JAPANESE GRAMMAR

'viii

PlliemiC,e

How'to Use 'This Book

The Ba,s,ies

1 ~ PROINIUNICIAT~IOIN GUIIIDE

1 co 1 What Ar,a Vaw'le~s and Consonants?

11 .,2 Vowell So

1 ~3 Consonants

2,~ TIHIE JAPANESE WRrTllNIG SVS1'EM

2,.1 ID irection and Characters

2,.2 [Kanji

1 11 11 4- 8 6 6

2,.3 H~ilragan.a, and Katakana, 7

2,.4 ROlmaji 101

3,~ 'WIORD, OIR:C'E,R 1 '1

:3".1 What I S a ,Sentence? 1 '1

3!,.2 'The Elngl lsh Sentence 111

:3.3 The J,apanese S'e:nb?!nce 114 3.,3='1 SubJec~=Ob~ect~'Verb ,Senm:enoes 14

3~,3=,2 Subject and Predi(~:at,e 1.5

3~,3-3 incomplete Sentences '19

Parts of S,peech

4", NOIUNIS

iii -1'

"'Hi' .,

All 2--

~'!II: .. ',

4k4 4~5

4 6'

, :-.

;1i!I"::::_:'

What Are Nouns? G,ender

A_rt,ieles

iN Ulmlb,er

Names

Tltles

Po i iteness

21 ,211 ,22 22 23 24 24 2S

1I11~

In

i v Contents,

4.8 Compound Nouns

4,,9 Noun Suffix,9S,

5F. PR,ONOIUN;S

5,,1 5,.2

Whaili Are Pronouns? Personal Pronouns 5.2,-1 Snec:iia!~ IUsag'e

I~ . .

5,.2, 2 Case

II rrterroq ativ€ Pron DUns.

il ndef n lte Pro nouns IDemonst ratlvs Pronouns IRellatiV'€' Pronouns

S,,3

5 ,oil:

I,.~

,5,,5 S,,6

Si7 IRe'fllexilv,e Pronouns

6~ PARTI'ClES

'0.1

6.:") I iL

'S·" 3":'

, . .

,,"", s -

What Are Particles?

2'(5 2'7 29 29 2'9 30 33,

35. 36 36 37 38 40 40

Pa rtlc les U's,edl W Ft h 'Wo rei s or Phrases. 40 Partii,cles UISiSd w~th Clauses

16.4 Pa:rti~Gles U's'e,d w'ith Sentences

7 .. 'VERBS

7.11 Wh at An:~~, Verbs'?'

7.2 Agreem,ent

'7.3 Verb Conjiug,at~ions,

7.3-1 The Consonant Conjiugation 7.3--=2' The, 'VO'we~; Conj uqatl on

7.4 The ~nfin~t~ve

'7,.5 Plain and Polite Forms

'7'.6 The j:~To IB,e~;J Ve,rbs

7.7 The lndlcatlve Mood 7 i 1'~ 1 Present' Tense '7.7-2' Past Tense '7.7-3 The Gerund

68

7'4 78 78

7'8'·

'. ~ ,

7'9 80 83 84 85 87 '913 '913 'BS

102

7 .. 1-4 Present PlFOIQ resslve 7.,'7 =.5, Past Pro'gress ive

7,.8 The Pr,ssumptlive Mood

7,.9 'The lrnperatlve Mood

7,.101 The Ccnditional Mood 7 .. 11 'The Potential Mood

7 ~ 12 The! Passive Va lee

r. 13 Th€, Causative

7" 14 The, C,ausative Passive

7" 1 S The, GiV'ir~ g and Race ivingl Ver\bs 1.,16 The Honorific and Humble Forms '1" 11' C I auses

1 ~ 18 Oo m1mC.H11 Ex p resslons wiith 'Verbs and Adje,ctivI9S,

7., 19 INo'ml~nal~zation

7.,,20 Verb Charts

IB'II ,A,OJ ECTlVIEiS,

18~'1 What Are Adjec:u,ivels,?

,8.,:2 Ve rbal Adject~ves. a~,2~'1 INoun Mo,difilern, et2=2 'Ve:rbal~ Forms

8 .. 2-a ,Adverb'iia.11 FOflms

Adject ivai INou ns 8,,.,3,....1 INoun M odifiers

S' '3' 2'1 Predicate IE'O' 'r'mt:}

. _',II!! .. ~ ~ r' .. J:. . '·~Q.lu .. ;. u-.',. '. .:li

8,~3-3 Adverb iial~ Form s

11[]l3, 101 10'9 11:.5 111,a,

123 '125 '12\·8::·

" f. '.

'129 '130 1316 '139

C .

ompansons

'145 11,49

150 1162

162 162 163 164 168 17'0 111 1172 174 1'1'6 180 ",84

184

iCl' 3'

10.1•

8.5 N om~naJliilzat~:on

9.. "AIDV'ERB,S

9.,1 What Are Adverbs?

9.,2 Adverbs of p'~a,ce, 1 8S

9.3 Adverbs of Time 1816

9.,4 Adverbs (If Manner and D'sgr,ee 187'

,Spec:ia.11 Toplcs

1 n. 'NUMIB'ERS

'10.,1 Cardinal Numbers

'10.,,2 Ordinal Numbers

11 ~ TELll,NG 'T'liME

12~ C,LAS,SIFIERS

1:3.. DAYS, MO'NTHIS,,-I SIEA,SOiNS!, 'THE, WEATHE,R

'1,3 m 1 Days of the 'Wee,k

'13~,2 Months of the Year

13,.3 Days of the IMonth

13~4 Count~ng Days

13",5 Seasons

13".6 Th'e W:eather

14,~ FA.M I lV' RELATIO'N,S,H~P',S,

15,", US,EF'UL W10RDS AND PHRAS,ES

115".1 IGlree~:ings

11 S.2 Common Expressions

191 19'1 193,

194 19,,8

201 ,2'01 202: 2103 21[)13

204 205 206,

2018 ,20S 209

Some Questions and QUiest.~on Words

l' S".4 Your Personal Cond itlion

11 S~5 Introductions

110 .. , BOR'RO'WED WOR.DS 1 7,", SVN,QiNV,MS

210- 2'1'1 2'11 21,3

2'117 220 222

1; 8~, AN'TOIN'YMS

19,", SHOR,T VOWIEl, LONG VOWElL..

~,

,20'~ DOUIBlLlE CONSONANTS

,21 ~ ,SAME IP'RONUNC,IIATIIOINI~ DIFFERE:NT

MEA~NIN'G 2216·

2:2~ P'~TCHi ,A,C:CEN-T:: DIIFf-EREINT PIT'eM,

D'IIF'P,EIREINT MEANIING 228,

,Jap\8 nese~Eng I isih V,oca bliloiry nde,x

,!iI'Ia-'o'"

iI!:..' .. :-: .. '_,

Th lis book il S on e of a rn,sw seri es of hand y g rsmrnar re,f'8ref~,(:>e, gu ~d as dies i 9 ned for sf udents, b uslnessp eople, and others who w'ant to imp rove thel r knowl edg e of J apanese Q ram mar. lilt enables you to rs,fJect on what you already know, to re~inforce you r ski 111.511 and to f I ~ iln the ga ps,

Whether you are j List beg~ n n Ing your s,tudy of' Japanese or hl8,ve so me basic Jiapa_nese and want 'to refresh yo ur me mory, this boo k is for 'yo LI. P ravia us knowi e,dge has not bsen ta k'9'n far granted; de'f:~nitions an d explan atlons are :$,i mplie' an d conelse, and exam ples use an d reu 58' a Gore of basic vocsb uti ary.

The b ook is divided il nto th ree sectlo ns: The Basi cs j Parts. of Speech" and Spe'c'iJal Topics,

• I n the Bastes section yo u wi II 'find! a nontech n I cal and easyto-'foillow discussion of Japanese sounds. speil~ng COlt'llV8n~ tlon S I and WrJ rd-order patterns.

II I n the Parts ot S peach secf on you win 'fi nd th e nouns, P ron DIU ns, partl cl eS'J verbs, ad] ectives and adverbs that make up the Japanese, !angua,gI9.

• ~ rII the Speciel T opics seen on you wi III Ii ~d n U m bern, ex pressions fo r tel11i ng time, usetu I word s and phrases, b arrowed

WO"Ij', ..... IQ, svno nyms, a-nio: 11\'m· a a ndl mo- FP,"

II !U!.;;J, .;!! 2 " - " -;,;J]l" " "- "" J' i;;I! ~ - -- """ .... "

New to Ulli.s 9{:I itlo n is ,9, I ist ca~ ~,edl Japanese-E ~glHs h Vo(;ab u'_

~ aryl where yo U wlI I ~ ~I n d a~ I t hie J apanese wo rds in ttJ1 e book, along with th ei r Engll ish mean i ngl. A~ so 11l'€:.W liS the use of color to hilgh~ ig ht i m portant polnts of' gram m ar or VIQea bul ary; anot n ~ er feature is the use ot tips to hi e'~p 'the, U ril de rstan ding of the, Japanese lang uag,e and c IJ IrtUIr9'.

We wou Idl Ii ke ito th an k 'the fo:llow ling people for the ~r ~nvaluablel he:~p wuth this, project: Masako Nanto1 School of La rig uage Stud les ~ FOIr"e~gn Service ~ nstltute Depa rtrnent of

~

IX

S- t';'!lo,t:e-m Dli'~Fri'Q '-R,ofhtn- Ed."-'I"tO'.r: '!:lnd Dilmirltnt Popow L9noH8,g--,9;S

,~ - Jl - _1I;iII1 ~.... - ...... -- -, - - - ~,g - - -- - - - • J' - - - - ~I -!\;!!, -;;all - - - - - --

lEd ltor 10 a F'F ..... n's IEdpc'" atio In' ~,II C'.Ci rl" ~~ 111f'Ij~

1'-'"' -,y. ~ ~'r~U I LUll til", I .' u",:Q·~·., ~g Q~: ~'~I, r IVI.

And ma.r1Y than ks to 'the teachers andi st Lid ents of

J h h h d "t'lh th' I h I i I

' _', -=1 . ~ . .: '. . - , ~ • - '. .: .", -',:: • . ...".. • • ~. • '. - I' "i' :. ( .' .. I " ", ·'1 . . . ':: . - .. 'j I'

apanese w _ 0 __ ,8!ve s are _ W I, us, I, e~lr we cia m,e ~ e p ILl ~

and sup'portive co mments about the flrst editia~ of this book"

lNobUQ Akiiyama Caroll Ak:i'yam,a,

H U'

.

ow o use

This Book

In t h.IB chapters that to How! anum erlcal decirn 81 system has been used with the sym bol § in front: nf if I . Th lis was don e so that. y'CHJ may fi nd q u ic.lkly and easHy th e reterence to a partl cu _, lar point ~n basic Japa FN3S9 gram1mar wll en yo u use the index .. For sxamp le, 'if yo u 100 k u P the ent ry !~ partlc Iles,'J i n the, ii nd ex! yo La wi ~~ fiind the ref'srence g'ilven as §6" Som stimes additi ona,~ § retsrence n umbers, are given 'when the ent ry yo u 'ClC' nsu ~t:ed

is. me ntlo ned in ot her areas lilrli the en apter §"

x

The Basics

§1

- !!!I'

§1 ,,1 'WH,AT ARE VOWEL,S AN,D CONSONANT'S?

.. ''VowelS' are prod uceo bY' ,ajir passl ng out th r,ough the, mouth wltho [JI be~~ng b:h)cked ~ The i,eU:ers 'tha,t represent ttl ese

sound s' "'lit":.t2i, ~ ~, I oi"i, IU

'WI .. ". ". UI ~ ~ ~I ~, ,u ~ . II

• ,Ganso.n'ants j on the oth er hand j are produced by blockaqe '~part'ia.~ or eOlmp~;~te) of the air" The remal n i rl'QI aJ phebst le1t'= ters are LU sed tn rserssent c.' .0·" ,n~t''''na' nt :~'O"" U nd ~. b o!"'" d ~t,,,\

__ . o;;!l _ _ . __ . _ 'U _'1;# 1'11""'"- yo;;!! .. ~ ~o;!!v .. ~ .. 1 I ~. ., """', ,~'L""'.

Japanese' i sn ~t d irfficlUlit to pronounce if yo LJ follow a fe,w :si mp lie, '9 u i del ~nes. Tak,9 the Urns to read 'M, is section, and try out eaeh so un d presented,

§1 .. 2 VO'WEL,S

Th e to ~kllwin g vowels are short. am d p UJ re, with no gJjde=~hat: ls, they are, not d ~lPh~hongls,.

1

:2 The [Basics

J'APAlNEse:

VO'W I! Ill..

, ENIGL_~SH!

-~- Q'UIVA'LENT'

EXAM'PLE

a~·a'i (Bh-ka~l-ee) red

e

as lin men

e.bi (eh'~e~') shri:mp

I

,

i'mi (e~=me~) mean1ng

o

.as in boat

oto1ko (on-toft -Ko,I1)1 :male,

u

as in food

uma (on-man) horse

JAPANESE. ENGILlSH EXAMPLE
VOWEL E,QUIVAJlENT
,
,iI as· In ~,~"Jiet, but bati I~ah=taah)
le'nQlti~ened butter
el burt ,~ (€h~goh)
as ~n men, lBlgO
_ _ r_
length~ned IEngllish
Ii as in see, but ilharu
IlengtWH~ned (e~~ha'h-roo)
L__ ijnsist
I
,6 as u boat, but ooama
~n
I' h~'ngth~ned (6h-S'B'fl-m't~lh')
'~.(
, ,;'Ing
= as, !j'n 'foddl~ but yulbin (yOo-tN3Isn)
u
lilength,aned mail Mal;;."ilo"'A-n-~' 1P~!IlV ~

A macron, 'Or bar, above a 'Vol'wel means it shin utd be Ilefllgthenlsd.

