæ
in 1070[480]. During Emperor Romanos's imprisonment by the Seljuks which followed the battle of
Manzikert in Aug 1071, Mikhael VII manoeuvred himself back into power with the support of the
Varangian guards[481]. Despite pressure to banish his mother, he at first ruled as co-emperor with her,
but finally confined her to a convent and ruled alone from 24 Oct 1071. The Seljuks, considering their
agreement with Emperor Romanos IV null and void after his overthrow, invaded Byzantium. In 1073,
Emperor Mikhael's uncle Ioannes Doukas was proclaimed emperor at Amorium by Roussel de Bailleul
(commander of the Norman mercenaries), who had mutinied against Emperor Mikhael VII, and marched
on Constantinople. Emperor Mikhael sought help from the Seljuks, promising them the cession of east
Anatolia, and they surrounded Roussel's forces on Mount Sophon in Cappadocia[482]. Emperor
Mikhael made friendly contact with Pope Gregory VII and also betrothed his son to the daughter of
Robert "Guiscard" Duke of Apulia in 1074[483], although the contract was broken after Mikhael's
abdication. Faced with external crises, as well as internal crises triggered by high inflation, he was
forced to abdicate in 1078 by Nikephoros Botaneiates who succeeded as emperor. He became a monk at
Studion monastery. Metropolitan of Ephesus. m (after 1071, repudiated) as her first husband,
MARTHA of Georgia, daughter of BAGRAT IV King of Georgia & his second wife Borena of Ossetia
(-after 1090). The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that Empress Theodora requested King
Bagrat to send "sa fille Martha" to be brought up as her daughter, but that by the time she arrived in
Constantinople the empress had died (in 1056), and her subsequent marriage to "l'empereur de
Grèce"[484]. She was known as MARIA in Byzantium. Nikephoros Bryennios records that Emperor
Mikhael married Maria, daughter of Bagrat King of Georgia. Zonaras names "Maria Alana" as the wife
of Emperor Mikhael[485]. She was repudiated by her first husband when he became a monk, and
married secondly (1 Apr 1078) Nikephoros Botaneiates, Governor of Anatolia, who had been crowned
Emperor Nikephoros III 1 Jan 1078. The Alexeiad records that "Botaneiates had established himself on
the throne immediately after the deposition of Mikhael Doukas, and…won the hand of the Empress
Maria"[486]. She became a nun as MARTHA. Emperor Mikhael VII & his wife had one child:
a) KONSTANTINOS Doukas (-12 Aug [1092/97]). Psellos names "Constantine, the son of the
Emperor Michael Ducas" when recording that he saw him "when he was a tiny baby"[487]. He was
appointed co-emperor by his father in 1074, but abdicated with the latter in 1078. Emperor Alexios I
Komnenos declared him his heir and appointed him co-emperor in 1081, but transferred the succession
to his own son in 1092. The list of obituaries of Empress Eirene Doukas's family records the death "12
Aug, Constantine son-in-law of Emperor"[488]. Although the marriage of Konstantinos Doukas to the
emperor's daughter did not take place, it is possible that the entry refers to him as there is no record of
the emperor having a son-in-law of this name. Betrothed firstly (Aug 1074, contract broken 1078) to
[OLYMPIAS] of Apulia, daughter of ROBERT "Guiscard/Weasel" Duke of Apulia & his second wife
Sichelgaita di Salerno (-after 1090). The Annals of Romoald record the betrothal of an unnamed
daughter of Robert "Guiscard" and "imperatorem Constantinopolem" in 1076[489]. The Alexeiad
records that Emperor Mikhael Doukas "promised his own son Konstantinos in marriage to the daughter
of this barbarian Robert", in a later passage stating that "the lady's name was Helena"[490]. Skylitzes
records the betrothal of "Robertus…filiam…Helenam" and "suo filio Constantino" (referring the son of
Emperor Mikhael VII), dated to [1073/75][491]. Amatus also records this betrothal[492]. She is named
Olympias by Houts, who does not cite the source on which this is based[493]. She lived in

33
Constantinople after her betrothal and was baptised into the Greek Orthodox church as HELENA.
Orderic Vitalis says that two of the daughters of Robert "Guiscard" were living in Constantinople, and
that they remained there after the accession of Emperor of Alexios I (in 1081), performing light service
at court before being sent back to Sicily[494]. After the betrothal was broken, she was placed in a
convent. She eventually returned to Italy after the death of her parents, and settled at her uncle's court at
Palermo. Betrothed secondly (1084, contract broken Dec 1090) to ANNA Komnene Doukaina,
daughter of Emperor ALEXIOS I & his second wife Eirene Doukaina (2 Dec 1083-[1149/54]). Zonaras
records that "Anna" was betrothed to "Constantino filio reginæ Mariæ Alanæ" who died before the
marriage, and afterwards married "filio natu maiori Nicephori Bryennii"[495].
2. ANNA Doukaina (before 1057-after 1075). Mikhael Glykas names "Annam, Theodoram et
Zoen" as the daughters of Emperor Konstantinos & his wife[496]. Psellos names "Arete" as the older
daughter of Konstantinos born before his accession, commenting that "she dedicated her life to the
service of God" and "she is still with us"[497]. She became a nun as ARETE.
3. THEODORA Doukaina (before 1059-after 1075). Mikhael Glykas names "Annam, Theodoram
et Zoen" as the daughters of Emperor Konstantinos & his wife[498]. Psellos records that the younger
daughter of Konstantinos born before his accession "had already been betrothed"[499]. The primary
source which confirms the name of her betrothed has not yet been identified. It is not certain that this
daughter was the same person as Theodora who later married the Doge of Venice. The primary source
which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified. Betrothed (1059 or before) ---. m (after 1071)
[as his second wife,] DOMENICO Silvio Doge of Venice, son of --- (-after 1084).
4. son (-[late 1059/early 1060]). Psellos records that "the second boy lived only a short time after
his father became emperor and then died"[500].
5. ANDRONIKOS Doukas ([1057]-after 1081). Mikhael Glykas names "Michaelum, Andronicum
et Constantinum purpurigenam" as the sons of Emperor Konstantinos & his wife[501]. Nikephoros
Bryennios names "eius coniuge Eudocia, cum Michaele, Andronico et Constantino filiis" as survivors of
"Ducas"[502]. Psellos records that "Michael and the younger son Andronicus" were born before their
father's accession[503]. Psellos writes that "Andronicus, brother of the Emperor Michael Ducas…is just
past his boyhood"[504]. He was crowned co-emperor by his brother Emperor Mikhael VII after the
latter assumed sole rule in Oct 1071. m (1068) --- of Hungary, daughter of BÉLA I King of Hungary &
his wife [Ryksa] of Poland. The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not so
far been identified. She adopted the name MARIA in Byzantium.
6. KONSTANTIOS Doukas (1060-killed in battle Durazzo 18 Oct 1081). Mikhael Glykas names
"Michaelum, Andronicum et Constantinum purpurigenam" as the sons of Emperor Konstantinos & his
wife[505]. Nikephoros Bryennios names "eius coniuge Eudocia, cum Michaele, Andronico et
Constantino filiis" as survivors of "Ducas"[506]. Psellos records that "the sun had not yet completed its
yearly cycle after Constantine's promotion when another child was born"[507]. Psellos names
"Constantine…a child" as one of the two sons with his mother after their father died, commenting that
his older brother Mikhael "used to sit on the imperial throne beside his brother Constantine"[508]. Co-
emperor 1067-1078. He was confined to a monastery after his brother's abdication by the latter's
successor Emperor Nikephoros Botaneiates[509]. The Alexeiad records the death of "Constantius the
son of the former emperor Konstantinos Doukas…born…in the Porphyra" while fighting Robert
"Guiscard" Duke of Apulia in Durazzo in 1081[510].
7. ZOE Doukaina (1062-28 Aug before 1136). Mikhael Glykas names "Annam, Theodoram et
Zoen" as the daughters of Emperor Konstantinos & his wife[511]. The Alexeiad names "the
Porphyrogenita Zoe" as daughter of Empress Eudoxia, suggesting that her mother planned to marry her
to Emperor Nikephoros Botaneiates after the latter's accession in 1078[512]. She was named "Anna" in
a poem concering the ancestors of Giorgios Palaiologos. Magdalino and Cheynet both assume that this
was her monastic name, but it may be a mistake resulting from confusion with her sister of the same
name[513]. The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified. The list of
obituaries of Empress Eirene Doukas's family records the death "28 Aug, Porphyrogenita Zoe"[514].
Betrothed to NIKEPHOROS Synadenos, son of THEODULOS Synadenos & his wife --- Botaneiatissa
(-killed in battle Durazzo 18 Oct 1081). m (after Oct 1081) ADRIANOS Komnenos, son of IOANNES

34
Komnenos, domestikos & his wife Anna Dalassena ([1060/65]-19 Apr 1105). He was created
protosébastos by his brother Emperor Alexios I in 1081. Leader against the Normans in 1083. Megas
domestikos [1087/97]. Panhypersébastos. He became a monk as IOANNES.

Chapter 3. DIOGENES, EMPEROR 1068-1071

1. THEODOTOS Diogenes . A seal dated to [1000] names "Theodotos Diogenes, imperial


protospatharios and strategos of Cyprus"[515].

2. ADRALESTOS Diogenes . Two seals dated to [1025] and [1035] respectively name "Adralestos
Diogenes, imperial protospatharios and strategos of Morava" and "Adralestos Diogenes patrikios and
strategos"[516].

3. BAASAKIOS Diogenes . A seal dated to [1040] names "Baasakios Diogenes, anthypatos


patrikios and katepano of Thessalonike"[517].

4. PANKRATIOS Diogenes . Two seals dated to [1050] name "Pankratios Diogenes strategos" and
"Pankratios Diogenes, protospatharios and strategos of Cappadocia"[518].

ROMANOS IV 1068-1072

1. KONSTANTINOS Diogenes (-[1028/34]). He originated from Cappadocia. Cedrenus records


that "Constantinum Diogenem" succeeded "Theophylacto Botaneita" in "prætura Thessalonicensi",
dated to early 1015 from the context, and that Emperor Basileios II sent him "in regionem Moglenorum"
to defeat Gavriil Radomir Tsar of the Bulgarians[519]. Zonaras records that "Constantinus Diogenes
Sirmii præfectus qui et Bulgariæ dux appellatus est" brought Bulgaria under Byzantine control, dated
from the context to around the time of the death of Emperor Basileios II (1025)[520]. Cedrenus records
that "Thessalonicensium duce Constantino Diogene" defeated "Joannis et eius patruelem" (Ivan
Vladislav Tsar of the Bulgarians) 9 Jan "indictione 15"[521]. Zonaras records that "Constantinum
Diogenes", who had escaped "in Illyricum", was recaptured, dated to [1032] from the context[522].
Cedrenus records that "Constantinus Diogenes…Sirmii præfectus…ac Thessalonicæ dux" was sent to
Thrace where he threw himself from a tower[523]. Psellos records that he "had been arrested on a
charge of attempted revolution during the reign of Romanus Argyrus and had committed suicide by
hurling himself over a precipice"[524]. m --- Argyre, daughter of --- Argyros & his wife ---. Zonaras
refers to "vestacharum dignitate…a Duca Sardicæ dux", indicating the future Emperor Romanos IV
Diogenes, whose father married "Romani Argyri neptem ex fratre"[525]. It should be noted that this
passage does not state clearly that this wife of Konstantinos was the mother of Emperor Romanos. It is
possible that he was born from another marriage, his mother being less well-connected as she is not
referred to directly in the text. Cedrenus records that the wife of "Constantinus Diogenes" was "fratre
imperatoris nata"[526]. Konstantinos & [his wife] had one child:
a) ROMANOS Diogenes (-Prote Monastery Summer 1072). Mikhael Glykas names "imperator
Romanus Vestarches, Constantini Diogenis filius"[527]. Skylitzes records that "Romanus Constantinus
Diogenis filius…patricius" was created "dux Sardices…bestarches" by Emperor Konstantinos
Doukas[528]. Having rebelled against Empress Evdokia after the death of Emperor Konstantinos X
Doukas in 1067, Psellos implies that the empress was subsequently obliged to marry him to preserve her
position[529]. He succeeded in 1 Jan 1068 as Emperor ROMANOS IV after marrying Empress

