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APOLLO EXPERIENCE REPORT MISSION PLANNING FOR LUNAR MODULE DESCENT A N D ASCENT
by Floyd V, Bennett
Munned S’ucecrdft Center Hozlston, Texus 77058
N A T I O N A L AERONAUTICS A N D SPACE A D M I N I S T R A T I O N WASHINGTON,
I. R e w r t No.
2. Government Accession No
3. Recipient,'s Catalog No.
6 Reoort Date
NASA TN D-6846
4. Title and Subtitle
APOLLOEXPERIENCEREPORT MISSION PLANNING FOR LUNAR MODULE
DESCENT AND ASCENT
6. Performing Organization Code
8. Performing Organization Report No.
Floyd V. Bennett, MSC
9. Performing Organization Name and Address
10. Work Unit No.
11. Contract or Grant No.
Manned Spacecraft Center Houston, Texas 77058
2. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address
13. Type of Report and Period Covered
National Aeronautics and Space Administration Washington, D . C. 20546
14. Sponsoring Agency Code
5. Supplementary Notes
The MSC Director waived the u s e of the International System of Units (SI)f o r :his Apollo Experience Report, because, in his judgment, use of SI Units would impair the usefulnes, 3f the report or result in excessive cost.
The premission planning, the real-time situation, and the postflight analysis for the Apollo 11 lunar descent and ascent are described in this report. A comparison between premission planning and actual results is included, A navigation correction capability, developed from Apollo 11 postflight analysis, was used successfully on Apollo 12 to provide the f i r s t pinpoint landing. An experience summary, which illustrates typical problems encountered by the mission planners, is also included.
18. Distribution Statement
19. Security Classif. (of this report)
20. Security Classif. ( f this page)
For sale by the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia 22151
. . . . . . .I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .I I PREMISSION PLANNING Descent Planning. .. . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. .. . . . .. CONCLUDING REMARKS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . ..Planning Flexibility .. . . . . . . .CONTENTS Page SUMMARY INTRODUCTION. . i Apollo 11 Ascent .. . . . . .. . iii . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . Apollo 12 Posff light Analysis . . . . .. . . . . Apollo 12 Planning . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . .. 1 Apollo 11 Descent . . :. . . . . . . I. . . . . . . . . .. . . ~ ~ . . . Experience Summary. . . . . Ascent . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .I / 1 26 26 29 31 32 33 37 38 39 40 42 I REFI~RENCES .. . . . . . . I Descent Orbit Insertion . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .... . . . . . . Powered Descent . . . . Definition of System Performances .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 3 13 16 16 16 I ' * ' * * * I J I I 'I I 20 21 21 25 I I . . 4 . Mission. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . Ascent Planning .. . . . .. . . MISSION-PLANNING EXPERIENCE . APOLLO 12 MISSION . .( . . .. . . . . ! . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. I POSTFLIGHT ANALYSIS ... . . . . System Interfaces . . System Design Specifications . .. . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . .. .. .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 1 . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . .I . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . * . . . . . . REAL-TIMEANALYSIS. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. Premission Apollo 11 LM powered descent .. Lunar module descent Lunar module body axes and LR antenna axes 3 3 3 . ... . .. ... FIGURES 25 25 26 Figure Page 1 2 .. ..ition 2 (used in approach and landing phases)..... .. .. .... . .... . .... . ... . ... ... ...... .. .... . . ! I I 5 5 5 5 6 6 7 8 iv i I 1 .......... ......... . Target sequence f o r abtomatic-descent guidance .. .. 9 12 APOLLO 11 PREMISSION DESCENT AV AND PROPELLANT REQUIREMENTS APOLLO 11 PREMISSION ASCENT A V AND PROPELLANT REQUIREMENTS I11 IV V .. . . ... ... .. .. ......... . .... ........ ..... I ’ . ... . a) b) c) :d) Lunar module body axes Landing r a d a r antenna axes Landing r a d a r position 1 (used in braking phase) Landing r a d a r pos.. ... ... .. ... ........ . . . .. .. ....... . ... APOLLO 11 ASCENT SUMMARY 15 22 (a) Events (c) (b) Insertion conditions . .TABLES Table I I1 Page APOLLO 11 PREMISSION POWERED-DESCENT EVENT SUMMARY ... .. ... ... . .. ..... . .. .. . . .. ... . ... .. . . .... .. .. . .... . . . . .. I Lunar module forward window ... ..... . .. .... Basic LM descent guidance logic . . .. ... . .. .. .. . .. . ....~.. .. . ...... . ..... . ... ... .. . APOLLO 11 LUNAR-DESCENT EVENT TIMES .. ... ..... .. ....... .. ..... . ........... ... . ..... b e r a t i o n a l phases of powered descent . Parameters . . .. . ..... ...... ... .. .. .. .. ..... ...
