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M.Madhavi Y.Latha sree
4th ME 4th ME




cellular broadband data and streaming applications. The and improved personalization. Convergence term 4G is used broadly to include several with other network (enterprise. . The continuous expansion of Grow rapidly as they become more users mobile communication and wireless networks friendly. bandwidth. As a promise for the future. are generally read/write equipment). Fluid high quality video and shows evidence of exceptional growth in the network creactivity are important user areas of mobile subscriber. that is. handhelds) is expected to arena. Personal digital much interest in the mobile communication assistants. Machine-to-machine transmission will telephone systems. The features of 4G systems might be summarized with one word —integration. One of the terms used to involve two basic equipment types: sensors describe 4G is MAGIC—Mobile multimedia. Key infrastructure design access. and applications to satisfy increasing user Figure 1:Service evolution vision demands. The 4G systems not only will support the next generation of mobile service. and applications. The 4G systems are about seamlessly integrating terminals. and integration of mobile communication. networks.ABSTRACT Service Evolution The approaching 4G (fourth generation) mobile communication systems The evolution from 3G to 4G will be driven are projected to solve still-remaining by services that offer better quality (e. (which measure arameters) and tags (which anytime anywhere. but also will support the fixed wireless networks. similar to those on fixed networks.g. not only cellular rate. wireless network requirements. It is integrated wireless solution. problems of 3G (third generation) systems video and sound) thanks to greater and to provide a wide variety of new services. mobile services. Mobile wireless access systems have been attracting terminal usage (laptops. more sophistication in the from high-quality voice to high-definition association of a large quantity of information. rates. This paper presents an overall vision of the 4G features. framework. for 4G systems. Global mobility support. video to high-data-rate wireless channels. and customized expected that users will require high data personal service. fixed) services types of broadband wireless access will come about through the high session data communication systems.

as shown laptops and PDAs. high in which Code Division Multiple Access session rate.20. low user charges. The second path is the radio LAN one. When this point is reached. voice may start to be carried in Figure 2. The first is the 3G-centric path. path is IEEE 802. another demand. (including capacity for indoor use). In enterprises. Widespread Figure 2: Dimensioning examples A simple calculation illustrates the order of magnitude.Gebit/s/km2)0000 by Voice over Wireless LAN (VoWLAN). as can be seen in Figure 3. A core network evolution Many technologies are competing on the road towards a broadband Next Generation to 4G. technologies through standard access . technology will be needed to realize the required increases in capacity and data Figure 3: Multiple overlay architecture Dimensioning targets rates. Multiple-Input Multiple-Output technology will be a lengthy task. even if they are more or less introduction of new access network specialized.16e and 802. Three paths Network (NGN) will facilitate the are possible. No current technology is many proprietary solutions on offer.requirements include: fast response. (CDMA) will be progressively pushed to the rapid return on investment for operators. which are simpler than 3G for the equivalent Multi-technology Approach performance. A third capable of such performance. etc. the expected best However. it is not clear what the next performance of 3G is around 10 bit/s/Hz/km2 successful technology will be. Reaching a using High Speed Downlink Packet Access consensus on a 200 Mbit/s (and more) (HSDPA). As a comparison. high capacity. point at which terminal manufacturers will investment that is in line with the growth in give up. with too (MIMO). and simple autonomous terminals. The design target in terms of radio performance is to achieve a scalable capacity from 50 to 500 bit/s/Hz/km2 deployment of WiFi is expected to start in 2005 for PCs.

ITU-T. Key 4G Technologies 3GPP. A second set of technologies is possible to exploit the time domain. Figure 5: OFDM principles OFDM also provides a frequency diversity gain. are briefly described below: How can an operator provide a large number of users with high session data rates using its OFDMA existing infrastructure? At least two Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing technologies are needed. continuity. based on ETSI-TISPAN.It is also compatible with other . such as 2G/3G and their performance by proposing an additional evolutions will be complemented by Wi-Fi degree of free-dom. it is and WiMAX. the frequency domain and even the designed without any constraints on coverage code domain to optimize radio channel usage. The first (called (OFDM) not only provides clear advantages “parent coverage”) is dedicated to large for physical layer performance. Legacy framework for improving layer 2 technologies. on each of cell coverage is different from a classical which the signal is “narrowband” (a few kHz) roaming process. Parent coverage can also be used as provided a guard interval is inserted between a back-up when service delivery in the Pico each OFDM symbol. This is known as Pico-cell It ensures very robust transmission in multi- coverage. As shown in Figure 5. complexity. China Communication Standards Some of the key technologies required for 4G Association (CCSA) and other standards. and can be domain. improving the physical layer Fig 4: Coverage performance trends performance. the space needed to increase capacity. but similar to classical and therefore immune to multi-path effects. gateways. handover. Using ODFM. but also a coverage and real-time services. the signal Handover between parent coverage and Pico is split into orthogonal subcarriers. Only the use of both technologies path environments with reduced receiver can achieve both targets (Figure 4). cell becomes too difficult.

