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3, MARCH 2001 249

Book Review_____________________________________________________________________________
Handbook of Medical Imaging - Processing and Analysis Isaac spatial transformation are exposed in detail. Within-modality, cross-
N. Bankman, Ed., 1st edition, 901 pages, Academic Press, New York, modality, multidimensional frameworks are all described. Validation
2000 Reviewed by Ge. Wang studies on registration accuracy are reported.
Medical imaging may be divided into two major components:
image formation and image analysis. Medical image analysis becomes V. VISUALIZATION
increasingly important in matching the results of image acquisition
This section includes five chapters (100 pages). The history and cur-
with specific domain requirements where the unprocessed original
rent status of visualization and display are summarized. Commonly
images are complex, numerous, or contain subtle features. The
used rendering methods are introduced. Virtual endoscopy is described.
“Handbook of Medical Imaging - Processing and Analysis”, edited
My preference would be to enlarge this section, given its importance
by Isaac N. Bankman and a team of six section editors, provides an
and the plethora of novel post-processing techniques reported over the
overview of medical image analysis with tutorials on practical or
past several years.
emerging methods. This handbook focuses on analysis of medical
images of all types, and consists of 53 chapters in six sections by
about 100 authors. Both established and cutting-edge algorithms are VI. COMPRESSION, STORAGE, AND COMMUNICATION
grouped into six sections: enhancement, segmentation, quantification, This last section contains eight chapters (136 pages). Industry stan-
registration, visualization, and compression. Each section is briefly dards for compression and digital image communication are defined
introduced in a 2-3 page preface without references. The chapter for medical image archive and retrieval, with an emphasis on picture
authors are active researchers and known experts from all over the archiving and communication systems (PACS). Image quality evalu-
world. The editor, Isaac N. Bankman, is supervisor of the Imaging ation is addressed in terms of diagnostic accuracy and statistics. The
and Laser Systems Section at the Johns Hopkins University Applied wavelet compression scheme is emphasized. Finally, medical image
Physics Laboratory (Baltimore, MD). He received the Ph.D. degree processing and analysis software packages are surveyed.
in Biomedical Engineering from the Technion University of Israel,
Haifa, in 1985, and is active in the SPIE, OSA, and IEEE. The handbook is valuable for researchers in image processing and
computer vision who need an up-to-date review on medical image anal-
I. ENHANCEMENT ysis. Generally speaking, the book does not prepare an interested engi-
neer from another subspecialty to fully understand key topics in med-
This section is the shortest among the six sections, consisting of four
ical imaging. However, this handbook is an intermediary step that al-
chapters (66 pages). In this section, the authors discuss classic algo-
lows the nonspecialist or student to learn the vocabulary and discover
rithms and advanced adaptive filtering, multiscale nonlinear and hybrid
some important applications in medical image analysis. This handbook
filtering methods. Among these methods, the multiscale wavelet-based
does not promise to provide a comprehensive survey and overview of
operators discussed in the last two chapters seem most powerful.
every topic. Take virtual colonoscopy for example. The corresponding
chapter was written by an outstanding researcher in the field, Ronald
II. SEGMENTATION Summers of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). He places an em-
This section contains nine chapters (146 pages). The fundamentals phasis on morphometric methods, which represents an area where he
are presented and representative approaches described, including fuzzy has made unique and important contributions. However, other key is-
clustering, neural networks, deformable models, hybrid segmentation, sues are not covered in detail, such as colon segmentation, center-
followed by discussions on volumetric and partial volume segmenta- line tracking, computer aided diagnosis of polyps, interpretation of the
tion. Chapters 8–10 deal with deformable model-based segmentation, image results, design of clinical trials, specialized workstation strate-
are well written, and are of particular interest to me. gies, and the controversies in the field. It would be necessary to look
beyond the handbook for more specialized information, but this chapter
would prepare the reader to consult the literature with a much greater
chance for success. As another example, the chapter on shape transfor-
This section consists of 12 chapters (210 pages). Texture analysis is mations does not contain any equations. The handbook conspicuously
emphasized, followed by shape analysis, computational anatomy, mor- omits a detailed discussion of statistical shape modeling, which may
phometry and computer aided diagnosis. These methods are applied in have been considered too esoteric or specialized to merit coverage in
neuroanatomy, musculoskeletal systems, mammography, and cardiac detail, despite the strong interests of biologists and morphometricians
imaging. Image interpolation and re-sampling are covered. in this topic.
This handbook lacks an overview chapter that introduces medical
IV. REGISTRATION image analysis and explains why it makes sense to divide it into these
six categories. There is a preface, but an overview of the entire med-
This section is the largest, consisting of 15 chapters (224 pages). ical image analysis field is so important to the reader that it merits a
The central issue is handling of image distortions such as in magnetic chapter of its own. The handbook is not categorized according to the
resonance imaging and positron emission tomography, and merging application domain. In other words, we might divide medical imaging
different images for synergistic presentations. Feature extraction and according to modality or organ system or disease. This handbook does
not use any of these for its organization. If the reader is interested in
Manuscript received February 15, 2001. any specific modality, you would have to read each and every chapter to
Publisher Item Identifier S 0278-0062(01)04722-X. determine whether the topic is relevant or not. The index is not helpful.