35
Evdokia. After the conquest of Armenia, the Seljuk Turks intensified their raids into Byzantine
territory, as far as Neocæsaria and Amorium in 1068, Iconium in 1069 and Chonæ in 1070[530].
Emperor Romanos was defeated by the Seljuks 20 Nov 1068, and again at Manzikert 19 Aug 1071
where he was captured. In the same year, Bari, the last Byzantine possession in southern Italy, fell to
the Normans. Although Emperor Romanos was freed by the Seljuks after promising monetary tribute,
he had been overthrown during his imprisonment by his stepson Emperor Mikhael VII Doukas. When
he regained Constantinople, he was defeated and fled to Cilicia to regroup his forces, but was defeated
once more. He was forced to become a monk, but was afterwards betrayed and blinded, dying soon
afterwards from his injuries at the monastery on the island of Prote. m firstly ([1045/50]) [ANNA]
Alusiane, daughter of ALUSIAN [of Bulgaria] & his wife --- ([1030]-before 1065). Her parentage and
marriage are deduced from Skylitzes who names "bestarches Samuel Aluisianus Bulgarus, imperatoris
uxoris frater"[531], although it is curious to note that she is still referred to as "imperatoris uxoris" in a
passage which refers to events after her husband´s accession and second marriage and therefore after her
death. The date for this marriage is estimated from the couple's son Konstantinos Diogenes leaving two
known children when he was killed in battle in 1074. m secondly (1 Jan 1068) as her second husband,
EVDOKIA Makrembolitissa, widow of Emperor KONSTANTINOS X, daughter of IOANNES
Makrembolites & his wife --- (-1096). Psellos records the second marriage of "Eudocia" and "Romanus,
the son of Diogenes"[532]. The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been
identified. On the overthrow of Emperor Romanos IV, she ruled jointly with her son, but was soon
overthrown and confined to a convent. Emperor Romanos IV & his first wife had one child:
i) KONSTANTINOS Diogenes (-killed in battle Antioch [1074]). His parentage is confirmed by
Nikephoros Bryennios who names him "Constantino Diogenis iam imperatoris filio" when recording his
marriage[533]. Nikephoros Bryennios records that "sororis eius Constantinus imperatoris Diogenis
filius" was killed in battle in Antioch[534]. m ([1068/71]) THEODORA Komnene, daughter of
IOANNES Komnenos, domestikos & his wife Anna Dalassena ([1053]-after [1094/95]). Nikephoros
Bryennios records the marriage, after her father's death "matris voluntate", of "Ioannes…Comnenus
curopalates…postrema Theodora [filia]" and "Constantino Diogenis iam imperatoris filio"[535]. The
Alexeiad names "Theodora, the emperor's sister…widow of Diogenes's murdered son", when recording
her reaction to an imposter pretending to be her husband who had been killed in Antioch[536]. The text
names the son "Leon" but it is clear from the context that it must refer to Konstantinos, who was killed
when his half-brother Leon was still an infant. She became a nun as XENA. Konstantine Diogenes &
his wife had [one] child:
(a) [ANNA Diogene. Her possible parentage and marriage are shown in Europäische
Stammtafeln[537], but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified. m UROŠ
Grand Župan of Serbia, nephew of VUKAN Župan of Raška, son of --- ([1080]-after 1130).]
ii) [son . Amatus refers to the emperor (unnamed) giving "his son in marriage to the daughter of
the King of the Turks" in order to obtain his release and that of Roussel[538]. Although not specified in
the text, it is assumed that this relates to the release of Emperor Romanos IV following the battle of
Manzikert in Aug 1071, in which case the son in question was unlikely to have been Konstantinos who
was then already married. It is not known which of the emperor's sons this passage might refer to, but it
presumably must have been a son by his first marriage as his sons by his second marriage were still
infants at the time. The accuracy of this report is doubtful, especially in light of the report of Alp-Arslan
requesting the emperor's daughter in marriage for his son, in a late Persian source (see below), which
suggests that the whole episode may have been garbled or romanticised by one or both of the sources. If
Amatus is accurate, it does not necessarily follow that the marriage took place as the bridegroom would
have had to convert to Islam. [m ([1071/72]) --- Seljuk, daughter of ALP ARSLAN Seljuk Sultan.]
iii) [daughter . The Khelassat-oul-akhbar records that "Alp-Arslan" defeated and captured "le roi de
Roum Ormanus", presumably referring to the battle of Manzikert, requesting "sa fille en mariage pour
son fils Malek-Arslan"[539]. The accuracy of this report is doubtful, especially in light of the report of
Alp-Arslan requesting the emperor's son in marriage for his daughter, in Amatus (see above), which
suggests that the whole episode may have been garbled or romanticised by one or both of the sources. If
the late Persian source is accurate, the difference in religion would not necessarily have prevented the

36
marriage from taking place as other primary sources show that the sultans of the various dynasties often
married Christian wives (see the document WEST ASIA and NORTH AFRICA (2)). m (after 19 Aug
1071) MALIK Shah, son of Seljuk Sultan ALP ARSLAN. He succeeded his father as Seljuk Sultan in
1072.]
Emperor Romanos IV & his second wife had two children:
iv) LEON Diogenes ([1068/70]-killed in battle [1087/89]). The Alexeiad names "the sons of the
former emperor Romanos Diogenes, Leon and Nikephoros" when recording that they supported
Giorgios Palaiologos against Robert "Guiscard" Duke of Apulia in Durazzo in 1081, clarifying in a later
passage that they were the sons of Empress Eudoxia[540]. Emperor Mikhael VII banished him and his
brother Nikephoros to the monastery of Kyperudes with their mother. Emperor Alexios I Komnenos
rehabilitated the brothers, and installed Leon as ruler in Sparta[541]. The Alexeiad records that "Leo,
Diogenes's son" was mortally wounded fighting the Scythians[542].
v) NIKEPHOROS Diogenes ([1069/72]-after 1094). The Alexeiad names "the sons of the former
emperor Romanos Diogenes, Leon and Nikephoros" when recording that they supported Giorgios
Palaiologos against Robert "Guiscard" Duke of Apulia in Durazzo in 1081, clarifying in a later passage
that they were the sons of Empress Eudoxia[543]. Emperor Alexios I installed Nikephoros as governor
of the island of Cyprus[544]. He rebelled against Emperor Alexios I Komnenos in 1094 and was
blinded and banished[545].

1. --- Diogene, relative of ROMANOS Diogenes. The primary source which confirms her
parentage and marriage has not yet been identified. m ([1068]) MANUEL Komnenos, kuropalates, son
of IOANNES Komnenos, domestikos & his wife Anna Dalassena (-killed in battle Bithynia [1070/early
1071]).

1. LEON Diogenes (-murdered 15 Aug 1116). His parentage is unknown. He fled to Russia where
he was accepted as a son of Emperor Romanos IV, although an imposter[546]. m MARIA
Vladimirovna, daughter of VLADIMIR I Vsevolodich Monomakh Grand Prince of Kiev & his first wife
[Gytha of England] (-1146). Baumgarten cites Russian primary sources which confirm this couple's
marriage[547].

Chapter 4. BOTANEIATES, EMPEROR 1078-1081

1. THEOPHYLAKTOS Botaneiates (-[1015]). Cedrenus records that "Theophylacto Botaneita"


was appointed as doux of Thessaloniki after "Davidum Arianitum" by Emperor Basileios II, dated to
[1015] from the context[548].

NIKEPHOROS III 1078-1081

Two children whose parents are not known:


1. NIKEPHOROS Botaneiates ([1020]-after 1081). His possible origin is suggested by Skylitzes
who names "Botaniates ex nobilibus a Phoca oriundus" when recording his rise to power in [1077/78]
[549]. Any relationship between the Phokas and Botaneiates families has not yet been traced. Cedrenus
names "Romanus Sclerus, Burtza, Botaneiates, Basilii Argyrii filii" among the supporters of Isaakios
Komnenos, in 1057[550]. Skylitzes records that "magister Basilius Apocapes et magister Nicephorus
Botaniates" campaigned against the Pechenegs in Bulgaria and were captured, dated to [1059/60][551].

37
He was military commander in the Danube area in 1064[552]. Governor of Antioch in 1067[553].
Although he enjoyed good relations with Romanos Diogenes, on the latter's accession as Emperor
Romanos IV the relationship cooled. After Emperor Mikhael VII succeeded in 1071, Nikephoros
Botaneiates returned to favour and was appointed kuropalates and strategos of the theme of
Anatolikon[554]. He rebelled against Emperor Mikhael VII, was acclaimed emperor 7 Jan 1078, gained
the support of Suleiman Seljuk Sultan, and marched on Constantinople where a revolt broke out in his
support against the unpopular government of the emperor. He entered Constantinople 24 Mar 1078, and
was crowned Emperor NIKEPHOROS III the same day by the Patriarch. He married the wife of his
predecessor, who had retired to a monastery, to gain legitimacy. He was faced by the rebellion of
Nikephoros Bryennios, governor of Durazzo, and of Basilacius in Thessaly. The Turkish garrison of
Nikaia also rose in revolt. He was excommunicated by Pope Gregory, and Robert "Guiscard" Duke of
Apulia landed at Avlona and marched towards Durazzo. This was followed by the revolt of Nikephoros
Melissenos, whose alliance with Sultan Suleiman enabled the latter to capture Bythinia and establish
himself as Sultan at Nikaia[555]. Finally, Alexios Komnenos rebelled and forced Nikephoros's
abdication 4 Apr 1081. According to the Alexeiad, he had planned to name Nikephoros Synadenos, his
nephew, as his successor[556]. He retired to become a monk. m firstly ---. The primary source which
confirms her marriage has not yet been identified. m secondly BEBDENE, daughter of ---. Skylitzes
Continuatus names Bebdene as the first wife of Emperor Romanos III[557]. Augusta. m thirdly
(bigamously 1 Apr 1078) as her second husband, MARIA of Georgia, repudiated wife of Emperor
MIKHAEL VII, daughter of BAGRAT IV King of the Abkhazis and Kartvelians [Georgia] & his
[first/second] wife [Helena Argyre/Borena of Osetia] (-after 1090). Nikephoros Bryennios records that
Emperor Mikhael married Maria, daughter of Bagrat King of Georgia. She was repudiated by her first
husband when he became a monk. The Alexeiad records that "Botaneiates had established himself on
the throne immediately after the deposition of Mikhael Doukas, and…won the hand of the Empress
Maria"[558]. She became a nun as MARTHA. Emperor Nikephoros III & his first wife may have had
children, although this seems questionable if it is correct that the emperor planned to nominate his
nephew as his successor:
a) [---. m ---.]
i) --- [Botaneiates] . The Alexeiad records that "Anna Dalassena, the mother of the Komneni"
arranged the marriage of "the grandson of Botaneiates and the daughter of Manuel her eldest son"[559].
Betrothed (1081) to --- Komnene, daughter of MANUEL Komnenos, kuropalates, & his wife ---
Diogene (1069-).
2. --- Botaneiatissa. Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by Skylitzes who records that
Nikephoros Botaneiates married "sororis suæ filiam Synadenen, Theodulo Synadeno genitam" to "crali
Ungariæ"[560]. m THEODULOS Synadenos, son of ---.

1. LEON Botaneiates . A seal dated to [1050] names "Leon Botaneiates, protospatharios and
strategos of Dyrrachion"[561].

2. EUSTRATIOS Botaneiates . Two seals dated to [1067] name "Eustratios Botaneiates, patrikios
anthypatos and strategos of Zebele"[562].

Two brothers, parents not known.


3. NIKEPHOROS Botaneiates. m EVDOKIA Komnene, daughter of ISAAKIOS Komnenos,
sébastokrator & his wife Irena of Georgia. 1108. The primary source which confirms her parentage and
marriage has not yet been identified. Nikephoros Botaneiates & his wife had one child:
a) ISAAKIOS Botaneiates. The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been
identified.

38
4. GEORGIOS Botaneiates. The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been
identified. m ZOE Doukaina, daughter of [IOANNES] Doukas & his wife Anna Komnene. 1120. The
primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.

5. MANUEL Botaneiates . A seal dated to [1125] names "Manuel Botaneiates sebastos"[563].

Chapter 5. ANGELOS, EMPERORS 1185-1195

A. ORIGINS

[MANUEL] Angelos. He was "of modest origins"[564]. From Philadelphia. Patrikios 1078/81[565].
m ---. The name of [Manuel]'s wife is not known.
[Manuel] Angelos & his wife had four children:
1. KONSTANTINOS Angelos (-after Jul 1166). The primary source which confirms his parentage
has not yet been identified. Pansébastohypertatos [1120]. Sébastohypertatos [1147]. He was
commander of the imperial fleet in Sicily in 1145. Military commander 1149/66[566]. Ioannes
Kinnamos names "Constantinum cognomento Angelum, avunculum suum" as Emperor Manuel I's
military commander[567]. m (before 1120) THEODORA Komnene, daughter of Emperor ALEXIOS I
& his second wife Eirene Doukaina (15 Jan 1096-). Niketas Choniates names "Theodoram Alexii avi
Manuelis filiam" as wife of "Constantinum Angelum"[568]. Konstantinos Angelos & his wife had eight
children:
a) IOANNES Doukas Angelos (-[1200]). Niketas Choniates names "Angeli Constantini duo filii,
Iohannes et Andronicus"[569]. His birth date is estimated from the estimated marriage date of his
parents, which means that he must have already been an old man when appointed sébastokrator in 1186.
Pretender to the imperial throne 1199. Governor of Epirus and Thessaly[570].
- LORDS of EPIRUS.
b) ALEXIOS Komnenos Angelos (-9 Sep ----). 1166/99. The list of obituaries of Empress Eirene
Doukas's family records the death "9 Sep, Alexius son of Porphyrogenita Theodora"[571]. m ---. The
name of Alexios's wife is not known. Alexios Angelos & his wife had one child:
i) MIKHAEL Angelos. The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been
identified. Hostage to Emperor Friedrich I "Barbarossa" King of Germany in 1189[572].
c) ANDRONIKOS Doukas Angelos (-after 1185). Niketas Choniates names "Angeli Constantini
duo filii, Iohannes et Andronicus"[573].
- see below, Part B.
d) MARIA Angelina. The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet
been identified. m ([1160]) KONSTANTINOS Kamytzes, son of --- (-after [1201/02]).
e) EVDOKIA Angelina. The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not
yet been identified. m [BASILEIOS] Tsykandeles. Sébastos 1166.
f) ZOE Angelina. The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been
identified. m ANDRONIKOS Synadenos, son of --- (-1180). Dux of Cyprus 1165. Military
governor/strategos of Durazzo and Naissos 1172. Strategos of Trebizond. He became a monk as
ATHANASIOS.
g) ISAAKIOS Angelos. The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been
identified. 1170. Military governor/strategos of Cilicia. m ---. The name of Isaakios's wife is not
known. Isaakios Angelos & his wife had one possible child:

39
i) [KONSTANTINOS Angelos. The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet
been identified. Dux of Crete 1185/92. Strategos of Philippopolis 1192. Emperor Isaakios II Angelos
appointed him to head an army to invade Bulgaria in [1193], but Konstantinos revolted, hoping to
acquire the imperial throne[574]. He was blinded by Emperor Isaakios[575].]
2. NIKOLAOS Angelos. The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been
identified. Ioannes Kinnamos names "Nicolaus cognomento Angelus" as one of the military
commanders of Emperor Manuel I during campaigns against the Turks in Asia Minor[576]. 1148.
3. IOANNES Angelos. The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been
identified. Ioannes Kinnamos names "Ioannes Angelus" as one of the military commanders of Emperor
Manuel I, in command of French and Alan reinforcements, of Italian allies and mercenaries at Brindisi
(with "Bassavilla"), and sent to relieve Zeugminon[577].
4. MIKHAEL Angelos. The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been
identified. Sébastos 1147. Protonobilissimos hyperstatos 1166[578].