. . . . . . . .. . ..7 ' I . .... Apollo 11 landing-phase events. ...... . . . . . .L . 27 27 28 Predicted Apollo 12 landing dispersions ... . ... .I . . . I Effect of position e r r o r on velocity comparison . . .. ... * I I Landing phase . . . . .... .. ... .. . . Apollo 11 attitude profile f o r the landing phase . . .. .. .. . . . . ... ... . . . . .. .. I Apollo 11 groundtrack f o r the landing phase . .I. ... .. .. . . . . . ... . . . ... . . ... . . .I * * 11 ' * * 11 13 i 1 14 14 14 ~ 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 . .. . . . ~ .. . . . . .. . . ...... . . V . . . . ... . . .. . . .... . . Apollo 11 approach phase . . . .. . . .... . .. . .~.. .... . . . . . . . .. . . . . ... . . . .I . .. . I Premission Apollo 11 orbit-insertion phase .. .. .../.. . ... . .. . . .... . Guidance thrust command as a function o horizonjal velbcity . . ... * * * ' * " 23 23 24 24 24 24 Apollo 11 landing phase .. . I Altitude as a function of altitude rate during powered descent . . . .I' .. .. . . _ f i I " ! I 8 Premission Apollo 11 time history of thrust and attitude 7 (a) Thrust (b) Attitude 10 .. .. . . ... . .. . ... . . ... . .... j Apollo 11 landing s i t e .. I 11 12 13 Predicted Apollo 11 landing dispersions Premission Apollo 11 LM ascent 14 I Premission Apollo 11 vertical-rise phase . .. ... .... . ... . .. .. ' * * .. ... .. ... . . . Apollo 11 altitude as a function of altitude rate for the landing phase . . ./ ..~........ . .... . .. . .. . . .. . . .. . .. . . ..... . ... . . .. . . .. f i Landing r a d a r altitude updates .. Predicted Apollo 11 asc 1 1 ~ 19 20 20 I I * I .. . .... ... . .I . . ... . . . ...... ... ... . . . .. .. . . .. . . . Landing site update capability during braking phase (a) Throttle margin time 28 (b) Change in characteristic velocity ... .*I. . ... . . .. .. ... . .. .
... Comparison of Apollo 11 and Apollo 12 LPD profiles ... ...... . ....... . ...... Attitude as a functioniof up-range distance f o r the Apollo 12 approach and landing phases 1........ .. . ....... 29 29 (a) Landing point designator angle as a function of surface distance to the landing site (b) Computer reconstruction of commander's view 34 I 1 ....... . 28 The AV requirements for down-range redesignations at a 4000-foot altitude ... ........ . .. .......... .. 1 Apollo 12 window views 30 seconds after high gate (altitude.... 30 30 30 31 35 ......... ....... ...... ..... .. .... .... ..... 4000 feet) 28 28 33 (a) Right-hanh window view taken with onboard 16-millimeter c a m e r a '(camera tilted 4 1' t o the horizon) (b) Lunar module altitude above the landing site as a function of surface distance t o the landing site I Apollo 1 2 approach phase . .. . ....... ...Figure 29 30 31 32 Variation of AV with landing-phase velocities Page . Apollo 12 groundtrack for the landing phase .... .... ..... . ..... vi 7- .. ....
and for the Apollo 1 2 mission. and posffligl y s i s are described for the lunar module descent and ascent phases of the Apoll mission. . is performed to reduce the orbit altitude of the LM from the command and service module (CSM) parking orbit to a lower altitude f o r efficidncy in initiating the longer. 3). more complex powereddescent maneuver. with the exception of the section entitled "Mission-Planning Experience. i rection ons are nning ers. The initial trajectory analy s i s which led to this design was performed by Bennett and Price (ref. i *The material presented in this report. I I INTRODUCTION I I Premission planning f o r Apollo lunar module (LM) descent and ascent started in 1962 with the decision to use the lunar orbit rendezvous (LOR) technique for the Apollo lunar-landing mission (ref. In reference 4. The technique allowed optimization of both the design of L M systems and trajectories for orbital descent to and ascent from the lunar surface. Flight r e s u l t s for both misi shown to be in agreement with premission planning. The LM descent was designed to be accomplished in two powered-flight maneuvers: the descent orbit insertion (DOI) maneuver and the powered-descent maneuver.I ' i f I I APOLLO EXPERIENCE REPORT 1 ! \ SUMMARY I I ~ I I I '! '\ anal1 1 t\ pin- I I \ . " was previously published in NASA TM X-58040. the fir point lunar landing. a navigation c( 1 capability was provided f o r the Apollo 1 2 descent. a short o r i pulse-type transfer maneuver. the first manned lunar landing. a landing-approach transition phase. Based on the Apollo 1 postflight analysis. and a final translation and touchdown phase. > 1 Premission planning. The basic trajectory design f o r the powered descent was divided into three operational phases : an initial fuel-optimum phase. The DO1 maneuver. Cheatham and Bennett provided a detailed description of the LM descent '. report. A summary of mission-p! experience. which illustrates typical problems encountered by ithe mission plai is also included in this. 1)J The LOR concept advanced by Houbolt and others is defined in references 1 and 2. real-time analysis of missidn events.
M. a comparison of the real-time mission events with this plan. A more de tailed description of the guidance. navigation. and landing radar). ' P REMIS S I ION PLANN I NG I with E cause been 1 and pl neuve nent E chara provic -emission planning entails the integration of mission requirements o r objectives tem and crew capabilities and constraints. The purpose of this report is to describe the premission operational planning f o r LM descent and ascent. that is. and the AV and propellant requirements for each maneuver is x. particularly. the operational-design phases. and a brief postflight discussion of the Apollo 12 mission are included in this report. because of the lack of a lunar atmosphere. V. In addition. propulsion. I I I this section. D. .design strategy. however. and control system is given by Sears (ref. The LM ascent was designed as a single powered-flight maneuver to return the crew from the lunar surface. crew. 5). which were in design ning for 7 y e a r s . trajectory. J. a section on mission-planning experience is included to provide insight into typical problems encountered by the mission planners and the solutions that evolved into the final operational plan. W. and J. A discussion of the primary c'riteria which precipitated the plan f o r the Apollo 11 mission. ~ 2 . This description illustrates the complex interactions among s y s t e m s (guidance. As LM systems changed from design concept to hardware. to a satisfactory orbit from which rendezvous with the CSM could be performed. This has -titularly true of the d M descent and ascent maneuvers. and operational constraints. H . Alphin. and control. the trajectory Iristics. Bolt. Payne. J. the ascent planning was more straightforward than the descent planning and. The basic trajectory design for the powered ascent was divided into two operational phases: a vertical-rise phase for surface clearance and a fuel-optimum phase for orbit insertion. it became necess a r y to modify o r reshape the LM descent trajectory. the basic three-phase design philosophy was retained. The integration is time varying be?ither mission r e q u i r e h e n t s nor system performances remain static. l e s s complex than earth-launch planning. who contributed to the generation of the data presented in this report. The author wishes to acknowledge the assistance of the members of the Lunar Landing Section of the Landing Analysis Branch (Mission Planning and Analysis Division). A brief description of the pertitems. a discussion of the postflight analysis of the Apollo 1 mission and its application to the 1 Apollo 12 and subsequent missions. Thus. o r from an aborted descent. the final evolution of the planning f o r the descent and ascent mafor the Apollo 1'1 mission will be described. to describe the bridge from design planning to flightoperation status. the guidance logic. West. and as operational constraints were modified. navigation.