Ex,um p Ire!

b utter I ba ta I ,ba.hl=lah'

I n tne above word, the macron above the second vowel means you should hold 'the' :801LU1d twjies' as. I,ongl as you. norm ~dlly WOILI ld,

And keep lin mind '~hese points:

• long V'owe!s are li'miportaf1l~. Pronouncl ngl a long vOiwel incor-' meny can res,ul~ ina. d ifii,sren1t word or even an uni nme:M ig ibl!e one ..

For e'xamlple! obasa n I~oh-bah-sahn) means aunt

obasan (Dh-bah-sahn) means 9 randlm,Dther

oj lsen (oli'-j;ee-'sahn) means uncle,

ojiisan (oh-J@~sa'hn') means glr,andffather'

sekl (sefl-kee)1 m eans SENBlt

seiki '[ssh=kee') means, !oenrwry

(IF or m ore exarnpl es, ,S€€: §,1 ~9,")

.' Somet~imes the i and the 111.1 sren't pronounced, This uSLl[~lly occurs between voioeless C(U1S0fU:U1ltS (p! t k~ c,n I f'j Ih j s, Sh)11 or at th e end of IB word mol ~owlingl 18. voioetess

00 nson ant

IEx8!mlp~es; s.uKi1tald

(skes= i;;ah=kee~

, ~ , ,~

Th is wonjl 'f'or a po P UJ law Japan ese d ish beg i ns w~th 8kfee,~ not 9100" The IU is not p renounced ~

'tabem ashlta {tah-beh~·mahsh~ta'h)1 I ale The i is not prone unced,

Wlitth a. fe'w exceptlons, Japanese consonants are srnmiil,ar to those of Eng Ush.. NOlte those 'that. are d ~ffere nt:

1 ll1e EngU~h f is, IP~o:n[ou"oed with a [passagel of ai r between the tulP per teeth and t.11 e lower ~~'p~ To mak~' the Ja~anes,e 'Ii b~IJW ,dr' lighf}li~ betw,een yQur lUI'S, as if you wem just beginning a 'W1hh;.Ue~

Always; 8$ in gQ~, never as 'n ,at)e. ·Yen.! may also hear it preneu need as the, ng sound in sing but nM at 1he 009 inning (j a 'word.

Thls ls diHere~t ~roml ~he EngHs.h r. TOI ml'ake· the IJapa~ ~&e'" n[ghtly t,ouch th~ ~i P of you r t'ollQluel te th ebony lidg'e beh~ nd th e HPper tee·til! a] mom n, 'ttle En {i~ish d peeU ~on.

I U"s rnOfclfA ~:ike tJ;;;e Spa,n(sh r, but ~1.~s net 'riilett.,

:5 Always hissed, as 'i n so" never vtDh:,!!d ,S'$ in hi,s o:r- 01 p~easur'Q~

And note th e foUowing poi nts as we~[I:

.' I~' you have trouble making ,8. consonant t~ e Japanese wa}tj; yn u r Eng'lli:sh ~:H"onunc'ilatiQtn Wliill sti III be int'enli 9 jib ~e~

.' Some Japanese 00 nsonants are' doubled, In EngJilsh !thi:s is just a fea.lu re o,f spell ilng ,alnO! o,ft:'sn doesn ~t affect' pron il~ nolatlon, II'n Japan ese, the d oubl ing is ~ rnportant and may

chan g[e' the mean rng Qf' a word.

Examph;~'

Kite· kudasa' prree- tftJni koo,-dah-sah-;eB1) means ii P'llease p1ll1. it, (c:l,othing) o!n ~ [j~1

PronUinclatiiion G u'id~e :5

iK~Hl~~ kudassi (Kretg te,h ,koo-dah'-sa'h'-ee) mean s "Please cut U~"

(For more exam pies" see §20.)

§2,~1 DII,RE.CT'ION AN'D CHARACTIE1RS

'frad itlorta I'IY!' ,J apan ss e fS W rltten from top tal bottom an d from rig ht to left, 18 ut lt ls also 'wriiUen horizontalily and from I eft to rig bt, as in Engll ish.

J apsnese wr.il~i ng uses til ree ~i nds of ch eracters:

kian,ji (kahn'-jee)1

him galniCil ,(noo"'mh~ah"'n'ah.) katakana (kah-·tah-kah -nah')

~:::t

" ~, iJ {tct, ,tJ~'tJ7

H~ nagana and katakan a. BJr18' all so C8 Uied kana (ka'h=nah)~ All

t- l,..;'lr~~ o§r~' II ~'e!~...J ~nn ~h~1i" "11"'iI JI'~lp "'} n ~'S ~ w' r~+ 'I i'!I iM

l'I'I~'v.i l!:;l ~ UI~~U '~.u'~I!t;;!!;. :~~ IT !--_I[;.'I:"I~IIII''!OJ''-!'';;; ",'I'n~ lil~.

§,,2 •. 2 KAN,J~

Ch i nase and J apa nsse are com p~ett,e~y d iff,e rent ~ rang U a'g,las" B·u~ beg i nni ng ,in the m,o ILItth 0 r fifth cenltUf"Y:, Japanese! ad opted written sym be ls and many vocabu lary [items from Ch~ nese, In ,Japan ~ these symbols or 'C 11 lnese ch eracters ,are called Ikanj ii,. They represent bo1th m earll~ng and so u nd, an d often one' kanj ~

iii as more than one pron u nch~.tion (0 r read i ng ~ as lt's co mlmlO n ~y (:a~ lied) and meanl ng.

Japanese peopl e· learn about 2j 000 kanji by the, end of j Urllior h iglh seh 00,1, These ,are the basic c hsraeters used in newspapers; m agarzines, and school textbooks. Most

J apaoese know selvewa.~ thousan d additiona~ kanj i as w,e~ll.

Ka.n jii rain,g,s, from si rn pi Sj w~t WI on e or two strokes ~ to com'PII ex, with m 8:ny stro kes needed '~O make on e chan~J.cter: So me,

6

,look ,Iii k~e. pictu res, or I iltll9 drawli ngs" of the 'words they represent.

EXaJmlp~e's

Im'OlJ ntain yarna (y.ahL,mah) ,I LJ

riVier' kawa (kah-w8'h) JII

These two t.oglethier form Yarnaka wa j ~ll) J I a '~,am iily name. IH eW,9 are' some more ka.'[1Jil::

Japan person

N ih CHl (ne~ ~hQn) hlto (h,ee"-"toh') jin (loon)

IN ~ho'flj'i n (noo~,hon=joo\n)

JiapaneS9

EI'~A

§2" 3"-'

I' _ .

..... " "J

iij ... ......:_.

[H~AAGANA, A'N[[) KATAKAN'A,

Hir,ii,Ql3ln a and Kalia kana 'sy moots represent the sounds of syllables, H i;raga n a, is U $00 'for native Japal1 ese words and gram _, rnatlcal elism ents, and kataksna is mal n Iy for wowdls of fi:oreig-r~ ,orl"Qliin.. Ea.cn is a kind of alphabet, or syUabaty" o~ 46 basic characters or sounds.

The '011'1 ow~ng exam p~ e wi ~~ sho'w' you ho,w 'tine, elements, are used tOQ'ethet:

Smith

Mr ..

Surnisu ;{E:,A katakana

san

Nlhon 8* kanji

'9 y'okoSQ A.,. J:j,~~ lh~ragana,

'~.N 'hiiira,gana

Th e hi If'ag,8,na and 'kata'kana ch arts p,rovii dad hen! wi ~ I be,

. ,~'n""'1 "I't- vou 00'1"'11 ''''"I n:' II, Io§ "'/oFN,1J r Q·tl ~ dv riif~ Ja n~IIIIn" ·eC'!".a.

1ILJ~§iU I'II lliJ .. ' 1111l U"':;;;:J'Y! .., I!.!I J ""'- ' f"""g~' I:_: o;:;II~'"

.1; ,a feh)
~ kaJ (Gm
:!' 511 tuto
'It: 'tal (fBh)
,11; mil (am)
~;t Ill' (h~~
s: ~~l
,~ ~a fYMl
8 m (r:ahJ
;b wa ~:!)ll
,
h iii
t'G' ga~')
~' "I~~
\
e ~ \':'! :dla ~haf;r;) is f I!;,'-~ (t~)

t

1:;:-.", ~ I~yahy

~',~ HaJ~ ~~ )~ I~MJ ~~ bW(b~) U~ p~~~,)

HIIRl\GAN__A
1 'I ',a) '5 ~ (Qb) .;i. e,teh) ~, o (~~'~
.~ \,.-
@: klfl.(ee) < . ~) I!J" ~~hJ k~ ~~h!)
ll,l.l .. -: !6.
,
L- shi (sh-' T :3~ (sQO~ tt sa'~h) ~ SOI~)1
~ elil (Mee) '1) lt~ ttS'OO) T Ie ("~ J: to ekm~
(C. Ilii f!iP-N'~1 I:l IU ~oo), :b me ~e.h) OJ 1t'D1 (Ron}
.
U' hil (bee) ... fu (fbQ) "- he~~h1 Ito (OOhJ
M,
,fj. ml,~) ,~ 1M1!I'~l ~ IliDe~') rno (maN)
I~ ~\I trw') yo~}
IJ· n!'~} .!I; N~~' h· rei ~h) n'J1 ,t~~l
e ~ - " 1~1'
. i!l!lJ ~~, <' gtli tgod~ Ie fb.e'h)
i
~ jll(l~J ~ :m~~~ ~ fi! ~h)
~ jii~) I ':J :. ~oo) ftI· ,~e,{~
U Ibi'~) ~ bill ~r) ..-t be'(l1~M I ,
- 'OiD ~}
!~
'" g,~}
J! .. (rm~)
Ii ~Ol (bolO
lri po~h) .. ~ ky,u1~)1 L ::~ihlll f.u,,(;O~

.... - ~-~ r'

~.t kr~ (kyoo~ lIot sbO, ~~oh) 'S J;. dlo (choh) ~ Jj;, ~ (nfOh~ '~.tl~~) ,a~; IqD' (mfOh) IV d:! q':,g ~Ji)

~'llili' diu (thoo)

. ~ ,

, i'.: ~ ll_Ju (~y.o Il')

v.;p hJu (h~~,)

"'.' ~ (myqQ~

I fJ:' ~ mru l[gyoo) ~~, jUi (too) Ut; b)1.l {byo~~

tltDO~} eJ:; ,101~] U~; byo .yoh) U.t p~iD IfPjIOh)

Itl - J - - - - - W' "Irt',·~ _ S· .. _ - t "-

• I'" I ~.',. .. ' , ..... ' ", . ~ , '.: ," . ~ [". . . . ... . •.• " . ..

1. _e .. apanese:_,r ng , .. ,ys _em,

KATAKANlA

ra ~~D ka',I'~J sa (sall)

't1.~mh.1 'li'h31~1j

I ' !.~

I""~ ha ~Ih",ii!i.'

-r Jd'~.~'I'!~

,n'tal ',~ah} 'la'Mih') F,a ~aJ.ll

g{ill~} gl~h' d's \~d'ah)

ba'lfhrij)

sl'''~ ~,,~e A ~~'i rt;f:iM: ~

;{ ii (ee~ ki,tlres

~' IU (~iil~

'9" kill! ~o} ~.'{mo)

~u~~}

- iii] {nee, " In", (~~ti'~

J;: b'i I~~~~ 7' fu ~

a ,mil (n::aee) A Im~~)

IU~~i!li) PI ~;Q~

oJ~lt ji{j~

J~ ~Js3:)

!gl!ll~) ~~~) :2iu " ~OO'~ bu [boD)

3" ,0' '~bh"

I

~s r:!ithl) :3 k-~ '~a.h) [&'e (~~)I "J' ,so ~~b~

• "11) ,~ ~g (~~)

Ina· fi:Jt!fr) .1 no ~oh')' ,tie' ~~}j~ m h~ ~on~ ~ mo, [''Ji'Wh) a';o~h,~

1

. I

,[I M (Mob)

~,

'~

~ge ~~ ,~ iDa ~} "'I ~i!i1~) do(~)

I ptal ~l I ,,~

:J1 flU' ;if~} '':J' ~ 'fe' ueh~

,~~, ma (~hah:~

",;;,~, - ~:-iI ,lfH~,~M; " fW' - ","'o!lTW'J

,

t."i' ~ (fU}lilhl

~ .• !ya_ah) ,~".,Jjl ~}

tt t';, 'bJa (byah~1

,

T~ 'Ct.iW1 ~Oit!!;~1 =.~ ~~~~

,

v. ~ sk'O '~h) 7:3 tdho (i9JfJh)'

, ,

.=. till~ ~i)

,

:~ a Iliy'O l~iOM

~ ~ ~ (my.QJ.1) I

~j [3 1,,01 t~tO

s;~. midi Uoo) 1:,:iIl, IQU '~~Cll

§tl14

j£I.I~::

IROMAJIII

Th e c1omlmlotnil,y' used expresslen tor tbe ro maneatton of

J apanese words is 'rom,aj i. AI'tth oug h there are severa~ system s of ro maj ij! th e most 'widell y used ~ and the one, useo ~ n thls book, is a modif ad ve rslon of the 'Hepburn system".

