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Whole number, Natural Numbers and their related basic terms

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Comparing numbers

Numbers with same number of digits can be compared by placing them in a place value

table and then comparing the digits at each place. For example, consider 2952 and 2748.

Thousands Hundreds Tens Ones

2 9 5 2

2 7 4 8

At hundreds place, 9 > 7

Therefore, 2952 > 2748

Ascending order means arranging the numbers from smallest to greatest.

Descending order means arranging the numbers from greatest to smallest.

The greatest and smallest number without repetition can be formed using any number of

digits by arranging them in descending and ascending order respectively.

For example, a 4-digit number from the digits, 9, 2, 7, 3,

Greatest number = 9732

Smallest number = 2379

When repetition of digits is allowed, then the greatest number can be formed by writing

the greatest digit as many times as the number is required. Similarly, smallest number can

be formed by writing the smallest digit as many times as required.

Greatest number (with repetition) = 9999

Smallest number (with repetition) = 2222

The smallest 5-digit number is 10000.

10000 = 9999 + 1

Smallest 5-digit number = Greatest 4-digit number + 1

Similarly, 100000 = 99999 + 1

Also, 6-digit number = Greatest 5-digit number + 1

This pattern follows for higher numbers also.

A number, for example 48735, can be written in expanded form as

48735 = 4 10000 + 8 1000 + 7 100 + 3 10 + 5 1

Similarly, all the higher numbers can also be written in the expanded form.

To ease the reading and writing of larger numbers, commas are used.

In Indian system of numeration, first comma is used after hundreds place, second comma

comes after two digits from the first comma to the left, i.e. after ten thousands, then the

third comma is placed after another two digits and so on.

For example, 3067843 can be written as 30,67,843.

In international system of numeration, ones, tens, hundreds, thousands, millions, and

billions are used.

1 million = 1000 thousands = 10 lakhs

1 billion = 1000 millions

In this system, first comma comes after hundreds place and the next after three digits.

72453276 = 72,453,276 i.e., seventy two million four hundred fifty three thousand two

hundred seventy six

10 millimetres = 1 centimetre

1 metre = 100 centimetres

1 kilometre = 1000 metres

1 gram = 1000 milligrams

1 litre = 1000 millilitres

Estimation is done to approximate a quantity.

For example, 53256

Rounding to nearest tens = 53260

Rounding to nearest hundreds = 53300

Rounding to nearest thousands = 53000

Rounding to nearest ten thousands = 50000

Similarly, sum, difference, or product can also be estimated to ease calculations.

For example,

5243 + 389 = 5200 + 400 = 5600

21 438 = 20 440 = 8800

Brackets can also be used to ease calculations. For example,

9 216 = 9 (200 + 16) = 1800 + 144 = 1944

Roman numeral is another system for writing numerals. In this system, numbers are

represented as

1= I

2 = II

3 = III

4 = IV

5=V

6 = VI

7 = VII

8 = VIII

9 = IX

10 = X

20 = XX

30 = XXX

40 = XL

50 = L

60 = LX

70 = LXX

80 = LXXX

90 = XC

100 = C

For example,

56 = LVI

42 = XLII

95 = XCV

84 = LXXXIV

102 = CII

If you find anything of importance missing from this note, email it to us at revision-notes@meritnation.com, and we’ll

add it to this note under your name!

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