The DOI. Design criteria Initial event Phase A brief description of the systems and the PDI Minimize propellant usage Braking guidance and targeting logic required for High gate Crew visibility Approach Low gate Manual control Landing achieving these operational phases is given in the following sections.. . which is the second de ver.gate conditions (again from aircraft-pilot terminology). powered descent. is designed to provide continued visual assessment of the landing site and to allow pilot takeover from automatic control for the final touchdown on the lunar surface. The first operational phase. which is a short retrograde maneuver of approximately 75 fps. is designed primarily for efficient propellant usage while the orbit velocity is being redpced and the LM is:guided to high-gate conditions for initiation of the second operational phase. which is the first and simplest of the two descent maneuvers. 3).efficientlv (with Hohmann-type transfer) I the orbit "altitude from approximately 60 nautical miles to 50 000 feet in preparation for PDI. which begins a t low. called the approach phase.Operational phases of the operational trajectory documentation. the LM performs the DOI. The purpose of the DO1 is to reduce Figure 11 Lunar module descer . . The t e r m "high gate" is derived f r o m aircraft-pilot terminology and r e f e r s to beginning the approach to an airport.The LM powered-!descent trajectory design w a s established (ref. . After the LM and the CSM have undocked and sepa. A detailed description of each phase is also given in Figure 2.Descent Planning t The LM descent from the CSM parkby ) ing orbit (approximately 62 by 58 nautical miles) is illustrated in figure 1. Performance of continuo S powered descent from altitudes much greater than 50 000 f k e t is inefficient. The approach phase is designed CSM orbit f o r pilot visual (out of the window) monitoring of the approach to the lunar surface. called the braking phase. and : PDI at lower than 50 000 feet is a safety hazard (ref. I I ~ ~ 1 Operational phases of powered descent. 2) to satisfy the operational requirements imposed on such a maneuver. The DO1 isldescribed in the onerational trai ectorv documentation at the NASA Manned Spaceckaft Center and ! 3 d:lscussed furt<er in ihe section entitled "Real-Time Analysis. l 1 Powered-descent i planning is discussed in the remainder of this section. is performed with the LM descent engine and is made at a posit bit 180' f r o m powered desce I (PDI). l) as a three-phase maneuver (fig. The final operational phase o r landing phase. 3 .king rated to a safe distance of several hundred In feet.
and control system (PGNCS). and f o r display of information to the crew. the landing radar (LR). The pertinent systems are the primary guidance. Position 2 (fig. the descent propulsion system (DPS). navigation. f o r sending steering commands (by means of the digital autopilot (DAP)) t o the DPS and the RCS. 3(c)) is used in the braking phase of the descent when the LM is oriented near the horizontal. f o r processing LR measurements of LM range and velocity relative t o the lunar surface. the reaction control system (RCS). as shown in figures 3(c) and 3(d).The success of the LM powered descent depends on the smooth interaction of several systems. A brief description of each system follows. and the landing point designator (LPD). The PGNCS consists of two major subsystems: an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and a computer. which incorporates accelerometers and gyros to sense changes in LM velocity and attitude. tions. and a complete description of the guidance. f o r calculation of guidance commands. . The crew controls the mode of computer operation through a display and keyboard (DSKY) assembly. which contains preprogramed logic f o r navigation. and control logic can be found in reference 7. Position 1 (fig. 3(d)) I 4 I . The IMU is the navigation sensor.System descriptions. A detailed description of each system and its performance characteristics is given in reference 6. A description of the guidance logic is given in a subsequent section. The IMU sends this information to the computer. navigation.
.Lunar module body axes and LR antenna axes. 5 . (d) Landing r a d a r position 2 (used i n approach and landing phases). I B ' 'A I I I zA (c) Landing r a d a r position 1 (used in braking phase). Figure 3.Location of LR ' (b) Landing r a d a r antenna ax I I i / I Bores'ght 5.
