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CMFRI

bulletin 43
APRIL 1989

MARINE LIVING RESOURCES
OF T H E UNION TERRITORY OF
LAKSHADWEEP-
An Indicative Survey
With Suggestions For Development

CENTRAL MARINE FISHERIES RESEARCH INSTITUTE
(Indian Council of Agricultural Research)
P, B. No. 2 7 0 4 , E. R. G. Road, Cochin-682 0 3 1 , India

R. JAMES Director Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Cochin 682031. S. India Limited Circulation . B. Bulletins are issued periodically by Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute to interpret current knowledge in the various fields of research on marine fisheries and allied subjects in India Copyright Reserved © Published by P. SUSEELAN Scientist Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Cochin 682031. India Edited by C.

The are new records to Lakshadweep waters. Cyphastrea. In the present the fauna. Jasmine INTRODUCTION COMPOSITION OF THE CORAL FAUNA Despite the early works of Gardiner (1904. corals were also divided among 37 genera are reported. resume of corals these 27 genera and 69 species are herma- and coral reef research from this area is pre. Piilai (loc. the non. of the 104 species of scleractinians. and the present report embodies the and Tubipora (The last mentioned for information thus gathered along with data the first time) are also recorded. A detailed tax. 1986. 16. scleractanians. During the survey of the marine account a total of 104 scleractinian corals resources by the Institute. Echino- asterisk indicates a new record to this area. In a previous paper. A. Millepora. except among 31 genera from Lakshadweep which for Minicoy. Polyphyllia. types and the rest ahermatypes. Out of the scientific community. cit^ sented by Piilai (1987) along with a discu. THE CORAL FAUNA OF LAKSHADWEEP C. Out gleened from early literature. ed a total of 78 species of corals divided 1987) the coral fauna of Lakshadweep. Gopinadha Piilai and S. report- 1905) and Piilai i l 9 7 1 . 1971a. material will be described in future work. S. 26 onomic treatment of the various species is species including a few hitherto undescribed not attempted in this communication. pora and Tubastrea are the genera newly The classification adopted is that of Vaughan recorded. The present collection has also and Wells (1943) as modified by Wells (1956) enchanced our knowledge of Montipora from BULLETIN43 179 . also felt that 40 to 45 genera of corals ssion on the structure and composition of should occur in Lakshadweep. An Alveopora. Heliopora dweep. remained virtually unknown to was based on Minicoy and Kiltan. Piilai (1987. 1986a. Among collected from the various islands in Laksha.

colleagues at Amini. Director of Lakshadweep Fisheries and his llia. Siderastrea. Amini and Chetlat. seen in the shallow waters of Minicoy The extreme south (Minicoy) and north (Chetlat) Psammocora digitate Milne Edwards and have yielded the maximum number of genera Haime. S. scientists of the institute who took pains to tion of the various genera and species of collect corals from many islands under diffi- scleractinians so far known from the different cult situations. 1. ection trips. Kadmat and Che- gyra and Seriatopora still await detection tlat for all the help rendered during the coll- from the reefs of Lakshadweep. However. Kiltan. l\Aontipora and Cypfjastrea along with is especially abundant at Chetlat lagoon where Echinopoia are recorded from northern islands it grows mixed with Porites (Synaraea) con- while Cypfiastrea and Ectiinopora was never vexa among Heiiopora. 1846 Kavaratti 18 38 Kalpeni 11 23 Psammocora contigua 1797 (Esper) Androth 7 15 Fig 1 Agatti 10 27 Bingaram 5 8 Amini 15 37 Kadamat 21 43 Kiltan 19 42 Chetlat 23 57 Bitra 6 15 Total for Lakshadweep 37 103 Subgenus 1 1 The relatively low number of genera in some islands is not altogether a clear reflec- tion of the paucity of the fauna. a Localities: Minicoy. The authors are gratelul to Dr. Pachyseris. Kadmat. CLASS. Mycedium. It was cellected from the inner all facilities for the field trips an well as fo rreefs. and species. in the archipelago. Kavaratti. less common Indo Pacific genera such as They also presonaliy thank Mr. of the fauna at generic level seems to occur Distribution: widely distributed throughout the between Minicoy and the rest of the islands Indo-Pacific from Red Sea to Tahiti. a few widespread but Lakshadweep during marine survey of islands. Distribution: From Seychelles to Fiji Islands. of genera No of species Suborder ASTROCOENIINA Minicoy 28 73 Family Thamnasteriidae Suheli 7 11 Genus Psammocora Dana. Kiltan. George Varghese Coscinarea. 1851 Localities: Minicoy. The authors also thank the various The following is a numerical representa. Chetlat. Kalpeni. Remarks: This species is not common in James. Details of distribut. It can be Fig. Director of the Ihiititute for providing Lakshadweep. Plero. R. ANTHOZOA Order SCLERACTINIA Island No. However. islands of Lakshadweep. D/p/oastrea. Psammocora contigus due to less intense collecting. Oxypoia. B. Oulophy. Trachyphyllia.here which was previously known by a sin. 180 CMFRI . Podabacia and Lobophyllia occured in Minicoy Remariis: This ramose species is fairly common but were not found in central and northern on both the reef flats and lagoon shoals. P. permitting to report on the corals collected from gle species. Agatti sort of natural variation in the composition Amini. THE CORAL FAUNA ion of recorded genera are given below. It islands. For example.