1. daughter. Her parentage is not known. Europäische Stammtafeln[579] places her as a possible
daughter of Isaakios Angelos, youngest son of Konstantinos Angelos (see above), but the basis for this is
not known. m ([1189]) --- Batatzes, son of ---.

It is not known how the following persons were related to the main Angelos family or to each other, if at
all.

1. MIKHAEL Angelos. m ---. The name of Mikhael's wife is not known. Mikhael Angelos & his
wife had one child:
a) IOANNES Angelos. The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been
identified. Pansébastos and sébastos. 1157/66. m --- Komnene Aneme, daughter of MANUEL Anemas
Panhyperprotosebastypértatos & his wife Theodora Komnene. The primary source which confirms her
parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.

2. IOANNES Komnenos Angelos (-1259). His parentage is not known. Dux of Thrakesion 1235-
[1236/37]. Megas primikerios 1255. Protostrator of the west 1255/59. He became a monk as
KALLINIKOS. m ---. The name of Ioannes's wife is not known. Ioannes Angelos & his wife had two
children:
a) [GEORGIOS] Komnenos Angelos. The primary source which confirms his parentage has not
yet been identified. Megas primikerios 1259. 1262. m ---. The name of Georgios's wife is not known.
[Georgios] Angelos & his wife had one possible child:

b) EVDOKIA Angelina ([1222]-[1253]). Georgius Akropolites names "Eudocia Angeli Ioannis


filia" as widow of "sebastocratoris filius Ioannes" recording that she died around the time of her
daughter's marriage, dated to the early 1250s from the context of the passage[580]. m IOANNES
Doukas Batatzes, son of ISAAKIOS Doukas Batatzes, sébastokrator, pansébastos sébastos & his wife ---
(-[1240]).

3. THEODOROS Komnenos Angelos. Senator 1286. Megas domestikos 1287/1302.

B. EMPERORS 1185-1195

ISAAKIOS II 1185-1195 & 1203-1204, ALEXIOS III 1195-1203, ALEXIOS IV 1203-1204

40
ANDRONIKOS Doukas Angelos, son of KONSTANTINOS Angelos & his wife Theodora Komnene (-
after 1185). Niketas Choniates names "Angeli Constantini duo filii, Iohannes et Andronicus"[581]. A
military leader in Asia Minor 1176/83.
m (before [1155]) EUPHROSYNE Kastamonitissa, niece of THEODOROS Kastamonites, megas
logothetis, daughter of --- (-killed in battle against Dyrrhacchion [1185/95]). Niketas Choniates names
"matrem Isaacii Angeli Euphrosynam"[582]. The primary source which confirms her parentage has not
yet been identified.
Andronikos Angelos & his wife had [nine] children:
1. KONSTANTINOS Angelos. The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been
identified. It is assumed that Konstantinos was his parents' oldest son, named after his paternal
grandfather in line with Byzantine naming practices. Blinded 1183. Sébastokrator 1185.
2. IOANNES Angelos. The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been
identified. Sébastokrator[583]. m ---. The name of Ioannes's wife is not known. Ioannes Angelos &
his wife had two children:
a) ANDRONIKOS Angelos. The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been
identified. Hostage to Emperor Friedrich I "Barbarossa" King of Germany in 1189[584].
3. ALEXIOS Komnenos Angelos (before [1155]-monastery of Hyakinthos, Nikaia after 1211, bur
monastery of Hyakinthos[585]). Niketas Choniates names "Isaacius et Alexius" as sons of "Andronicus
Angelus"[586]. He deposed his younger brother 8 Apr 1195 at Kypsela while on campaign against
Bulgaria, succeeding as Emperor ALEXIOS III. He immediately called off the campaign and returned
to Constantinople, but Bulgarian raids continued, marked by their capture of Serres, and Alexios was
forced to send troops under his son-in-law Isaakios Komnenos who was defeated on the Struma
River[587]. Emperor Alexios continued the abuses of his predecessor, attempting to buy support with
large land gifts, overtaxing the poor, and selling offices, all resulting in a terminal weakening of the
empire. Alexios III was obliged to agree an enormous annual tribute to Heinrich VI Emperor of
Germany, who threatened an invasion to avenge the overthrow of Emperor Isaakios II, but was unable to
raise sufficient funds through his special "German" tax. Emperor Heinrich was planning an attack but
died before the preparations were complete[588]. Pope Innocent III began pressing for a full-scale
crusade to the east after his election in 1198, but this Fourth Crusade was used as a pretext by the
western allies to conquer Byzantium. Arriving at Constantinople 24 Jun 1203, the city fell to the army
of the crusaders 17 Jul 1203. What may be an eye-witness account of the sack of Constantinople is
included in the Novgorod Chronicle[589]. Emperor Alexios fled the city with most of the state treasury
and the Byzantine crown jewels, and his brother Isaakios II was restored as emperor. Isaakios made his
way to eastern Thessaly where his wife's family had large estates. He allied himself with Leon Sguros,
who had captured Thebes and large parts of Attika and Beotia, and to whom he gave his daughter
Evdokia[590]. He was captured by Bonifazio Marchese di Monferrato, newly installed as king of
Thessaloniki, during his campaign in Thessaly and held for ransom which was paid by Mikhael
Komnenos Doukas Despot of Epirus[591]. He escaped and made his way to the court of the Seljuk
Sultan of Iconium[592]. Together they attacked the new empire of Nikaia, ruled by Alexios's son-in-
law, by whom he was captured in Spring 1211 and imprisoned in the monastery of Hyakinthos where he
later died[593]. m ([1170/80]) EUPHROSYNE Doukaina Kamaterina, daughter of ANDRONIKOS
Doukas Kamateros & his wife --- Kantakouzene (-Arta 1211). Niketas Choniates names "Euphrosyna"
as wife of Emperor Alexios[594]. Her parentage is confirmed by Niketas Choniates naming "fratri eius
Camatero Basilio", referring to Euphrosyne, in a later passage[595]. She escaped to Arta in Epirus and
found refuge at the court of Mikhael Angelos[596]. Ephræmius records the death of "Euphrosyne
regina" and her burial at Arta[597]. Emperor Alexios III & his wife had three children:
a) EIRENE Komnene Angelina (-after 1203). Niketas Choniates names "Contostephanus
Andronicus et Isaacius Comenus" as "duo generi" of Emperor Alexios[598]. Ephræmius records that
"filiarum…Irene natu maior" married "Andronico…de Contostephanis"[599]. Niketas Choniates
records the second marriage of "imperator…filias…Irenem" and "Alexio Paleologo"[600]. Georgius
Akropolites records that "Palaeologo, qui despotæ dignitate…" married "imperatoris Alexii…filiarum

41
illius…prima Irene"[601]. She went into exile in 1203. m firstly as his second wife, ANDRONIKOS
Kontostephanos, son of STEPHANOS Kontostephanos, panhypersébastos, megas dux & his wife Anna
Komnene (-[1196]). Mega drongarios. m secondly (1199) as his second wife, ALEXIOS Komnenos
Palaiologos, son of --- Doukas Palaiologos & his wife Eirene Komnene Kantakouzene (-[1201/04]). He
was awarded the title despot in 1199.
b) ANNA Komnene Angelina ([1175/80][602]-1212, bur monastery of Hyakinthos[603]). Niketas
Choniates names "Contostephanus Andronicus et Isaacius Comenus" as "duo generi" of Emperor
Alexios[604]. Ephræmius records that "filiarum…iunior…Anna" married "Comnenorum…Isaacio, qui
apud Moesos obiit in vinculis"[605]. Niketas Choniates records the second marriage of "imperator…
filias…Annam" and "Theodoro Lascaro, adolescenti"[606]. Georgius Akropolites records that
"Theodoro Lascari" married "imperatoris Alexii…filiarum illius…secunda Anna"[607]. m firstly
(before 1190) ISAAKIOS Komnenos, son of --- (-in prison Trnovo, soon after 1196). Sébastokrator
1195. General. He led his father-in-law's campaign in Bulgaria in 1196 but was defeated on the Struma
River, captured and sent to Trnovo where he soon died in prison[608]. m secondly (early 1199) as his
first wife, THEODOROS Laskaris, son of --- Laskaris & his wife --- ([1175]-Nov 1221, bur monastery
of Hyakinthos). After escaping Constantinople following its fall to the crusading army in Apr 1204, he
established himself in Nikaia where he was crowned THEODOROS I Emperor in Nikaia in 1208.
c) EVDOKIA Komnene Angelina (-after 1208). Niketas Choniates names "Eudociam" as third
daughter of Emperor Alexios when recording her marriage to "Neemania filii"[609]. Her first marriage
was arranged to seal the Byzantine/Serbian peace treaty of 1190[610]. After her first husband accused
her of adultery, she was expelled from Serbia, on foot with only the clothes on her back, and sought
refuge in Zeta with her brother-in-law Vukan who provided her with the means to return to
Constantinople[611]. Niketas Choniates records the marriage of "Euphrosyna imperatoris…filia
Eudocia" and "imperatoris Alexeii"[612]. Georgius Akropolites records that "Ducas Alexius" (referring
to Alexios Doukas Murzuphlos) married "imperatoris Alexii filiam Eudociam, filiarum illius
postremam", commenting that "impuberem" she had married "crali Serviæ"[613]. Villehardouin records
the marriage of "Emperor Murzuphlus" and "the daughter of Emperor Alexius" but does not name
her[614]. Ephræmius records that "Eudociam filiam" married "Sguro", recalling that her previous
husbands had been "principi…Triballorum Stephano, qui repudiatam remisit in patriam…[et] Murtzuflo
Ducæ"[615]. Georgius Akropolites records that "Alexius imperator…Eudocia filia" married
"Corinthum…Sguro illius regionis dynastæ"[616]. m firstly (1191, repudiated [1201/02]) STEFAN of
Serbia, son of STEFAN NEMANJA Grand Župan of Serbia & his wife Ana --- (-24 Sep 1227). He was
granted the title sébastokrator by his wife's uncle Emperor Isaakios II. He succeeded in 1196 on the
abdication of his father as STEFAN Grand Župan of Serbia. He was crowned STEFAN
"Prvovenčani/the First-Crowned" King [Kralj] of Serbia in [1217]. m secondly (1204 after 12 Apr)
ALEXIOS Doukas Murzuphlos, son of --- (-murdered Nov 1204). He was installed [Jan/Apr] 1204 as
Emperor ALEXIOS V. m thirdly (1204) LEON Sguros Archon of Navplion, son of --- (-1208). After
the establishment of the Latin Empire of Constantinople in 1204, he captured Thebes and large parts of
Attika and Beotia. He formed an alliance with ex-Emperor Alexios III, sealed by his marriage to the
latter's daughter. He was expelled by the advancing armies of Bonifazio Marchese di Monferrato King
of Thessaloniki, who was expanding the territory of his newly founded kingdom south into
Thessaly[617]. He took an active part in the defence of Corinth, whose siege was to last five years, but
committed suicide by leaping on horseback from Acrocorinth when he lost hope of defending the
city[618].
4. [MIKHAEL] Angelos. The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been
identified. Blinded 1184.
5. THEODOROS Angelos. Niketas Choniates records that "Angelum Theodorum adolescentem
pene adhuc imberbem" was blinded [in 1184][619].
6. ISAAKIOS Angelos ([1155]-Constantinople in prison [28 Jan/12 Apr] 1204). Niketas Choniates
names "Isaacius et Alexius" as sons of "Andronicus Angelus"[620]. As leader of the aristocrats against
whom Emperor Andronikos I had struggled, he succeeded in 1185 on the latter's downfall as Emperor
ISAAKIOS II. He immediately attacked the Normans, his general Alexios Branas defeating them at