j velocity vector A I tsD. the stdred memory. By using spacecraft m a s s M. and inplane position is changed in 0. The window is marked on the inner and outer panes to f o r m an aiming device o r eye position.range position is changed in 2 increments. Guidance logic. Cross. The commander can then sight along the angle on the LPD (zero being along body axis Z ) to view the landing area to which B he is being guided.range (horizontal) components of these state vectors (current and desired)iare used in the jerk equation to determine the time to go (TGO). $ I.The basic L M descent guidance logic i q defined by an acceleration command which is a quadratic functidn of time and is. the time to go from the current to the desired conditions. 5" increments.down-range DZ are obtained from Figure 5. The desired (or target) positidn vector (looking outboardl Figure 4. he can make incremental changes inplane o r c r o s s range by moving the hand controller in the appropriate direction to provide input to t h e computer. If the TGO. the current state vector. I acceleration vector A A is determined from the quadratic guidance law..command equation yields infinite commands when the TGO reaches zero. . termed quadratic guidance. c e between the commanded acceleration and the acceleration of lunar gravity A Newton's law. A detailed description of the guidance logic is given i n references 7 and 8. ) :The down. the computer calculates the look angle (relative to the forward body axis ZB) to the landing site and displays it on the DSKY. 4). therefore.Basic LM descent guidance logic. a commanded thrust vector TC can be found. (Jerk is the time d e r i v a p e of acceieration. then the commanded C I acceleration.! that is.Lunar module forward window. A simplified flow char of quadratic guidance is given in figure 5. calculating the vector G. The current LM position and velocity vect o r s 6 and I? a r e determined from the navigation routine.The final system to be described is a grid on the commander's forward window called the LPD (fig. The A 6 . Throttle DA P acceleiation vector A I component of j e r k D' and . Note that the For this reason. . During the approach and landing phases. and 'the desired state vector are known. . If the commander des i r e s to change the landing area. the targeting is biased such that the desired conditions a r e achieved reaching zero.
I magnitude of TC is used to provide automatic throttling of the DPS. . '( Program 63 contains an ignition algorithm and the basic. When the TGO reaches a preselected value. e . (See the section entitled "System Descriptions. The first program is P63. maximum thrust (FTP) is applied. That is./ ") ~ I . which determines the time for the crew to ignite the DPS for PDI. This r a t e can be adjusted by manual inputs f r o m the crew and is normally entered late in P64 operation (near low gate) prior to P65 switching for manual control of the final touchdown position. the guidance computer provides several sequehial programs (P63 to P67) f o r guidance and control operations. Normally. the basic guidance logic is d to s t e e r the LM to the +sired conditions for the beginning of the approach phase. guidance logic. The ignition logic. preselected surface range to the landing site. When: the tbrottle A I commands exceed the throttle region of the DPS (10 to 60 percent of design thrust). " Program 65. is used for a n automatic vertical descent to the s u r face. the crew control spacecraft attitude. the landing point will be maintained along the LPD grid an the commander's window. entitled "Rate of Descent. 7 . A complete description of the descent guidance logic and guidancelmodes is given in references 7 to 9. A description of each program follows. the guidance program switches automatically f r o m P63 to P64. the guidance program switches automatically from P64 to P65. Program 67 maintains navigation and display operations f o r complete manual control of the throttle and altitude. fs based on a stored. and the computer commands the DPSthrottle to maintain the desired altitude rate.used by the DAP to orient the DPS thrust by either t r i m gimbal attitude commands o r RCS commands to r e o h e n t the entire spacecraft. Duting this time. " Program 164 contains the s a m e basic guidance logic as P63. no position target1 Program 66. the targets are selecded with a bias such that the desired conditions are achieved prior to the TGO reaching zero. No position control is used during this guidance mode. stated previously. if desired. entitled "Manual Figure 6. The sequencing for automatic guidance is illustrated in figure 6.Target sequence for Guidance. In addition. P64 provides window-pointing logic for the LPD operaqon. ~ 0 2 = 4 Range 'Guidance P65 IS velocity nulling only ( 1 . P64. the crew can make manual inputs with the attituae hand controller to change incrementally (down range or cross range) the intended landing site and remain in auto. . this mode is not used unless P66 is inoperative. but a new s e t of targets is selected to provide trajectory shaping throughout the approach and landing phases and to estqblish conditions f o r initiating an automatic vertical descent from a low altitude to landing. be used at crew discretion (manually called up through the DSKY) at any time during the automatic guidance modes (P63.$ After descent-engine ignition. During the powered descent. which nulls all components of velocity to preselected values. which is entitled ('Approach Phase' Guidance. I When the TGO reaches a preselected value. (' and program 67. or P65). which is entitled "Velocity Nulling Guidance. " a r e optional modes which can automatic-descent guidance. entitled "Braking Phase Guidance. The vector direction is. During P66 operation. m a t i c guidance.
Braking phase.6" N and longitude 23. 6 5 Th circled letters correspond to the events listed in table 1 I I I II Figure17. -1 I 8 . Eariy in the descent. 0 @i' -o6 18 sec Begin 4 I I 11.5-second RCS ullage burn to settle the DPS propellants. therefore. a 3-percent low bias. The major events occurring during the braking phase (illustrated in figure 7 and tabulated in table I) are discussed as follows. Ignition is preceded by a 7. during FTP operation. The DPS is ignited at t r i m (10 percent) throttle. in the Sea of Tranquility is centered at latitude 0. _ . The intended landing area. The braking phase is initiated at a preselected range approximately 260 nautical miles from the landing site near the perilune of the descent transfer orbit (altitude of approximately 50 000 feet). uses maximum thrust for most of the phase. which coincides with DPS ignition. This point is PDI. Rotation to a windows-up attitude is performe I at an altitude of approximately 45 000 feet. Altitude updating is expected to begin a t ' a n altitude of approximately 39 000 feet. The Apollo 11 crew oriented in a windows-down pttitude f o r visual ground tracking as a gross navigation check. orientation about the thrust axis is by pilot discretion. the DPS is throttleable only between 10 and 60 percent. The braking phase is designed for efficient reduction of orbit velocity (approximately 5560 fps) and. mi. the DPS is throttled during the final 2 minutes of this phase f o r guidance cont r o l of dispersions in thrust and trajectory..Premission Apollo 11 LM powered descent.5" E.54 8 : I 28" 7 I East lunar longitude Altitude 12-n. 8(a)). . however. . As stated earlier. and consequently the command thrust. is a decreasing function. the DPS is throttled as commanded (illustrated by the time history of commanded and actual thrust shpwn in fig. When the command decreases to 57 percent. The thrust attitude (pitch) profile is shown in figure 8(b). designated Apollo site 2.A scale drawing of the LM powered descent for the Apollo 11 mission is given in figure 7. so that the LR can acquire the lunar surfac 3 to update the guidance computer estimates of altitude and velocity. the guidance is targeted such that the commanded quadratic acceleration. This throttle setting is held f o r 26 seconds to allow the DPS engine gimbal to be alined (or trimmed) through the spacecraft center of gravity before throttling up t o the maximum o r fixed throttle position. velocity updating is exp cted to begin at approximately 22 000 feet. therefore.