Several generally admitted that the gain in spectrum infrastructure gains are expected from SDR. It is well provides additional flexibility for resource suited to OFDM. MIMO is more multi-band. For a manufacturer. However. as it is possible to process allocation (increasing the capacity). technology (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access.enhancement technologies. The signal transmitted by m antennas is received by n antennas. OFDMA). This aspect of OFDM greatly simplifies processing. The performance in cellular will adapt the air interface to the available deployments is still subject to research and radio access technology. during a sports event). OFDM modulation can development effort and costs through also be employed as a multiple access simultaneous multi-channel processing. multi-standard base stations and efficient when many multiple path signals are terminals. an operator will reconfigure its network adding several modems at a given Base Transceiver Station (BTS). SDR makes this reconfiguration easy. the channel. each Multiple-input multiple-output OFDM symbol can transmit information MIMO uses signal multiplexing between to/from several users using a different set of multiple transmitting antennas (space subcarriers (subchannels). a specific time (e. This not only multiplex) and time or frequency. this can be a powerful aid to providing multi-standard. but also independent time symbols as soon as the enables cross-layer optimization of radio link OFDM waveform is correctly designed for usage. to increase network capacity at number of antennas in the link.g. SDR will become an enabler for the aggregation of multi-standard pico/micro cells. such as smart multi-band equipment with reduced antennas and MIMO. In this case. it is done by the infrastructure. In the context of 4G systems. Although in future the terminals received. Software defined radio Processing of the received signals may deliver several performance improvements: Software Defined Radio (SDR) benefits from range. . quality of received signal and spectrum today’s high processing power to develop efficiency. efficiency is directly related to the minimum For example. In principle. at present this is simulations (see Figure 6).

In The most obvious interaction is the one the case of OFDM. bit repetition). high data . This method can Figure 7: Layer interaction and associated optimization double the capacity of a classical cellular Handover and mobility system. MIMO allows macro- between MIMO and the MAC layer. Handover technologies based on mobile IP technology have been considered for data and voice. Interlayer optimization In OFDM. Resources can be assigned to data only when the radio conditions are favorable. VSFOFDM. which is to use macro-diversity. fast mobile IP). but such a technique should only be used in situations where spectrum is very scarce. the same alternative exists as in CDMA. Several techniques can be used when the carrier to interference ratio is negative (e. Mobile IP techniques are slow but can be accelerated with classical methods (hierarchical. Caching and Pico Cells Memory in the network and terminals facilitates service delivery.g. In pico cellular coverage. These methods are applicable to data and probably also voice. interactions have been identified (see However. as it facilitates the delivery of real-time services. diversity implies that MIMO processing is centralized and transmissions are synchronous. In cellular systems. it is necessary to reconsider the handover methods. In single-frequency networks. This is not as complex as in CDMA. but Figure 6: Alcatel test-bed performance roadmap the drawback of these techniques is capacity. this extends the capabilities of the MAC scheduler. Other diversity processing with performance gains. the implementation of macro- Figure7).

the terminal will have three caches. and reliable protocol is used between the the coverage is not used most of the time. of cache following the last received. packet loss around 10-2 /10-3. terminal and the cache for every service creating an apparent discontinuity. destination of a terminal are built and stored. it simply asks for the line constraints other than limiting interference. 5 images/s). high scalability (from 50 allow error rates of about 10-5 /10-6 and a to 500 bit/s/Hz).g. At the entrance of the even when reception/transmission is access network. is high without packet loss. which is a robust flow but of limited quality (e. the coverage zone within which data can be When a terminal enters an area in which a received/transmitted can be designed with no transfer is possible. Video (and audio) transmissions advantage of coverage. Consequently. As soon as the terminal enters Pico cell coverage. and two enhancement flows (50 kbit/s and 200 kbit/s). the parent coverage establishes the service dialog and service start-up (with the base layer). The first flow provides availability. the other two quality and definition. a video flow can be split into three Flows which can be transported independently: one base layer (30 kbit/s).rate (non-real-time) services can be delivered shown in Figure 8. However. between Data delivery is preferred in places where the the terminal and the cache. robust bitrate is a maximum. In these delivered in this type of coverage areas. Coded images A specific architecture is needed to introduce still contain enough redundancy for error cache memory in the network. it is possible to spectrum efficiency. especially when are currently transmitted without error and designed with caching technology. A simple. the terminal caches are filled. The Audio and video coding are scalable.Multimedia service delivery. In Pico cellular coverage. lines of cache at the interrupted for a few seconds. adaptation and robust transmission Coverages are “discontinuous”. For instance. starting with the Figure 8: Pico cell network design base cache. content is sent to the terminal cache at . An example is . high capacity and lower cost. service the high data rate and read at the service rate. In a streaming situation. Between these areas.