42
Mosynopolis and Dimitritsa 7 Nov 1185, which resulted in their expulsion from Thessaloniki, Durazzo
and Corfu[621]. Isaakios also made peace with Béla III King of Hungary, sealed by the emperor's
second marriage with the king's daughter. In 1186, he was faced with the rebellion of Alexios Branas,
who had been sent to quell the Bulgarian rebellion of the brothers Ivan Asen and Teodor but, having
penetrated rebel territory, used the army for his own interests and led it to Adrianople where he was
proclaimed emperor. Branas marched on Constantinople, but was put to flight and killed by loyal
forces[622]. Emperor Isaakios led his army personally against Bulgarian rebels, successfully driving
them across the Danube. This was followed by further campaigns in Sep 1187 and 1188, but the
emperor was forced to recognise Bulgarian independence under a peace treaty signed in 1188[623].
Tensions developed with Emperor Friedrich I "Barbarossa", leader of the Third Crusade, who had
received a warm welcome in Serbia and had crossed into Byzantine territory at Braničevo. Anxious to
protect his interests, Isaakios signed a treaty of alliance with Saladin, which worsened the situation.
After taking Philippopolis [Plovdiv] and Adrianople, as well as threatening Constantinople, Emperor
Friedrich forced Emperor Isaakios to give him provisions and ships to cross into Asia Minor[624]. In
Sep 1190, Byzantine troops defeated the Serbs at the Morava River, but although the Byzantines
regained Niš, Beograd and northern Macedonia including Skopje, under the ensuing peace treaty, they
were obliged to recognise Serb independence and Nemanja's right to rule Zeta, southern Dalmatia,
Trebinje and Hum[625]. In retaliation for Bulgarian raids on Philippopolis, Sardika [Sofija] and
Adrianople, Emperor Isaakios attacked Bulgaria but was heavily defeated in [1194] near
Arcadiopolis[626]. The reign of Emperor Isaakios saw a major weakening of Byzantium and was
marked by a rapid revival of corruption and administrative abuses, especially increased taxes to establish
his luxurious court[627]. He was deposed 8 Apr 1195 by his older brother Alexios while preparing a
further campaign against Bulgaria, and blinded. He was restored as emperor 17 Jul 1203 when the
crusading army captured Constantinople and his brother Alexios III had fled, his son being named as co-
emperor. Isaakios was deposed end-Jan 1204 in an anti-Latin revolt which broke out in Constantinople,
and imprisoned once more. The necrology of Spier cathedral celebrates the anniversary "in octava
Martini" (18 Nov) of "Maria regina Philippi regis coniectalis, nata de Grecia…patre eius et matre eius…
Ysaac et…Herina"[628]. m firstly (before [1181]) [EIRENE], daughter of [--- Tornikes] & his wife ---
(-[18 Nov] [1184/85]). The necrology of Speyer cathedral celebrates the anniversary "in octava
Martini" (18 Nov) of "Maria regina Philippi regis coniectalis, nata de Grecia…patre eius et matre eius…
Ysaac et…Herina"[629]. This entry is discussed by Hiestand[630]. It is not clear to which of the named
individuals the date indicated (18 Nov) applies, or indeed that it was the date of death of any of them.
There remains some doubt about whether Eirene can have been the name of Isaakios's wife as the
original baptismal name of her daughter, "Maria regina", is recorded as Eirene, the Byzantine naming
practice not normally being to name children after their parents. Her family relationship with the
Tornikes family is suggested by a document at Patmos which names Konstantinos Tornikes as uncle
("θείου") of Emperor Alexios IV, dated to Dec 1203[631]. However, the passage would not exclude
Konstantinos being the husband either of a maternal or paternal aunt of the emperor, or indeed a more
remote relation as the word "θείος" could indicate a family relationship which is more distant than
"uncle". It cannot therefore be concluded with certainty that this Patmos source means that [Eirene] was
definitely a member of the Tornikes family through the male line. The possible origin of [Eirene] is
discussed in detail in an article by Don Stone and Charles Owens, to whom I am grateful for additional
information relating to the question[632]. m secondly (1185) as her first husband, MARGIT of
Hungary, daughter of BÉLA III King of Hungary & his first wife Agnès [Anna] de Châtillon-sur-Loing
(1175-after 3 Mar 1229). The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names (in order) "Haymericum
et Andream…et duas reginas Constantiam de Boemia et Margaretam de Grecia" as children of "rex Bela
de Hungaria" & his wife Agnes[633]. She brought Beograd, Braničevo and probably Niš as part of her
dowry[634]. Niketas Choniates records the marriage of Emperor Isaakios and "Belæ Hungariæ regis
filiam", commenting that she was only ten years old at the time[635]. The special wedding tax levied to
finance her elaborate nuptial ceremonies may have contributed to attracting support for the rebellion in
Bulgaria by the brothers Ivan Asen and Tedor[636]. She adopted the name MARIA in Byzantium.
Villehardouin records that the wife of Emperor Isaakios, and stepmother of his son, was "the king of

43
Hungary's sister", in a later passage naming her "the Empress Marie"[637]. She married secondly (May
1204) as his second wife, Bonifazio I Marchese di Monferrato, who wished thereby to advance his claim
to be installed as emperor of the new Latin Empire of Constantinople[638]. The Cronica Fratris
Salimbene de Adam records the marriage of "Bonifacius marchio" and "Margaritam imperatricem
condam Ysachii, sororem Aimerici regis Ungari"[639]. Villehardouin records the marriage of "the
Marquis Boniface de Montferrat" and "the lady who had been the Emperor Isaac's wife…the king of
Hungary's sister"[640]. Georgius Akropolites records that "rex Thessalonicæ" married "Mariam
Ungaram", widow of "imperatori Isaacio"[641]. She married thirdly (after Sep 1207) Nicolas de Saint-
Omer Lord of Thebes. She was regent of Thessaloniki in 1207. Pope Gregory IX confirmed that
"[Margaretha] soror…regis Ungarie" acquired "terram…ulterior Sirmia" by bull dated 3 Mar 1229[642].
Emperor Isaakios III & his first wife had [four] children:
a) EUPHROSYNE (-[1 Oct] ----). Niketas Choniates records that Emperor Alexios had "ex priore
coniuge…filiabus duabus et uno filio", of whom "filiam natu maiorem monacham fect"[643]. A nun.
The necrology of Spier cathedral celebrates the anniversary "tercia die post festum Michahelis" (1 Oct)
of "Maria regina Philippi regis coniectalis, nata de Grecia…fratris…eius et sororis eius…Manuel…
Effrosina"[644].
b) EIRENE Angelina ([1181]-Hohenstaufen 27 Aug 1208, bur Kloster Lorsch). Niketas Choniates
records that Emperor Alexios had "ex priore coniuge…filiabus duabus et uno filio", of whom "[filiam]
alteram" married "Siciliam regis Tangris filio"[645]. The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica in
1191 record the marriage at Brindisis of "Ysacho Constantinopolitano imperatorie de Urania filia sua"
and Roger elder son of Tancred[646]. The Annales Casenses record the marriage in 1193 of "filiam
imperatoris Constantinopolitani" and "Roggerus filio suo [=Tancredi]"[647]. She was among those
taken as prisoners by Emperor Heinrich VI King of Germany when he invaded Sicily in 1194. Niketas
Choniates records that "Irene Isaacii imperatoris filia" was abducted from Sicily and married to "notho
fratri Alemanniæ Philippo"[648]. Her second marriage is recorded by William of Tyre (Continuator),
who names her father without naming her[649]. The Continuatio Admuntensis records the marriage of
"Tanachredus Tanachredi filius viduam, Constantinopolitani imperatoris filiam" and "Philippus
Romanorum imperatoris germanus"[650]. She adopted the name MARIA on her second marriage. The
necrology of Spier cathedral records the death "VI Kal Sep" of "Maria regina Philippi regis coniectalis,
nata de Grecia"[651]. m firstly (Brindisi [Jul/Aug] 1192) ROGER joint King of Sicily, son of
TANCRED King of Sicily & his wife Sibila di Medania ([1180]-24 Dec 1193). Created Duke of Apulia
by his father in 1193. m secondly (betrothed 2/3 Apr 1195, [Bari] 25 May 1197) PHILIPP von
Hohenstaufen Duke of Swabia, son of Emperor FRIEDRICH I "Barbarossa" King of Germany & his
second wife Béatrice de Bourgogne [Comté] ([1172]-murdered Bamberg 21 Jun 1208, bur Speyer
Cathedral). He was elected PHILIPP King of Germany in 1198. He supported the claim to the
Byzantine throne of his brother-in-law Alexios Angelos, who had sought refuge at his court in
1201[652]. He and Alexios promised the leaders of the Fourth Crusade enormous sums in return for
helping to remove Emperor Alexios III[653]. He was murdered by Otto von Wittelsbach.
c) ALEXIOS Angelos ([1182/83]-murdered Constantinople 1204 after 28 Jan). Niketas Choniates
records that Emperor Alexios had "ex priore coniuge…filiabus duabus et uno filio"[654]. Imprisoned
with his father when the latter was overthrown, he escaped in 1201 and fled to the court of his brother-
in-law Philipp von Hohenstaufen Duke of Swabia who promised support for his claim to the Byzantine
throne[655], maybe on the basis that he would be Alexios's successor[656]. Alexios joined the
crusading army at Zara in Dalmatia 25 Apr 1203, promised large sums of money to the leaders and
committed to submit the Orthodox church to Rome if he regained the throne[657]. He was accepted as
emperor at Durazzo, and sailed on to Constantinople where they arrived 24 Jun 1203[658]. The city fell
to the crusaders 17 Jul 1203 and Emperor Alexios fled. Ex-Emperor Isaakios II was restored, with
Alexios crowned as ALEXIOS IV co-Emperor at St Sophia 1 Aug 1203[659]. Unable to make the
payments promised to the crusaders as ex-Emperor Alexios III had looted the state treasury, Alexios
announced new taxes and confiscated large quantities of ecclesiastical plate to be melted down[660].
An anti-Latin revolt broke out in Constantinople. The mob elected Nikolaos Kanabos as emperor[661],
although he refused to accept the honour, and when Alexios Murzuphlos invaded the palace he was

44
installed as emperor. Alexios IV was imprisoned and strangled[662] by Alexios Murzuphlos[663].
Betrothed (1194) to IEVFEMIA Glebovna of Chernigov, daughter of GLEB Sviatoslavich Prince of
Bielgorod and Chernigov & his wife [Anastasia] Riurikovna of Ovrutsch.
d) [daughter. Before 1185. Nun. same person as …? ANNA . According to Fennell[664], the
second wife of Roman Prince of Galicia was the daughter of Emperor Isaakios by his first wife. He says
that she was "energetic and enterprising" and that she is named in the Lavrentevskiy Chronicle. Anna
has not been identified in Byzantine sources so far consulted, but it is not impossible that she was the
same person as this third unnamed daughter. m ([1196/1200]) as his second wife, ROMAN Mstislavich
Prince of Volynia, son of MSTISLAV II Iziaslavich "Chabry" Prince of Volynia and Kiev & his wife
Agniesk of Poland (after 1160- killed in battle Zawichost 19 Jun 1205). He succeeded as Prince of
Galich in 1199, and as ROMAN Grand Prince of Kiev in 1199.]

Emperor Isaakios III & his second wife had two children:
e) MANUEL Angelos ([after 1192]-[1212]). The necrology of Spier cathedral celebrates the
anniversary "tercia die post festum Michahelis" (1 Oct) of "Maria regina Philippi regis coniectalis, nata
de Grecia…fratris…eius et sororis eius…Manuel…Effrosina"[665]. It is unlikely that Manuel could
have been born before 1192 bearing in mind the birth date of his mother. He joined in the attack on
Theodoros Laskaris, Emperor at Nikaia, in Spring 1211 and was captured. An inscription found at
Nikaia recording the death of "πρίγκιψ Μανουήλ" in 1212 aged 35 has been linked to Manuel Angelos,
despite the obvious inconsistency in the age[666].
f) IOANNES "Kaloioannes" Angelos (-before 13 Jan 1254). Pope Honorius III wrote to "nobili
viro Johanni nato…Margarite quondam imperatricis Constantinopolitane" requesting him to keep his
promise to campaign against the Bosnian heretics, dated 15 Jan 1227[667]. Hungarian under-Lord in
Syrmia 1235/42. Obergespan of Kö 1235. "Iohannes filius quondam Iursac Imperatoris
Constantinopolitani" gave commitments to the papal legate in Hungary by charter dated 22 Sep
1235[668]. Obergespan of Bács 1240/42. m MATHILDE von Vianden, daughter of HEINRICH [I]
Graf von Vianden & his wife Marguerite de Courtenay. Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by
the dispensation issued by Pope Innocent IV for the marriage of "Anselmum de Keu ac Mariam natam
Matildis dominæ de Posaga, natæ comitissæ Viennensis" dated 15 Aug 1253, and the marriage licence
for "Maria, nate quondam Calojohanni" dated 13 Jan 1254, the documents naming "imperatore
Constantinopolitano, eiusdem Matildis avunculo"[669]. Ioannes & his wife had [two] children:
i) [HELENA [Jelena] (-Shkodra 8 Feb 1314). “Helena, Serbiæ regina” confirmed the possessions
of Ragusa by charter dated 1289[670]. The biography of Archbishop Danilo states that "she was of a
French family" and a continuator of the work that "the family was of royal or imperial blood"[671].
Fine says less specifically that Jelena was "of Catholic and French origin, probably of the Valois
family"[672]. A Hungarian origin is suggested by Georgius Akropolites who names "Rosum Urum…
Ungariæ regis generum (γαμβρόν)"[673]. According to Europäische Stammtafeln[674], she was related
to the kings of Sicily [Anjou-Capet], and was sister of Marie wife of Anseau de Chaurs/Cayeux (Captain
General in Albania of Charles I King of Naples and Sicily). Charles I King of Sicily and Charles II
King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet] addressed (the sisters) "Jelena and Maria de Chau" as "consanguinea
nostra/cognata nostra/affinis nostra"[675]. McDaniel identifies "Marie de Chau" as the wife of "Anselm
de Keu"[676], who can be identified as Anseau [IV] de Cayeux. If this is correct, she was the daughter
of Ioannes "Kaloiannes" Angelos and his wife Mathilde von Vianden. McDaniel provides a trail of
primary sources which appears convincing. However, one big question remains: if he is correct, why
did contemporary primary sources make so little of Queen Jelena´s direct male line descent from the
Angelos imperial family and from the Hungarian kings through her paternal grandmother? m ([1250])
STEFAN UROŠ I "Veliki/the Great" or "Arapavi/the Holy" King of Serbia, son of STEFAN
"Prvovenčani/the First-Crowned" King [Kralj] of Serbia & his third wife Anna Dandolo (-1 May 1280,
bur Sopoćani).]
ii) MARIA Angelaina (-after 1285). Pope Innocent IV issued a dispensation for the marriage of
"Anselmum de Keu ac Mariam natam Matildis dominæ de Posaga, natæ comitissæ Viennensis" dated 15
Aug 1253, and the marriage licence for "Maria, nate quondam Calojohanni" dated 13 Jan 1254, the