50 I . (b) Attitude.89 -106 1 -127 I -145 -16 I 4399 ~ 7 515 512 12 I 5375 6176 6775 -5 I "Time from ignition of the DPS. fPS Altitude. min Time from iqnition. Time from ignition. Figure 8. H \ \ 30 dispersion throttle recovery 2 S m > \ e E c o .APOLLO 11 PREMISSION POWERED-DESCENT EVENT SUMMI TFI. 'Ti 0 4 1' I I ----Commanded r\. . ft 0: 00 0: 26 5560 5529 4000 3065 1456 1315 . Event Ullage Powered descent initiation Throttle to maximum thrust Rotate to windows-up position LR altitude update Throttle recovery LR velocity update High gate Low gate Touchdown (probe contact) min: s e c (a) -0:07 Inertial velocity. . min (a) Thrust. fPS Altitude rate. I .TABLE I. M lo3 I 16 -Actual e + r . -'\. bHorizontal velocity relative to the lunar surface.506 b55(68) b-15(0) -4 -3 48 814 48 725 44 934 39 201 24 639 22 644 0 31 1572 2536 42 39 2: 56 4: 18 6: 24 6: 42 8: 26 10: 06 11: 54 . . 9 .Premission Apollo 11 time history of thrust and attitude.
00 9. The guidance computer automatically switches programs and targets from P63 to P64 to begin the approach phase. . the range decreases f r o m approximately 4. the LR antenna is changed from Range. in addition to the guidance-program 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 x IO3 switch. This angle allows the crew visual line of Figure 9. and LR beam geometry a r e also shownlin figure 9. I I x I . and ad attitude of approximately 16" from the vertical at a 500-foot altitude. and the time of flight is approximately 1 minute 40 seconds. the altitude decreases f r o m 7000 to 500 feet.' Probes that extend 5. The approach.The braking phase is terminaeed wheii the guidance-calculated TGO to achieve targets is reduced to 60 seconds. min sec approximately 16" relative to the surface. ") The trajectory11 54 10. n. yield trajectory conditions of. During the approach phase. LPD angle. banding phase. ft I I I I I J position 1 to position 2 f o r operation near 0 1 2 3 4 4 5 the lunar surface. a range of approximately 4. sight tp the landing area to be above the sun angle (10. mi. I l l I I I 1 "System Descriptions.6 feet below the LM landing pads.atisfactory by the crew for takeover of manual control. . (See reference 10. 60 fps of forward velocity. along with the selected acceleration and jerk targets. the approach phase is considered t o be terminated at a n altitude of 500 feet (low gate).Approach phase. at a TGO of 10 seconds. Although no guidance changes o r othkr transients are1 made.5 nautical miles to 2000 feet. Termination occurs at an altitude of approximately 7000 feet. 16 fps of vertical descent rate.6" maximum) even in dispersed (up to 30) situations. (See the section entitled Range. ) The L M attitude. ShoulL the crew continue on automatic guidance. as explained in the previous section.and landing-phase targets (P64) yield conditions for initiating the automatic vertical descent from an altitude of approximately 150 feet at a 3-fps altitude /rate. and a time from ignition (TFI) of 8 minutes 26 seconds. 9) provides visual monitoring of the approach to the lunar surface. Approach phase. No change occurs in guidance law o r targets at this point (low gate) because the approach-phase (argets have been selected to satisfy the additional constrainFs. The angle above the sun line is desirable because surface features tend to be washed out when looking along o r below the sun line. That is.The landing phase is designed to provide continued visual assessment bf the landing site and tp provide compatibility for pilot takeover from the automaticlcontrol. These conditions.9" nominal to 13. the guidance (P64) is targeted to provide spacecraft attitudes and flight time adequate t o permit crew visibility of the landing area through the forward window throughout the approach phase.40 9 20 9 00 8 40 8 20 approach angle (glide angle) is shown to be TFI. These condieons were considered s. operationally.5 nautical miles from the landing site.The approach LR antenna phase (fig. . P65 (the i veloc'ky -nulling guidance) is automatically called to maintain the velocities for vertical desce t to the lunar surface. at which point the landing phase begins. At high gate.