Coverage • Indoor short range radio connected to the Coverage is achieved by adding new fixed network. However. Projected 4G systems offer this promise of a standard that can be embraced worldwide through its key concept of Figure 9: example of deployment in dense traffic areas integration. These applications to allow sharing of resources performances only refer to outdoor coverage. for example: first the parent coverage is deployed. From 1 to 20 bit/s/Hz/km. Future wireless networks will Bit/s/Hz/km?. in transmission with a reasonable increase in indoor coverage can be obtained by: complexity. The ultimate performances of the middleware for applications providers). it is then made Integration in a Broadband NGN denser by adding discontinuous Pico cells. offers a unique interface to application Parent coverage performance may vary service providers. There must be a low not all the issues associated with indoor . The focus is now on deploying an after which the Pico cell is made denser but architecture realizing convergence between still discontinuously. This MIMO or by deploying another Pico cell generic architecture integrates all service Coverage in a different frequency band (see enablers (e. • Direct penetration. depending on the complexity need to support diverse IP multimedia of the terminal hardware and software. Take a access point. Finally the Pico cell the fixed and mobile networks (ITU-T coverage is made continuous either by using Broadband NGN and ETSI. Figure 9). while Pico cell Conclusion technology can achieve from 100 to 500 As the history of mobile communications shows. attempts have been made to reduce a number of technologies to a single global standard. network selection. technologies (possibly in overlay mode) and • Connection via a relay to a Pico cellular progressively enhancing density. and various technologies are shown in Figure 10.correction. among multiple users. which may raise significant Interference issues.g. IMS. GHz) and requires an excess of power. Using the described technologies. WiMAX deployment.TISPAN). It is possible to gain about 10 dB coverage have yet been resolved. this is only possible in multimedia transmission can provide a good low frequency bands (significantly Below 1 quality user experience.

However. Nokia. 3. Dec.g. PANs). • Multi-technology distributed architecture. Disruptive 4G. Terminal complexity depends on communication)—a vision that affordably the number of technologies they can work provides high data rates everywhere over a with. The minimum number of technologies wireless network. The architecture can deployed using two main fourth generation promises to fulfill the goal products: base stations and the associated of PCC (personal computing and controllers. Sorrento. June 1999. sharing mechanisms. Some key technologies permit the progressive REFERENCES introduction of such networks without 1. London. and WiMAX) for real-time delivery. with associated Summit99. Huomo. • OFDM and MIMO. delivery. • IP mobility. G. Baughan. It • Coverage with two technologies: parent Is Personal. J. full IP end users and the wireless infrastructure. "Fourth Generation: Now. Many other features. UK. but it can still be done in 2. . the thousands of radio and mobile terminals per presence of legacy networks will increase this square kilometer presents several challenges. Evans and K." Electronics and Communication technologies are needed to achieve high Engineering Journal. • Network selection mechanisms." Proceedings of the 11th IEEE (2G. The distributed. 3G. "Visions of jeopardizing existing investment. Indoor and discontinuous Pico cell for high data rate and Mobile Radio Communications. to six or seven. H. 2002. International Symposium on Personal. such as robust transmission and cross-layer optimization." presented at ACTS Mobile • Sufficient spectrum. "Fourth Generation a progressive manner. • Caching technology in the network and terminals. Italy. B. Pereira.complexity of implementation and an which can reach between 100 and 500 efficient means of negotiation between the bit/s/Hz/km2. The key enablers are: Mobile. M. will contribute to optimizing the performance. is two: one for the radio coverage and one for The provision of megabit/s data rates to short range use (e. capacity at low cost. September 2000. • Fixed-mobile convergence (for indoor service).