45
documents naming "imperatore Constantinopolitano, eiusdem Matildis avunculo"[677]. Pope
Alexander IV confirmed the marriage of "nobili viro Anselmo domino de Keu et Marie uxori eius" dated
15 Jan 1255[678]. Belleval says that Marie names "son mari défunt grand baron de l´empire de
Constantinople, chambellan dudut empire et bouteiller de Seles" in a charter dated 1277 but gives no
source reference[679]. McDaniel dates her last documented appearance to 1285[680]. m (Papal
dispensation 15 Aug 1253, licence 13 Jan 1254) ANSEAU [IV] de Cayeux, son of [ANSEAU [III] de
Cayeux & his wife Evdokia Laskarina] (-[1275/76]).
7. EIRENE Angelina. Ioannes Kinnamos records that "Ioannes cognomento…Cantacuzenus"
married "Andronici sebastocratoris filiam"[681]. Niketas Choniates records that "Iohannes
Cantacuzenus" married "imperatoris sororem"[682]. m (before 1170, dispensation [1185/86])
IOANNES Kantakouzenos, son of --- Kantakouzenos & his wife --- (-after 1186). He was blinded in
1183 by Emperor Andronikos. Appointed cæsar in 1185. He was a military commander in Bulgaria,
but was dispossessed and his title confiscated.
8. THEODORA Angelina (-after 1195). Niketas Choniates records the marriage of "Conradi…
Montisferrati domini filius" and "Imperatoris Isaacius…sorore Theodora"[683]. The Cronica Fratris
Salimbene de Adam records the marriage of "sororem suam [Ysachii] Hermem" and "Conrado
marchionis filio"[684]. After she was repudiated, she became a nun at Dalmatios convent. m (early
1187, abandoned [May/Jun] 1187) as his second wife, CORRADO di Monferrato, son of GUGLIELMO
V "il Vecchio" Marchese di Monferrato & his wife Judith of Austria [Babenberg] ([1145/47]-murdered
Tyre 28 Apr 1192).
9. [daughter . It is not known which of the above daughters may have been the mother of Theodora
or whether her mother was a different daughter altogether. m ---.]
a) [THEODORA ([1180/85]-Kahlenberg 22/23 Jun 1246, bur Kloster Neuburg). Theodora is
shown as the possible daughter of Ioannes Angelos in Europäische Stammtafeln[685]. However, the
Continuatio Admuntensis clarifies that she was "Constantinopolitani imperatoris ex filia neptem",
specifying that her marriage was celebrated in Vienna[686]. The Annales Mellicenses record the
marriage in 1203 of "Liupoldus dux Austriæ et Styriæ" and "Theodoram filiam regis Grecorum"[687],
but this is unlikely to be correct. She became a nun at Kahlenberg. The necrology of Salzburg St
Rudpert records the death "II Kal Jun" of "Theodora ducissa Austrie et Styrie"[688]. The necrology of
Lilienfeld records the death "XI Kal Jul" of "Theodora ducissa ux fundatoris ni Leupoldi"[689]. The
necrology of Kloster Neuburg records the death "IX Kal Jul" of "Theodora ducissa Austrie et Stirie sor
na"[690]. m (1203) LEOPOLD VI Duke of Austria and Styria, son of LEOPOLD V Duke of Austria
[Babenberg] & his wife Ilona of Hungary ([1176/77]-San Germano 28 Jul 1230, bur Lilienfeld).]

Chapter 6. MURZUPHLOS, EMPEROR 1204

ALEXIOS V 1204

1. ALEXIOS Doukas Murzuphlos, son of --- (-murdered Nov 1204). He was awarded the title
protobestiarios by Emperor Alexios IV, and became leader of the nationalists in Constantinople[691].
During the course of the anti-Latin revolt which broke out in Constantinople, Alexios Murzuphlos
invaded the palace and was proclaimed 5 Feb 1204 as Emperor ALEXIOS V . He imprisoned ex-
Emperor Alexios IV and caused him to be strangled[692]. The crusaders took control of Constantinople
13 Apr 1204, massacring a large part of the population. Emperor Alexios V fled with his wife to his
father-in-law at Mosynopolis in Thrace[693], but was blinded in his bath on the orders of the latter in the
presence of his wife. He succeeded in escaping, but was captured by Italian soldiers of the Latin
Emperor Baudouin I who condemned him to be thrown alive from the top of the column of Theodosius
in Constantinople[694]. m firstly ---. The name of Alexios's first wife is not known. Niketas Choniates

46
records that Alexios Murzuphlos was "homo a pubertate libidinosus et salax" and had repudiated "duas
iuvenculas uxores per iniuriam"[695]. m secondly ---, daughter of --- Philokales, logothetes ton
sekreton & his wife ---. Niketas Choniates names "Philocalio socero suo" commenting that he was
removed from the office of "logothetæ secretorum"[696]. m thirdly (1204 after Apr 12) as her second
husband, EVDOKIA Komnene Angelina, repudiated wife of STEFAN Grand Župan of Serbia, daughter
of Emperor ALEXIOS III & his wife Euphrosyne Doukaina Kamaterina (-after 1208). Niketas
Choniates records the marriage of "Euphrosyna imperatoris…filia Eudocia" and "imperatoris
Alexeii"[697]. Georgius Akropolites records that "Ducas Alexius" (referring to Alexios Doukas
Murzuphlos) married "imperatoris Alexii filiam Eudociam, filiarum illius postremam", commenting that
"impuberem" she had married "crali Serviæ"[698]. Villehardouin records the marriage of "Emperor
Murzuphlus" and "the daughter of Emperor Alexius" but does not name her[699]. She married thirdly
(Larissa [end 1204/05]) Leon Sguros Archon of Navplion.

Chapter 7. FAMILIES of ANTI-EMPERORS

A. BRYENNIOS, 1078

1. --- Bryennios . Kuropalates. m ANNA, daughter of --- (-after [1077/78]). Nikephoros


Bryennios records that "suam sororem Helenam" (referring to "Tarchaneiotes") was betrothed to "fratris
Nicephori filio" at the instigation of "matrem Bryenniorum curopalatissam Annam", dated to at or just
before the time of her son's rebellion from the context[700]. --- Bryennios & his wife had two children:
a) NIKEPHOROS Bryennios (-after 1078). Cedrenus names "ducem patricium Nicephorum
Bryennium…ethnarcham" on campaign against the Pechinegs, dated to [1050][701]. Cedrenus records
that Emperor Mikhael VI Stratiotikos recalled "Bryennium" from exile and appointed him strategos of
"Cappadocibus" and sent him to fight the Turks "cum imperio Macedonicis legionibus", in [1056/57]
[702]. Skylitzes names "magistrum Nicephorum Bryennium" during his account of the Asia Minor
campaign of Emperor Romanos Diogenes, dated to [1071/72][703]. The Alexeiad records that
Nikephoros Bryennios was appointed "duke of Dyrrachium" by Emperor Mikhael Doukas and planned a
revolt against the emperor[704]. He repressed the Slav revolt of 1072. He declared himself Emperor
NIKEPHOROS at Adrianople in Nov 1077, marched on Constantinople and was acclaimed emperor 7
Jan 1078. The Alexeiad records his defeat by Alexios Komnenos, then domestikos of the Scholai, near
Kalaura[705]. m ---. The name of Nikephoros's wife is not known.
b) IOANNES Bryennios (-after 1078). The Alexeiad records that "Ioannes Bryennios, the general's
brother" commanded part of the army of Nikephoros Bryennios at the defeat near Kalaura[706]. m ---.
The name of Ioannes's wife is not known. Ioannes & his wife had one child:
i) --- Bryennios . Nikephoros Bryennios refers to "fratris Nicephori filio" when recording his
betrothal[707]. Betrothed ([1077/78]) to HELENA Tarchanaiotissa, daughter of --- Tarchanaiotes & his
wife ---. Nikephoros Bryennios records that "suam sororem Helenam" (referring to "Tarchaneiotes")
was betrothed to "fratris Nicephori filio" at the instigation of "matrem Bryenniorum curopalatissam
Annam", dated to at or just before the time of her son's rebellion from the context[708].

As shown below, Nikephoros Bryennios is reported in the Alexeiad as "descended from the Bryennii",
indicating the brothers Nikephoros and Ioannes shown above. Although the birth dates of the brothers
Nikephoros and Ioannes, and of Nikephoros junior, cannot be estimated with any reasonable degree of
accuracy, it appears unlikely that there would be more than one generation between the two family sub-

47
groups. The marriage date of Nikephoros junior suggests that it is less likely that he was the son of one
of the brothers, although if on the contrary that was the case normal Byzantine naming practices (where
a son is not named after his father) suggest that he would have been the son of Ioannes.
1. NIKEPHOROS Bryennios (-Constantinople [1136/37]). The Alexeiad names "the Cæsar
Nicephorus…descended from the Bryennii" as the husband of Anna when recording that he campaigned
in Syria with her brother Emperor Ioannes[709]. Supported by his wife and mother-in-law, he claimed
the imperial throne on the death of his father-in-law. Panhypersébastos. Cæsar. m (1097) ANNA
Komnene Doukaina, daughter of Emperor ALEXIOS I & his second wife Eirene Doukaina (2 Dec 1083-
[1149/54]). Nikephoros Bryennios & his wife had six children:
a) ALEXIOS Bryennios Komnenos (-[30/31] Mar after [1156]). Niketas Choniates names "Alexio
Comneno, Bryennii Cæsaris filio, consobrino Manuelis, magni ducis"[710]. Ioannes Kinnamos records
that "Alexio, imperatoris Alexii ex filia nepote" was granted "magni ducis…dignitate"[711]. Mega Dux
1156. Ioannes Kinnamos records that "Alexium…imperatoris Alexii ex Anna filia nepotem…magnus
dux…et Nicephorum ex Bryenniorum familia" were sent to Antioch for the betrothal of Emperor
Manuel I to Maria of Antioch in 1161[712]. The list of obituaries of Empress Eirene Doukas's family
records the death "[30/31] Mar, Alexius son of Porphyrogenita Anna"[713]. m [---, daughter of DAVIT
II King of Georgia. This person has not been identified in the family of the kings of Georgia.] Alexios
Bryennios Komnenos & his wife had two children:
i) ANDRONIKOS Komnenos. Niketas Choniates names "Andronicum Comnenum…Alexii filius,
nati ex Bryennio Cæsare et Anna filii Alexii, primi ex Comnenia familia imperatoris", when recording
his bid for the throne[714]. Claimant to the imperial throne. He was blinded by Emperor Isaakios II
Angelos.
ii) DAVID . The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.
b) IOANNES Doukas. The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been
identified. m firstly THEODORA, daughter of ---. The primary source which confirms her marriage
has not yet been identified. m secondly ---. The name of Ioannes's second wife is not known. Ioannes
& his first wife had one child:
i) NIKEPHOROS . The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.
Ioannes & his second wife had four children:
ii) NIKEPHOROS . The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.
iii) ANDRONIKOS . The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.
iv) ALEXIOS . The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.
v) MANUEL . The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.
c) ANDRONIKOS Bryennios (-21 Sep ----). The list of obituaries of Empress Eirene Doukas's
family records the death "21 Sep, Andronicus son of Porphyrogenita Anna"[715].
d) KONSTANTINOS Bryennios (-21 Sep ----). The list of obituaries of Empress Eirene Doukas's
family records the death "30 Oct, Constantine son of Porphyrogenita Anna"[716].
e) EIRENE Doukas. m ---.
f) MARIA (-18 Apr ----). The list of obituaries of Empress Eirene Doukas's family records the
death "18 Apr, Maria, daughter of the Porphyrogenita Anna"[717].