and dispersions.. activate a light which signals the crew to shut down the DPS manually. The landingphase trajectory is shown under automatic guidance in figure 10.2 Range.The AV and propellant requirements a r e determined by the nominal trajectory design. 3 nautical miles c r o s s range. - Figure 1. 85 fps is added to a s s u r e 2 minutes of flying time in the landing phase. rnin:sec Figure 10. n.Predicted Apollo 11 landing dispersions. The low-level light signifies approaching propellant depletion.1. Also. The light sensor provides more accuracy and i \ 11 \ . If the low-level light should fail. In addition. Premission estimates of dispersions in landing position a r e shown in figure 11. a 60-fps AV is added for LPD operation in the approach phase to avoid large c r a t e r s (1000 to 2000 feet in diameter) in the landing a r e a . m i . Cross range.upon making surface contact. Forward window view loo0 800 e . I . The required 6827-fps AV is e s tablished by the automatically guided nominal.3 I . Consequently. These dispersions. whether automatic o r manual guidance is being used.1 1200 Range. n. . the crew uses the propellant gage reading of 2 percent r e maining as the abort decision indicator.4 1o:oo 11:54 11:OO 10:40 1o:zo TFI. that is.6 nautical miles inplane by & 1 . Based on this analysis. mi. which are based on a Monte Carlo analysis. . contingency requirements. ft I lboo I 2000 2400 I 0 I 1 I . a bias is used to protect against dispersions in the indicator. DPS operation is satisfactory. The valve failure causes a shift in the propellant mixture ratio and a lower thrust by approximately 160 pounds. but otherwise. The automatic guidance required only 104 seconds of flying time for the landing phase. below an altitude of 500 feet. . include all known system performances as defined in reference 6. Contingency propellant allotments a r e provided for failure of a DPS redundant propellant flow valve and for bias on propellant low-level-light operation. The AV and propellant requirements.Landing phase. therefore. these requirements have undergone continual change. the 99-percent-probability landing ellipse was determined t o be f 3. 7 600 5 'B I 400 200 0 I 4w I 800 . The final operation requirements a r e given in table 11.
01. .7 Disp rsions (-30) Pad Cont ngencie s I I -64.3 pounds of oxidizer. 4 pounds to minimize malfunction penalty.7 681.0 548.7 681.1 17 934. I Mar -in 1 3 I -- 7051.5 18 185.9 292.7 68. The allowance for dispersions is determined from the Monte Carlo analysis mentioned previously.6 17 934.0 973. This procedure allows the crew to start arresting the altitude rate with the DPS prior to an abort stage to prevent surface impact.2 pounds of fuel land 11 209.6 . I I l a 18 260. Fuel offload of 75.9 144. 250. Nom ial required for 1 AV (6827fps) I 16 960. I . This margin can be converted to an additional hover o r translation time of 32 seconds. 4 301.5 -. The ground flight controllers call out time from low-level light ''on'' to inform the crew of impending propellant depletion for a land-or-abort decision point at least 20 seconds before depletion.4 Unus tble Avai Lble for AV .is therefore preferred over the gage reading. lb -75.4 3. lb Propellant remaining.0 E gine-valve malfunctionl 1 I ~ 617.4 R dline low-level sensor I I ~ R designation (60 fps) M nual hover (85 fps) I I . TABLE 11. 7 102.APOLLO 11 PREMISSION DESCENT AV AND PROPELLANT REQUIREMENTS Item Propellant required. As can be seen in table II. 3 445. the AV and propellant requirements are satisfied by a positive margin of 301 pounds.
by 45-nautical-mile orbit. which have already been described. is not throttleTble and does not have 2 gimbal drive. This delay means that the vertical-rise phase is terminated 10 seconde after lift-off. The orbit-insertion phase is designed for efficient propellant usage to achieve orbit conditions for subsequent rendezvous. not the choice of targeting f o r rendezvous. The time of liftoff is chosen to provide the proper phasing for rendezvous. insertion into a 9. namely. nsertion orbit parameters. should also be mentioi !d The AGS is a redundant guidance system to be used for guidance. The trajectory f o r propellant optimization takes off along the lunar surface. unlike the DPS. and tpproxiat only 1 during A fourth system. I I t- In trim hout n. velocit orbit plane are required for targeting. . 14 The onboard-display values reflect the computer-estimated values. The ascent has a single objective. because of DAP steering lags. the LM body Z . The vertical-rise phase is required to achieve t e r rain clearance. A description of trajectory parameters and LM attitude during the verticalr i s e phase and during the transition to the orbit-insertion phase is shown in figure 1 3 . The guidance switches to the orbit-insertion phase when the radial rate becomes 40 fps. navigation.Prernission Apollc 11 LMascent.The powered ascent is divided into two operational phases: vertical r i s e and orbit insertion. is the subject of this section. during the vertical r i s e . The APS. A detailed description of the AGS is given in references 11 and 12. The orbit-insertion phase. and onboard displays at insertion are shown in figure.Ascent Planning A sketch of the LM a s c e lunar surface is given in figure 12. A description of the powered ascent. If required. that is. Operational phases. /and tly ascent propuls system (APS). Engine throttling is not required durfng ascent. . but provides a constant thrust of approximately 3500 pounds throu the ascent (ref. the abort guidance system (AGS). Also. ar cont r o l for ascent o r a b o r t s i n the eve& of a failure of the PGNCS! . at a t r u e anomaly of 18' and an altitude of 60 000 feet. System descriptions. which is normally in the CSM orbit plane. orbit) Figure 12. The ascent DAP logic is such body positive X-axis (along the thrust direction) jets a r e fired f o r attitude contr I ascent. Nominally. yaw steering is u s ring the orbit-insertion phase to maneuver the LM into the CSM orbit plane o r into a plane parallel with the CSM orbit. However. ' This thrust can bb enhahced slightly (by imately 100 pounds) by the RCS attitude control. The AGS has its own computer and uses body-mounted s e n s o r s instead of the inertial s e n s o r s as used in the PGNCS. only/ altitude. the total ascent-phase performance. is desired. \ \ Sun \ t I. . t o achieve a satisfactory orbit from which rendezvous with the orbiting CSM can subsequently be performed. 6). In the 13 . because do range position control is not a target requirement. the pitchover does not begin until a radial rate of approximately 50 fps is achieved. -'Only three pertinent systems a r e required f o r asce the PGNCS and RCS.a x i s is rotated to the desired azimuth.