coast of India. Marshall Island. Island. Psammocora profundacella Gradiner. The Fig. Japan. Kadmat and Chetlat. Distribution: A fairly widespread Indo-Pacific Family Pocilloporidae species from Lakshadweep eastward to Hawaii. Remarlfs: This encrusting species is found over-growing dead coralline material in the lagoon. from the inner protectd reefs. 1898 Locaiities: Minicoy. Agatti. Fanning Pociiiopora eydouxi Milne Edwards and island. needs further studies. Kavaratti. 1846 Distribution: Red Sea eastward to Fiji and Fig 2 Samoa but not known from the southeast Localities: Kalpeni. Cocos-Keeling isla- nds Marashall Islands. 1860. Pociiiopora meandrina var nobilis Dana. I983j Localities Minicoy. Localities: Found fairly common in all the islands of Lakshadweep. Bitra. Habitat the same as P. East Indies. meandrina. Palau Remarks: Lagoon and reef flats. Lakshadweep. A few colonies are lying free as submassive nodules over growing the substr- atum. Suheli. Kavaratti. nobilis. 1786 Distribution Widespread from Red Sea to Hawaii in the Indo-Pacific. Kadmat Distribution: South Africa. Lakshadweep. BULLETIN 43 181 . The relationship between these two Localities: Minicoy. Pociiiopora meandrina Var. Mauritius. 1816 Remarlis: Living colonies rarely found in shal- Pocillopora damicoinis (Linnaeus. Localities: Minicoy. Pocillopora ligulata Dana. 1851 shallow waters. Haime. to Hawaii and Cook Islands. Remarks: Not very common. Psammocora fiaimeana Milne Edwards and Remariis: Living colonies are not found in Haime. Great Barrier Reef. Remarks: The genus Stylophora is rare in Distribution: Through out the Indo-Pacific but Lakshadweep. Androth. Chetlat. tiaim- eana. 1819. Genus STYLOPHORA Schweigger. A few speci. Amini. Taiwan. Chetlat. Amini ward side of the islands indicating that it Kadmat. Bangaram. Bitra. Laksha- dweep. 1897) mens were observed in Minicoy in 1969. Dead branches found washed ashore along with P. Fig. nobilis ppines. Kavaratti. Bitra. Agatti. 1758) low reefs. Hawaii. Red Sea Madagascar. Colonies were collected mostly not Red Sea. Distribution: Maldives. Amini. Kadmat. 1846 Distribution: Red Rea (Scheer and Filial. Stylophora pistillata (Esper. Distribution: East coast of Africa. Genus Pociiiopora Lamarck. Phili. Cook Islands. Kadmat. ful. Kalpeni. lives in deeper surf beaten habitat. Pocillopora verrucosa (Ellis and Solander. Remarlis: Rare. Andamans. Great Barrier Reef. 3 specific status of this species is still doubt- Localities: Minicoy. However dead branches are found washed ashore especialay at the wind- Localities: Minicoy. Solomon Islands. Maldives. Chetlat. 2. Amini. Funafuti. Kiltan.

Sri Lanka. 1816) Distribution: Chagos to Tahiti. Samoa. 4 Remarks: This is the same as one reported Localities : Minicoy. Locality: Minicoy. 1971) till seventies. Acropora teres (Verrill. Fairly common. Remarks: This arborescent species is found mixed with A. These two are very close to each other except for the angle of the radial coraliites. Great Barrier Reef. Acropora ebrotanoides (Lamarck. 1846) media. Acropora robusta (Dana. China atoll. Distribution: Maldives. Distribution: East Africa eastward to Tuamotu Remarks: The species is rare in Minicoy. Chetlat. is essentially found on reef flat with a large encrusting base and thick stunted digitiform Distribution: Maldives. Fig. Tahiti. Cocos-Keeling Islands. The species Kadmat. Fig. Marshal} Islands. Only Archipelago. formosa in lagoon. Singa- branches. Lakshadweep. Androth. Remariis. 1815. Lakshadweep Singapore. Agatti: Bitra. 4. Philippines. The habitat is the same as A. Remarks: Forms large arborescent colonies in Acropora efflorescens the deeper parts of the lagoon It was very abundant in the southern half of Minicoy Localities: Minicoy. Lakshadweep. Agatti. Marshall Islands. Amini by Pillai (1987) as A conigera. Great Barrier Reef. Localities. Kavaratti. 1 891) Localities: Minicoy. Found in all the islands. Kavaratti. Lakshadweep. Fig. Kalpeni. more stunted. But clusters with very thick main branches is should occur in all the islands. Kalpeni. Stylophora pistillata Family ACROPORIDAE Verrill. pore. Mostly dead at present. 1866) Remariis: The species which forms arborescent Localities: Minicoy. inter. one colony was observed and collected. On the reef flats the branches are Sea. (Pillai. Acropora abrotanoides Acropora formosa (Dana 1846) Distribution: Maldives. Chetlat. 182 CMFRI . Acropora intermedia (Brook. common at the south side of the Minicoy Distribution: Maldives. Bangaram. 3. 1902 Genus ACROPORA Oken.