1. NIKEPHOROS Bryennios (-after 1161). Ioannes Kinnamos records that "Alexium…imperatoris


Alexii ex Anna filia nepotem…magnus dux…et Nicephorum ex Bryenniorum familia" were sent to
Antioch for the betrothal of Emperor Manuel I to Maria of Antioch in 1161[718]. m EIRENE
Komnene, daughter of STEPHANOS Kontostephanos & his wife Anna Komnene (after [1125]-).
Ioannes Kinnamos records that "Nicephorum ex Bryenniorum familia" married "ex fratre vel sorore
Manuelis neptim"[719]. The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.

2. IOSEPHOS Bryennios. Pansébastos. m (before 1166) MARIA Komnene, daughter of


[ISAAKIOS Komnenos, sébastokrator & his wife Eirene ---]. Her husband is recorded as gambros of
Emperor Manuel I, but his wife could have been the daughter either of Andronikos or Isaakios, brothers

48
of Emperor Ioannes II[720]. On balance, it is more probable that she was the daughter of Isaakios. The
death of Andronikos's daughter named Maria is recorded in the list of obituaries of Empress Eirene
Doukas's family, and it appears that this list does not include the names of married female members of
the family, except for direct ancestors and the wives of males in the family. The primary source which
confirms her name has not yet been identified.

B. MELISSENOS, 1078

1. MIKHAEL Melissenos . He was appointed strategos of Anatolikon by Emperor Konstantinos V


in 766/67 in reward for his support of iconoclasm[721]. He marched against Banakas of Isauria in 772
but was heavily defeated[722]. m ---, sister of Empress Evdokia, third wife of Emperor Konstantinos V,
daughter of ---. Mikhael Melissenos & his wife had one child:
a) THEODOTOS Melissenos. Genesius records that "Theodoto…filio Michaelis patricii, generis
Melisseni, cui cognomentum erat Cassiteras" was appointed Patriarch of Constantinople by Emperor
Leon V[723]. Ostrogorsky dates his appointment to 1 Apr 815[724].

1. NIKEPHOROS Melissenos (-shortly after 1107[725]). Nikephoros Bryennios records that


"Manuel" (Comnenos) was captured by the Turks "cum duobus sororem suarum viris, Melisseno et
Taronita"[726]. He declared himself Emperor NIKEPHOROS at Nikaia end 1080, and obtained the
support of Suleiman Sultan of the Seljuk Turks for his claim. The Alexeiad records that Nikephoros
Melissenos declared himself emperor but that, when he heard of the Komnenoi revolt against Emperor
Nikephoros Botaneiates, he negotiated a truce with them because "we are related" (although the precise
relationship is not stated), and was rewarded with the rank cæsar and the governorship of
Thessaloniki[727]. He was appointed cæsar (which, subsequent to the creation in favour of Alexios's
brother Isaakios of the new title sebastokrator, was no longer the highest honour in the empire) in 1082
by Emperor Alexios I Komnenos[728], rewarding him for his part in the rebellion which overthrew
Emperor Nikephoros Botaneiates. Governor of Thessaloniki 1082-early 1091. m (1067) EVDOKIA
Komnene, daughter of IOANNES Komnenos, domestikos & his wife Anna Dalassena ([1050]-).
Nikephoros Bryennios records the marriage of "Ioannes…Comnenus curopalates…Eudocia…secundo
genita [filia]" and "Melisseno Nicephoro"[729]. The Alexeiad names Nikephoros Melissenos as the
brother-in-law of Emperor Alexius but does not name his wife[730]. Nikephoros Melissenos & his wife
had one child:
a) IOANNES Komnenos Melissenos. The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet
been identified. Parakoimomenos. m ---. The name of Ioannes's wife is not known. Ioannes
Melissenos & his wife had one child:
i) ALEXIOS Komnenos Melissenos. The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet
been identified. Megadux.

1. --- Melissenos . Georgius Akropolites records that "Michael despota" send legates to the
emperor "Xerum metropolitam Naupacti, Maliassenum sororis suæ generum, et Lampetem"[731]. m ---,
daughter of [--- Sphrantzes/KONSTANTINOS Chabaron] & his wife Maria Angelina of Epirus.

1. LEO Melissenos. Sébastokrator. m ---. The name of Leo's wife is not known. Leo & his wife
had one child:

49
a) NIKEPHOROS Melissenos [Melissourgos] (-1429). The primary source which confirms his
parentage has not yet been identified. He owned estates in Messenia. m ---. The name of Nikephoros's
wife is not known. Nikephoros & his wife had one child:
i) NIKOLAOS Melissenos. The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been
identified. He fled from Constantinople to Corfu, and then to Crete where he became a priest[732].
Betrothed: to TAMARA Sphrantzes, daughter of ---. The primary source which confirms her betrothal
has not yet been identified. She was abducted when Constantinople was captured by the Turks in 1453
and died in a harem some years later[733].

C. BRANAS, 1186

1. MARIANOS Branas (-after 1047). Cedrenus records that "Joanne Batatze…Theodoro


Strabomyta, Polye, Marianoque Brana, Occidentalium legionem ducibus et sibi sanguine propinquis"
supported "patricii Leonis Tornicii" strategos of Iberia in his rebellion against Emperor Konstantinos IX
Monomachos, dated to [1047][734].

2. DEMETRIOS Branas . Ioannes Kinnamos names "Demetrius cognomento Branas" as a naval


commander, in a passage dealing with the early years of the reign of Emperor Manuel I[735].

3. MIKHAEL Branas . Ioannes Kinnamos names "Michael cognomento Branas" as "ad Naisum,
quæ metropolis est urbium Dacicarum…provinciæ prefectura", appointed by Emperor Manuel I[736].

4. ALEXIOS Branas, son of --- (-1186). Pansébastos, sébastos. He led the army of Emperor
Isaakios II Angelos against the Normans, defeating them at Mosynopolis and Dimitritsa 7 Nov 1185,
which resulted in their expulsion from Thessaloniki, Durazzo and Corfu[737]. He also led the
Byzantine army against the Bulgarian rebellion of the brothers Ivan Asen and Teodor in 1186, but
having penetrated rebel territory he used the army for his own interests and led it to Adrianople where he
was proclaimed Emperor ALEXIOS. He marched on Constantinople, but was put to flight and
killed[738]. m ANNA Komnene Batatzaina, daughter of ANDRONIKOS Komnenos Batatzes & his
wife ---. The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.
Alexios Branas & his wife had two children:
a) EVDOKIA Komnene Branaina. Niketas Choniates records the marriage of "Johannem
sebastocratorem patruum suum [Isaacii imperatoris]…filio suo" and "Brana…filiam"[739]. m ([1187])
ISAAKIOS Komnenos Doukas, son of IOANNES Doukas Angelos & his wife --- (-killed in battle
Constantinople 1203).
b) THEODOROS Branas. The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been
identified. Leader of the Greeks at Philippopolis, he opposed Kalojan Tsar of Bulgaria in 1205. The
people of the city agreed to submit to Henri, regent of the Latin Empire of Constantinople, for
protection. In turn, Henri arranged for Venice (which had claims over Adrianople) to appoint
Theodoros Branas as Lord of Adrianople and Didymoteichon. He is referred to as cæsar and Komnenos
in the grant[740]. He was besieged once more at Adrianople by the Bulgarian Tsar in 1206[741]. m
(1204) as her third husband, ANNA [Agnès] de France, widow firstly of Emperor ALEXIOS II and
secondly of Emperor ANDRONIKOS I, daughter of LOUIS VII King of France & his third wife Alix de
Champagne ([1171/72]-[1220 or after 1240]). Her third marriage is deduced from Villehardouin naming
"Theodore Branas, a Greek who was married to the king of France's sister" when recording that Apros
was restored to him in 1205[742]. The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records that in 1193
"Livernas…prenominatus" lived with "sororem regis Francorum, imperatricem illam, quam habere
debuit Alexius Manuelis filius" without marrying her, and in a later passage in 1205 that "Livernas",
who had lived with "sororem regis Francorum, imperatricem…absque legalibus nuptiis", married her

50
and married their daughter to "Nargaldo de Torceio, Guidonis de Dampetra consobrino"[743]. Robert
de Clari records in Sep 1203 that "le sereur le roi de Franche" was alive and married to "li Vernas"[744].
The text also provides a clue to Alberic´s reference to "Livernas", indicating that it was the old French
definite article combined with a corruption of the name "Branas". No primary source has yet been
identified which records when Agnes died. According to Sommerard, she died in 1220, after the
marriage of her daughter[745]. Kerrebrouck states that she died in 1240[746]. Neither of these authors
cites the primary sources on which they base their statements. Theodoros Branas & his wife had one
child:
i) --- Branaina (-before 1239). The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines refers to the daughter
of "sororem regis Francorum imperatricem" marrying "Nargaldo de Toceio, Guidonis de Dampetro
consobrinus", in a later passage recording that she was "filia Livernes et sororis regis Francie"[747]. m
as his first husband, NARJOT de Toucy Seigneur de Bazarne, son of NARJOT [II] Sire de Toucy & his
wife Agnès de Dampierre-sur-l'Aube (-1241). Regent of the Latin Empire of Constantinople 1228-1231
and 1238-1239.

1. EIRENE Komnene Laskarina Branaina (-[1271]). Pachymeres records the marriage of "Branæ
filiam" and "alterum…fratrum Constantinum…cæsarem" (referring to the future Emperor Mikhael VIII)
[748]. She became a nun as MARIA. m ([1259/60]) KONSTANTINOS Angelos Komnenos Doukas
Palaiologos, sébastokrator, son of ANDRONIKOS Doukas Komnenos Palaiologos, megas domestikos,
dux of Thessaloniki & his first wife Theodora Palaiologina (-1271).

