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Apollo 13 • The Second ALSEP

.Ei!!!. the Ellrl~ Af)<lllo Scienl; lie E ~pet'im.r>tl Package (Apollo 11)
~ thlJ f"$1 Apollo lunar SuffiCe ExplIlimer>ts Package (Apollo 12)

Now the sec:on(j AlSEP (Apollo 1J)

Tha shert history or luner indicAtive of A lunar


scientific explorllt;on has been a atmosphcro.
notllbla succeii. rQ~ iciantitic
field trip. cn earth Can aatch It identifiCAtion of qUAnti-
for the co~aiete~cy and ~ua~tity tie" and <lnerqy lovel"
of rcliable dllt" proYided fro", the Of charqed particles
very fir,t moment of activating r .. achinq the lunar ourface
the inatrument a . Oyer one billion within a .p,ctrllm much
aelentlfic and an,.ineerl",. ",'llillrc~ broader than that s"nlled
ments of llln~r surf",:e phenomena on prevto",. ",lssions.
have been ",,;ord .. <1 011 e."rth fro",
the sen"ora of th" t;"rly ... pollo mea"",rem""t of the theralll
Scientific Exper~"'entl rac~aqe and "'oll<l",ctiv1ty of the I"n;>r
the first ALs)';!'. ~o ..· the third lurface and the lleat
AI)"llo telira to the lunar surface flo .. dur1ng 1"nat10n cycle •.
will establish " ~cinntific balte
at a new sIte (Fr;>u Io\;>uro) throllqh Thes" objectivell will be • .,t
the depLoyment of another IILf;EP. with an instrulllent "yllte", eoatpri"-
ing a l:lendix-deslgno.d Co.ntr"l
Tho second ALf;Ef i. the next In St.at~on ~im1lar to that ",sed on
a series of scientific exploration previouo mi""ia"" and a qro"p of
packli~~s p~oduccd by Bandix Aero- four e"p<>r1mM1.(.s,
Gp~ce Sy~~e~g Division for d~ploy·
mant at "aeh of th" d~ffe"""t Pam.1ye ;;e1"mlc P.xperiment
A~ollo lUIla" landinq ~it"". l'h" 4 "eism1c elementc
objectives of "'L:;~I' On th1S Illl. .. sion
;>r~, Lunar Atnosphere Experi",,,nt
1 col<1 ""thode Ion qa\l.qc
operatlon of a ~econd
pOIs,.i"" s"ia .. ~c lIon1l0r Chllrq"d Pllrticle Lun ...·
~d"ntical to that oporat· EnYironment Experi"'ent
ill'l" On the Apollo 12 2 ch .. r9,,<l particle physiC'll
AL5EP so that datll fro", anlllyzers
differ",nt c<lqion" can oe
<;;orr"l ... t"d. Ilc<lt 1'1001 L"porilllont -
J sonsl tivo t"mp.. r"turo.
de""etion of .inute prea- probe. imbedded 11> .pecially
aur" .. or vllriation .. in drilled IO-foot hal .. " 11>
pressure .. hieh mlght be the lunar top soil.
Theae sensors are selected .. location ".st of th" Lunar Modul ..
tram the group oC sclsntlfic in- and deployed a .. shown in riqure 2.
strument' that have been especial~ Tho ALSEP equipment it..... ars
ly developed for lunar aurrace ex- depicted in ri9ure 1.
plor .. tion. The data provided by
this multi-senaor "y"tem .. 111 b<> Th .. tour experi .."nt, that co .. -
analy~ed and interpreted under the prise ths second ALStP will b"
guidance at lIASA ."i"nti5t5 and linked to the Central Station by
Principal Investi9~tor•. heat-r"siatant ribbone ot wire.
Designed and built by Bendix Aero-
ALS~P will be earrie~ by an epace, the Centr .. l station 1.
Apollo 13 ... .stronaut IFi,!"r. 1) to ALSEP'" cO•• \lnlcation c"nter. It
cont.aine th" r .. ceiv"r, data proces-
ear, t.rans.itter and power ..ana9"'-
ment. controls for the experi.ent".
The aource at power will b .. a
radioisotope ther~oelactrie genera-
tor (RTG). t.he StlAF-Z7 built by
Ganaral El.etric. T~ia ia t~e "ame
po"",r "ource that perfo ....ed 80
reliably on the fir8t ALSEP.

T~. pri .. ~ contractual respon8i-


bility tor all the experi.ent, on
this "ackage, "ith t~e e~ception
of the Lunar At",osphere Experi.., .. nt,
w~a a"arded to Bendix Aerospace. A
more detailed description ot the
Apollo 13 ALSEP experi.en .. , ",ay
be found on tke following pages.