1860) Acropora hyacinthus (Dana. Distribution: Red Sea. Remarks: Not common. Kavaratti.'-'- ^%fk'^^ Fig. and eastward to Tuamotu here in tentative. Great Barrier Reef. conlgera needs further study. •«Js4il#*le*. and Tahiti. Lakshadweep. A microhabitat for many economically important Acropora granulosa (Milue Edwards and small species of fishes. Marshall Isl- Archipelago. Minicoy. Fiji. corymbosa in Distribution: Red Sea. Seychelles. Distribution. 1846) Locality: Minicoy. Localities: Minicoy. Distribution: Widespread from Red Sea eastward Lakshadweep. Seychelles. 1846) Acropora corymbosa (Lamarck. Agatti. Acropora irregularis (Brook. 1892) Acropora nasuta (Dana. Distribution: A widespread and common Indo-Pacific species. Eastern Amini. Murray Island. Acropora humllls It is fairly common both on lagoon and reef flats. Acropora humiiis (Dana. Probably /Australia. Acropara squarrosa (Ehrenberg. Distribution: Rodriguez. Kalpeni. Kadmat. 1834) Localities: Minicoy. Lakshadweep. g1846) Locality: Chetlat. to Tahiti. BULLETIN43 183 . Only one colony was observed at Remarks: Reef flat and lagoon shoals as small the reef front of the lagoon reef of Chetlat corymbose or caespitose colonies. Archipelago. Remarks: Lagoon shoals and reef flat. Marshall Islands and Tahiti. 1816) Fig. 6 Fig. localities: Minicoy. 5. Kalpeni. Cocos-Keeling Islands. Philippines. Remarks. Mascarene. Remarks: The identification of this species Distribution) Red Sea. Red Sea eastward to Tuomotu China Sea. Chetlat. It's relationship with A: Archipelago. Kiltan and Chetlat. Nicobar Islands. Maldives. occurs in all the islands. Acropora corymbosa Localities: Kadmat. Maldives. 5 Localities: Jhis "species occursjn'all the atolls. ands. Reunion. Great Barrier Reef. in the deep groove. Haime. all localities. 6. 1879) Fig. Kavaratti. Localities: Found along with A. Acropora monticulosa (Brueggemann. Androth Distribution: Rodriguez. Maldives.

Chetiat. Bitra. Great to Samoa. in Chetalt Island. Chetiat. Bangaram Distribution: Maldives. ramableri (Piliai 1971) Genus ASTREOPORA de Blainville. One colony was collected from was recorded from Minicoy in 1969 and re. Maldives. It is nowhere abundant. 1816) Locality: Minicoy. 1897 Localities: Minicoy. Lakshadweep. Kadmat. Amini. Reef. Lakshadweep. Kavaratti. Mascarene Disiribution: Wide spread Indo-Paclfic species Maldives. Barrier Reef. Localities: Minicoy (Pillai. 1834) Locality: Amini. ported under the name>4. Genus MONT/PORA de Blainville Acropora hemprichi (Ehrenberg. Kadmat. east coast of India. Marshall Islands. Remarks : Rarely found on reef fiat. Kavaratti. Remarks: Mostly found as small encrustations on littoral reef flats. Chetiat. greater spread often with pink colour to the living corallum. Chetiat. 1897 Locality. 1834) Montipora teberculosa (Lamarck. Islands. Solomon Islands. iVlarshali Indo-Pacific from Red Sea to the south Pacific. Chetiat. Banagaram. Kiltan. Philippines. 1834) Acropora forskali (Ehrenberg. /Agatti. Nicobar Amini. Islnds. Sri Lanka.Remarks: A few specimens of this species Remarks: Rare. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean eastward Disttibution : Central Indian Ocean. out Lakshadweep. Chetiat. Kalpeni and Localities: Minicoy. 1846 Astreopora listeri (Bernard. Kiltan. Remarks : Found as encrustations on reef flat. Distribution: From Red Sea eastward ^ Distribution: Red Sea. l\/lontipora explanata Brueggemann. Localities: Minicoy. Kadmat. Solomon Islands. 1971). Bitra. Lakshadweep. 1896) Localities: Amini. Was found mixed with other Acropora in Minicoy lagoon. Ellice Islands. 1816) Montipora turgescens Bernard. Minicoy. 1893) Distribution: Mauritius. Cook Distribution: Central Indian Ocean eastward to Islands. Minicoy. Acropora palifera (Lamarck. palifera with large palmate bran. Agatti. Distribution: Lakshadweep. Kadmat. Minicoy in 1969. Kavaratti. Larger colonies were up to 30 cm in reefs. Montipora venosa (Ehrenberg. Isolated colonies of this species are leeward reef flat of Chetiat island in fair found on open reef flats and inner lagoon numbers. Great Barrier from Red Sea to Samoa. Remarks: A. Remarks: Found along with massive Porites Remarks: Not very common. Philippines. Localities: Amini. Remarks : This species was observed on the Remarks. Found in the on inner lagooh reefs. Marshall Islands. Kavaratti. Kiltan. Chetiat. Chetiat. Chetiat. south- Localities: Minicoy. Localities: Minicoy. East Africa. 1816 Localities: IVlinicoy. Kavaratti. Remarks: Rare. Fiji. Samoa. myri- Remarks: Very common species throughout ophthalma Lakshadweep both on lagoon and reef flats forming large thickets. east coast of India. Remarks: The habitat is the same as A. 1830 Acropora echinata (Dana. The species is common deeper parts of the lagoon. Acropora aspera Dana. Disiribution: Widely distributed in tropical Distribution: Maldives. Distribution: Red Sea. ches is essentially a lagoon species through. 1846) Astreopora myrlophtfialma Lamarck. Persian Gulf. Acropora indica (Brook. 184 CMFRI . Marshall Islands.