[32] Sewter, E. R. A. (trans.) (1966) Fourteen Byzantine (1971), pp. 217-48, cited by MB in a private email to the
Rulers, the Chronographia of Mikhael Psellos (Penguin author dated 8 Nov 2006.
Books) ("Psellos"), p. 324. [80] Alexeiad, Book 12, pp. 379 and 388.
[33] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1836) Michael Glycas, Corpus [81] ES II 174.
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[16] Cedrenus II, col. 214. [65] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber II, 28, p. 96. [108] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.
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51
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Evêque de Tourov" p. IX. [196] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber II, 3, p. 36. [258] Sturdza (1999), p. 277.
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[122] Only three examples are noted in PBW (2006.2). [199] Niketas Choniates, Liber III Rerum a Manuele [260] Ioannes Kinnamos I, 9, p. 21.
[123] ES II 175. Comneno Gestarum, 2, p. 135. [261] "Andronikos 17010" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal
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[125] Sturdza (1999), p. 275. [201] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber III, 9, p. 109. [263] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 351.
[126] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 2, p. 19. [202] Niketas Choniates, Liber III Rerum a Manuele [264] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789,
[127] Alexeiad, Book 2, p. 73. Comneno Gestarum, 2, p. 135. CCC.XXXIIII, p. 93.
[128] Alexeiad, Book 1, p. 31. [203] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 347-8. [265] Sturdza (1999), p. 276.
[129] Fine, J. V. A. (1991) The Early Medieval Balkans, A [204] Castellani 1890, RHC. [Jean-Claude Chuat] [266] WT XXII.V, p. 1069.
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(Ann Arbour, University of Michigan Press), p. 282. [206] ES II 177. [268] Lignages d'Outremer, Marciana Ms Francese 20,
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[132] Alexeiad, Book IX, p. 281. 21-2. CCC.XLVI, p. 110.
[133] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, pp. 102-3. [208] WT XX.I, p. 942. [270] ES II 177. She was born in 1164, according to Rüdt-
[134] RHC, Historiens occidentaux, Tome IV (Paris, 1879), [209] Belgrano, L. T. (ed.) (1891) Annali Genovesi di Caffaro Collenberg (1968), p. 165, footnote 3.
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(RHC)"), Liber II, Cap. XV, p. 310. (Genoa), Regni Iherosolymitani brevis historia, p. 132. [272] Varzos (1984), vol. II, p. 14, n. 19 . [J.-C. Chuat]
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[136] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71. [211] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 370 and 377. Montpellier Tome I (Montpellier), pp. 67-8.
[137] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber III, 6, p. 107. [212] Nielen, M.-A. (ed.) (2003) Lignages d'Outremer (Paris), [274] Annali Pisani. Continuazione volgara, 1179, pp. 67-8,
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[143] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 109. [215] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Andronici Comneni, Liber (Paris, 1932), Reg. 1162, cited in Rüdt-Collenberg (1968),
[144] Niketas Choniates, Iohannes Komnenos, 2, p. 8. 1, 8, p. 384. Table I.
[145] Zonaras XVIII, 22, p. 738. [216] Niketas Choniates, Liber III Rerum a Manuele [277] Magdalino (2002), and Cheynet (1986), both cited by
[146] Alexeiad, Preface, p. 17. Comneno Gestarum, 2, p. 135. MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.
[147] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 208-9. [217] Annales Mellicenses 1149, MGH SS IX, p. 504. [278] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Andronici Comneni, Liber
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[150] Zonaras XVIII, 22, p. 739. high middle ages c.1050-1200 (Cambridge University Press), Isaacii Angeli, Liber 3, 6, p. 697.
[151] Alexeiad, Book 10, p. 301. p. 150. [280] Sturdza (1999), p. 271.
[152] RHC, Historiens occidentaux I, Historia Rerum in [220] Annales Mellicenses 1185, MGH SS IX, p. 505. [281] Ioannes Kinnamos I, 9, p. 21.
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Empereur et la conqueste de la terre d'Outremer") (“WT”) 542. Comneni, 1, p. 66.
II.XII, p. 89. [222] Necrologium Seccoviense, Salzburg Necrologies (Regio [283] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 351.
[153] Niketas Choniates, Iohannes Komnenos, 5, p. 23. Styriaca), p. 403. [284] Fine (1991), pp. 242-43.
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1104, p. 202. Comneno Gestarum, 2, p. 135. Comneno Gestarum, 7, p. 286.
[155] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber III, 17, p. 127. [225] ES II 177. [288] Mierow, C. C. (trans.) (2004) The Deeds of Frederick
[156] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71. [226] Rüdt-Collenberg, W. H. (1963) The Rupenides, Barbarossa (Columbia UP) ("Otto of Freising"), Gesta, I xxv,
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[158] Alexeiad, Book 15, p. 511. Cilician Dynasties (Paris, Librairie Klincksieck), p. 50, citing [289] Although this obligation was subsequently confirmed
[159] Zonaras XVIII, 22, p. 739. presumably Tschamitchan, M. History of Armenia I/II by the Treaty of Thessaloniki in end 1148, see Houben, H.
[160] Zonaras XVIII, 22, p. 739. (Calcutta, 1827). (trans. Loud, G. H. & Milburn, D.) (2002) Roger II of Sicily,
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[163] Russian Primary Chronicle 1104, p. 202. [229] Niketas Choniates, Liber III Rerum a Manuele [291] WT XXII.IV, p. 1067.
[164] Niketas Choniates, Rerum a Manuele Comneno Comneno Gestarum, 2, p. 135. [292] Monumenta Necrologica Claustroneoburgensis, Passau
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[165] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 219. [231] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni [293] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 4, p. 208.
[166] Niketas Choniates, Rerum a Manuele Comneno Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 1, p. 293. [294] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 4, p. 208.
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[168] MB, in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006. [233] Niketas Choniates, Liber III Rerum a Manuele CCC.XXXIIII, p. 93, and Le Vaticanus Latinus 7806, El
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pp. 23, 52 and 56. Gestarum, 2, p. 106. [298] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 358.
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[174] WT II.XII, p. 89. [237] Morris Bierbrier, in a private email to the author dated [301] MB, in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.
[175] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber II, Cap. XV, p. 310. 15 Mar 2007. [302] Niketas Choniates, Liber IV Rerum a Manuele
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[178] Sturdza (1999), p. 271. Chypre et sa fille (1155-1207)', Byzantion XXXVIII, [304] Niketas Choniates, Liber V Rerum a Manuele Comneno
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[180] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 223-4. (Variorum Reprints, London, 1983), p. 127. [305] Romoaldi Annales, MGH SS XIX, pp. 436 and 439.
[181] Zonaras XVIII, 24, p. 748. [240] Niketas Choniates Chronikon, ed. Bekker (Bonn, 1835), [306] Parker, J. 'The Attempted Byzantine Alliance with the
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[185] Niketas Choniates, Liber III Rerum a Manuele (Paris, 1864), 4. [307] Niketas Choniates, Liber V Rerum a Manuele Comneno
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[186] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 222. 1, 4, p. 377. [308] WT XXII.IV, p. 1067.
[187] ES II 177. [245] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber VI, 6, p. 268. [309] Delisle, L. (ed.) (1872) Chronique de Robert de Torigni,
[188] Sturdza (1999), p. 276. [246] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber IV, 1, p. 135. abbé de Mont-Saint-Michel (Rouen) Vol. II, p. 87.
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[248] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 1, p. 203. [312] WT XXII.IV, p. 1066.
[249] WT XVIII.XXII, p. 857.

52
[313] Sicardi Episcopi Cremonensis Cronica, MGH SS [376] Niketas Choniates, Liber IV Rerum a Manuele [438] Alexeiad, Book 2, pp. 91-2.
XXXI, p. 173. Comneno Gestarum, 1, p. 185. [439] Alexeiad, Book 2, p. 90.
[314] Fine, J. V. A. (1994) The Late Medieval Balkans, A [377] Chronicle of Michel le Grand, p. 325. [440] Alexeiad, Book 1, p. 53.
Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman [378] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni [441] Alexeiad, Book 3, pp. 105 and 110.
Conquest (Ann Arbour, University of Michigan Press), p. 63. Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 15, p. 337. [442] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber III, 6, p. 106.
[315] Ioannes Kinnamos V, 1, p. 202. [379] Niketas Choniates, Liber IV Rerum a Manuele [443] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 109.
[316] WT XXII.IV, p. 1066. Comneno Gestarum, 1, p. 185. [444] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.
[317] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni [380] Fine (1994), p. 28. [445] Alexeiad, Book 2, p. 87.
Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 1, p. 291. [381] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris [446] Alexeiad, Book 2, p. 90.
[318] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1164, MGH Isaacii Angeli, Liber 1, 2, p. 605. [447] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.
SS XXIII, p. 848. [382] Niebuhr, B. G. (ed.) (1840) Ephræmii Monachi [448] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber III, 6, p. 106.
[319] Sommerard (1907), p. 204. Imperatorum et Patriarcharum, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ [449] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.
[320] WT XXII.IV, pp. 1066-7. Byzantinæ (Bonn) ("Ephræmius") 6445, p. 263. [450] Schreiner, P. "Eine unbekannte Beschreibung der
[321] Stubbs, W. (ed.) (1847) Gesta Regis Henrici Secundi [383] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Pammakaristos-kirche (Fethiye Camii) und weitere Texte zure
Benedicti Abbatis, The Chronicle of the reigns of Henry II Isaacii Angeli, Liber 3, 2, p. 674. Topographie Konstantinopels," Dumbarton Oaks Papers 25
and Richard I 1169-1192, known commonly under the name [384] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris (1971), pp. 217-48, cited by MB in a private email to the
of Benedict of Peterborough (London) (“Benedict of Isaacii Angeli, Liber 1, 2 and 6, pp. 620 and 623. author dated 8 Nov 2006.
Peterborough”) I 1179, p. 230. [385] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris [451] Chronicon Ottonis Frisingensis VII. 21, MGH SS XX,
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1, 1, p. 357. [387] Fine (1994), pp. 30-1. [453] Kerbl (1979), p. 78.
[324] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1193 and [388] Whose wife was Maria Angelina, paternal aunt of [454] Niketas Choniates, Liber VI Rerum a Manuele
1205, MGH SS XXIII, pp. 870 and 885. Emperor Alexios III. Comneno Gestarum, 1, p. 233.
[325] Lauer, P. (ed.) (1924) Robert de Clari, La conquête de [389] Fine (1994), p. 32. [455] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Andronici Comneni, Liber
Constantinople (Paris), LIII, p. 54 (information provided by [390] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1838) Theophanes Continuatus, 1, 4, p. 377.
Andrew Dalby). Ioannes Cameniata, Symeon Magister, Georgius Monachus [456] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber VI, 6, p. 268.
[326] Sommerard (1907), p. 305. Continuatus, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn), [457] Sturdza (1999), pp. 208 and 277.
[327] Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 97. Georgii Monachi Vitæ Recentiorum Imperatorum (referred to [458] Morris Bierbrier, in a private email to the author dated
[328] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni as Georgius Monachus Continuatus in PBE I CD-Rom), De 18 Jan 2007.
Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 4, p. 301. Leone Basilii filii, 38, p. 867. [459] ES II 179.
[329] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 417. [391] ES II 178. [460] Endlicher, S. L. (ed.) (1849) Rerum Hungaricarum,
[330] MB, in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006. [392] Georgii Monachi Vitæ Recentiorum Imperatorum Monumenta Arpadiana (Sangalli), Chronicon Posoniense, p.
[331] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni (referred to as Georgius Monachus Continuatus in PBE I CD- 57.
Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 15, p. 337. Rom), De Leone Basilii filii, 38, p. 867. [461] ES II 154.
[332] Darrouzès, ´Les discours d´Euthyme Tornikes´, Revue [393] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1838) Theophanes Continuatus, [462] Sturdza (1999), p. 293.
des études byzantines 26 (1968), pp. 92 and 108 (information Ioannes Cameniata, Symeon Magister, Georgius Monachus [463] Migne, J. P. (1887) Ioannes Zonaræ Annales,
supplied by Don C. Stone in a private email to the author Continuatus, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ Patrologiæ cursus completus, Series Græca Tomus CXXXV
dated 7 May 2010). (Bonn)Theophanes Continuatus, VI, Constantini Leonis filii (Paris) ("Zonaras II"), II, Liber XVII, XIV, col. 183.
[333] Niketas Choniates, Urbs Capta, p. 848. imperium, 2-4, pp. 381-84. [464] Psellos, p. 326.
[334] Varzos, K. (1984) He Genealogia ton Komnenon, 1, p. [394] Theophanes Continuatus, VI, Constantini Leonis filii [465] Runciman (1978), pp. 55-8.
476 (information supplied by Don C. Stone in a private email imperium, 3, p. 383. [466] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, p. 61.
to the author dated 7 May 2010). [395] Theophanes Continuatus, VI, Constantini Leonis filii [467] Psellos, p. 331, footnote 2.
[335] ES II 175. imperium, 4, p. 384. [468] Psellos, p. 343.
[336] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 332. [396] Georgii Monachi Vitæ Recentiorum Imperatorum [469] Psellos, pp. 333-4.
[337] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 396. (referred to as Georgius Monachus Continuatus in PBE I CD- [470] Zonaras II, Liber XVII, XIV, col. 183.
[338] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 364-5. Rom), De Leone Basilii filii, 38, p. 867. [471] Psellos, p. 343.
[339] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 377-9. [397] Migne, J. P. (1889) Cedreni Historiarum Continuatio, [472] Niebuhr, B. G. (ed.) (1853) Michael Attaliota, Corpus
[340] Fine (1994), p. 6. Patrologiæ cursus completus, Series Græca Tomus CXXII Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) ("Mikhael Attaliota"),
[341] ES II 175. (Paris) ("Cedrenus II"), col. 10. p. 56.
[342] Sturdza (1999), p. 275. [398] Theophanes Continuatus, VI, Constantini Leonis filii [473] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 6, p. 23.
[343] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1164, MGH imperium, 3, p. 383. [474] Psellos, p. 343, footnote 3.
SS XXIII, p. 848. [399] Theophanes Continuatus, VI, Constantini Leonis filii [475] Psellos, pp. 348-9.
[344] Sommerard (1907), p. 204. imperium, 3, p. 383. [476] Psellos, p. 334.
[345] WT XXII.IV, pp. 1066-7. [400] Theophanes Continuatus, VI, Constantini Leonis filii [477] Mikhael Glykas IV, p. 606.
[346] Benedict of Peterborough I 1179, p. 230. imperium, 3, p. 383. [478] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 6, p. 23.
[347] Benedict of Peterborough I 1183, p. 234. [401] Psellos, p. 326. [479] Psellos, p. 334.
[348] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Andronici Comneni, Liber [402] Sturdza (1999), p. 293. [480] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, p. 61.
1, 1, p. 357. [403] "Andronikos 20128" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal [481] Psellos, p. 359.
[349] Shaw, M. R. B. (trans.) (1963) Joinville and 3390. [482] Runciman (1978), Vol 1, pp. 66-7.
Villehardouin, Chronicles of the Crusades (Penguin) [404] Psellos, p. 326. [483] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, p. 68.
(“Villehardouin”), 18, p. 133. [405] Psellos, p. 342. [484] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), pp. 329-30.
[350] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1193 and [406] Runciman (1978), Vol 1, pp. 66-7. [485] Zonaras XVIII, 17, p. 714.
1205, MGH SS XXIII, pp. 870 and 885. [407] Alexeiad, Book 1, p. 59. [486] Alexeiad, Book 1, p. 37.
[351] Lauer, P. (ed.) (1924) Robert de Clari, La conquête de [408] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71. [487] Psellos, p. 373.
Constantinople (Paris), LIII, p. 54 (information provided by [409] "Leon 2103" in PBW (2006.2), citing 'Ἐπιτάφιος εἰς [488] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.
Andrew Dalby). Εἰρήνην καισάρισσαν', in Kurtz, E. and Drexl, F. (1936) [489] Romoaldi Annales 1076, MGH SS XIX, p. 407.
[352] Sommerard (1907), p. 305. Michaelis Pselli Scripta minora magnam partem adhuc inedita [490] Alexeiad, Book 1, pp. 53 and 57-8.
[353] Kerrebrouck, P. Van (2000) Les Capétiens 987-1328 I (Milan), pp. 155-189, 159. [491] Skylitzes, col. 451.
(Villeneuve d'Asq), p. 97. [410] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71. [492] P. N. Dunbar (trans.) G. A. Loud (rev.) (2004) Amatus
[354] Niketas Choniates, Liber III Rerum a Manuele [411] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 110. of Montecassino, The History of the Normans (Boydell)
Comneno Gestarum, 2, p. 135. [412] Mikhael Glykas IV, pp. 611-2. ("Amatus") VII.26, p. 178.
[355] Niketas Choniates, Liber IV Rerum a Manuele [413] Psellos, pp. 360-1. [493] Houts, E. van (ed. and trans.) (2000) The Normans in
Comneno Gestarum, 1, p. 173. [414] Theodore Prodromos, cited in Polemis (1968), cited by Europe (Manchester University Press), p. 252 footnote 83.
[356] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 8, p. 226. MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006. [494] Chibnall, M. (ed. and trans.) The Ecclesiastical History
[357] Niketas Choniates, Liber IV Rerum a Manuele [415] Polemis (1968), cited by MB in a private email to the of Orderic Vitalis (Oxford Medieval Texts, 1969-80), Vol. IV,
Comneno Gestarum, 1, pp. 181-2. author dated 8 Nov 2006. Book VII, p. 15.
[358] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni [416] Sturdza (1999), p. 274. [495] Zonaras XVIII, 22, p. 738.
Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 2, p. 295. [417] Theodore Prodromos, cited in Polemis (1968), cited by [496] Mikhael Glykas IV, p. 607.
[359] Chronicle of Michel le Grand, p. 325. MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006. [497] Psellos, p. 340.
[360] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 378-9. [418] Sturdza (1999), p. 274. [498] Mikhael Glykas IV, p. 607.
[361] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni [419] MB, in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006. [499] Psellos, p. 340.
Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 11, p. 323. [420] "Maria 20115" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 2999. [500] Psellos, p. 340.
[362] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni [421] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 110. [501] Mikhael Glykas IV, p. 606.
Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 17, p. 348. [422] Mikhael Glykas IV, pp. 611-2. [502] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 6, p. 23.
[363] ES II 176. [423] Psellos, p. 365, footnote 1. [503] Psellos, p. 340.
[364] Sturdza (1999), p. 280. [424] Psellos, p. 362. [504] Psellos, p. 374.
[365] Kennedy, S. (trans.) (2008) The Chronicle of Michael [425] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71. [505] Mikhael Glykas IV, p. 606.
Panaretos, 1, available at [426] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber III, 6, p. 106. [506] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 6, p. 23.
<http://scotisc.blogspot.com/2008/12/history-of-michael- [427] Alexeiad, Book 2, pp. 85 and 87. [507] Psellos, p. 340.
panaretos.html> (6 Dec 2008). [428] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71. [508] Psellos, pp. 345 and 346.
[366] Niketas Choniates, Liber de Rebus post captam urbem [429] Alexeiad, Book 2, p. 90. [509] Psellos, p. 375, footnote 1.
gestis, 16, p. 842. [430] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71. [510] Alexeiad, Book 4, p. 148.
[367] Michael Panaretos 1. [431] MB, in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006. [511] Mikhael Glykas IV, p. 607.
[368] Niketas Choniates, Liber de Rebus post captam urbem [432] "Konstantinos 130" in PBW (2006.2), citing [512] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 108.
gestis, 16, p. 842. Theophylact of Ohrid 461.19, 549.20, 571.16. [513] Magdalino (2002) and Cheynet (1986), both cited by
[369] Sturdza (1999), p. 278. [433] Polemis (1968), cited by MB in a private email to the MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.
[370] Gardner, A. (1912) The Lascarids of Nicæa, The Story author dated 8 Nov 2006. [514] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.
of an Empire in Exile (Methuen, London), pp. 86-7. [434] Schreiner, P. "Eine unbekannte Beschreibung der [515] "Theodotos 20108" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3677.
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Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 11, p. 323. Topographie Konstantinopels," Dumbarton Oaks Papers 25 and 4370.
[372] Niketas Choniates, Liber IV Rerum a Manuele (1971), pp. 217-48, cited by MB in a private email to the [517] "Baasakios 20102" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 4371.
Comneno Gestarum, 1, p. 185. author dated 8 Nov 2006. [518] "Pankratios 20101" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seals 773
[373] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 412. [435] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71. and 4073.
[374] MB in a private email to the author dated 10 Dec 2006. [436] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71. [519] Cedrenus II, col. 194.
[375] Sturdza (1999), p. 274. [437] Alexeiad, Book 2, pp. 86-7. [520] Zonaras II, Liber XVII, X, col. 172.