Word Ordler

§3~ 1 WHAT rs A SIENIEIN:'CE?

A sentence ~8 an orqanized series of words w h ic h en ables H.] s

t" r. -m·'8·· .. ,I~ ........ a' e'.j!o, .... it;'"1;m·· snt l"i, .... k t'ii ,if'lIU- ..... stlo n' -" n(rC1it\' -; '.-; 1[' 1;-.-- ht ,-t:t>,. U .'. ,1"\""" .' ;::) ~a, 'G " ~ J" ~." 'iU '''1' '1Eiii::) I ~' I'l' €!lX'f'""I, ,y~,s a Iii I(}ug ~ ~ J ()! !der

an opl nlon, and so forth, I n 'wlriti ng ~ an IEng I lsh sentence starts, wiit~ a, capital Iletter and ends with a period j a. question mark, or an exclamation mark, In writi n g (u~f~ng rom aj ij~~ a Japan ese sentence starts 'w:iith a GaJpijbd letter, and ends with a period,

n at a, q uestlon m ark at an exelamatlo n mark.

Examplh~s

Va,ko is, J,i1lpane,se; .. I 'YOka san w.a Niihonj i'n desu, (statern entJ

Is; VOk,(} ,Jap1sn ese? I Y5l{O san wa N ilhonj in desu ka, {ques1~,on )

vo' "11..-0' b e c";IOJI'ref'ullll /.: 'Y""O-II .. ,r;; ,;::"§lIF'! k"l 0" t~LJ!"';Q,'+~ k 11...,!J~""''''li'·1

I ! ... I\. .. ~.;II .. "," t. ,.g '.' .111' ' ... If\v l~~HGt~ I . J i , . ~._ ft\~ IJ.,~ . '61 U G~Q .J

{e\x,iclam!81ii 0 n)

Eng,~i sh is a Su b:iec:t- Vern-Object iangua'ge. (S'o are! French; G1erm'an! Span lsh, and ltal lan.) Tbls rneans th at '~n a, typical sentence (8 statern ent, In at ,8 q lH3stion).~ Un e sub] ect co rnes

';'I'I"~t the U~ I<'\b In'' 5 ..... t , ..... nd the '0" blsc . ~ last 'Th' ;S: k !Iiln,'d o' .1/ word n -If 'd . ""',if

II 1'~,I'i' I . '!lGIII" '!q,i'\"~ OI~m,,_" '~_ "..!I'!g_,~ ,~I~ "'~C""" '_ '_.~ " ,',". U YJ':_~I:.

seq u encs for the sentence, i~s sornetl rnes nef,etrred to by the, ~ n ltials SVO (an SVO 181(1 9 uagls )I~

11 1

12 The, Basics

~........jll v,atb 1;0---1 ~ ........

..___--~

I

II

last: nighlt"

saw

,

lIhl8 CiaI'"

!has

Und erstand ing thi s prncl ple of' word ord er is Ii mportant because, as 'we shall I see in §a.S" the word ord er lin Japanese, ts d i fif,s rent.

E:nQII ~sth senteno9S !la,ve two basic parts ~ a, subject an d €i, predica;te.

• The subject is "who" or "whet" the sentence is about, A

su bJect mu st co ntal nan QUill or pro noun. ~ n a statement, ttl e su bj ect is. usual ~y the fi rst e I ernent iin the senten c e.

I John I speaks English.

A~

subject ,~ person "who" s peaks [Eng lirsh

Wolfd Order " 3

Valko ~s J'apan!i!s-e ..

;lU;

~"lIb··J·Qii""'t" ._

~I!.!!I··'~,·-

• The, p:~e'CUiC8Jt.e ls th at pert of the sen~enoe~ that expre,s'se-s what is .sal d abo ut tile,s u bjeC1t Irt tJ sually can be tou nd d!lirec:tly after the, s ulbjecl~ it m ust inc'~ude ,8. verb, and it i~nc ~u dee 'S!v'eryffi ingl f:1emai'ni nig rnn the :S9niitenoe 'that ls not pad ot 'the· :8 LJIb~:edt..

§'33-

I_' .: -.

_ - ._~ !ii' _..:.

THE ,J,AIPA,NESE S,E,lNTENCE

Japan ese ts a Sub:iect-Object- Verb Illang uage,. (Sc, are KQ:rean II Mlo:ngo~mlan! and Turkish.] -rhus" in Q, typ'ical $'elllttenC9t the sub-

J" ~tt"'~ en rn ~e!' "'II!"~* t" h ~ nbJ" ~F";I!. next '~I nd ttl ~ verb last TIJ.. "I'~ 11""1 n-d I~V~ • v l';;"~ ,II '~~!l.! I'~ 'v.: ~ .... I!l. ' 0;;;;' r« , l gl .: 'osiy~' U It;;!)~,., ~ II ~ r;,. 'i'I'

of word' order 6equ,Ji9JrlC9 '~Of ~he, sentence fs, aometlmes re~,e;rred 'tal by the I~n:iti,a~s SOIV (an SO,V la,[1guagia).

OkiBa.n Iga,

s

pan a

iMoiher

bread

bought

Jon san ga

hi. h~

:S Jmas,. ',11l,8"

Jolhln

did

mimashUa.

'saw

The sig,n~:f:icant' diifferenc:e, from' IEng~ I~,hl here is that: the verb must co me at th e end of 'tlrHe' senten ce.

• What about qluesti'o:ns? Th~· w·ord omer rernalns '1he same;. IBut: lfefflem ber: Japanese ti-oes hat lJIse' q·tl9s.tiun m.a.~ks," ,A Ie nt:~rM;;e beoolm~s a qu~stir!Oln. by add~ng the parth:::1fe ka' at ~he end. .. You ,cain thin k of ka as a. ques.tio:n m ark, .CP.artic~:es,~ an impa !Tant Part af' :SjpMch i'n dapanese~ will~ be discussed ~n 18.·)

O~Osan ga

§3' 3-" 2"

1_._.'

...• IWj'" ... _o",__

II 'Tip -I

I Verb _I I

kajimashii ~a ka, J D',i1d moth elf' buy Ibread?

$h~.m·ash~ta ka .. 1 DJd Jlohn do iit?

m lim' . ~:Ii!I;;;o; h lta ka _ I·.· Didfa.the;r see

_ ~,~ ~ ~ _ ~ IIf\J~!I,_ __ _ . _ _ _ __

Bubject and Predl~cHE1te

I

pan 0

I

sore 0

J,aJlafles~ ·srI!rThtenlnes m~ h~Ji~i"6J ,8, subjeot or a tiopl~e ~ but they must have a predmci8IJte" rrihe sub~eqt' ~iS; fed low·eel by thre panh:,~e 'ga:~ arid t,lle taple 'by ina! panJc Ie wa. B-se' lEt)

• The pnsdic8"fe ls th e core of the ,J1apan ese sentence," It comes, ;8J.t ihe end ~ and it must be, a verb or a, verball form, [lin

J ~,n~ -n° .t"'II~~ ~ '~j'~ rbal torrn m'~~J' .... f~ ,~ n'ol H"!i p.II'. ~~, ii'"'!,np"ui'a (1"I,II"e . '£::iIi ..... a ,~.j)'e'! ~.'!/'$'II .. ~ III'VII I I a.j· L..!!~' a.· lUI III .'. ''1.11'';' I!.;O'!/J.... i ,~ Ii\ '.

IE: 11091 'g' !~l!2'h'- iQ 0'1:'" § .... a See ~1' 6'\ 0'" r g ~.111Cl,lfb--g"ll a ..... jectlve

!l;;;;.~ II .. ·. ~.~ ~'oOi!!'" II' ~,!J '11;.;;, '.:¥ ... ~ ~. ·h· .. · '!!;t~·v!I_. ~'I . 'UI~_~ '1,1' ..•

116 The Basics

Exampl~es

I JOIl san wa I

I

John

Tanaka san wa

MIr~ Tanaka

Kudamono wa

v'erfbaJ

t'e'I,i"k~' dl~~" I'~

;0 , 'al ", 1~6U ,'~ ,adjective

The ifru'ilt

• ~ n add ltion to 'the' subject or toplc, t here m,a,yl of course" be oth er elements '~n th e sentenoe-object, indir~ct (Jlbjoct ~ edvem; and so forth. Tn ey com e before 'the [p.red leate, and are not considered pari of lt,

.. Two p rl n ci pllies hold true fo r word order in ,8, J apanesa sentence:

The predicate must come a't the end of ~he sentence,

A,. particle must 'illmrnedia~ely' fo,1II ow the, word or words it marks .

• ! 'QU"H3 ~ than th ls, wo rd order ii s not riig id, The sub,~:ec~ or topic E.Jsuallly comes. f~r811t I alrtthoug h an adverb of ti me maJy' pre-

W()rd Om er 117'

cede it or 'fall low lt, 'Expressl~ons of t~me ustlailly p recede exp rassions of pll ace. M,os,t mod ~fli era preced 9 th e word s ., hey mod ~fy~

Kare wa maJn ~chi

uebl de

shinbun

h'e to pic every day

marker

home at

o

takusan yo m irrna.su.

ob], marker

'man~ reads

Kono kodomotachl 'we N ~honjin desu,

these ,c!h'iildren 'Iop:i G: IJI alpaln ese a Ire'

m!9Jk,eIF

Sh~l~bun 'gB, ·toouru no ue ni arlrnasu,
I
neW3!prl'per subl, tab~e' !'s toPI on ,(ther-e',' is
- -1 j- - - 1- : )
maJrk'sr [Kyo -Jon san

Tokyo kara Kyoto nl lklmasu,

Today' ,J ohlll toplc

marker

1 B 'The Basics

Kano]o we,

honya de hon

she

'to plc beekstere ,at book marker

boughll

oobj. marker

• Wilth a quesf on], the word order 'is 'the same. As you now Iknow], the, particle ka a,t the end of the sentence makes a statement into. a quesitij 0 ~.

Exampile

K,a,rnoJo wa h any-a, de han 0 kaillmashii'ta ka I Did she bUry a book at the books1ore'?

she to PIC marker

• If a qu estio n uses a question word (when, w,ho, what etc.), lt normlaJ~'y' co m as after t h,e su bjlect 0 r topic, but this is not rD'Qlid.

Exampiles K,annja

WEi

ltsu

honya de han 0 ka"mashita ka I 'When did she buy a book at 1 e b o,okstore?'

she, topic when

marker

K . anoio

naze nonva de hon 0 kaimashita k,a./

Why did she buy ,a, book at Ihe· bookstore'?

wet

she topic . why

marker

Dare 'ga honya de hon <0 kaimashita ka.,' Who; bo,uglhi

a book

at the

who subi. marker

Sore

dan na han des ill ka. l What: kind orf bOiOk. is it?

topic marker

wh;a.t kind of

~In most ~ anglUages! words th at call be ufldefsloodl or irnpl lied

f' tin t t ~. , ~" h ·t t' b ~ ft' t" f to' -

, - : I " ' . 'J' "', I', ".' " .. _. " ... :", ' .... I··"' ,"' 1" "" ". I' ._ :. - -', -' . -". . ." -", J ~,I I· .,;. -' (' - , - I . .,"

rom .' I e C·O 1118,,)( .. O. . e· SI ua.lon C,8.n "e ell 0 U o· a sen en ce ..

Iii n Jia~pafleSej it I~S th e s u blect 'or topic that ts omntsd, not. the pr~d1k::ate~ I,' the, situatlon iis clear 'wi~hotiJt the, subject or topic, Japanese tend to ~eav:e i'~ out

Example

Kore wa 111 an des u ka, I 'What hi, 'this?

IKore we hen desu, 1 Tltljis, Is ,B book, or

Hon desu.

boo'k is

~ro Eng'l ish, 'tt1lj:s que~tion could be answered 'wiillh jtJisl the noun: A boo k"

I • ",' .:. -,', U .. ~.', - ....•

~I[~ dapanese, the coptlila~1 or verb to be is needed too, Re.m ember, a ,Japanese sentence must h ave a prsd icat,e~ or vs·rb ·f:o,rm. Look at' some more exam plss,

IEXam.plle'

mania

kan m ashita ka, I 'Wbcd did ',DU buy!

you

diid buy

AlthQugh tlh~s s;sJltenoeis, 9 ram,atically OOnfect~ Ina ~.hapane5e! prefer to oJ.m it: ~h'e~ you wh j'ch would Ibm obvl~o us fm,ml the oontsst.

IExample

Nan i 0 kamash ita, ka. I What did IWOU.) buy?' Hon (J: kalrn ashlta, l (I) boug'ht a ltl ClOIk:~

§4"

, .... !iii

I

A. no.un is a, word thet names or ref,ers to ,3 person, a. place, or ,a, 1jil,ingl., A thillgl may be! a ,qu1alirty or a concept,

There are two mal n types of nouns:

• A p'ro.per noun names a pani,c:ular person, place" or thi ng,.