1905). Kalpeni. Gardineroseris planulata (Dana 1846) Suborder FUNGIINA Verrill Family AGARICIIDAE Gray Localities: Minicoy. A few specimens from placed under this species. These Islands and Hawaii.Pavona varians . Nicobar Islands. 1907. Chetlat. East Indies. Genus P/4\/0A//!l Lamarck. shoals though not a conspicuous element of the Localities: Minicoy. Localities : Minicoy. Distribution : Red Sea. Determination to species level is Localities: Minicoy (Gardiner. 1801 Remar/(S : This species is found among lagoon Fig. Remar/(s: The species form small encrustations 1849. 8. 7 Nicobar Islands. BULLETIN43 185 . Kavaratti. It is much more common on the Cycloseris sp northern Lakshadweep Islands than at Minicoy. 1893. Locaiities : Kadmat and Chetlat. rather difficult. Marshall known species known to the authors. pavona variant Verril. Display wide range of skeletal variations. Genus CYCLOSERIS Milne Edwards and Haime. Kadmat.Bangaram. Seychelles.. Chetlat from the same habitat was however. Kavaratti. Kiltan Chetlat. A few specimens obtained from Kadmat Lakshadweep. Kiltan and Chetlat. Maldives. will be reported in a subsequent communication. in all habitats. Lakshadwjep Fig. One small foliaceous colonies on the windward side specimen in the present collection is doubtfully of the reef at Kadmat. Palau Islands. Palau Islands and Marshall Islands and Tahiti Montipora foliosa Fig.) Remarks : There is only one specimen in the collection. 8. eastward to eastern Pacific. IVIontipora sp nov. But subsequent collections from Remarlis: The species was found as forming Minicoy did not include this species. from Minicoy. 2 1974 Locaiities : Amini. coral fauna. Androth. Great Barrier could not be placed satisfactorily to any of the Reef. Locality . Carol! Islands. l\/lontipOf» sp nov. 1846 Distribution : Red Sea througout Indo-Pacific as far east as Panama. Genus GARDINEROSERIS Scheer and Pillai. Maldives. Chetlat. Kadmat. Distribution : Indo-Pacific but not known from Remariis: Gardiner (1905) reported this species Red Sea. 1 Distribution: Abd-el-Kuri. Pavona maldivensis (Gardiner 1905. Chetlat. Reef flat. Family FUNGIIDAE Dana. having closely set folia. Pavona duerdeni Vaughan. 1766) Distribution: Red Sea. Monltipora ^//'osa F(Pallas.

Kadmat. Bitra. It was found on the inner lagoon reef flat. 1801. Andamans. 9 in Lakshadweep. Singa- pore. Mergui Arc- Though this genus is not profuse in Laksha- hipelago. Andaman. Two of them from the northern Lak- 1969 (Pillai. They are listed here as sp nov 1 and any. Kiltan. The present Nicobar Islands. 1830 Polyphyllia talpina (Lamarck. Distribution: Red Sea east ward to Tuamotu Remarlis . 1952 Distribution: k very widespread Indo-Pacific Locality: Minicoy. 1971). Fig. 1766) Chetlat. 9. This is the most common species of Archipelago. Mergui Archipelago. Locilities: Minicoy. of the Minicoy lagoon in 1969. Tahiti. Palau Islands. East Indies. Lakshadweep. Fungia somerviliai Grandiner. Remarks: Generally found on lagoon shoals Fig. sp nov 2. the collection include at least four Remarks: A Single specimen was collected in species. dweep. Philippines. Ofjen found in Remarks: This species is observed only at lagoon shoals among Acropra. At Chetlat and Minicoy near the Boaz Point towards the Kadmat this species is extremely common. Suheli. Bangaram. Japan. Lakshadweep. 1849 Agatti. 1901. Kavaratti. Agatti. Chetlat. Sulu Sea. Amini. Haime. Goniopora stokesi Milne Edwards and Haime. Nicobar Islands. Podabacia crustacea (Pallas. Distribution: Maldives. Remarks : This species is very conspicuous in Fungia fungites ((Linnaues. 1841 Locality: Minicoy. 1801 species. Bitra. Kadmat. 1758) living condition by its large expanded polyps during day time. Amini. this species. Goniopora minor Crossland. Androth. 1851 Locality: Minicoy. Seychelles. Nicobar Islands. It is rare in Lakshadweep. Great Barrier reef. Suheli. Amira. Distribution: Wide spread from Red Sea to 1860. Androth. Genus POLYPHYLUA Quoy and Gaimard. It was not found later shadweep appear to deserve new specific in Minicoy nor the present collection include names. Fungia found in Lakshadweep. cies were collected from the southern half Maldives. Genus FUNGIA Lamarck. Fungia scutaria Lamarck. Kadmat. 1816) Locality: Kadmat. 1830 ntee. Family PORITIDAE Gray. lagoon side at a site. Distribution: Seychelles. 186 CMFRI . It has a restricted occurrence in Minicoy. Distribution : Red Sea. Remarlfs: A few large specimens of this spe. Genus GONIOPOPRA de Blainville. collection does not include any specimen of Philippines. Localities: Minicoy. The genus is rare in Lakshadweep reefs. East coast of India. Fungia secutaria Genus PODABACIA Milne Edwards and Localities: Minicoy. Mergui. East Africa. Lakshadweep. Remarks : Only one specimen of this species is obtained from Kadmat. Kiltan. Locality: Minicoy Distribution : Widespread Indo-Pacific species from Red Sea to Tuamotu Archipelago. where it is fairly common. Fungia danai Milne Edwards and Haime. Archipelago. Kiltan.

