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A Report On



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A Report On

making the alliances vertically integrated as well. Before Japan's surrender. the companies formed from the dismantling of the zaibatsu were later reintegrated. Although the divisions between them have blurred in recent years. there are six major postwar keiretsu: A Report On KEIRETSU . under the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers. official government policy promoted the creation of robust trade corporations which could withstand heavy pressures from intensified world trade competition. The dispersed corporations were re-interlinked through share purchases to form horizontally-integrated alliances across many industries.[1] The major keiretsu were each centered around one bank. During the occupation of Japan. There are two types of keiretsu: vertical and horizontal. It is a type of business group. Vertical keiretsu illustrates the organization and relationships within a company (for example all factors of production of a certain product will be connected). because no entities could challenge the power of the banks. which lent money to the keiretsu's member companies and held equity positions in the companies.A Brief Introduction A keiretsu is a set of companies with interlocking business relationships and shareholdings. However. while a horizontal keiretsu shows relationships between entities and industries. Both are complexly woven together and self-sustain each other. In this period. Where possible. keiretsu companies would also supply one another. There are three types of keiretsu:  Kigyō shūdan ("horizontally diversified business groups"?)  Seisan keiretsu ("vertical manufacturing networks"?)  Ryūtsū keiretsu ("vertical distribution networks"?) Keiretsu in Japan The prototypical keiretsu are those which appeared in Japan during the "economic miracle" following World War II. a partially successful attempt was made to dissolve the zaibatsu in the late 1940s. Sixteen zaibatsu were targeted for complete dissolution. Each bank had great control over the companies in the keiretsu and acted as a monitoring entity and as an emergency bail-out entity. Japanese industry was controlled by large family- controlled vertical monopolies called zaibatsu. General Douglas MacArthur. One effect of this structure was to minimize the presence of hostile takeovers in Japan. and twenty six more for reorganization after dissolution. normally centered around a bank and trading company.

Nippon Synthetic Chemical Industries (Nippon Gosei) Paper: Mitsubishi Paper Mills Ltd. Mitsubishi Plastics Industries. Mitsui Petrochemical Industries.. Mitsui Sugar. Mitsubishi Materials Corp. Mitsubishi Rayon Co.They are profiled as following. Mitsui Toatsu Fertilizers. Mitsubishi Gas Chemical. Mitsubishi Oil. Kyokuto Petroleum Industries Electronics: Yaussa Corporation. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries. Mitsui Toatsu Dyes. Tokio Marine and Fire Insurance. Mitsubishi Nuclear Fuel Precision Machinery: Nikon Chemicals: Mitsubishi Chemical. MITSUBISHI Bank Mitsubishi Bank (until 1996) Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi (1996–2005) Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ (2006– ) Mitsubishi Trust and Banking Major Group Companies Financial: Mitsubishi Corporation. Mitsubishi Estate Construction: Pacific Consultants International Food: Kirin Brewery Electronics: Mitsubishi Electric.. Ibiden Company. Asahi Glass. Mitsubishi Precision Cars: Mitsubishi Motors. Mitsubishi Fuso Petroleum: Nippon Oil. Mitsukoshi Food: Nippon Flour Mills.. Denki Kagaku Kogyo. Mitsui Pharmaceuticals. Ltd. Suntory Chemicals: Fuji Photo Film. Toray Petroleum: General Sekiyu. Mitsui Toatso Chemicals. Daicel Chemical Industries. Iron and Steel: Mitsubishi Steel Shipping: Nippon Yusen MITSUI Bank Mitsui Bank (until 1990) Sakura Bank (1990–2001) Sumitomo Mitsui Bank (2001– ) Major Group Companies Financial: Mitsui Real Estate. Toagosei Chemical Industries. Toshiba Iron and Steel: Japan Steel Works A Report On KEIRETSU .

NOF Corporation. Ricoh Financial: Marubeni Chemicals: Showa Denko. Kureha Chemical Industries. Nippon Sanso. Keihan Railway. Hitachi.SUMITOMO Bank Sumitomo Bank (until 2001) Sumitomo Mitsui Bank (2001– ). Asahi Kasei Rail: Tobu Railway Vehicles: Yamaha. Nankai Railway Cars: Mazda Electronics: NEC Iron and Steel: Sumitomo Metals Financial: Sumitomo Real Estate Infrastructure: Nippon Koei FUYO Bank Fuji Bank (until 2000) Mizuho Bank (2000– ) Yasuda Trust and Banking Yamaichi Securities Major Group Companies Food: Nisshin Flour Milling. Hitachi Chemical. Nissan Retail: Matsuya A Report On KEIRETSU . Sumitomo Trust and Banking Major Group Companies Food: Asahi Breweries Rail: Hanshin Railway. Sapporo Breweries Machinery: Canon.

Hitachi. Fuji Electric. Daihatsu Retail: Takashimaya Cinema: Toho Shin-Maywa A Report On KEIRETSU . Tanabe Seiyaku. Chemicals: Ube Industries.DAI-ICHI KANGYO (DKB) Bank Dai-Ichi Kangyo Bank (until 2000) Mizuho Bank (2000– ) Kankaku Securities Orient Group Major Group Companies Electronics: Fujitsu... Daiso Co. Lion Corporation. Nippon Columbia Cars: Isuzu. Tokuyama Corp. Kyowa Hakko Kogyo. Japan Metals Chemicals: Denki Kagaku Kogyo-Mitsui Group.. Nippon Zeon. Sharp Corporation. Nitto Denko. Itochu. Kansai Paint.. Iron and Steel: Kawasaki Steel. Iwatsu Electric. Asahi Denka Kogyo. Yaskawa Electric. Asahi Chemical Industries SANWA ("MIDORIKAI") Bank Sanwa Bank (until 2002) UFJ Bank (2002–2006) Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ (2006– ) Toyo Trust and Banking Major Group Companies Food: Itoham Foods. Sekisui Chemical. Hitachi Chemical. Kawasaki Heavy Industries Power Generation: Tokyo Electric Power Petroleum: Showa Shell Sekiyu Precision Machinery: Asahi Optical Trading and Commerce: Seibu. Fujisawa Pharmaceutical. Unitika Fukusure Cars: Hitachi Zosen Corp. Kyocera Trading and Commerce: Takashiama. Suntory Rail: Hankyu Railway. Teijin. Hoya Corporation Petroleum: Cosmo Oil Electronics: Hitachi Ltd. Keisei Railway Steel: Kobe Steel. Precision Machinery: Konica Minolta. Sankyo Co. Orix.

com/articles/economics/09/japanese-keiretsu. Plas-Tech.polska-azja.TOKAI (TOYOTA GROUP) Bank Tokai Bank Chuo Trust Major Group Companies Food: Kagome Cars: Suzuki Motor. http://www. http://www. New Japan Securities Wako Securities IBJ Securities Major Group Companies Cars: Fuji Heavy Industries Precision Machinery: Ikegai.wikipedia. Nissan Chemical. Kuraray Bibliography 1. Taihei Chemical. Riken Chemicals: Nippon Soda.asp 3. Toyota Steel: Daido Steel Precision Machinery: Ricoh Petroleum: Idemitsu Kosan Electronics: Ushio Industries Trading and Commerce: Matsuzakaya IBJ Bank Industrial Bank of of-the-japanese-keiretsu-%E7%B3%BB%E5%88%97-how-and-why-are-these-changing- today/ A Report On KEIRETSU . 2. Japan Organo.investopedia. Chisso Corporation. Hodogaya Chemical. Tosoh Corporation.