I n Eng li~sh:~ ,aJ~ I proper nouns, are capitaUz'19d,. The Japenese concept ()if proper nouns i:s more I imited. ~n rnmaj i (see §:20141~ n ames of' persons or p'~a,ces:1 for example, are capital~[zed!, but days, of' the week, and months of' the y'ear airs! not. T1~e 'words f;or oth er ~a[r1lg lJages are, capitaJUzled ~ but not ~he word for El1gl~lish:, e~go

EJtamples

In i :j klmasu, I Johmll ,is ,gloing te To IkyolI'

22 Parts of Sp,eectl

san waOf igetsuyob~ n'i' Tokyo, I ~~ i'kilmasu., I ,J'ohn

......____. - - ~ ,.'

lSi gOl'ng

1:'0

To,ky'Q ·on IMonday~

I'TlIesday k.iiny,ob i I iFriday

sangatsu I M1arch llJune

.~

IF'ILI ran sug:o I Frr,ench (I ara.,guage) Chugokugo I Ch lnese (ilanguag'e}

elg'o J I Einlgllish (~angluage),

• A com'mo.n noun does not name ,9, particular perso 11" pil~ac,e I' or thing;

hen .I book

-Japenese iFlOIJ ns do- not have gender. There ,are no sp ectal end i ngs, to show rnascull ne, 'femlin:~ne~ or f1I euter forms,

'§4 .. ,3 ARTICLES

-Japanese does not use ,articles betore nouns, 1~\'H9ire are no w,ords to correspond to Engl'i:sh a, an, or d'ie.,

N,aHns

;f13· . '£1' .

. Numoer m e,8.n1:S, that a, word can be singular (referri ng to one person, thrngj etc.) or piura'/ (re'feuring to more than olne).. 'WHth

J . " . . Th

most, ,apan,ooe no U ns, number II s not an IS;SLlle. .' ,,·e same

word is used for one or for more tbsn one.

Examph~s

hon I book, becks shnbun I new,spaper,

newsp,apers

ku ruma l car, cars

H on a motte masu e .I I have a book,

Han 0 motte iim,asu.ll have' SOiMe books,

Iki I tr1ee, trees te l ha nd, hands

.' For 11 0 uns referri ng to peopla th 9' p,IIUlra~ suffix, =Ja'c'hl may be used, ,a)I,1!houglh it ~ sn 't f,sqUi,red"

Ex;ampl'es:

kodomo ',chnd, cihlildren otokonoko I boy, bOYs on nanoko I gii rt, g i1r,l~

bah aoya IlmioitjI1N!r!1 mothers sensei /1teacher, teaehe rs

kodornotach i I ehilldRHm otokonokotach i Ibo'ys onnanokotachl / 'gil4ls

II al1.aoyata.c,h i ! mothers SBri:S8 j:tach i I teachers

• rWh en ,~mchi ls used wijth someone 's 11 arne, lit usual ~Y' refers to 11he person and hi,s or her 'f,a,m;~~y or group~

E'xamplles

Tanaka, sari tacbl I Mr. Tans ka a Il1d ihli:s f3im~ily 'Iomoko san taehi l Tomolko ,and her igmup

Parts of Speech

§4' 5-

'", I~ ," :.":

NAMES

famiily name

II

I

E~k.o

NlakamiUra

When Japanese int roduce ttlemlselv,es to each oth er, they say th€ farn ill,y neme 'fi rst, HOI'wever~ th ery kJrioW th at Eng'l ish speakers do it: th e· opposlte w.ay.

I •

Japan9i!. prltAie:r 1fia'm ill" narn:~s~ not,: first rtames ..

Japanese a~u Itt· rBrety UJS6I fim nW'fies" "I=ven ,fJmDrlQ' fu"ien~sl' 'fam~ly names i2lre; the rul~ei fl'rst names the 8X)cep1;~on. U [1il~ss a Jla~rN!l~9' specifi,oalily ,ask~ 'you t'D use h~s, air her ~irsti n3!me:j you shou Id use the f;a.lm~ly name,

Wiith, c h U dren t. ii1:'~s different" Japaru:!8e lise you 11 9 ell II dr,sn 's fii rst n ames 'foil owed bjt the title chan'" older chi I d ren 's first names 'followedl by .san (see '14 .. 6).,

The J apanase w()rdl that 'cor$19sponas tic EnQ'lish Mr.l, M rs., ,Miss,~ and M,s.. i's S"~'n., The ,J~panese ,a~w,ays use san (or other, more formal titles of respect) with proper names, Eveml arnonq famli~y members or close personal friends who use, firs~ names.

lth h t'h f II th

- -,~' ", '.---:' ~.- .. ' I . '-:-. -. . '-,1 -": I '.' .' I'f '. - . u, . I . ..' -. I .... · - .. I" .

WI., . 'S'a,c . a .I.er, san .0 nws I. 18 name.

IN'ouns 2:5

Exampl,es

lana ka sail 'j koo r wa ~ka,'ga desu ka . .I M If .. Tanaka, wou~d 'yo,u Ilike some cld,ffee"?

MerT san 'wa~! 'kyo, g!akko nil lmasu ka, / Is Malry at school 'toda,y?

But note ttl e folllO'w,iil1 g::

W'artalk,tlshi wa, J'(j,hn Sm,ith des u. II' m J oil f1I Smlilh.

§4 .. 7 IPO,LIITENESS

Tu...o In,i;"~'~'IX" Q' ,_ b"~f'of\rJ'i!i!!i F')tJ!i ..... "3I·11!"'1 FlFIoII ~neo '~'x.'p·~~It'!'l),e n.Ai"'H~i!"1I'~~~' ('-I'-h' l'I;e:'!

! 115 ~II: ail: ",.,' -.' ." ~ V Gi"" ~!Gi I' Ilg ~ I I II U b!j ~~ .. ".,. I v~~v.~ ~ ~~i.~ ',v.r~' ~~'~~!II '. Q

is also u sed 'w~rt h verbs and adlecUves. Se e 17' and §8~)

narnae, onarnae / name sake j Q1sake I rice wine' hash~ ~~ 0 bas hi I ehopstic,ks,

~'""~na '0- to''=;' 1fI,.n /' m 0- "'n- e 'Y' r\~_ Q;f, .. ·~'I'I~ ",' __ !. ~._ ..... ~:

fll!rcO ~ ofuro I ba,th teglam i ~ o,t-eglam~ IleHelf

A variatlo n ,of th is i'onn is go~ ,'" wh~,ch is used wiith words, of'

ell,..,,' ••

~ Illn,€SA9 Oif'lg In.

hon, glo,han j book

Nate th e follllo;w~ n 9 about the' p r,efb(es 0- and go~::

.' A'~ I~ ~nug- k bo '4h' 1m" ""'n' a'n~ d'" ~,I'i U'''lI-m 0 -n" m- au n A',........ i-k a abo- ........ to rm"it"

, '" __ ILI:!y,,, ~ II Y,' ~ .. ~ .. gr .1: .. '. "'''''Y'. 'Y" .I.":.I!) ~,~Il:ii' 1L~!r;;:r. , ' u 'V![5.i~· -' ,;;).~

~n sa rne cases. these pr''efi >a9S, wou ~d be used 0 ~ Iy by WOMI9n ~ as ii n ths "o" forms in exam plss below,

ExamlFJiI as

nil ku, on lku 1 meat

. "; b~

v,asa.I,. oyasal '," v,egetal ' ' lie's

• Some words are a/ways u sed with the pol lte preflx, Th e 0= an d ,go- are !1 ow part of the, words:

Examlp1le.s

ocha I J ap,a I1BSe 'Ie,a

g-- chan I cook.ed rIce .. Imeal

. .. --. -- -- -- I, -

I Tip I ... TheSIS' prefix~s can not be used with aJIII' rUJU MIS. ~,tt '9 best to uss them 0 n liy when you Qlre' cel1a_j n thl~y are corrsct, as, with the le'xamp,!~s above,.

When 1W,Q nou 11S am used tog,etr, ~r to. make a compound nou n ~ t hiSy are us u ailly joi ned by t h's! part i eire no.

IExamlp,les

rekls h ~ no k u r,8.SU I hi s1:0 ry' c-I ass eig 0 no sensei I En'Q Ilish teacher

a pat 0 no bl rLJ I apartment bui lidiin 9

Some GOimpO'lJ11 d nouns may' be, tormeo wlthout the, no, however.

'17'" ~

IExamlP,les

'kOhl jaw.an l co,ffee ,cuip' kan k,o basu .I tour bus

boo ki ,gaiisha! 'trad iing compa·ny'

• The siJffix ,~ya, wh en added. to a, noun, means th e plliace or sh 0' ,n, w·· ·'IIJ...Ll];~ that 4!oh'I'I:FlIJ ,ii"It ·I~ sold or the PI;g.~~,""FlIJ ,nr ~ h .... pkeeper

~ '~" II U~II y Ilia. ~ III~~' i~YI '.- .~~ YI ~L ~ .. ~I ~~Ill Y ~! Y "_", "..,~'I;;i,~.~

who seill~ s 'it"

Exa;mlples, niku Ilm,ea1:

kamera l camera:

nlilklJya, I btd:cher shit) p, buteher

honya I bookS'tcn'e", le:1 erkj OW1nErr'

kam,e'raya l camera shOIP'!1 ,elet1k" o'wner

• When ref,ern n 9 to the c,llerk: or shop kse p,er, the, tift I €I san ls used:

Examlples

n ilkuya, san l butt,che'r

karneraya sail / ca mre1f,a shopi ,clerk

• 'the suffix -ka, wh en added '1'0 a noun, means a person with expertise or :sp ec i:al Ik!r1o,wil edge on 'tha,~: :subj;eot

28 PaJrts of ,Speech E'x.,amlP:!e"s

seijii' l politiics ~~ __ =~~=+r. seij ikBJ ! po~i'ticjialril

hyon)n I com ment~Jilr, hyo ron ka I cri:t1i'c:~\!i commentator

shBsetsu ka J nov1ell isl: geifj uts u ka /,a m,st

sheeetsu J n,ovell 'gelij utsu I art:

§,5.

A, pronoun :iIS, a word that takes th e p lace of a nou rl" Hiers are

. .

some common Engllish pronouns: I, YOu,! he, she, 'it! we,

the". These am personal pron ouns used as s,ubjects. Other common lEn gil i sh pro n~)L1ns are, me~1 hilnll~ her! us, theml., T nese are person al pron Duns, used as, objects ~ You and iij of' course, may b e ,sub~ ects or ob:jects~ I n add itiio D1 to these, there, ar'13' OU'N=f kinds of pm nou n s such as oossesstv« (,m i ne, you rs

iii ls, etc.), demons'tr:;a'tivs' (this" ~hat),~ s}1d inte,rrog-ative (wh,o" whelre" whaft etc .. )

J apanese pronoun usa'ge ~ s qUJ~~e d uffemnt trorn that ot Eng ~ii sh, as you wi I ~ s€€ from th e ~'o~ lowl 11 g; d lscusslon,

§5.2 PE'RSQ,NAIL IPRONOU'NS,

Personal pronouns ,in Japan ese refer to people, not thi ~,gs or ii deas. ,J apan ese has no 'equ'Hva~ ell~ to th 9 ,E ng I is h it i'n th is caitegory.,

Ilii!' I

29

Singul,ar

PI'U f,al

wata ku shi I I, me

wata,kushi'tachii I we" us

anata z you

anatatac h i I 'you anatacata I you (poliite)

kare I he, him

karera l ,th eyj them {a'il male or male and f'eml~dle)

kano] 0 I slllQ", her

ksncjotac h i I they, them (fsma I,e) kana jo ra J they, 'them ~'f:emale')

II nfortna~ u~e~Q~ \1\JI'.a.tash i t I, Ime a~ash ~ I I, ms (femaJlle)

• Avo ~d uSii ng, th Is wfie never PO$S iilbli~,.~ W~,~n speJaki n gl to sorrrleO"ne' d ~r.eGtly; by 10. US~ -the p~r-spn IS. name and SS'fJ in~t,e,~:i"!j,

... ~ _~u~

Pronouns

Exarnp.le

Sum'is~ san! nan ~ 0 kai mashlta ka .. I Mr;, Sntjth~, 'what did ytCNlJ buy?

Smith Mrll what.

obl. marker

:_I! ....

'.' When speak) n ~ to a tetRche:r;, ,~ dc:u:rtnr~, ~, dl9~t~ 8t\ tor a

memtlef,6f tHe IDiim (Hi!9' J~an~~~ legiisla,bJ'~), use,the Wor.d s ens ei ~ e,itjh·er alQnel .or af:t~f' 1h~ ~1~e~on 's I~s.t name. $S/l'SfJl':Jj wl1ich IliteJaJly means ·~lea.aher~"· may aJ~so· ~l~' il!Jse"d- w iU'] o·i~ ers not I ~sred. -abO\f:EL A: ,t.a~h€f ~arr :iJe

-_rr I I •••• • •

phie"w:no has ,aeh·i~ed :slJ~bess, or earned re,spect in hls

Or her m elo, You -tart US~ ~sen$eJ II 'fQ-r ex~tJ1lpll.e!" to a,d~d~~Sj aM artist, writer~ S,!rchjib;~t! mus~t~:'~anj or ,o;fh~r' ta~,e\nte=~ persoM.

Exampl,e

-S en sJe~ '" og en ki ,d ssu ka, I Siir !(Ieache r), how have you been'?

I

]f"~u ,are apealkjrig to a. g~roulP'!\ y,du -Can US9:'ith& ~Ql~6wing'

"exp~e~,s~Qr.lS 'fQr:~~yo:u" (p~ural):: -

, I • , ' ,

,~." ~ ;~

32 Parts of ,Speech

EX8!mpl,e

m i na san I eve,ry'lone (yiQ'llJ alii)

rnma sarna I ev'eryolll'e' b!ou an)

[ mms / ev,eryone I + I san I or

i 83ma I (very polite, and

more to rm a~ t han s'a'n}

Ex;amples,

Mi na sari! ohayo gozaJma,su. I Good m cn"n~ngl, everyone~ M i rn,Z), S8,m a, "Sayo' n ara, .I Go 0 d by'e', everyone!