Kalpeni. Great Barrier Reef. Kadmat. Goniopora sp nov. Porites sp nov. found to be fairly common in some of the Agatti. Kiltan. dweep. This ramose species of Porites is very common in lagoon of most of the Laksha- dweep atolls. fairly common. assigned to any named species known to the Bemarks: It is a massive species fairly common. The genus Porites is the most dominant Localities: Minicoy. Distribution : Red Sea to Hawaii. Distribution : Lakshadweep. Great Barrier Reef. 1918 Kiltan. Bitra. Kadmat. number of species hitherto recorded is relatively low. Great Barrier Porites lutea Milne Edwards and Haime. This species should occur in all islands though not collected. Kadmat. Pacific as far east as Tuamotu Archipelago. P. Fiji. Two or three forms of Porites in the present collection could not be Localities: Amini. Agatti. {Synaraaa) convexa Porites sp nov. Samoa. Porites solida (Forskal. Kalpeni coral on reefs in Lakshadweep though the Kiltan. Kavaratti. Kavaratti. Kadmat. 2 Chetlat. 1846. Chetlat. Amini. 1 are essentially lagoon forms. it is rarely recorded from the reefs. Massive forms such as P. Minicoy Distribution: Known only by the type from Minicoy. However. Bitra. authors and appear to deserve new binominal names. Maldives. Java. nov. Chetlat. Solomon Islands. 1860 Reef. lutea Distribution: Red Sea to Samoa and Fiji.Distribution : Red Sea. 10 Remarks. Goniopora sp. Localities : Minicoy. Subgenus SYNARAEA Verrill. andrewsi and P. Kiltan. Bangaram. Porites minicolensis Pillai. Chetlat. Recently mass mortality to this species also occurred in Minicoy and Kiltan. Seychelles. Philippines. 10. 1969 Locality. such as P. and P. Hawaii. 187 BULLETIN43 . Suheli. 1807 Porites lichen Dana. 1864 The Subgenus Synaraee of Porites is Fig. Amini. Kavaratti. Kadmat. Amini. Remarks : Fairly common often forms large Distribution: Madagascar. Kiltan. Porites lutea hitherto not recorded from Lakshadweep. Kadmat. Chetlat. Laksha- massive corallum. Chetlat. Kavaratti. Palau Islands Marshall Islands. Maldives. Remarks: Reef flats and lagoon. Localities Minicoy. Fig. northern Lakshadweep islands such as Chetlat. Localtiies: Kavaratti. Kalpeni. 1775) Remarks: Corallum massive. Small encrusting to submassive colo- reefs in all the islands. The branching Porites nies occur in all habitats. 2 Localities: Kadmat. though Local/ties: Minicoy. Genus PORITES Link. solida. 1846. Distribution: Red Sea eastward in the Indo- Lakshadweep. Nicobar Islands. Galapagos Islands. Suheli. Porites andrewsi Vaughan. Kiltan. 1 Porites labotal Dana. iobata (tentative identification) are Remarks: Fairly common both on reef flat and dominant on reef flats especially on the lagoon lagoon. Locality : Amini. Sri Lanka. Nicobar Islands Localities : Amini. Amini.

1900. Localities : Minicoy. Fig. Ocurs on Reef flats and lagoon wide spread in Lakshadweep. favia pallida The genus Alveopra does not include in the Localities : Minicoy. Only Favia stelligera (Dana. It might occur more widely at Kavaratti which is tetentetively reported here than is recorded from the Lakshadweep at as follows. Distribution : Red Sea eastward to Tuomotu Plesiastrea versipora (Lamarck. Localities : Minicoy.It occurs in Minicoy near the Boaz Point. Kiltan. but could not be re. Lakshadweep. However. 188 CMFRI . Distribution: Maldives. 1830 Fig. Amini. Gregory. Amini. Vaugham and Weels. Localities: Kiltan. The Remarks: This is one of the most common Indo- senior author of this paper has examined a Pacific fawa. Samoa. Kadmat. it is not very conspicuous specimen among the collections of the museum in Lakshadweep. Chetlat Distribution: Maldives.. shoals. Localities : Minicoy. 1846) one species as listed below is recorded. Kavaratti. This species was fairly common on It is essentially a lagoon form found mixed lagoon shoals in Kadmat. Kalpeni. 11.M2 Fig. Genus ALVEOPORA de Blainville. Haime. Distribution: Red Sea to Tuamotu Archipelago. Chetlat. Favia pallida (Dana. Chetlat. 1864) Distribution : Red Sea to Hawaii. Suborder FAVIINA. 1815 60 cm in greater spread and height. Localities: Minicoy. Kavaratti. often forming large colonies 50 to Genus FAVIA Oken. Distribution: Throughout Indo-Pacific from Favia valenclennesii (Milne Edwards and Red Sea to Fiji. 1948) Remarks: Gardiner (1904) mentioned its occurrence in Minicoy. 1976 Favia speciosa (Dana. 1846) Locality: Kavaratti. Lakshadweep' Singapore. 1943 Family FAVIIDAE. with Psammocora contlgua and Pontes andrewsi in Chetlat. 1846) Fig. present collection nor there is any record of this Distribution : Red Sea to Hawaii. genus from Lakshadweep in literature. 12. Porites {Synaraea) convexa (Verrill.. 11 Remarks : This small calicled Favia which forms massive or columnar growth is rare in Lakshadweep. Tahiti. present. probably more Remarks: Rare. Alveopora superficial is Pillai and Scheer. 1775) Genus PLESIASTREA Milne Edwards and Haime. 1816) Archipelago. Favia favus (Forskal. collected. Pontes (Synaraea) canvexa Localities: Minicoy.

