You are on page 1of 27

Shakespeare

The
Elizabethan
World Picture

Contents
z Introduction z Macrocosm
z The Elizabethan Age Ptolemy’s system
Copernican system
z Chain of being
System of
z Mirror
correspondence
The human being
Humours
Temper
King

● In England around 16th century ● Elizabeth I reigned 1588-1603 →Elizabethan Era ● Tillyard: „Elizabethan World Picture“ . Introduction ● Renaissance took place in Italy between 1400-1600 century.

● Seperation of church. ● Inventions and scientific progress. . ● Discovery of the new world. Renaissance ● New birth = beginning of „modern age“. ● Man as centre of interest. ● Public school system for the privileged.

● He had established Order and unity. The Elizabethan Age ● God had created the univers and everything in it. ● He had bound all lifeless and living things together in a system. ● each object and being had his rightful place ● According to his rank and usefulness. .

Chain of being .

„vivit“ and „feel“) ● Human Kingdom („est“. “vivit“.Chain of being ● Is divided into 4 kingdoms ● Mineral Kingdom („est“) ● Vegetable Kingdom („est“ and „vivit“) ● Animal Kingdom („est“. “feel“ and „intelligent“) .

“vivit“. Chain of being The human steps: ● Learned Human („est“. “feel“ and „intelligent“) ● Sensible („est“. „vivit“ and „feel“) ● Gluttory („est“ and „vivit“) ● Lazyness („est“) .

cleaner way. ● The lower object reflects the being of a higher in a lower way.● The world consits of mirrors ● Neighbouring objects reflect each other ● The higher object reflects the being of a lower in an higher. .

● Macrososm (Universe) .

geocentric System „ Claudius Ptolemy proposed a model of the universe „ earth at the centre (geocentric) „ earth as stationary „ other planets and the sun move in complex orbits around it .The Ptolemaic System.

sun. venus. mars. geocentric System „ centre: earth „ around the earth: seven zones of planets: moon. the Angels and the souls of the blessed lived there Ptolemy‘s idea of the universe . jupiter and saturn „ “outer zone” is outside the universe Æ “Coelum Empyraeum” „ God. mercury.The Ptolemaic System.

The Copernican System. heliocentric system • Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) • heliocentric model of the solar system • the sun is stationary at the centre • the Earth moves Nicolaus Copernicus around it .

heliocentric system Major characteristics: • the earth rotates daily on its axis and revolves yearly around the sun • the planets also circle the sun • the earth was just another planet Copernicus idea of the universe . The Copernican System.

heliocentric system • the concept of a moving earth was too difficult for most 16th- century readers Æ Consequently.The Copernican System. the sun-centred system was hard to introduce .

in the middle of the universe) • stars • man’s head (placed highest in the sphere) • earthquakes and • man’s passion storms (in nature) . System of correspondence Macrocosm Microcosm • sun • man’s heart (giving planets light and power.

The human being (Man) Man’s position in the universe: ● central position in the universe ● the highest position in the living nature ● the latest and the most perfect created creature .

rational. and brutal. to wit. and to beasts a sensual nature. giving to angels an intellectual. the sensitive of beasts. angelical. and the proper rational belonging unto man…]” . he vouchsafed unto man both the intellectual of Angels. The human being (Man) ● Sir Walter Raleigh: “[And whereas God created three sorts of living natures.

and an overview of the universe ● is called microcosm or the "little world" . The human being (Man) ● man has the function of a mirror ● the whole creation is reflected ● man is a summary. a model.

The human being (Man) Humours ● the body of the human being consists of the four elements ● His four humours correspond to the four elements ● contain the four basic qualities of these elements: element humour quality in nature earth melancholy cold and dry Water phlegm cold and moist Air sanguis hot and moist fire choler hot and dry .

the age of man. The human being (Man) The Tempers ● the balance of the humours decided about the constitution of man ● ideal balance was disturbed by the original sin ● the balance is confused by atmosphere. the geographic position and especially by the food .

the Phlegmatic Man and the Melancholic Man . The human being (Man) • The domination of one of the humours led to four tempers: • The Choleric Man. the Sanguine Man.

ireful.The Choleric Man: “hath Nature of fire” • is hot and dry. hasty. loves black clothes . is lean and slender. brainless and foolish. he has wine of the lion.

attempered. laughing. he has wine of an ape.The Sanguine Man: “hath nature of air” • is hot and moist. is large. loves high coloured clothes . plenteous.

loves green clothes . sleepy he has wine of the sheep.The Phlegmatic Man: “hath nature of Water” • is cold and moist. slow. heavy.

backbiter. he has wine of an hog.The Melancholic Man “hath nature of Earth” • is cold and dry. loves black clothes . and slow. malicious.

The King • representative of god on earth • can never be disturbed • Moon: material goods • Mercury: eloquence • Venus: mildness • Sun: religion • Mars: bravery • Jupiter: intelligence • Saturn: Majesty .