Example

Sumli,5u san w,a, NlyiJy,o k u kara ki mash ita ka I ~.s M 11'5 ..

Smi'tb from

New' Yo.rk?

TII-.·'!, I!.... , tt, ,- th ',- . - U I - - h "t-' , '-, h II ,- - \/.- -k'- ,?j~, 10' "* ',' - - ,,:,

m "~s IS, ue'", ,e r IlaJn sal.y~ng ~ s S' ,9 ram p~ ew IOr.," '.' ~ cou rS1e"

if it is c lear wtl,o Ul'9' su bjem i s, it can be ~,eft aut entl r,e~y.

• Several oth er term s can be used. in stead of the prone uns hare" karJ'f:Jjo, and thel r plu ra I 'forms - Th e J apsnese prefer these:

Prone uns 33

I

,anlel kata i IhfJ.t person

. "p' .al ite' I

~'I t I '.'J!'

P,lural,

.eil1"Q It...a.4~'g at - I '"'" - ~ - ~I;'~' , IN~I~~.Q a .. ' u::dJ"·

,. 'persons (polite)

Exampiliesl

n ~ aim ash ita ka, IID'id yuu Sell h'i m (thai person) Y'elsler'day?

·th 811: person

wac lkii no .1 rassh almasblta, I They I(thlose

'___~=r=~_....I1 persJolns) were

here· y·esterday~

'those persons

§5.2,~2 Case

'Case refers to th e form of a pronou n wh lch shows its .

. II ,.", 'h'" .... "'-h' .. -'.' rd . ' ... ' .. ".' ....

re anons lip to other wor.s, m a sentence.

~. E:"'I""h th'" ", -I .... , . ','. is h i th ' .. "",, ·th'

o • I .' : . ~, . . - '. '. .: . I {I ," I ' .,'. ..... . . " _. , ; . _' . I' .' "',

n _ng ~S,' e persona p rona LIIllS ave t ree cases; e

nomina'tbJ-e' (used for this sublect: of a sentsn ce or c Ilaus.e}ji 1he· A~j'giF""'l!Jf€!iJ 1111~~d tor tne cblect o:,f :~I sentence "I nd . 'l'I~r.lijo oblect

v,ilJi~1;.,; ~~ '''''',"", '\. ~ ..:lIe, V ~ .. 1111;50 V -' ,JI~!!...,;;Il:. ' iai, CiI'Oi ~ I""'~" 'II II, I 'Eiiu!b u, I~ . "

oro bject of a prs posttlon), and ttl e possesslVie ('8 howi ng owners h ~1P). Eng I'~:sh has a, dil:fferel1t set of personal pro nou n s for each ot these cases,

34 Parts of Speech

H'e ~ lves here, He == n olm'ina.tive case (su bleet ot the sentence)

I see him. h'lm = ,obj ectlve case (abject of th e veib)

His car lis here, His = possessive' case (sh O'\l~S, ownendlip)

I n .Japanese, 'the p erso nail pronou n s function w~t h aim th rae cases, but th e' wordsS'ttay the same, TI1 e case ta shown by a pa~rticle'~, or postposnlon, that comes after tl'u~ prCHiOUr1.

N t t -h t l - t-h f-' [-1-1 ,; - - - - 1- _- - - f h - -- - - -- - - -

I' '. "'" . - . I ,', . '" . .! I' . . .' 'J ' ." • '. [ , '~ ['" ••• ' • -'. I···· . . '. . . [ .. ' ' ,

o e mat m e _[LOwing exampiss OJ I_OW one pronoun,

wata~ushi~, is used 'Tor dii'fife'f'€Hit 9 ramrnatleal fu netlons i

the topic ImarK'6 r wa j rat he'r than the su bject marker g'a'~ ,iis

p mf,erred:. This, wi II be d lsc ussed in more d etal II ~rl the chapter on Partie lies (see §6,} ..

I lor I

Watakushi

wa

lma tsu ki rnashl ta, /1 i1ust a ITIritvedli

~ topic

marker

I

M eri san wa,~ wa ta'kushf 0 sh ltte lim asu, I iM,ary' knows Ime ..

me obj.

marker

Pronouns 35

possessive

I

Kore 9 a watakushi no ue:hii d esu, l 'Tlmii:s, ts Imy hou 00.

my

-- o· - - poss.

marker

§53'

T:-: .. II!''': ~

AJthougih some an! pronouns and some are other P,81lrtS of s p esch i iii J,a:p\sne:sle~, these are aU ij nterfo'laUve words,

dare /:who

,

di thow ,doko, I wheN (p~,Ptcie)1

iChJfUli a. I what Ikind,' of dochiiw,a I whel1:, whichl (di mo:tio'l1l!,. ~ptr:ef~r~nroe) dere I Wh'i afill,pelrS.OnS j 'things) , dotei1i: I wtJlicb. (of' -tWl~ eh 0 liCes'

• I .... .. •

don,at, 'I ~hlije~n .~erso", w,IiQ, (p;OlM) d5S!h~te· I '.1hry: ,

';jll"'j, !II!"'--"'!:i, /-- Ih-ii"II;,w m' 'unJh

~ 1i\.,,:.IIHI,~ . 'U'. - .. ,;;. - I

'm~utsu 'J how many

.. .

3,6 'Parts, of Speech

§.5,~,4 IN,DIE,lF'IINIITE IPR,ONOUINS

daremo I 110 one:

- - r -I -

donamam,Q l ",0 one (Pol ite~1

d.aMite, I semeene dbna:taka.! ,slomeone' (polit~'l

dori~J~<a I som ethin 91

do m .... r.ilR .. ,"i!I! I'· e!'iII"Ii'm~'e- fw~Lo.a~ .. Ir\ulf\~. ~~~. C_, __ ~I~'~I~

dQremp 1 nol1~ng do komo l 'nowhere, nanimo I no,thing '~kurraij:lC! / not muoh nanni rho "n'oltlin Q

nant~~, /' sOn1e'h~ I11g iRu raka I s~m:e, _ litile

nandel11Jo / lanyttling

• N ote th at ttl e ex presslo n s I istsd 'On the r~g,h~, side Qif th e preced i ng chart 'take' negati'v,s' verbs in ord er to have a negative rneanlnq.

,ExamlP~les

Dareka, Iki rnasblta. ! SQ,m,eOine ea me,

someone came

1· .. im t.Jj, .... 'c.i4'i deshtta i\ I '~~'!f;>'~ ~ , ~:J I It'."

no one

d-i .-iIn't e 0- me

':·_._'UL_ .', .... ' •. ",'

'The demonstrative words (some are pro nouns. all d sorn e are ad~,ect~ves or ,adverbs) fa rm a pattern ot preflxss:

'- - - .

Pronoun s 37

ko- .I here '(Iolose, to nu~ spe,aker}! ,130-' .I there ~way 'frpim' the s:~e~ker) $'"' I over '~re (som e d~lstanQe f('tcrm til e' B,peaJ~l'Jr)

The, last on e~, do = ~ can be seen i n '§5,~3 above, Here are 'th'e rest'

~"Ofilf1a J tilar kind·m

anna IIh8t lUnd ,01

manner

sa I inl thalt manner

fHJchila I 'Uil ere~ 'tha~

Ii t j'n thra,l Imann,1f

fJ;oolkd I over tl1elre

The fIOJ1tlI;,iv.o orono uns 'I'IAJ ~'n,lf1i'·I~1h ~Irl~ w- -'h~i Ui ....... em w-,Ll..o-- Q.i:II;,

- Y !I;;".!'~IC,I!II'~ 'c-"- "'-'" ,-_ - I' I~ II ~ I;;;,I! i~~ ~U ~ g '!Uii _ 1Ul T!f'I!II !Io,iP., I ! II 1111,_ - ~",,""'j

wh'·' h - h - - - - dl that S- - - - - - - i t-' -- - 1-- - - .. ~-

'," . - .- I .... I '.' " •. '. '... . . " . . ~ I"·' '. ..... '. ',... I'··: ' . . . ."" .

II C 'll W Jere ~ an _ -- _ -'. -' ecaust€ -F@ a I[VIS' c ausS's I ~

:38 P,arts of Speech

Japanese precede ~ rath sr th an fnll CJiW ~ the words they' mllod~'fJY,p Japanese d oes n ot h ave word s tha:t co rrespo nd to tnese pronouns.

E.xampl,e

Kyo tsuita htto wa Yamad a 'san des LJ '" I Tttu! man who ,arrivedl today'is,

IMr .. Va,m1ada.

today main,

,arlrivled

topic Imarket

INotice that th B ,J!apanese sentence has no, wo:rd to correspon d to the relat:~ve pron oun "who n in the Eingil ish sante ne,s-s.

Tn~,s 'wi'! ~ be ex pl ai n ed fu rther ~'n the' sect lo n on Ve:rbs, (see §'7).

§5~ 7 R,E,FLEXIVE PRONO,IUNS

The reflexive prOn01JnS iin E'ng!lilsh are words such as mlfself',~

, " ,,- ,N' iI...~ -,- -:- ,- 11#:,:-: I I - --" - '1-' ,,~, -! -: ..... inI,~ ","",,-, 'f"o-: '"""h .laoanese has

YO'UII''S!ell~ ~ ,!I'mlse~1I ~ YQ~r~e yes, ,~~ IliLJ oi::IOO ,O,~ III • 1_~{F'alll~ '!;:;: ~

o nlly one wo rd 10 corresp and to these p ronou ns. You might can it: an al~ -purpose re!f~!91( i;vl@ pronoun. lts m.sani ng is, both

sii ngul,ar and plu red., m ascul i ne and fern irfiine,. It can be used for lh' ILI- m· ,. ginO ;';i,lnd-'I for -w-ai'\-m~·~ -blo l .... dsd ~...,'nl~lm·· sts ~t I .... ~-n·,..., ...... ~ b 'e used "0' r

1_'_,!~III.;;!!"1;;dl ' __ ..... _ '_,_'~III_ U',·clo;,.!l._!l;;i' a II_,_~. I, Io...o,~, ~IIU'~ '---, --~~, 11-

~ jljblln lone's self I

Jlbun de iik! masu 11'~lm goi;n!g mysel .. J lbu n de shinasa'i:, ./ 100' itt yourself:.

.libun no koto wa jibun de :shli nasal, I [0[0 'your own w'ork, by YO'll.urself~

M1'er T san wa, j ~ bu n (~e ben kyo sh ita i m asu I rvhlry is stllldri ng by helrselfil

§6···•

.Ii

P rti -I

S' ··i.'IC: es

§6~1 WHAT ARE PAR,TII'CLES?

.A particle ls a 'wO,f,d th at sh ow'S th 8 rsl atlonsh lip OiW a word r a phrase, or a c~au;se ·to the rest: of 'this, sentence, Some particles show ,glramimath~aij function-s-subject, obisct, lndirect obiect. Some have mean ing themselves, II i ~e Eng I rsh prep osltlo ns. B LJ~ sl nee 'they al'ways foJio'w'the' word or word s 'fhey mark, they are post positions.

The II lsts that 'fOIUOW jncl ude some of the more, co'm mon

~ .

perticles, an d some of thel ruses.

§!6, .. 2, PART'~CL.ES UISED WIITH WORlDS OR PHRASES

'wa. made, ni

9~ e m,o

Q hedo I shi:ka

nQ I(a te

rill' y,a.

d]akfj yQf1f1

How do yo-u decide 1~ an expresslon lis a toplc ~ rna rked with 'W8j or a S LUbject 'marked 'wit~ g'a? Both 100 k like ·th€ S.Ubjl0Ct of' an Enl g:Ush s.ent,e~ c,a!

40

Parti cles 41

Thl nk ot the topic as a cornme nt on someth ing that has all ready bee n i ntrod uced into tns conversation, 0 r that is. part' of ·gen€er.al or shared kllO'wledg e .. As s uch j W8 can mean

K··

irnura san wa,

dssu a. l IAr .. Kimuria. ·iisi·a student .. (.S'peakJn'Q of IMr .. Khnulra, he's a

is

studel11tii)

to p:h:~ student marker

',: h' #ill ~i!!'·'tieks

c_ VI1 •• "Q -- - - -

topic marke;r

obj. m'arl1<er

o ts LI kal masu, 11he

J,apane.se

use chop/sUcks" (As 'for the,

J1ananec:!"e'

[ ...... ," ~'·.!I

they iIlJ se

eh opsticks .. )

use

NI"h ,,,.