Orbit-insertion phase Ascent burnout coast to 45-11.240 8 I 10 160 Guldance switch . and vertic I-rise-phase ter'mination occurs when the altitude rate is greater than o r equal to 40 ISupward. . the difference between th 14 .E" b- 10 Figure 14.inser tion phase. Y = 0.o z L Insertion orbit parameters Height at perilune.nominal case. F o r tl ? vertical-rise phase. . b. mi.Premission Apollo 11 orbit. o r when the altitude is greater than 25 000 feet (used for aborts from descei t. n.. termed linear guidance. . 03+ Fif Ire 13.- 80 0 -160 I = a 30- I I I 0 20 40 60 80 loo 120 mi. The ascent guidance logic is discussed in the following section. the logic is simp11 The initial attitude is held for 2 seconds in order to clear the LM descent stage. 15. -80 Down-range powtion. - - Onboard displays at insertion V = 5535. Range. i 'he insertion-phase guidance logic is defined by an acceleration command which is a li ear function of time . .4 ft . The TGO is t e r m i ed as a function of velocity to be gained.and is. Schmidt 7 ---J 200 . 140 160 180 hidance logic. ascent dispersions. . the attitude is pikhed to the vertical while rotating to the desired azimuth.Predicted Apollo 11 guidar :e logic commands onlv attitude..Premission Apollo 11 vertical-rise bhase. ..iThe ascentFigure. The trajectory dispersions are plotted in figure 15. ft 10 $40. e no engine throttling l's required. = 180 Flight path angle. no yaw steering is required. therefore. .160 m x lo3 60- Insertion - 6 4 -80 O2 c c 50Terrain estimates .6 fps ti h - li 32. ha 45 n.560 14 Total ascent: Burn time = 7 min 18 sec AV required = 6060 fps propellant required 4934 Ib - -480 2 -. becau. h _ 55 OOO 11 P " Height at apolune.2 fps 60 085. The nominal ascent burn time is 7 minutes 18 seconds with a 3a dispersion of ? 17 seconds. mi. that i s . apolune -720 1( -640 End vertical rise ~ . 1 2 -400 r Q al = -320 True anomaly.f .
4 200. Propellant remaining.8 115.0 134. 1 I I TABLE ILI. 3 1 1 5244. 15 . bF'uel offload of 20.7 56. I I I .7 pounds to minimize malfunction penalty.I I -- ' I vated to cut off the APS at the desired time. . 7 fps) V Dispersions (-30) Pad Contingencies Engine-valve malfunction -4966.2 91. A(AV)= . 9 lb.0 pounds of fuel and 3 2 1 8 .7 66.1 4 .APOLLO 11 PREMISSION ASCENT AV AND 1 ' PROPELLANT REQUIREMENTS Item 1 Propellant required.8 23.4 5223.4 48.2 '2028. lb lb I System capacitya Offloadedb I I I -20.7 5167.0 _18.2 PGNCS to A M switchover (40 fps) Abort from touchdown (AW = + 1 1 2 . 3 fps) Maran - I I -- I I 48.4 5167. 4 pounds of oxidizer.7 Unusable Available for A V Nominal required for A ( 6 0 5 5 .7 134.
Therefore. In addition. F o r Apqllo 11. The allowance for dispersions is determined from the Monte Carlo analysis. Thus. however. Also. Pertinent aspects of guidar e. a 54-fps AV is provided f o r two contingencies. Some weight is nominally off-loaded on the lunar surface. The DO1 maneuver is essentially a retrograde burn to reduce orbit altitude from approximately 60 nautical miles to 50 000 feet f o r the PDI and requires a velocity reduction of 75 fps. . 1 1 I 16 . an immediate rendezvous with the CSM is performed with tl AGS. As can be-seen in table 11. REAL-T IME ANALY S IS During the real-time situation. which is a switchover from PGNCS to AGS f o r inserting from an off-nominal trajectory caused by a malfunctioning PGNCS. The realtime situation for the Apollo 11 descent and ascent is described in the following section. A 14-fps AV is provided for the second contingency. An overburn of 12 fps (or 3 seconds) would cause the LM to be on an impacting trajectory prior PDI. Descent Orbit Insertion The DO1 maneuver is performed on the farside of the moon at a position in the orbit 180" prior to the PDI and is. this maneuver was nominal.4 fps. as in the descent requirements. executed and monitored solely by the f crew. Obviously.with the rendezvous r a d a r (RR) immediately after the burn. time-critical failures and near-surface operations must 1 monitored on board by the crew for immediate action. O major concern during the burn is the performance of the PGNCS and the DPS. propulsion. Down-range residuals after the bu 1 were 0. This reduction is accomplished by throttling the DPS to 10-percent thrust for 15 seconds (center-of-gravity trimming) and to 40-percent thrust for 13 seconds. as established by mission techniques p r i o r to flight. The real-time monitoring determines whether the mission is to be continued o r aborted. I Powered Descent he powered descent is a complex maneuver which is demanding on both crew and syster performances. monitoring of the spacecraft systems and of the trajectory is performed continually both on board by the crew and on the ground by the flight controllers. the AV and propellant requirements are satisfied with a positive margin of 48 pounds. as much monitoring as possible is performed on the grounc to reduce crew activities and to use sophisticated computing techniques not possible board. euver is unsatisfactory. 19 pounds of propellant is allotted f o r contingency enginevalve malfunction. therefore. A 40-fps A V is provided f o r the first contingency. and real-time monitoring of flight dynamics during the powered desce are given as follows.by 45-nauticalmile orbit. If the m.required 6056-fps AV is established by the nominal insertion into a 9. in which the thrust-to-weight ratio is r e duced in an abort from a touchdown situation wherein the LM ascent stage is heavier than the nominal ascent-stage lift-off weight. the DO1 is monitored by the crew with the AGS during the burn and by r a r ?-rate tracking .
