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Unit 1 Module 1

1 (a) A 1 Light going from air to water must bend
away from the normal to the surface.

(b) D 1

2 (a) Longitudinal 1 Think about the direction in which the
hammer adds energy and the direction in
which the pulse moves

(b) Reflection 1 The wave ‘bounces’ at the end of the rod.

(c) Use of speed ÷ time 1 Remember that the wave has to travel to
0.9 ÷ (1.6 × 10–4) 1 the end and back again.
= 5.6 km s–1 1

3 (a) (i) λ = 3 × 108/1.5 × 109 1
λ = 0.20 m 1
(ii) θ/2 = sin–1 3500/36000 1
θ = 11.2° 1
(iii) b = 0.2/0.098 1 If more significant figures are used, the
= 2.04 m 1 value of b is 2.06.
(iv) Satellite small so need to concentrate 1
energy on it so θ small
Too/less diffraction with a bigger dish

(b) A maximum of seven from: 7
Binary code/01 required
Many samples transmitted down same
channel or same frequency/in short period
of time
Sampling process required
Signals transmitted in sequence
Method is secure
Need more satellites if no time division
multiplexing
Bandwidth issues discussed

4 (a) Constant or zero phase difference or in 1
phase
Same frequency or same wavelength 1

AQA Physics B AS Level © Nelson Thornes Ltd 2008 1

5 1 = 5. Unit 1 Module 1 Answers to examination-style questions Answers Marks Examiner’s tips (b) (i) Mention of interference 1 Describes constructive or destructive 1 interference or discusses path difference (ii) λ  D/d = 0.24 1 f = 258 Hz 1 6 (a) (i) Diffraction 1 (ii) Obstacle or aperture needs to be of 1 same order of magnitude as wavelength Long radio wave is of the order of 1 1 km (or short radio wave is about a metre) (b) Any three of 3 Reflection from layers in the atmosphere Electrical or optical fibre cables Satellite Relay stations Refraction through atmosphere Transmission through Earth 7 (a) (i) Digital has two possible values/no 1 intermediate values shown (ii) Signal quality unaffected by noise 1 zeros and ones still discernible 1 multiplexing possible/efficient use of 1 transmitting medium Many signals can be sent is short time 1 with fast sampling rates AQA Physics B AS Level © Nelson Thornes Ltd 2008 2 .9 m 1 5 (a) Any 3 of 3 Superposition of progressive waves Incident wave and reflected wave require or wave relected through 180° or waves travelling in opposite directions with the same frequency or wavelength in the same medium (b) f = c/λ 1 λ = 1.77 × 65 ÷ 8.

Unit 1 Module 1 Answers to examination-style questions Answers Marks Examiner’s tips (b) (i) Noise 1 Superposes with original signal 1 Attenuation 1 Energy dissipated in transmitting 1 medium (ii) Optical fibre 1 (iii) < 0.15 V 1 8 (a) Longitudinal wave 1 (b) Arrows showing B displaced to the left 1 and C displaced to the right (c) Particles in the transmitting medium are 1 made to vibrate/given energy Cause nearby particles to vibrate/have 1 energy Nelson Thornes is responsible for the solution(s) given and they may not constitute the only possible solution(s). AQA Physics B AS Level © Nelson Thornes Ltd 2008 3 .1 V 1 > 0.

Unit 1 Module 2 Answers to examination-style questions Answers Marks Examiner’s tips 1 (a) Pair production 1 (b) The γ photon must provide enough energy 1 Although you will not be asked to use the to provide for the mass equation E = mc2. class closest to red end 1 which class is closer to the red end of the spectrum? (iii) Shedir.6 × 10–19 C 1 (iii) 0 1 AQA Physics B AS Level © Nelson Thornes Ltd 2008 4 .4 × 10–7 m 4 (a) (i) meson 1 (ii) electronic charge or –1. (b) Use of Wien’s law 3 use Wien’s law to solve this problem λmax = 0.g. 1 Typically by gas between source and observer Re-radiated but in all directions so original 1 direction weaker or radiated at lower energies as electron relaxes in a number of stages 3 (a) (i) Segin. smallest apparent magnitude 1 which is the smallest apparent magnitude (iv) Achid. Remember lower magnitude corresponds to brighter stars. apparent mag < absolute mag 1 Think about the 10 pc distance and the and they are equal when the star is 10 relative sizes of absolute and apparent pc away magnitudes. a proton and an anti-proton) 2 (a) (i) Continuous range of frequencies 1 (ii) White hot or incandescent body or a 1 correct example (b) Absorption spectrum 1 Absence of light at the dark line 1 because the light has been absorbed. you will be expected Any extra energy will provide the particles 1 to understand the implications of the with kinetic energy equation. hottest class 1 which is the hottest spectral class? (ii) Shedir.0024 ÷ 12000 = 2. (c) any pairing of a particle with its 1 corresponding antiparticle (e.

5 × 1010 years 1 (d) mention of Doppler effect 1 This is an essay which has two separate mention of red shift 1 points. read the question carefully and measurement of wavelength or frequency 1 make sure that you answer both of them needed longer wavelengths/lower frequencies 1 observed on Earth description of the use of the formula 1 ∆f/f = v/c mention of the condition that v << c 1 Nelson Thornes is responsible for the solution(s) given and they may not constitute the only possible solution(s).5 × 1015 1 conversions 1. Unit 1 Module 2 Answers to examination-style questions Answers Marks Examiner’s tips (b) Baryon number: 0 → 0 + 0 1 Lepton number: – 1 → – 1 + 1 1 Charge: + 1 → + 1 + 0 1 so lepton number not satisfied 5 (a) H = v/d 1 best-fit line drawn 1 gradient of line 65 ± 4 1 (b) use of d = v/H 1 260 Mpc 1 (c) distance from part (b) × 106 × 3.3 1 careful with powers of ten and this distance × 9. AQA Physics B AS Level © Nelson Thornes Ltd 2008 5 .