53
[521] Cedrenus II, col. 199. [605] Ephræmius 6445, p. 263. [670] Miklosich, Fr. (ed.) (1858) Monumenta Serbica
[522] Zonaras II, Liber XVII, XII, col. 178. [606] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris spectantia Historiam Serbiæ Bosnæ Ragusii (Vienna)
[523] Cedrenus II, col. 219. Isaacii Angeli, Liber 3, 2, p. 674. ("Monumenta Serbica"), LIX, p. 56.
[524] Psellos, p. 350. [607] Georgius Akropolites 5, p. 10. [671] McDaniel ´John Angelos and Queen Jelena´, citing
[525] Zonaras XVIII, 10, p. 684. [608] Fine (1994), p. 28. Makushev, V. ´Itallianskie arkhivy i khranisashchiesia v nikh
[526] Cedrenus II, col. 219. [609] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris materialy dlia slavianskoi istorii´, Sbornik Otdelelniia
[527] Mikhael Glykas IV, p. 607. Isaacii Angeli, Liber 3, 7, p. 700. Russkogo Iazyka i Slovesnosti, VIII/4 (1871), pp. 30-33.
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[529] Psellos, p. 350. [611] Fine (1994), p. 46. [673] Georgius Akropolites 62, p. 134.
[530] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, p. 61. [612] Niketas Choniates, Alexius Ducas Murzuflus, 3, p. 755. [674] ES II 160.
[531] Skylitzes, col. 407. [613] Georgius Akropolites 5, p. 10. [675] McDaniel ´John Angelos and Queen Jelena´, citing (in
[532] Psellos, pp. 348-9. [614] Villehardouin, 14, p. 99. his translation) Daničić, D. (ed.) (1866) Zivoti kraljeva i
[533] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 6, p. 24. [615] Ephræmius 7295, p. 296. arhiepiskopa srpskih (Beograd), reprinted Variorum, London
[534] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber II, 29, p. 99. [616] Georgius Akropolites 8, p. 15. (1973), p. 58 lines 9-10, and 8.14.
[535] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 6, p. 24. [617] Fine (1994), pp. 64-5. [676] McDaniel ´John Angelos and Queen Jelena´.
[536] Alexeiad, Book 10, p. 296. [618] Fine (1994), p. 64. [677] McDaniel ´John Angelos and Queen Jelena´, quoting
[537] ES III 181. [619] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Andronici Comneni, Liber Berger, E. (ed.) (1897) Les Registres d´Innocent IV (Paris),
[538] Amatus I.11, p. 48. 1, 3, p. 374. Vol. 3, 6862, p. 289, and 7178, p. 351.
[539] Dumoret, J. (trans.) 'Histoire des Seldjoukides, extraite [620] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni [678] McDaniel ´John Angelos and Queen Jelena´, quoting
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[541] Alexeiad, Book 9, p. 281. [623] Fine (1994), p. 15. Vimeu (Amiens), Tome II, p. 70.
[542] Alexeiad, Book 7, p. 224. [624] Fine (1994), p. 24-25. [680] McDaniel ´John Angelos and Queen Jelena´, citing
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[575] ES II 179. 549. [710] Niketas Choniates, Liber II Rerum a Manuele Comneno
[576] Ioannes Kinnamos IV, 7, pp. 47 and 52. [646] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1191, MGH SS Gestarum, 7, p. 125.
[577] Ioannes Kinnamos IV, 6, p. 148, IV, 11, p. 162 and V, XIX, p. 325. [711] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber IV, 12, p. 165.
13, p. 238. [647] Annales Casenses 1193, MGH SS XIX, p. 317. [712] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 4, p. 210.
[578] ES II 179. [648] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris [713] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.
[579] ES II 179. Isaacii Angeli, Liber 2, 1, p. 635. [714] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Isaacii Angeli, Liber 3, 2, p.
[580] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1837) Constantinus Manasses, Ioel, [649] RHC, Historiens occidentaux II, Historia Rerum in 556.
Georgius Acropolita, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ partibus transmarinis gestarum ("L'estoire de Eracles [715] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.
(Bonn) ("Georgius Akropolites") 51, p. 107. Empereur et la conqueste de la terre d'Outremer") Continuator [716] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.
[581] Niketas Choniates, Liber VI Rerum a Manuele (“WTC”) XXIII.XVI, p. 24, and XXIV.IX, p. 118. [717] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.
Comneno Gestarum, 1, p. 233. [650] Continuatio Admuntensis 1194, MGH SS IX, p. 587. [718] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 4, p. 210.
[582] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Andronici Comneni, Liber [651] Boehmer, F. (1868) Fontes rerum Germanicarum, Vol. [719] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 4, p. 210.
1, 2, p. 365. IV, p. 323. [720] MB, in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.
[583] Sturdza (1999), p. 208. [652] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 112. [721] Classen, J. (ed.) (1839-41) Theophanes Chronographia,
[584] ES II 179. [653] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 115. Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ Vols. I and II (Bonn)
[585] Gardner (1912), p. 115. [654] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Isaacii Angeli, Liber 3, 1, p. AM 6258.
[586] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni 549. [722] Theophanes AM 6263.
Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 9, p. 319. [655] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 112. [723] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1834) Theophylacti Simocattæ
[587] Fine (1994), pp. 27-8. [656] Sturdza (1999), p. 476. Historiarum, Genesius Regum, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ
[588] Fine (1994), p. 60. [657] Sturdza (1999), p. 477. Byzantinæ (Bonn) Genesius, Liber 1, De Leone Amalekita, p.
[589] Michell, R. and Forbes, N (trans.) (1914) The Chronicle [658] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 117-18. 11.
of Novgorod 1016-1471 (London), 1204, pp. 43-8. [659] Niketas Choniates, pp. 718-26, cited in Runciman [724] Ostrogorsky, G. (1952) Geschichte des byzantinischen
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[592] Gardner (1912), p. 64. [661] Gardner (1912), p. 47. [725] 17 Nov 1104 according to Sturdza (1999), p. 274.
[593] Gardner (1912), p. 83. [662] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 120-1. [726] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 11, p. 32.
[594] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris [663] Sturdza (1999), p. 207. [727] Alexeiad, Book 2, pp. 92-4.
Isaacii Angeli, Liber 1, 1, p. 601. [664] Fennell, J. (1983) The Crisis of Medieval Russia 1200- [728] Alexeiad, Book 3, IV.
[595] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris 1304 (Longman), p. 24. [729] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 6, p. 24.
Isaacii Angeli, Liber 2, 2, p. 642. [665] Boehmer (1868) Fontes rerum Germanicarum, Vol. IV, [730] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 111.
[596] Gardner (1912), p. 90. p. 323. [731] Georgius Akropolites 49, p. 98.
[597] Ephræmius 7565, p. 306. [666] Gardner (1912), p. 83. [732] Sturdza (1999), p. 344.
[598] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris [667] Codex Diplomaticus Regni Croatiæ, Dalamatiæ et [733] Sturdza (1999), p. 344.
Isaacii Angeli, Liber 1, 2, p. 605. Slavoniæ, Vol. III, p. 264. [734] Cedrenus II, col. 295.
[599] Ephræmius 6440, p. 263. [668] Fejér, G. (ed.) (1829) Codex Diplomaticus Hungariæ [735] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber II, 3, p. 33.
[600] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris (Buda), Tome III.2, p. 351. [736] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber II, 13, p. 70.
Isaacii Angeli, Liber 3, 2, p. 674. [669] McDaniel, G. ´On Hungarian-Serbian Relations in the [737] Fine (1994), p. 9.
[601] Georgius Akropolites 5, p. 10. 13th Century: John Angelos and Queen Jelena´, Ungarn- [738] Fine (1994), p. 14.
[602] Birth date range estimated from the birth of her Jahrbuch, Vol. 12 (1982/83), pp. 43-50, available at [739] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Isaacii Angeli, Liber 1, 7, p.
daughter by her first marriage [before 1196]. <http://www.feefhs.org/links/Serbia/jelena.html> (consulted 502.
[603] Gardner (1912), p. 115. 19 Jul 2010), quoting Berger, E. (ed.) (1897) Les Registres d [740] Gardner (1912), pp. 72-3.
[604] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris ´Innocent IV (Paris), Vol. 3, 6862, p. 289, and 7178, p. 351. [741] Fine (1994), p. 85.
Isaacii Angeli, Liber 1, 2, p. 605. [742] Villehardouin, 18, p. 133.

54
[743] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1193 and
1205, MGH SS XXIII, pp. 870 and 885.
[744] Lauer, P. (ed.) (1924) Robert de Clari, La conquête de
Constantinople (Paris), LIII, p. 54 (information provided by
Andrew Dalby).
[745] Sommerard (1907), p. 305.
[746] Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 97.
[747] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1205 and
1235, MGH SS XXIII, pp. 885 and 939.
[748] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1835) Georgii Pachymeris De Michaele
et Andronico Palaeologis, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ
Byzantinæ (Bonn) Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber II, 5,
p. 97.

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