because of an improperly defined interface. and flight-control monitoring indicated that 17 . A at RE. but rather an initialization e r r o r in down position. t 35 fps) t indirange :ion )cesser. These inputs were f r o m uncoupled RCS attitude maneuvers and cooling system venting not accounted f o r in the prediction of the navigated state at PDI.ree voting comparison logic is used to de NCS o r the AGS is le grading. The magnitude of the velocity difference indicates that the Apollo 11 LM down-range position was in e r r o r by approximately 3 nautical miles at PDI and throughout the powered descent to landing.nal. ThL A i. the Apollo 1 PGNCS and AGS performance kas close to non however. The reason f o r the down-range navigat attributed t o s e v e r a l s m a l l the spacecraft state in coasting flight. a continuous signal was issued to the LGC from the RR through coupling data units. r a d a r data processing. 1 The PGNCS pos RE and velocity ?E estimates a r e used to initiate the MSFN dowered-flight pr 2 . 'I During real time. a The LM guidance computer (LGC) l s o monitors the speed at which it is performing computation tasks: navigation. a two-out-of-t .The PGNCS monitoring. This alarm system is termed "computer restart protection. bi having been initialized by the PGNCS state. That is. guidance.Effect of position e r r o r on velocity comparison. This effect is illustrated geometrically in figure 16. the ground flight controllers continually comp the LM velocity components . and auxiliary tasks. the MSFN applies )A flight-path-angle e r r o r A is introduced . As a result. and priorities are established so that the more important tasks a r e accomplished first. Y I by a down-range position e r r o r and shows up as a radial velocity difference AVDIFF. based on the ability to abort on the PGNCS to a safe (30 OOOlfoot pc :ilune) orbit. .actuad position RA. a large velocity difference in the radial direction of 18 fps (limit line was detected at PDI and remained constant well into the burn. . Limit o r redlines for' veloc he PGNCS and the M IFN computations and between the PGNCS and the AGS c ns/ a r e established tefore the mission. an alarm is issued to inform the crew and the flight controllers. iThis e r r o r did n cate a systems performance problem.cornpi ted by the PGNCS with those computed by the AGS and with those determined on the grc ind through Manned Space Flight Network (MSFN) tracking. a Center of moon Figure 16. The alarm was quickly interpreted. If the computer becomes overloaded o r falls behind in accomplishing these tasks. I 1 1 In r e a l time.To determi degraded performance of the PGNl S. the a l a r m was displayed and computation priorities were executed by the computer. These signals caused the LGC to count pulses continually in an attempt to slew the RR until a computation time interval w a s exceeded. displays. -9 A 2 The MSFN directly s e n s e s the actual velocity VA at the .
if altitude updating had not been . e. a i rule f o r real-time oqeration was established that called for aborting the de: a PGNCS-estimated altitude of 10 000 feet. In fact. the difference between PGNCS and LR determinations Ah). fps sion r e was established that. no DPS and PGNC interface problems were encountered. This 2 0 0 . approximately 2 minutes (horizontal velocity being 1400 fps) before high gate (horizontal velocity being 500 fps). ( e from which an abort! cannot be satisfact ily performed. nearly iominal (fig.. the guidanceisolutionf o r the GTC can diverge (fig. the GTC decreases almost parabolically f r o m a n initi 160 percent of design thrust to the throttleable level of 57 percent.Guidance -thrust command the Ag 110 11 landing. A misHorizontal velocity. This later throttledown results in inc propellant efficiency (i. During Figure 17. . .. the targets will not be satisfied. Nominally. system and navigation e r r o r s are such that the cannot be safely completed.bed. the GTC drops to 57 percent later at a lower velocity to guide to the desired position and velocity. . as s h u r e 17. T\ . Therefore. Thus. However. . This early throttledown results in propellant inefficiency. thus. horizontal velocity is being reduced more rapidly than desired to reach high-gate conditions. the LR update of the PGNCS altitude e is expected toioccuriby crew input at a n altitude of 39 000 +_ 5000 feet (3a dis). called for an abort wed on the GTC'divergence. thus. diver@ i c e can result in an unsafe traiecleoL '\. the guidance calls for more and more thrust in order to achieve its targets.guidance and navigation functions were being performed properly. the descent was continued. for extremely low thrust.flight controllers monitor a plot of guidance thrust command (GTC) as a function of horizontal velocity. the 18 I I - . In spite of the initial position e r r o r and the RR inputs. If the L M is actually higher than the PGNCS estimate. 17).To determine in real time if the DPS is providing sufficient thrust to achieve the guidance targets. I PD I tory. h Howev r. longer operation a t maximum thrust). the PGNCS performed excellently during the Apollo 11 powered descent. 17). as TGO becomes small.3 0 disprsions even v c propellant valve ma. Without LR altitude updating. the GTC drops to 57 percent e a r l i e r with a higher-than-nominal velocity to guide to the desired position and velocity targets.Normally. if tledown occurs prior to high gate (program switch from P63 to P64). If the DPS produces off-nominal high thrust. horizontal velocity is not being reduced f rapidly enough. the DPS thrust was as a function of horizontal velocity. I the DPS produces off-nominal low thrust. the flight controllers monitor the 9350 GTC t a s s u r e satisf acdory interface be tween PS and PGNCS operation. the.Hunction. and the resulting trajectory may not be satisfactory from the standpoint of visibility. it is unsafe to t r y to achieve high gate he crew can visually assess the approach without altitude updating. \ 1 il estim persic desce where missi scent he LR and PGNCS int4rface. i i I establ conce altituc addition to the concern for the time that initial altitude updating occurs is the f o r the amount of altitude updating (i. The 2. Therefore.e. In fact.minute bias c for thi ttle recovery before high gate provides tfficient m a r g i n f o r 3a low thrust ----. The DPS and PGNCS interface.
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