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Subpackllg8 No.1

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SubpackBg& No.2

Figure 3 Apollo 13 ALSEP Equipment Items


PASSIVE SEISMIC EXPERIMENT

O~r ~nd.r.t..lldinq of th. co.- oriqln of tha a.rth and the .olar
posit.ion of t.h~ illt..rior of t.h. .y.t••.
eart.h co.". ill part fro. ,"ollit.or· Til • • "iIlIlO •• t . r •••• Ul' •• by
inq .,arth'l".k... The .otion pro- ree:ordinq th" 1I0tlon b.t.... n tvo
dllc •• vibration . . . hi,.h, •• th.y ..eiqht.. On" .."iqht, the body of
trav.l t.hrou9h various typ". of the In.tr~."nt, eneloa" • • • • cond
rock, hav~ sp •• d . . .hi,.h ar. ch.r· .. .,1qht .. hieh I . susp.ndsd on a
acteri.rlc of the rock thrOllgh ... ry fla"lb). hlnq.. Th" &"i ••o.e-
.. hieh t.hey t.r.veled. .0"" ..
tell' .. i l l ith "h.. ground
.. hi 1. tha .u.pend.d .... igh" i".id.
ay eorr~l.tinq infor-at.lon It t.alld. to r" •• Jn i ••obil.. Pour
fro. a net. .. ork of 5e1 ...o •• t . r . ..n.or. of tbi. typa all''' e:ontai".d
pl.e.d . t diff.r."t loc.t.lon. on in .aell llnit pl.c.d on t.lla .oon
the lun.r .urfa"., the oriqln of for .".alll'inq ill diffarent dirac-
•• i".ie "lq".l . . . Ill heco • ., more tiona .nd fr.qll.nele ••
clear.
Th• • • nsitivit), of t.hi. devie:e
In[or •• tion .bout the .truc- ia .uell th.t, all Apollo 11, it.
ture of tho .oon may help to reportad ~atronaut footat.pa .nd
an .... r the qua.tlon of It. origIn/ "hair .ov••• nta inaid. the Lunar
.. he"h.r it i . part of the •••• Modul •.
lOa •• fro . . .hich the •• rth ....
for •• d. or .. hather it ia vtlolly Tha Principal Invellti,ator for
unlike the earth, • c.ptur.d tha pa •• iva S.is.ie: E2parl . . n" i .
pi.ea of the e:o ••o.. Thi. in Dr. Cary Latb•• of L••ont C.oloqi·
turll .. ill h.lp indie:.". the e:al Ob •• rvatol')'.
LUNAR ATMOSPHERE
EXPERIMENT

That the ",oon has pra"ti"aiiy A lunar atmo.pher .. detector


no atmosphero "an b'l veri fled ia cerri'ld on "ach Apollo lunar
~ith an inexpensive L'll06"ope. landing. On Apollo 13, i t will
One wat"haa whether or not the bs a S'lparat'l exp'lri"''lnt; on
11ght fro," a atar dillla juat be- Apollo 12 it ••• joined to the
fors i t paaasa behind the 1lI00n. Lunar lonospher" O"tector.
To ~ay that tha moon has no
atmosphsrs at all, however, la to In or"''lr to "'st'l<:t an at",os*
aay that there are absoiutaly no ph'lr'l with partlel'ls havin9 no
pilrt!"l'lB of any kind near Its electrical <:harge. ths at"oaphere
Burface. and that iB an unlikely muat be ionized. This is .cco.-
Ca..... pliah'ld by .ccelerating fr .. e ion.
within the detector. The char9"d
particles ent'lring tha a'lnSOr are
While ths atNosphera will be accelerated by • atrong electric
vsry slight, it Nay carry tracss fhld (4500 volts) an4 collUle
of volcanic gassea, which would with the neutral atollla of the lUM
~_all a great deal, ind'le<1, about
nar at",olphere. The colliaion
the ,"oon. Horsovsr. when astro- c.uaes th'l neutral atoms to be-
nauta land 0" the moon thay con- come electrically char9'l4, mea~­
tribute a signi ficant I'ercents<;la uring chi. ch.rge 9ive. a ••• sUr~
of neW atmosphere (.0 tile lunsr of the lunar atmosphere .
.. nvironment by the 9asS'lS they
and th .. Lunar ~odule produce. The Principal Investiqator for
The rate at which thi. ~for.. ig"M the Lunar At. ..osphere £Jlperi..ent is
atmospll"r" i . 106t tro. the 1II00n Dr. Francis John.on ot th'l South-
is of scientific intere.t. weet Cent.er for Advanced St.udies.
CHARGED PARTICLE LUNAR
ENVIRONMENT EXPERIMENT