East Indies.Chetlat. 1834) Localities: Minicoy. meandering australensis recorded only from Chetlat Island Genus FAVITES Link. FavUes pentagona (Esper. New Caledonia. daedalea in all localities. Agatti. 1034 Distribution: Red Sea. 1786) Minicoy at the northern end opposite to the Old Leper Colony till early seventies. Gulf of Kutch. Kavaratti. Lakshadweep. Agatti. G. Great Barrier Reef. Cook Islands. Locality. Nicobars. common. they are mostly dead due to dumping or dredged soil. Remarks: This species was very common in Favites abdita (Ellis and Solander. Minicoy. Fairly Distribution : Red Sea. Localities: Collection includes samples from Solomon Islands. 1807 Goniastrea retiformis (Lamarck. Genus PLATYGYRA Ehrenberg. east coast of India. Locality: Minicoy. Isolated and patchy colonies Distribution: Red Sea eastward to Samoa. except the Living specimens could not be obtained. Maldives. 1834) Distribution: Similar to P. Lakshadweep. Chetlat. Amini. Haine. Kavaratti. New Caledonia. Goniastrea retiformis (Ehrenberg. Gulf of Genus GON/ASTREA Milne Edwards and Mannar. Philippines. Should occur in all the islands. Marshall Islands. daedalea. Cocos-Keeling Island. Taiwan. Natai coast. ever. ies. Kalpeni. Lakshadweep. 1848 Philippines. Kadmat. Kiltan and Chetlat. Haime. The genus is fairly collected from Kiltan from the eastern shore. 1794) Distribution: A wide spread Indo-Pacific spec- Locality : Minicoy. Distribution: Red Sea. the genus Favites is also not a very conspicuous element of the coral fauna of Localities: Minicoy. 1846) Lakshadweep. 1834) Favites complanata (Ehrenberg. Gulf of Kutch.Distribution: Red Sea. Great Barrier Reef. Banda. Chetlat. ' Distribution: Red Sea eastward to new Platygyra sinensis (Milne Edwards and Caledonia. 1848 Mergui Archipelago. Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Great Barrier Reef Kerm- adic Islands. halicora is one and the same and the species has a wide distri. Japan. Kalpeni. South. 1857) Remarks : F. New Caledonia. Three species of Goniastrea occur in Laksha- dweep of which one viz. Haime. Japan. are found both on reef and lagoon. Distribution : Red Sea eastward to Fiji. How- Localities : Minicoy. The genus is monotypic. Localities : Kadmat. Favites melicerum (Ehrenberg. Chetlat. New Caledonia. 1786) Japan. Lanka. Fiji and Minicoy. 1848) Remarks : Rare. Platygyra daedalea (Ellis and Solander. Locaiitr. bution in the Indo-Pacific. Southeast coast of India. 1816) Like Favia. Lakshadweep. Marshall Islands. Goniastrea australensis (Milne Edwards and Haimo. Maldives. Seychelles Favites flexuosa (Dana. New Caledonia. Kavaratti. Distribution: Red Sea. Genus LEPTORIA Milne Edwards and Providence Island. . In Lakshadweep BULLETIN 43 189 . Kilton and Chetlat. Localities: Found along with P. common in all microhabitats. Remarks: Red Sea eastward to Samoa. complanata and F. Lakshadweep. Kadmat. Australia. Tuamotu Archipelago. australensis is a Remarks : A dead specimen of this species was new record to this area.

1786) Pacific. from the inner reef flat and lagoon shoals. 1807. CYPHASTREA Milne Edwards and Haime. numbers. Marshall Islands. Kadmat. China Sea. 197i). Kiltan and Chetlat. 1879 Localities : Minicoy. 1848 Hydnoptira microconos (Lamarck. Remarks: Inspite of very intensive collecting Genus LEPTASTFiEA Milne Edwards and Haime. Chetlat and Bitra. Minicoy. Amini. It was areas. Pacific and known from almost all coral growing Remarks: The genus is monotypic. Distribution: Widespread from Red Sea to Remarks : The genus Hydnopiiora is represented Hawaii only by H. Leptastrea transversa Klunzinger. though it was fairly common in northern Lakshadweep.'. over several years the species or the genus was 1848 not found in Minicoy. found only in Minicoy among the Lakshadweep Islands. Often found in all places where L. of India or Gulf of Kutch.'13 Leptoria phrygia Locality: Minicoy Distribution : Red Sea weastward to Fiji and LocaZ/tiesji^ Minicoy. transversa in larger calices and relatively more number of septa. Chagos. 1816) Distribution . Distribution: A common and wide spread species of Leptastrea. Kiltan. Samoa. seralia while others of the species herein is based on early record by have only 28 as in microphthalma Gardiner (1904). Fig. Amini. Red Sea. Amini. 1914 Dipioastrea heiopra (Lamarck. Kavaratti. Cyphastrea seralia (Forskal. Kavaratti. microconos. Amini. throughout Indo-Pacific Kadmat. Kiltan. Reunion. Kavaratti. Amini.Chetlat. Kalpeni. Somaliland. (Pillai. 190 CMFRI . 1816) Localities : IVIinicoy. Great Barrier Remarks: A few specimens in the present Reef. 1849 lagoon reefs. Genus ECHINOPORA Lamarck. purpurea occurs. that too at the northern part of the Genus HYDNOPHORA Fisher de Waldheim. Some calices show three cycles of Remarks: The present collection does not include samples of this species. Philppines. Distribution : Red Sea to Hawaii in the Indo- Leptoriaphrygia (Ellis and Solander. Kiltan and Chetlat. Chetlat. Kalpeni. Agatti. New Caledonia. Locaiity: Minicoy Cyphastrea? microphthalma (Lamarck. 1775) Acatti. lagoon along the shore. Cocos-Keeling Distribution : Red Sea east ward to Tahiti. 1846) The genus Echinopora is recorded for the first time from Lakshadweep. Localities: Kavaratti. Genus DIPLOASTREA Matthai. especially on Leptastrea bottae Milne Edwards and Haime. 1816) 'fig. Ellice collection display variation in the septal Islands. 1816 Leptastrea purpurea (Dana. Localities : Minicoy. Ds'r tution : Red Sea. Tahiti. Islands. Kalpeni. Kadmat. Localities: Suheli. 13 Remarks: This species differs from L. The inclusion complete septa as in C.it is not very common though can be collected Kadmat. It is not recorded from Southeast coast Distribution: Widely distributed in the«Indo. Suheli. Amini. upto C?' k Islands. Maldives.

