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 Actuator
Device used to produce motion or action such as acceleration and displacement
 Permeability
Characterizes how easily magnetic flux will penetrate a material (iron is less permeable than
air by 100 times)

 Eddy Current

A result of Faraday’s Law of Induction, it leads to inefficiency and undesirable core heating

 Stator
Stationary external housing; supports radial magnetized poles

 Field Coils

Coils wrapped around the laminated iron core

 Rotor
Consists of a rotating shaft supported by bearings; an iron core into which windings are

 Air Gap

Small space between the rotor and the stator in which magnetic fields interact
 Commutator
Used to deliver current and control its direction in the rotor windings
 Brushes
Provide a stationary electrical contact to the moving commutator conducting segments;
before copper wire were used as brushes, now solid graphite are used

AJ Diokno / R Cruz



Commutator Segment

A Brush

Stator Pole

+ Windings

1. The right brush comes in contact with commutator segment A while the left brush comes
in contact with segment B, creating a current in the rotor winding, resulting in the magnetic
poles. The rotor magnetic poles oppose the stator magnetic poles, creating a torque causing
clockwise motion of the rotor.
2. The stator poles both oppose and attract the rotor poles to enhance the clockwise rotation.
3. The commutator contacts switches which, consequently, changes the direction of the rotor
current and hence, the direction of the magnetic field.
4. Both brushes temporarily lose contact with the commutator but the rotor continues to
move due to its momentum.

5. The reversed magnetic field in the rotor again opposes the stator field, continuing the
clockwise torque and motion.

Note: DC motors have a commutator but AC motors do not because the magnetic field rotates around the

stator as a result of the AC voltages.


            

 Standard AC Motors
 Induction Motors
 Reversible Motors

 Torque Motors

 Speed Control Motors

 Brake Motors
 DC Motors
 Stepping Motors
 Servo Motors

                

          
 Output power: amount of work performed in a given period of time

Output Power = Torque x Speed

 Rated output power: output power at optimum conditions

 Starting torque: torque generated the instant the motor starts

 Stall torque: maximum torque under which a motor will operate

 Rated torque: torque at rated speed

 Static frictional torque: torque output

required to hold a load when the motor is
stopped by an electromagnetic brake

 Permissible torque: maximum torque that

can be used when the motor is running

 Synchronous speed: intrinsic factor

determined by the number of poles and the
line frequency

Ns = 120f/P where f = frequency

P = poles


 No-load speed: speed under no-load conditions

 Rated speed: appropriate speed at rated output

 Overrun: number of revolutions a motor makes between the time power is cut off
and the time it comes to a complete stop

 Induction motors: suitable for continuous operation and where speed control,
positioning and frequent direction changing is not required; most commonly used general
purpose AC motor

 Reversible motors: highly suitable for application that require frequent switching
between clockwise and counterclockwise rotation; basically the same as induction motor;
features a large starting torque to improve their instantaneous reversing characteristics and
employ a simple built-in friction brake to prevent motor overrun and shorten the time required
for reversing; due to their inherently higher temperature rise compared to induction motors,
reversible motors have a limited 30-minute duty cycle rating for worst operating conditions

 Torque motors: specifically designed to provide high starting torque and operate
over a wide speed range; unlike other standard AC motors, torque motors provide stable
operation in the low speed range or under locked rotor conditions

 Speed control motors: speeds can be easily adjusted and set providing constant
torque across the entire speed range

 Brake motors: used when there is a need for immediate stopping of motor
movement; overrun is usually less than a revolution compared to 30-40 revolution range for
induction motors and 5-6 revolution range for reversible motors; brakes can either be the
electromagnetic type or thru the use of brake packs; brake packs offer a lower overrun while
electromagnetic type is highly suitable for emergency brakes due to the fact that is activated
once power is shut off



Digitally controlled motors used for precise positioning. It enables simple, accurate control of angle
rotation and rotation speed, so they are suitable for a wide variety of applications.