II ' 'on]llln wa.~,

• IN:ote th at wa' as a. topic marker C-8Jl also fo~ low wha/,t in Eng I ish may Ilook ~ i ke an object, a. p h rase, or a clause,

tu"eli!l.ldast: toplc 8, ,at

m arker IO~'C loe Ie;

haeh i jH' ni tab emash lta, 1 I ,ate!

breakfast at :a (felock, .. (.S,pea'kiinlg

Qf brea kfaat, ~ ,ate at ,S

0" c:loc·k,.,)

,B,te

"'"""gg" ohan

~~ .. ·:::II~'Q j

42 Parts of Spe~eh

0, tabem ash lta,

8, at:

o'clock

- b' ct··

. ,,",. "I'

O-,J9, ,

marker

I ~ ,arte brealkf,fj s,l at ,8 o'clock. (S!pe,aki ng of 8 e'eleek, I ate bf\e\llkfast then,')

Asagohan 0 tab eta no wa hacn il] i deshlta. l II ate

brea kfast at :8 o'eleck, (The time I' ate

b rea kfa st was 8 o'ctoc k~)

toolc

- ~~

marker

" I"

normna Ilzer

contrast

Wa 1;'21.11 'ftd O'W a nou n to snow contrast. The 'thing beirn1'Q con-

t rasted m'~'d .... ~ -m'~'y n ot D-.~ ..,...;j!.~ .j!.~...1l1 Ii-.. ut w~ "'h th' ~ ,- s, .... ,Q - 1"h ~ trasrec . 'Q.1' U!I I' u' ·L~. [).E;i stateo, out '·-.···h . '[ ts U -,'~._ €', " I~

cornrast Ii s i1mpllh9d"

Ebc,a,mIP~e!5

Sakan a wa tabe rnasu ,ga~ nlku wa

fish eat but [meat.

Parti i"" ~ ~>E' ItA . ~;~~~

43

Ga' marks what the -Japanese calli the gram rnatl cal s',ublect ot ,et sentence. Think of the, subject in the following two way:s,:

'. Fi rst, in neutral descrl ptions of observable actions or sltuations.

Ex,amlP les

legemi,

I

g--a,

<

klmash ita" l The ma,il eame,

subj, market

Ame

g.a

huite i masu. I lt's r,ai n ing ~ (.Th e Irai n ii,s "0[1 Ii ng ii)

sub]. m a,lr\ker

is, fall I iing

N ote that ~ n t he n egatiiv'e cou nterparts of these sentences:" WB, not ga~ must be used.

leg'ami wa kimasen dsshita. l The maill alian'l eeme.

Ii Second .fcr specl cal emphasis, 10- dI~ sti ngu ish a particu lar person or th ing from ,al[1 others.

EX8'mp,le.s

W"Oi'ta"lk'I"s'''h'I' ca shlrnash n+-.g, /:: lid, I'I'~ i; ... (I am the , one "w,lh' 0' dl"d"il',j.I' )

g.... u "c' ~ C" 'Q<.;;I! ~ILg'i~' .' IlUJ tlll-ii. U .' ." IJII· ", .. '. ri'I!I!"

Iolkya ga, okil de's It I "Jolkyo is lbii'Q., (It is, Tokyo 'th at: is, biig,,)

• When an i nte rrogative pro noun is used as the 8U ble1c1I: O'f; a sentence, Qa; must allways, be u sed too,

w'l11lo 51J b]" 'th is marker

-b' or j~

marker

'shimashli-ta ka l 'Who did thihs;? {Who lis the one 'N'li"" did Iltlis'?')

did

Dare

ga

1

o usu any marne, the o b] ect, Burt ,ga marks the 0 bj €'c1t of certal In no n-actio n VedJ15 and certal n verba II adjectives. an d adj,ect~val nouns. (see §8).

Examples

vako san wa,

,e~go ga wakari rnasu . .I ValkO

IIJI nodors,ls nds

E "'91 iis Ihll

topl c En g~ ls ~ olbj., u nd,erstalndis,

marker marker

Nmhongo

ga. I deki mas uka·11 Can you SiP eak

I 'J!,....,n'l"Iiina~!B?'

. P'F~ '!Iii'~~ ..

abj. marker

Hon

b -- [.., lOOn,

h"

Qyj"

j..oZJU desu I Ma,fY ls gOlod

,at ten 1!1 is

to pic obj. grDD d at is

marker

Exam,pl,es

SenshiCi sono ho Ii1i o ya:mi mash ita. I I ~ead 'til iiI!1 book, II,a~st

'week"

last 'w'eek that boolk Iread

'lI~,e p--Slriiicle . ....,. is used 'wiith verbs such as w,':s-',lllk- -'- run - d--r:iiv.o., eo

II ,I ~ _ _ v _. . - .. - . . - . ~ ,- ,- ,- - - -".., I' ~ -

Ih rOUlglh l etc, ~ whe:~ speakii:n g of conti n uo us motion and a f nita, place or distance'.

Ex,amples

Tana.ka, san wa, ,Go bang,ai 0 aruklmashlta, I M r, Ta na ka wall ked ,all'ong f'ilf1:h Av-eniUQi' ..

Koen a has h irr~mash i ta, I ~ ran tn roug hi the, pa rk,.

Th ink of th is I ~k.e tlhe Eng I ls h apostrop ne pi us 'S'.

IEXati1lpl es

Watakuslhi InO lnu wa, ptidoru desu I Mly dog 'is ;1 pCHldle.

I I' I

My

Kodama no kao Qla yoglorete i masu. ! 'The lehi~d~,s, f,i),ce' ~s dirty',

C:- -h- i I,.-.il!!'e;,

".-.~ Illj U ~

'face

dlirty

,,'

noun mlDdiitulcatio n

- -

Th is u sag,s, of no is ,s,ilm'i lar to the pass esslve. but iit i~s seen more w lt h com p a [JI nd nou ns or nou n phrases,

Exam:p,I'9S

Sog,aklJ no ku ras LI wa1, m LIZ u kash~'i desu, I The math class is d~fth;un'~

m'ath

Amari ka no tabsmon 0 wa, olshll des u. I Amerii,c'an food :1 s dle!1 iclo u s,

food

appo$itEo'lila,~

Examlplels INikuya no

wa I okanemochi dssu. I The' blUtchelf~, M'r:. Doi:, II,S 1"11 C tI ii

riclh

i.s

A ·11 ... •• J

mien r\aJ in no ,_on san

wa, Sh ~Ika,ga kara

J oh n, the Am,erican

f"rnm

[yi

kimash i'ta. l The ,Amaric's IilI " ,Jolh III 'i ii s 'from C h iicago,.

EX8Jmpies

Yamada san n~ [hanlash;imlashiu~a~ II tallked 'to Ms,., Y:8Jlmada ..

IH on ,0 watakush i n ~ '~U1d asai i ! P'lle,j):se gi'V'e me 'tihre

Iboolk .. (Pllea,&e g i1ve the book to me.)

• Note that 80m e JiapaneSJ9 verbs, su en as ask and meet, take, an i nd iirec1tt 0.0] act, although the,ir En 9 I ish cou nterpans do not.

[E'xampll&$

'W,ata'kushi wa Tanaka san nl :kik!im'ashita, III ask,edl Mr', Ja,naka~

To modaeh i ni ,a~lmashfitta,. I :Ii met ,my' 'frien d.,

t-_

iUt

Particles 4,9

W~1th statlve (n on -aetlo n) verbs m ean ing there 'i sis re, imesu for J)60P le, ,ar/mas-a for 'thi ngs" nf mean s i1n, at, 0 r '0"" and so forth.

~V'~lm- nl~a 5- ~.n.!!'il!!, _, ,' ..... 'UQ~

MIIE$rT san 'W a, Kyoto n i i m asu. l Ma ry is i III Kyoto., G ~InZll, wa To k.y,o nii arimasu. ! G i I11Iza, is ii n To ky'ID'~ Hah a we depato n~ rm asu, I My mut:l!ile'r is at the

depa rltmen! ,sto're~

Iml)' d1epa,rtmenl

tiiilothe r' sbo'f'e'

Ifor locatlon. 'I he eq ILl iV'aJI,entts of Eng mi sh expressions near! under, ii'lnIs,ide~ on lop, of:! etc, are useful, Nlote how they are formed ln J8!panes1e; Ffifst look at th e f,tJilllowi ~g words:

T1h- - d - - - - '- J - - -- - - - 'iJii f - - - - 'I - t'· - - I

. ", ; ", ······i,·····;; '. : I" [. .;" . ····!·I· ," .':."... .". ' : ," i"" . '1,"

i 688 WOr'l._8 are nouns m , .. ~pane8e., 0 arm a oca._~ona

phrase, the, p.arltk:'h~~' no links another noun to OtJ1,e, ojf these, and th - - th -- - -- - rt'I' - I - n f - ~ i --, ..

.. . " J i . . '. I' ,".. ".' : .'J ····1 ~ ", • i '

_, ,eln 1_, _8 pa, JG e n, ,0_ OWS •

'table ",S b)p on

Han W,:i!. tebu ru no ue ni a rl rnasu, I The bo 0 k i,s, on ,top of' 'the 'ta,ble.

uchi no

hou se 's i f1Iside, lin

.lo n sa n wei uch i no naka ni lmasu, l John ls iin.s iide the house'!

- 'Il>,-

Eh\1

slatJOln 's nearby at

VO binlkyoku wa, ek i no chlkaku n ~ arlmasu. / The post offioe ls nealr ~he sta~:i on,

11;;'V'~'m nlU~le; ~""~ '~. ~'¥~

Nakam ura san wa, main iich i 'Toky,o

a"IiD.-ry-: , .... ,g-y.IIii!f."¥¥_', Y!!;4,.,

n i i ki mas u, I Mrs .. N,akamulra g'o:e,$, to Tot-y1o ev'ery day ..

I ~

Particles 51

Ano h ito 'W,B" Am eri ka n i Ikaeri mash ita .. IIHe ret u rllil ed ,to Am1er;iea"

speclfie ti me

With expressl one of slpec~fic til III e, nJ means ,M '((~,~oc:k tiime), i III

(,-m .... nth !j,J"~'~ .. ~1 """,r 0" ~·da'J~

, !!....II ,I: I ~.) oral J:!I 'IiJ~ . "III ~" . ,1'~.

i:clhnji nl / et one 0 'Ic;~ot'k gogo jQk:hi]i nl I at 1i1 P.M.,

Ano h~:totachi wa, sh ich ilj i ~,arr1 n i ts u klmasblta. J They" a.rliiivied at 7::30"

They

1:310

at iii f:'riived

rokuqatsu nil ii n ,Jlune

lk.ugatt's LI nil I in Sep,t',embe:r senikYI[)hyaku kyOJ n nen n i J iln (the year,) '19'90

Ana hlto WB, shi,gatsu n'i u m,aremash ita. /Iltie' was born in AIPlri II ..

52: Pans of Speech

yea 11" iin J,apan to

,:- ,'1:-, ." ',':=<bc~' .," /' ,- 'n IM-I~n d'~u

ge, suyo" ,II nil" 0, I , ,v 1- ~1

killnyobi nil on Fr~day

G 9Jtsuyobi nii sh Iglot.o, 0 haJi mernasu, /11 beg iin wQ'rk on M,ond,ay.

let's do

Ni~ is usedl WHt~ expresaions such as per hour', pelf' day, per person etc,

Examples

ichii]~ kan n i san d oru ! th ree ,g,oll airs per h,oU'1l"

hOUir pe r 'three d10llla rs

I sshOkan niii yonjUhaJ:h i jji kan hstarsklrnasu. III wo.,rk 48 hours a we,eik~

D,'ake 'I rans ~8i,b:'s 'IEngl~ is h words such as only" a I~ ~ j ust, no m ere 'th,an,- as ma ni, as! and! as mlUc'h as,

'Examples,

.sore dakls d 6SU ka, I ls that ,ail!'?

'th,at: aU

'?

..

I .1.1

tell'e'V Il~aon

I w,l,lch

news Iproglram antl'V w':atcih IOl1lly the

news,.

,

Sukina

tabete kudasel I Please eat a .. s much as you

dake

u ::} .. ,

want, as muc h ISS, eat.

please

r::l ~

Ilhh3 use ot de mean s ii n, al- on" and so fCH1h. II t is used with action verbs, or w'ith etimssu Wh€Hl action is i mpli ed,

Exampille

Panya de kai mash ita. II~ boug ht 'it a1 th e ba kery,.

bakery at bOUglht

De translates bfy~ or by means of.., with~ lin; etc.

Examp,le1s

Taku sh T de, i kl mas h ita. I went: by tax ii.

'taxi by' went

J;~ sho de sh ii rabemashlta, I I c'hec'ke d It in 'the

dictionary,

t "' .... 1' I,

, 'Qr..a I~Jlng

This use of ce connotes a unit a ee rtidn nu mber or ameunt, or tOlgelher..

Examp'h~i,s

futar:ii die ! (by) 'MO' people

willi do

N:iiihon nil

fLltari de

lklmasu. I Two of us wUI go to, Japan ..

sen en di€l<slJ. I A,111 togetl1le!1" it's '1 ,1000 yen.

The m ean~ ng 0,11 ae here, ls 'withli n or i:n' tor a g iVlen Ilength, of tme,

INliis tl uikan

de! d r.:'~<i m asu" /1 eta n do iit: wilhi n tw'o

Ul1Jle~e~ ,L"m:;' 'II'" .. " .. ""~!I!

'two weeks, with'in can do

56 [Parts of -Speech

~c~ijiikan de lkernasu. I You can go in one hour.

Here de: means almlong~, gf,~ wUhin, etc, ~ re'ff:erringl to extent or range.

Kudiamonc}

de

- . ~

ka

flrllil it

of which

'1

Amerika ds,

,

doko rI i' i kitaii d ~SiJ ka, I Whelre' in

I

wi1.hi n where

want to go ?

YO'WI w,ant to,

g--n?

V 'I!!

Here de meens of CN" 'from ,~n made 01 or made frem expressions.