Distribution: Red Sea (Scheer and Pill i. Rotumana. Androth. sometimes with closely set flat folia. Caryophyllia is known by C.fl 795) Fig 14 Remarks: The genus Lobophyllia is known from Lakshadweep only from Minicoy. Symphyllia nobilis (Dana 1846) Genus GALAXEA Oken. Androth. Fig. Alcock (1898. Step- presence. hanocyathus are listed here based on the deep water collections of Investigator reported by Family MUSSIDAE Ortmann. Caryophyllia. (1983). Its inclusion is based on Gardiner (1905). 1830. Chetlat. 1758) Distribution : Western Indian Ocean eastwards to Samoa. Kalpeni. Great Barrier Reef. Localities: Minicoy.U. Locality Minicoy. Distribution: Red Siea to Tahiti. Genus ACANTHASTREA Milne Edwards and Haime. Family OCULINIDAE Gray. Locality: Minicoy. C. 1786) Tongatabu. 1847 us (Pillai) made carefull search for it at Minicoy over a long period but failed to detect its The two genera viz. nobilis (Mosely). 1902) from the Laccadive sea. Chetlat. Family MERULINIDAE Verril. Remerks : Not common any where. 1775) cyathus is known by S. Alcock Locality: Minicoy. 1834 Kutch. 1983) 1943 to Samoa. Echinoporayamellosa (Esper. 1815. Ga/axea fascicularis (Linn. Even at Minicoy it has a very restricted occurrence at the northern tip of the lagoon where it was once very common. Remarks: The genus Merulina does not include Family CARYOPHYLLIIDAE Gray. Suborder CARYOPHYLLINA Vaughan and Wells. One of Subfamily CARYOPHYLLIINAE Gray. Kadmat. 9ULLETIN43 191 . araucta Milne Edwards and Haime. Distribution : Maldives. Merulina ampliata (Ellis and Solander. For details of areas reference may be made to Scheer and The inclusion is based on early record by Pillai. Distribution : Red Sea to Tuamotu Archipelago. But not known from the southeast coast of India. The recent collections of corals from Remarics: Open reef flat. 1848 Distribution : Red Sea eastward to Fiji. It is almost dead at present due to dumping of dredged soil in the area. Gulf of Genus MERULINA Ehrenberg. Localities: Kadmat. (1898) may be consulted for the details. Gardiner. Japan. 1847.The genus apparently does not occur in Mihicoy. 1848 Acanthastrea echinata (Dana. 1847 in the recent collection from Lakshadweep. Rare. 1848 Distribution: Red Sea to Tahiti. 1816. 1890. Echinopora lamellosa^ Genus SYMPHYLLIA Milne Edwards and Haime.1866 Locality: Minicoy. clavus Scacchi and Genus LOBOPHYLLIA de Blainiville. Colonies are Lakshadweep do not include the genus small. Kiltan Symphyllia radians Milne Edwards and Haime. Lakshadweep. Locaiities : Minicoy. Stephana- Lobophyllia corymbose (Forskal.

Heliopora coerulea Loalities : Agatti. Remarks: The species occurs on the leeward Localities : Minicoy. Distribution : Central Indian Ocean to Marshall Islands. Kadmat. Great Barrier Reef. 1866 Chetlat it is found on the inner lagoon reef on Order STOLONIFERA Hickson 1883 the sides of Heliopora. Marshall Islands. Fig. 1905 Tubipora musica Linnaues. and will be described in a later com. Fiabellum pavonium Alcock. Miliepora occurs in lagoon. Singapore. Caroline Island. Lakshadweep. Remarlis: The genus is rare in Lakshadweep.Subfamily EUSMILIINE Milne Edwards and Remarks : The calices are level and large. In Subclass OCTOCORALLIA Haeckel. 1905 Genus TUBIPORA Family FLABELLIDAE Bourine. New Caledonia. NON SCLERACTINIAN CORALS Philippines. Lakshadweep. 1830 assigned to any known species. Remarks: The genus was not observed in Suborder DENEROPHYLLIINAVaughan and living condition on any collection sites but Wells. 1846 Tubastrea aurea (Quoy and Gaimard. 1902 Disttibution: Red Sea throughout Indian Ocean and Pacific but not found in southeast coast Locality Lakshadweep sea (Alcock) Investigator collection. Red Sea. It is listed as sp nov. One colony was collected from Minicoy lagoon in 1969 and two from Chetlat in 1987. 1834 Genus EUPHYLLIA Dana.i15 Turbinaria masenterina (Lamarck. 192 CMFRI . Living coral Maiha. ^Heliopora coeruleaj (Pallas. Turbinaria sp nov Fig. 1857 Genus TUBASTREA Lesson. 15. Japan. Chetlat. Maldives. opora is the most dominant genus in all reefs of Lakshadweep. Chetlat. Agatti. 1758 Genus FLABELLUM Locality: Bangaram. 1816) Localities : Minicoy. while Tubipora is only once collected. Family TUBIPORIDAE Ehrenberg. Maldives. Haime. of India. 1895 One of the species of Turbinaria from the Family Helioporidae Mosely. Sri Lanka. Kiltan Distribution: Red Sea. Among the non-scleractinian corals Heli- Rotuma. Kadmat and Chetlat. 1876 northern Lakshadweep could not be satisfactorily Genus HELIOPORA de Blainville. Mergui Archipelago. Disiribution: East Africa. Marshall islands. 1820 Super family FLABELLICAE Bourne. 1815 Order COEHOTHECALIA Bourne. red in colour. Genus TURBINARIA Oken.^-1766) munication. 1766) Localities: Agatti. Kavaratti. 1821) Distribution: Red Sea to Hawaii. Saya de reef of Chetlat under boulders. Nicobars. Turbina/ia crater (PaUas. Rodriguez. 1943 a small dead fragment was obtained from the Family DENDROPHYLLIIDAE shore of Bangaram. Palau Islands.1833) Euphyllia glabrescens (Chamisso and Eysenhardt. Locality: Chetlat.