0278-0062/01$10.00 © 2001 IEEE

You Medical Imaging1 and Image Processing Handbook2 are comparable cannot directly link them to specific chapters. physicists and practitioners who work or will enter the fast or newly emerged. pp. fectively presented for widest readership. The editors and the authors should be pleased have been covered or explored in this book. tion. (Boca Raton. (Bellingham. if you are trained in image processing. Eds. The SPIE handbook is mathematically most sophisticated. The SPIE Handbook of CRC Press. pp. Fitzpatrick. Sonka and J. WA: SPIE Press. differential geometry for image visualiza. a large readership is assured for this book. The Bankman handbook lies between its peers. several more theoretical topics might in teaching these topics. NO. Ed. field. noise and artifact reduction. global pattern theory for image registration and recognition. there was no expectation are large areas of medical imaging that are not included. the power and the potential of more complex methods cannot be overes- timated. and that of researchers in the medical imaging medical imaging. Even well-established researchers will benefit. either well developed engineers. 200). there are neither examples. Generally speaking. Also. If you cannot find the time to read the whole volume (and few This handbook does not require great mathematical sophistication. you can just pick a chapter and Any practicing engineer should be able to fully understand the hand. Handbook of Medical Imaging II: Med- methods for image analysis. Any handbook to be a gold mine of information on how the fundamen. while the CRC handbook is most readable and technically most ef- On the other hand. and figures are effective. . 3. Russ. MARCH 2001 The same problem exists for any given organ system or disease. As a handbook. M. omission. with the results of their work leading to an up-to-date compendium signal/image separation. and since the chapters imaging physics. With this handbook. electrical and relevant literature and acquire some of the essential vocabulary used in computer engineering. such as hidden Markov field theory for image modeling. for ex. These include that it would be read in any particular order. 3rd ed. this goal is well served. multiscale space 1M. Each chapter can be read independently however. This handbook is highly recommended for Some sophisticated mathematical approaches. The tables tion. you would find this medical imaging. If you for example. This handbook does not prepare you to tackle specific problems. changes tals that you just learned from the theoretical perspective are used in from chapter to chapter in this handbook are greater than one would medical applications. of reviews and tutorials. 20. 800). are not included. dynamic image analysis. Given the depth and diversity of the medical imaging up to date. multiauthored text is subject to quality variation. This handbook may be compared with similar recent compendia of 2J. the reader will be able to identify are interested in any of the topics treated in the handbook. which should be consistent to clinical research. you can the principal tools and methods of medical image analysis and many of enter at almost any point. VOL. such as image restoration. ical Image Processing and Analysis. dif- ferential equation techniques for image restoration. after introductory courses on these topics.250 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MEDICAL IMAGING. it is not realistic to expect that a single book would cover every outlines the state-of-the-art and future directions. The Image Processing Handbook. The references cited are comprehensive and their applications. the handbook is well integrated. It is an intermediate step between a general knowledge and with chapter-dependent prerequisites. will be able to digest these 900 pages). and image modeling. 2000. 1998. so it will serve well topic of importance. As a positive consequence of this growing field of medical image analysis. C. It should also be clear that there in medical image processing. as the book field. FL: image processing methods and applications. However. This handbook can serve as a gateway to access the the background of graduate students of biomedical. CD-ROM demos nor a website associated with the book. The organization of the handbook is natural for expect in terms of mathematical and physical levels of presentation. gain extensive information on current algorithms and recent advances book without additional references. anyone who has studied basic image processing and pattern recogni. However. and sections are largely independent. since it treats topics beyond ample. image reconstruction. However.