CY'aJ1mp- les

~A ... I .. ~

Kono teburu W,8., ki

made of

'lUO·:·,Q,dl

'W'" ... _ ~

labile

'wood of

is made

,Parlt'icl~~s ,57

gill de tsukurimasbita, IIII made il of: si~wr~

I

Ulke ni; e is, used wu~h verbs; of moflon to ]ndk;ate 10 or toward"

K· '~ , " ,;.

an I oru nl! a e

Ik;a.. I Are, 'you going to

''==r~-! Ca' -I"f - r-'- ." -?

\ ,_ LO, nlfa ~.'

iiiklm,as~

Hodo means as much as:, or as ii " ii as ~ an d it is ofte·.n1 used ill negative constructlons, althouqh the rneanl ng iis posltlve.

IExamplles,

WataklUs,~ i w,a., enata hodo

~ yOlu as much IB,S

lsoqashlku arlrnasen. 11!m not as Ibusly as you are ..

I

111'01 bus')!'

Kore he do olshl i m ono w,a sri m assn '" I 'lhe're~,s

notJlniing as del ic'lious, as thi's,.,

'this

de~ ic ious th ing

Ashi '92 I' ~taku naru I hade aru klrnash ita. II w,a Ilk/ed 'so

I I mille 1'1 thai my feet hurt.

bega,n to the hu rUnlg e:xtenl:

thai

With things th am can be counted, booo msana ,abo ut or a pprllXliimat'eIy ..

IExa'mpiles,

Sen en hodo des LI., Ilt~.s, iabourt 1 ,DOll yen~

'1 ,000 yen ,abou~ ~s

de I dek,~masu.

I '

III ean be ,done in about a week~

I" I

G'n,lj m~r.,atl~M II

Tha meaning of ke her'e ls 011"'1' th at ls, ls1i mg parel lei thin'gs, and 'then chaos!jlng,,,

Exam,p~es

IS,ana na ka ri 1190 0 karm,asho. I Lef,s; buy bananas or apple,s,,,

or apples

coHee- or 'tea Of

eeeoa

i k81ga d esu ka, I Wou lid you liike coff:ee'I!1 tea ~ or cocoa?

howaDout l'

• N ote that ke, I i:~e m,any partlcles has s eve r,aJll mean ingls,. In ~he example above, :jt irs also used aSI the '[I uestlon marker at

the end -' .;ill;.. 0; '~'n .... i!l.fin""""""" I~ '§" §I, I'·' u:~ 'U .illQi aci.·I~tll~" .;".~.

Exampiles

!Kon 0 klsh a wa ~ Kyoto kara :Ki rnasblta . .I Th is 'tr8~'n came, trom

Kyoto"

this train

from came

Watakush~ wa, Nlihan kara klrnasblta. I ~ aim f'ro'm ,Ja.parn,.

III

'from

s~aTtrng' time,

,

Th 9, m·eani 1119 Olf' ksrs here wou ld be expressed ib,y at in

IEng I ls h j b!Ut in Japanese ~ the rneanl ng is 'from a certai n tilM'e and 00 nUn II ing on. I II oth €f word's ~ it is, the beg inn ling of ,8. period of 't]~mle. I·t diuffers from the use of 'Ule panicle ni; 'w'hk~h means at ill pr,ec'ise 'Umeii (Meet IrJI e at one 0" cloc1k .. ),

Examnl~es

. II'F'"

Gemu wa,

kern hallm arirnasu. I The game begins,

at: oae

at eloek,

beg· ii:ns

, ,

game'

one 0' clock from

16-:1

.'.

G.etsuy1obi kana, i~ir(]g!ashiku narlrnasu. I S18'liIiing M.,ollday, I ~III

be busy.

busy

Tanaka san kara k~klmiashifta.! III hea!r.d a 'fr,QIM Mlr,s,. 'Tanalka,.,

Kono, 110n wa, toshokan kana karlm ash lta II borrowed Ihiisi book

ill' ,- --- ¥h'11'r.lJ,m.L ,Ie

I iibr,ary from bar,r'o'we'd II ibra IiY"

this book

made

MtJde' :m'SaJ1l8 u: nUl, IJ s far as, ~t is etten com bin ad with kara' in a sentence .. ,

ExamlP~e

Yugata made ben kyo $ h i m,ash ita.. I I studled unti I evening.

6'" ~

Parts am Speech

Tsugi no ~ado

aru ~d m~asha~ I Let'~',s wa I k as ~fa r as the next cornell' ..

Ga!k:ko wa:. Ikuj i kara sanj i

made

school 9 10 !IC Icc k from :3, o'eloek WI nit'iill des IJ., I Schoo II is from 'SI WI ntii I 3, IO:~ cleek,

ihs

Un Iii ke ,nilS' Urns n m it UJ slag e of' th e p!aJrti ells! d8' (wiilhii n,)~, made oi mean s lby (the time g ivenli or not II,atm'li than.

IExrunpl es GoU

ka. ! Ca n 'you do lt by 5 o:~lcloelk,?

Kayobi made ni h itsuyo desu. I I nee dl I:t: by

TUlesda'y~

IPartiiicies, 63

Ii ",clu dli n g I e~ellJ:dinjg,

Mo means ,al,80 or too'. neperlditng on which w,ard U foUows, lin a 8'en~i@ nee l' mo can trlep~ace wa, ga., 0 r .0. When IILIs'sd with Q, nega.tiive verb, thle mean:iing ts (nOli) eiitheli ~ ,or neither ~ . '. nlOlr;

IExamlplle's Watak.1lj.sh~

"k'ito' • "..

II ' •• ' l'I~ai 'ues u,

/1 want to gOI 100 I,

mo sakana rno

64 Parts of' Speech

f,tlW fish ewen

eats

1 chn doru rno

II d(ui'~ it even h ave one do,liIar.

Shika rnaans ,only, Just. ,Although the meaning is, arfirmatlve, it takes the neg ative form of the. vert).

Exa,mp~e.s

E~glo shtka shlrlmasen, II olnl~Y kno'w En'Qliish~

Engliish 0 nl:, don't know

Shi,nbun sh lka yom lmasen. I I on IIV read

n,ewspapers. ..

To mean sand Wh~ilil stating ,alii poss,mbh:: items ~n a. ~ lst. The lrnplleatlon is and not'hiin9 more,

Exam piles

J on san to M erT' san ga, kl mash iltta .. I Jo h 111 and Mary came ..

E:11 pitsu to,

no to

Ipencds and niolebo!Qk an,;j ruler

Ikai mash ita, .II bOlLllgihl [pe'inCUs, a. noteboo It, and ii, lI'ulleif ..

bought

e ~ k,iilmash ~ta. I I weJlnt to 'time, beokstere 'with 11'11',. Sal,o.

Tornu san to

, Ih " 1'88-0 ru

han 0 kaklm ashta. I II 'wrote a book

w'rth 'togotne 11"' booik

Ono san W8" 'HWattakush i 9 a shlmasu ."

I wiiU d~o

to i lmash ita" J ~,! I"~ II do irt:"n sa id Mlr:" Onro~

Dna san wa~ kare g9 suru to ~~mashita. I Mlr~ 01'10 sald thaI he

"UN"'iiluld- d- 10- '1"11-'

'_'''u - .' .. ' ,I!

Va ls used for and 'when s.tatingl a sample ot, or some of the, ~t'e--Im--- e 'In 0.'.:10 -Ii "I st 9Fh..". lmplleatton !,~ and ethers '~-m- - - -_ -- - tJ .... - --

~~" IF -- .;. j ,~, ~I" II fiI~11 _. ~ ";"'CH, _-, - ~6! ,... - ':- irJ' - -~ • - , p! u_ong Q'Juer.s,j

or such tlhii ngs ;lUl,~ that ls, sam ethi'ng has been I,~,ft out ~

IExamlp~es

Jon san ya IMlerf sa n g,a kj rnasblta, / J!ahn 8lnd Mary calmfe",

lno-t'OI

II ~ .. ".

pSmilci I 81ndi Ino,teJbook, and fU leir

KalinlI8;shita" II bOlUlg ht a p enel ~j til iii otebQQ;k" and a IiUl~l!liil

bought

yori

Used whe~ cornpsrl ngl ithi n gs~ y()t.f m eMS than. T1hiinl~ 'OT! it. as the than in rexprr8ssiiions such as, b iglger' 'thanl, amailier than, befter tho n I WOffse than, rather than, €tCt ,~t is, often LJ sled ~ n ICQlm bin altion 'with hd r(ICO nrtrast) (see, ,18,).,

IK.ore

sore Or kudasat. I Pile,. S9 'g ive me t!ha:t: rath er 'than 'llhi,9~

Pan

yeri

brea.d m or'I' tliloln rice

au kii des u '.' II~ ~ ike [rioe mO'f,e tha n bflead.

samui desu. I Ky,oto ii's !tlol'der' than Tokyo.

Arnerl ka wa, N~hon yoru

o kil desu. I America, iis 1III"Iger thalnl Japa.rIi ..

mere than lalf:ge ts

ga node

Ikara, noni

l~e'redo to

rlag,a;~a,

Ga' means but or a,ltll1ou!S) h. The i1mpl i1cati,on iiiS, desp'ile: the elreu mstanees,

Examples

Samuii des LI gl~tl dekakemash ita .. J Althiou gih irs co,~d,

I went out ..

go

.

I., 'G" . ! . ,~, .... '.' d .' "I., th . '. -'''d' ....~ .' . I . - 'j .. - ,'th th .. ·· ,,". '.' III .' ! . '.

'. a rs 0 rren lUS~,. ar u e enc Ou a, C ause WI Iu. e IIIrl3 Ir.:~ au S~

lrn pi led but: u nsa iidt lh:i s has a sotten ~mg 'B·ff'ec.t on '1 he exchange, with both speakers IJrnders"ttanding the meaning ot what has been ~eft unspoken,

Exam ples

1"'I ... i~~ I~ ~W~1 . ...11 D~ l'li'\~ ILcir.,I;AIL~~. nesu

9 a. , . " I1II ·w.anted tOI go but ~ " ..

~==Ji===~ (I cOllJldn:'t)'"

·want·ed to '90 burl:

Here, f}'CJ mean s :9 n dI~

lExamples,

IH a waj n i ~Ikim\ash~ta. g'a,~ I su barashlka,tta de:csu, I ~ went 10 Ha:w,a ~III, andl it: W,IS' w'omderiuII ii

we nit and .,as 'wonderful

Irlead sind W;8:S, interesding

I I r,ea,d]1t,hat book, an.d It' was ~ n'le I1'&st i n !mI.

IExamples

! sagas,hi i kara

ikemasen. I Because, 1~lml bus'y~ I can't go,.,

b,·.",',I,II' e."y'~ iio;;; -,#iI;'~IU,'-~-, ean't f'lA

!!Iii!I~ ~e"",g __ ~e _-,_!:I!'· '=,'\;iI!'

Arne da kara uchl n i irn asu .. , I S~ nice iill's li'aii'nii n gl, 1"'11 stay Ihomle~

rai III is s,i nee horne at stay

Exam!pl,es,

Tabete kara s h ~g oto to slrri m asu '. I A'Hle Ii eatinIQl" I' ~I do some wo:rtll

'willi do

IffiO~-;'III ........ iI"ii ~ h lte ",~I\III\.'L;.! II ~ Cli L .

kana shi,a,w,ase~ desu,. I Eve!r ,sii nice, he got married, he has ,bee'n ha,PPY·,

Kereao means and,

Exampl~e·s,

'Dapato

I

department 'to we mit: and crowded was

,s~ore

~ -To· -

'Tplk' ush Ii ni notta ksrsdo

. g~;;;> ~ '!. _,~ _ .'1;0'_ _ _ ,

taxi on got: ·an ell

'w-a,s, expens'ive

I ~ look: a taxi, 31nd Ii't: was ex,e'ns,iiv!2\ ..

Ex,aJlm'plles,

'Yo nda kew1ed1ol]1 I waka;r]'m,alsen cleshita~ II ~ ~e~~ 1.1, but' ~Il __ _

I I :~dnl'l Ulndel'!Stand

read but did n't .u ndersta nd

movii:e 'w,as i nteresti ngl ,although

nete sh i,m ai'm,aSi,h ita. I A Ifl!'iCHJ 51 h the movie w,as

- -~ i:nteresti ng", I fe·1111 as,lleepl.

[ nagMa I

Exal1llplles

Aruiki 'f'N3J.g.araj han ash i rnasbita, l Wh ne wa,1 kingl, we

talked.

walilki ng w h i le '~aliked

Gioh an 0 tabs nagara I terebl o mli m asu, l ;\;1. ~1'l:1liI1 eal'Ungl, I w9,t':lh

___ g c_

te levis,ion"

eating as

TV

watc:h

Node means s i nee Dr beesu se when fo no'wed by an ~j'effeDfJ CI,8;US8-

EXaJJm'pliels

Kumo,tt:e iiiru node, umii; n i illkiiml3;Sen.1 I S iin,ce· liit:'!S

,cloud,,', 11m

IliHlt: gO'iin g to

e IIQUIdy is siin ee beac:h bl nlc,t Qloin'g the beaeh ~

'Hash~tta node] tsukaJre'mas'in'[ta. I ReCH;UJSe I Iran, III got: 'tilred.,

,Noni' means iln ,spite of or a Ithoug hll' wilth st~ong contrast between the two, ctauses impUed.