Order MlLLEPORIDAE Flemming. X X — Favites Link X ^ X X — X X X _ BULLETIN 43 193 . . X X X . 1775) Genus IVIILLEPORA Linnaeus. Amini. Localities: Minicoy. Suheli. — . Kavaratti. 3 0) i CD S 3 1 8 9 10 11 12 Name of Genus Pasammocora Dana X — X X .X X X - Pavona Lamarck y — X X X — . Kadmat. Chetlat Order MILLEPORINA Hickson. — — X — Plesiatrea MED-H X — X Favia Oken X — X — X . Miliepota platyphyllia Ehrenberg. Kalpeni.:: — (Q a> 2. X X X X - Pociilopora Lamarck X X X X X X X X X X X X Stylophora Schweigger X .. X X X X X Polyphylfia Q&G — _ _ _ _ X Podabacia MED-H X Porites Link X X X X X X X X X Goniopora de Blainville X X X X Alveopora de Blainville. 1775) Distribution: Widespread Indo-Pacific species. At Distribution: Red Sea to Tahiti Minicoy and Chetlat the species covers exten- sive areas. 1834 Distribution: Red Sea to Tuamotu Archipelago. 1758 Localities: Minicoy. 1. Kalpeni. 1828 Millepora dichotoma (Forskal.. X X X X — Acropora Oken X X X X X X X X X X X - Mont/pora de Blainville X X — . .- S 3 ^ CD . Agatti. X . CLASS HYDROZOA Amini. .. Suheli. — .. . numbers especially on the lagoon reefs. Miifepbra exe*a (Forskal. X X — Cycloseris — Fungia Lamarck . X X X - Gardineroseris scheer and Pillai X — X — . . D) a Pi =: O 3- CD OQ s. X X X X — Astreopora de Blainville X — X — .. Distribution of recorded genera of corals from the different islands in Lakshadweep Localities 0) Q>_ > (Q a 3 00 Q) 1 ?>. 1901 Disiribuiion: Red Sea to Tuamotu Archipelago. Table. Localities: Occurs in all the islands in fair Locafities: Minicoy..

Marine survey ship "Investigator''. PILLAI. 1905 Madreporaria Pt. water stony corals at Minicoy Atoll in or four years with the Royal Indian the Indian Ocean.. In: Regional 194 CMFRl . pia. "Investigator". An account of the deep sea Madreporaria collected by the GARDINER. 1898. Royal Indian marine survey ship Fungida. C. cutta : 1-29.. Atoll. wash. 1898. 1971a. G. coral fauna of the southeastern coast of Astreidae Fauna and geography of the India and the Laccadives. 1902. Bull. G. 1-3.. 2: 758-790 pi. John Murry London 328 pp. X X X — X — X X X X — Echinopora Lamarck — — — X . J. Composition of the GARDINER. Distribution of shallow ALCOCK. 1904. X — Symphyllia MED-H X Caryophyllia Lamarck — Stephanocyathus Seguenza — Flabellum Lesson — Euphylli Dana X — — — — — — — — X Tubastrea Lesson. 1902 A naturalist In Indian seas. 59-64. Vol. J. S. 1971. pis.. ALCOCK. 2: 933-957. Indian Museum Cal.. Vol. A. S. X Galaxea Oken X — — X — X X X - Merulina Ehrenberg X Lobophyllia Blainville X Acanthastrea MED-H X X . 3. S. — X Turbinaria Oken X — X — — X — — X X X Non Scleractinian Corals Mlllepora Linnues X X X X X X X X X X Hellopora Blainville X X X X X X X X X X X Tubipora Ehrenberg — — — — — X — — — X ca recorded — = not recorded and not a negative indication of its occurrence REFERENCES Maldiveand Laccadive Archipelagoes. 2. Matthai X Cyphastrea MED-H . C. 1 8 9 10 11 12 Goniastrea IVIED-H X X — . Res. Ibid. — — — . X X X — Platygyra Ehrenberg X X X — X X X X Leptor/a MED-H X X X X — Hydnophora de Waldheim X X X — X X X X X X Leptastrea MED-H X X X X X X X - Diploastrea. PILLAI. S. 89-93. 141: 1-12. Madreporaria Pt.

venation in Indian Ocean coral reefs. 68: 38-41. univ. W. Fish. Geol. PILLAI. pis. . Today and on the stony corals from Red Sea Ibid. Am. Soc. and J. WELLS. Spec. W... genera of scleractiuia. S. SCHEER 1976 Report on Symp. 4 1 . C. Kansas press. 1-32. India. PILLAI. Lakshadweep. C. Structure and generic diversity of recent scleractinia of India. S. Zoologica (Stuff) 126 : 1-83. C. WELLS. Mar. G and G. pis. 1956. Ass. W. 1986 Recent corals from the southeast coast of India. 1987.. PILLAI. 28: 301-327 the stony corals from the Maldive Academic press. 1983. Mar. tomorrow's printers and publishers New 133: 1-193. G. Status of coral reefs in VAUGHAN. G. G. S. infor. 25 (1 & 2) : In Invertbrate Paientolaogy pt. Archipelago. Land. S. I n : Treatise J. 1943. G. T. biol.aE ser. : 107-201. 444. J. F. 328- 78-90. Revision of the suborders. Soc. pap. families and T. Delhi. Scleractinia. C. PILLAI. 1986a. G and C. Serv. S. Report advances in l\/larine Biology. 44 : 1-363. PILLAI.Zooi. in Recent SCHEER.