Th" "bsenc" of " si9ni fie"nt vice, the Ch.lnn"ltron e el"ctron


"tmospher" and m"qn"tic field on .ultipliar. This i. a lI ..all tube
the .oon ~ill "llo~ ileie~t!stB to which can .. ultiply .. l."tron~ up to
us"' !t a, " lar'l" laboratory to Onll .. illion tim",.. Each electeon
• tudy the el .. et"ical1y eh"rged ... hich ant"r,. the ,"ultipli"r cau9 ....
paeticl .. s which inhabit out"" a ,"uch la.q~r .. lect.on tlow oul:
apac". Th ..... particles, which of the tub... The charged particle
.. re part. of atom., ~i1l h"v", a e"peri~.nt uses t ... o analyzers
wid" ran9" of apeeds and .. n"r9ie5. containing arrays of "lect.on
They will hav .. aither posItive or ,"ultlpll"r. to det"et particlell
neqat!ve char'les and will beheve which ha" .. pa.sed through an
according to whetever "leete!c electronic sorting proc" ••. Thi.
~nd ma'lnatic fields theee a,," sorting proee .... consist,. of pess-
around the 1Il00n, in,! th" particles pallt two plete.
"hleh lire el .. "trica1ly charg"d.
Ob ... rvin'l ell"." partie 1". and Th .. charge. On the plet •• deflect
notin9 what happens to tha~ n"ar the .l.ctro"a ... ceording to th.ur
til" aoon "ill <;ive n"" basic infor- ch ... rge and v"locity. Ily llIaas-
."tion about the forcea which con- uring the particlea over "erious
trol the physical world. selected "n"r9Y reng .. s, sci"ntists
will be able to und"esta"d bott"r
The Charg"d Particle Lunar the type. of charged particle a
Envlron."nt .l,;xp.rl.ent will .eas- found in out"r space.
ur" th" energy and dir .. etlon at
parl:1cleB and record changa .. !n The Principal Investlgato"
th .. ir direction. for the Charged Particle Lunar
Env~ronment Experiment is
The charg"d particle experi· Dr. 8rien .:I. O'Eri.n of Rice
mant u.es a patented 8andi" de- llniver.ity.
HEAT FLOW EXPERIMENT

\fhether or not U .., moon has re910n. such as tha &lid-At lIOn tic
a 1II01ten core a. the e.rth is .. rift.
very import.nt qusstion. 1I0t only
The t"chnique of the h •• t tlow
would a ~olten core indic.te ei.i-
exp .. .-i.ent 1 • • I ..pI./ two t.n-tOOt
lar ori9!0 and develop.ant of the
holes are drilled In the .oon and
1Il00n and the earth, but a molten
a cOllbin .. tion of heate.-/th.rmOIl.t.r
cora would indicate that volcanic
prob... i . in•• rted into each hoI •.
• ctivity could have cauIOed many
E .. ch probe earrie. sever"l h."t.r.
of the ..oon'. surface features.
If the 1Il00n doe. not have a hot and th"rmo.at .. r.. The th"rlllollleter.
lIeasure therllal 9r"dient. with
cent"r, it lIlay literally be noth-
accurilcie. to O.OOSop. "e .... re·
in'1 flIOre than a bi'1 rock, fonn"d
~ent. ilre ."de alon9 each probe
el.ewhere in the co."o• •nd cap-
and between prob... Both t ••pe .... -
tured by the ""rth'. qr .. vity.
tur. dIfference and h •• t conduC-
tivity "ill be ..ea ... r.d.
A .e"sure of the intern"l heat
of the .oon "nd how that heat dis- Bee.uee Uttl. i . known of the
sipates throu'1h the &loon will in- ther •• l prop.rtie. of the .oon,
dicate not only th" hi.tory of thf! the He.t Flow £xp.rim.nt will be
.oon. but its composition as well. i:lblo to . . . . . .re .ubsurfaee eeOlp"r-
ature. over the r.ng. -lOO°1' to
The Heat rlow !.:xperlment wIll +110°1'.
detect whethe.- 0.- not the.-e 18 ..
he"t flow th.-ou9h th" 111000 whlch Th. Prineipal loveetigatoc for
is sillila.- to that of the earth. the lIest Flow Experi •• nt io
On tt." ea.-th. ha .. t flow i . rei.· Or. Msreuo G. Lan'15~th of ColuJObia
tively unifor..... xcept In eertaln Univenity.
Apollo 13 ALSEP
Vital Statistics

Pa~~ive Seismic Sensor

21 pound~

H~at Flow ExperiMen~

Weight, 10 poun<!s

Normal Operating Pover' 8.8 .. etta

Cold Cathode Ion ~auge

lieiqht: 13 pounds

6.5 ",etts

ileighb 6 pound",

5.0 .... tta

Major ~ubcontractors'

Earth science .. , A 'l'eledy".. Co.pany; Arthur D. LIttl", Inc.:


Gulton Industri"s, 11'0., Data sy"t".,. Division; The S""dIx
Corporation. Researoh Laboratories