 Easy angle and speed control: stepping motors move by rotating in steps
of predetermined degrees called the step angle; the degrees rotated and
speed of rotation are easily controlled using electrical signals called pulses

Pulse: an electrical signal that repeats On and Off voltages

 High torque/good response: compact but produce high torque; provides excellent
acceleration and fast movement

 High resolution/ high positioning precision: as mentioned above, stepping motors

generally rotate at 0.72 per pulse; angular distance moved corresponds to the number of
pulses inputted with a stopping accuracy of 0.05O

 High holding torque: stop position can be held without relying on mechanical brake

Stepping motors operate in a similar way as standard AC motors. To explain it simply,
the stator of stepping motors change polarity as opposed to standard AC motors in
which it is the rotor that change polarity. For each pulse the motor receives, a pair of
stators will change its polarity instigating a movement from the permanent magnet
rotor. Refer to the figure below for better understanding. This is a simplified approach to stepping
motor operation. In actuality, stepping motors operate in a much more complicated manner though it
basically follows the principle discussed here.

1st pulse 2nd pulse 3rd pulse 4th pulse


A special feature of stepping motors, which increases the accuracy of the motor rotation. The
principle discussed earlier was for full step mode. For half step, there is a slight difference in
which there are stages where some stators become neutral and do not have polarity.

1st pulse 2nd pulse 3rd pulse 4th pulse


FULL STEP Half step
1 0.72 0.36
2 1.44 0.72
3 2.16 1.08
4 2.88 1.44

Stepping motor movement is based on the number
of pulses received by the motor. All movement
uses a certain origin as reference. During startup
or power outages however, the motor uses the
position it is in when power returns as its origin.
This would usually lead to discrepancies between
the logical origin and the origin when the power
returns. For this reason, it is imperative that the motor return
to its logical origin once power is turned back on. Hence, the
presence of home sensors, which act as mechanical origin. The
figure provided displays the home detection procedure a
stepping motor undergoes.

Note: All movements are based on the position of the home sensor. If
the home sensor position is shifted, all other positions will be shifted



Highly similar to stepping motors with the exception of a number of features

 High-speed response: unlike stepping motors, servo motors generate large

acceleration/deceleration torque therefore capable of high-speed response, with no step-out
due to sharp changes in load or pulse speed

 High accuracy: compared to stepping motors, servo motors generally move 0.001O per pulse

 Encoder: a sensor that sends information regarding the position of the motor to the driver;
due to the presence of encoder, servo motors feature a closed-loop system making it ideal for
precision control of positioning and speed
Operating principle: when the motor rotates, light passes intermittently thru the slits of the
rotating disk, reaching a photoreceptor which emits pulses proportional to motor speed. These
pulses are then converted into electrical signals that are sent to the driver conveying
information on motor speed and position.

Light source

Rotating disk Lens

Fixed slit


 Unstable: servo motors do not remain motionless; at

stop position, a servo motor fluctuates movement +/- 1 pulse




Path 1
 Command signals
 Direction (cw/ccw)
 Speed

Path 2
 Electricity
 Polarity to indicate direction
 Frequency to indicate speed

Path 3
 Errors
 Overload
 Overheat
 Overvoltage



Path 1

 Operation modes

 Index: for precise


 Scan: continuous

 Jog: 1 pulse

 Home: home detection

 Command signals
 Direction (cw/ccw)
 Positioning
 Control inputs
 Start
 Stop
 Reset
 Hold on/off

Path 2
 Pulse
 1 pulse type
 2 pulse type

Path 3
 Overheat

Path 4
 Motor status
 Busy
 Home



Path 1
 Operation modes
 Index
 Scan
 Jog
 Home
 Command signals
 Direction (cw/ccw)
 Positioning
 Control inputs
 Start
 Stop
 Reset
 Hold on/off

Path 2
 Pulse

Path 3
 Feedback (from encoder)
 Motor displacement
 Overheat

Path 4
 Motor status
 Ready
 Busy