'E: ..... ',.;>i'm- til ~,,-;,,~, ;,..~ I .. ;""II~a

nora, tabemashha, I Aillhouglhl I

d idln ~t wa nl, t'CI eal, ~t, ~ ate! '~t~

d idln lIt 'want ailiho U'.gh ,a,le'

'tD ellt

Talkai no ni ~ kamash i~tta, J An,hough it was

eixp.en s;ive, I bOUJght

it

expenshJie alrthough bought

'14'

I···· "

'When d lsc u ssl ng under wilat condltl on" or un der wh lch elrcurnstance . .to means iif or 'whe'n ..

Exa,mlplle!,s,

Kang,a,e ru to wakalr~masu , I'lif y011!;l tlh jinlk!1 you ~ II LI nde'rs~alnld ~t

t'"hl'I'nk-: 'I\C' "1111 ...:I t- d

' II WII ~ UIIlt...i£!'I'S' ,an--

K,u]~ n i i ku tOI~1 Sane san ni aernasu, Illf you go thle're II....-___,_--l! a,1 9, yOU! oa n see

Mr. Salnc,.,

I 1 I ~

9 ial go :itf' can B-De

Tal~yo n i 'tS'1U ku to I am e gat futte ~mashRa" I Wlt:leln '~

arrlv1ed

in Tokyol, ~I was, If,Ellin ilng.,

ka y10

ne w,a

Ka ~ s ~ i ke ttl e IEng11 lsh que;sUon mark a,l the end cf a senten ce, ln J:apanese, h olwever, the 'word order of a ,statement do as not ohanqe whe'n a, queis[i,oln is lform;ed.

Exam piles

H ori,gluch i san W8!~ kirei d esu, I Mrs., H ori! glu chi is lbeautiful,

beautIr1iWlII Is

H' - .. ,:' ,'. · .. ·h··'·' ..... : '-. k····:· nil· .' .. 1 ... ,'-- 1- ~ '. M - -, Hf:-' -:~,. I, "h"

. . onguc, J san wa ~ Jrel \.i!les'~ ""a.,. liS, . .1 rs.. IJ n Que I II

bBautlifiu~.~'

- -- -- - - - - - - - !!!

~eac'her Is "

lDoka de ban gohan Q. tabetai delsu ka I Where do "IOU w',a,nrt 'to eat: dli nner?

dinne

ltsu

ka, I Whe'D did yo,u s,ludy

Eng I i'sh'?

'1'

studied

eonf rm atlo n

. . .,

Ne Is ,si m Har to 'the IIEri;g ~ish 'tag q IJ estton s don 'It you thiii milk ,SQ,~ or lsn lit it?' It cal ~s for the I lstener to ,a.g res wi,th or co nflrrn what til e speaker has said.

I ne·I/· ~·'~s hot ~'~njl ~I? T .' n_'" 1",11 .~.

iis·n~t irt

is hot

o rnoshl ro~ el ga

deshtta

III was an ilnt,eJestingl movie,

Ii nteresti ngl m oViie

wa6~l~t :iit? was,n"! it:

One, !Usage of yo iss ilm~ lsr to 'the lEn gil ish exclaman on p olnt. lin that sense, it conveys 'e mati on or strongl 'f,ee~~ ng.. lit can also be an ex presslon af ern phasls I such as ~'m cena,ilr1l (o.t what has

~iust been saiiid). Becaus~ men and we men use yO' diffetentJy~ and because ijit can be' as;s,ertiv,s'j begi~nners; shou ~d use it w'~th C8Hri8'.

IExamiP les

Ben k~t6 8h~nasan vo, /: St - d\l'~

:i J - _1l.lI -- i1 -

desu yo. J Mt., Fujii is; besiuUfun

~

M't~, FU~:i beSluit:lifu'll liS ~

U~''''''';,d'' onlv -b' -,", '- --, ,~~ '-~ l~",_a d-,- ,- _n'i'~, ,~-, ,,' II :-'iIi" ,-- >51,---: '-1: -, I'"' ,:- ri ha ""ot.E'!l;

- - Qil!g, !i,J,!il 1 - Y women 5 "'~~ ',' Oe8~ II ~, Ilnan:s _ al~e 8g.SI y,. IL ca!l! a.VIL';:il

both an empha,Uc '~lJInctic nand ,8. soft,en~ng effect

Examples

Totem 0 atsul wa, I lt's very not ..

WUII do

§7

.. : .

"e·· rbs v(~ •• ,_ l~~_-',

§,7.1 'WHIAT' AlAE V'ERBS?

Verbs; are, words, that desc rl be an actio 11 ~ a process, or a state, of b,e~ng,

Verbs ha ve' d1~fferenr~' to rrns whi,e h enable yo u to express

tl . t -" . f -I" lit Ie J b

'_.lime j lirl,entll on,~ . 'ee _ling s,~ po I,_eness,! 9'lC,. ,'-' apan,€--se ver _ s

express these th in gs too, but in d~fferernt ways from tn()SB' of E D1g~ lsh and ather I~ n do- Eu ropean lang uaqes, As, you have, seen ~n §3,~ 'for example, the rnsln verb of a J apanese senten c e' must be, at ,tlhe, end. in th is sectl on! yo u wi I ~ see other diffetences, as weill as SQml8 s'j mil ~ani'1rii ss,

I n Eng l'iish a V9 rb rnu st 9:grae, with its, su bJect iin p erso n ar11dl nurnoer, [In the present ter1SBI for exarnple, a sublect ~n the, firs'! person takes a, d iffemnt verb form fro m a, su b]ect ~ n the thi rd person, And a p~,u ra I su bj;ect in t ne th i rei person ta kes a d ifif'9'rte·nt verb fa rm 'from a, s inglul,ar subjeet.

Singul'ar

Plur,all

I go

s'econ d Person

you go

'you go

lhi rd Person

tJle.y go

78

• II tJ1I J apanese, 89 reernent is n at. an iss we. Vert~s do not have dlii'ff,erent forms to indlcate person, number. or oender, The

.. t. . __ .~ __ _ _ , __ ._~ ~._= .. ll!!!_.

same verb fo rm is used no matter what the su bj set. Th ls is, true tor al ~ ten see"

rkst: Person

i kmasu I II glo I k~ m asu I we go

Th ltd Person

i klrnasu I he/shel i ki m asu I they 'Slo iit glDes,

11_ lip 1

Tlii,s Pf;'~ C,ijpte '~s easy to un(d:~rs,t'EiJld 'i1: ~lO'U Wleme,mber the fdllolwing:: If the m'BEUl ing; is, clear fn~m til ~ D,df'dt9)Ct ina Jap,an'~& SQ'nten fH~i~~ a pronoun i~sl ;npi nedeS'saJrY'. l1herefore! Jkimasu 1ils both a VIStrJiJ ,and a ~~ntenpe".

I~ n E n 9 II hl h ~ except for the i m perali'i vel or corn rnand form ~ a, sentence consis1ung o~' a verb ,a..llon €I iiis, not poss:ibie,.

§1' g

(:'·:'iIi~1

_ --

VE,IRB CONJIUGATIONS,

Japanese v,e lib SJ can be, Chlssifi~d ]nto two mallor gn:nJIPS~ or con~IUgia:mi.ans~ Ths 1~llly e*o9J1rt~'cn1:S la~lli ~W0 i rregtl ~ar v'~1~b5: su1rui tOi doj, 'and ,kuruj to eeme,

. ' .

'1,"9~

, . ,

III ess glroupi n gs, are a basic key to the Japanese velrb syste m. They en able you to chang,e the verb forms for

d iffe\~ent tenses, and moods,

In a dkti,on,ary~ an Eng:Hs.h verb is Hsted in its infiin~f1tt~,ve" or 10 ~,orm: (to), 'g'o,,- ,(to) see, etc. A .Japanese verb, on the other hand, is I isted i n wha~ is c all:ed Uts "dlc,tion ary form." The dietile n,ary term ls the. basts for cai~egonl zl ng' a v'erb ~ nto one ot 'tjr.e two m ajolr ()Ofllj uga,fiIo ns,

The two giro ups, di'ffer in how' th ey form their ,stems, Sin d thEf~r ~ nfi n i~ive.s., Th e ,sitem, ls the most i rnportant infl,e,ctiona I base! wh lch may ch ange,~ or to wh leh diifferen,t sutflxes, or

,e ndi ng,s ~ ere ad dec, to snow t'€U1Se, moo d, and pol lten ess level. The i nf,iini,tivre is, the, second most ~mport8nt i nl~19cUOna~ base,

iln t~:~s! groug~1 the. v'erb slerri!ls ~nd in a QOrFrsonarrt IHe,. fen'le! i they 'may be, caned c-stem verbs" as; we shaH do tlEU'Et B,OOB.U,$8 ~h~, stems, are fO:nfled "by' dli~,p,p:~ng the' ninal u, th i!5 "~s also refrerrad to G thi~ u ... dropginu conjuga;1ion~

i.I[ I, • .

and ~he v,erbs mia'y be cal,led u-!dll'oppi'hg ve.rbs.

!

How Cain you tell a Co i1 sonant ,(:0 nj uiI.8Jtiofl 'Verb?

.' ~'f the d i ctto nary to rMI en ds in anytlhii ng Ibutt -ens or -ku, it: belongs i n th~cs group,.

I H" . A, - - f- " ..... - ~ ..... ~ - i)' ,r::YWiokO YOLI "arm '"'Ie stem ."

• 'To f,orm the stern of ~he verb j drop the fina~ -u.

Verb,s 81

'.' For a few vie nos, certain sound clha:n'lQles are III scessary:

I'f ,~ '.l ..... rb ,e' nds "In' ,mS.-'U-' the' ste ·,m···· ends "In ;to~ b ..... f .... re '~, ~IU""I'v'

I, q.!it ~ U - ,;;:, 1- _ l " ,- .::L ~ II ' I ...,,- l-~ v,e;; a .;JI-! m II A

b egi nn i nlg with i, or s before other ,SUffli X!9S,

Af' ,e., verb ends ln ,~'(O!~ ~ the stern ends IOn ,.,.h betors ,~, ol"!'UU"IV II'_ q,~r~ I~:~ 11,-,41'"'-'1 [ ~'~,:''''''-I '~l __ ~ III1 i, .. iUG, !Ul1'~' ~ .;j n ,A-

b eginn i n 9 with i i 0 r t before other suffixes;" For exampl e:

OFtM

8,2. Parts of Speech

I f' a verb ends ~ n ,=;a'U.~ -iu. or -,OU! i,t lilS, stl ~~ consieered a e-stern va rb, an d irtl belo ng s ~ n ttl ~s. ,grOUI), even tho ugh a

~ . ft' t- h . d d Th " t h to-

- ., . :.,' -. • -. , '. -', . "1. I, . • .' ....•. ". . , .' - • . ~ .",. _' ..•. .' _,_ • -' , , I ,- ',' . - .

'lowe f'Bma!lrlS at er I I,e U IS, oroppec . e reason is ma a,

m~ ssl ngl !j,w!' i,s conslde red 'the f nail OQnSOll8Jilt ()of the stem" That WI althou gih not used llin t he aff~rmlative' forrna ls needed for some of th e· n,egla1 i.ve' torrns. For exa,mlpl,e:

DICT~:ONARY' FORM I: ·STEM EN:GLISH
I,
I I I
:5himau Ishima(~)- 10 pm away
I
\I I,
kau ~a('w) to buy
'. " .. 1-
!,
,I
ilLl ~(w)- to say
1
J ~' I
,Olmou om Ol[wj = to think
Ii • I , '. Some verbs that end lin "'9iU' an d -in) b el)Fn'gl to th e e-stern verb group.. Here are a few exa m ples:

1 D'ICtIONARY' I
FORM S,TEM EINGLI,SH
r: , :~ III
hairtl halr- to enter
r' I
kaefU ka~r- 'to return
-.
,-. ' ~ ",. r
sh~ru sihli'r- 'to imow
01 -_I~
L ~in~1 kir- tG' cut
hll lr- '10 n80m
I '_, i
.. r , Nlote that ,kiru~ to eut, ls a e-stern verb. When prone u need I the first :sy~ l,ab~ e is stressed, The verb kin», t'OI wlear j is, a v-stern verb (,see §'1'"a-2). Wnen pronounced l' t.he second s}"II.abll e is stressed,

~n, il~!$ ~rrQrup, U'Je verb ste me end in 3. v,o'weJ~ TllereJdI~e,~ 'tlh:ey' rl'imIy be, ,calli ed v' ... stem vews, [IS, w'e shalll do, hem,. Blsc;allJSe·1t1S sterns ami fotrm eel b~ d !1opp'i'ng 1ihe·' '(u:rn:al til], I t'hlis is ,~lsC'J' r,eferrl~!ld to as t~te ru .. droppillg conJug'alio~, aMd th e vef,DS ms¥ be e~;rdl ~ d fu .. dro'ppiin,g verbs,

• Miost verbs with dh:~tiof'1 ary forms, wh~'cl1 '9 no in -etu and -tro' II slon g ~ n th i 9, glrou p. (For some ex:cept~ ons, see '17013-11.,)

H- -', ,,' ·d-·'··'-:-·'· ~-~-:- ~-h"~' -;:-·t·-:-~? , OW" 0 you ill'P! m ~~,.8 S .ei'~'ll ~

Sli.EM

84, Parts of ,Spe~ch '§,]~,4, T'HE INlf~N~TlV'E

The, ii nfi n'i'tii ve is also an ~ mportant base fot con s1t~u ctl tJl g, oth er verb form s. TOI f,orm th e ~n~inji';tive~, do the f'(lIIIO'wing:

'. for e-stern verbs, ,adld =i b) th e stern, For exam ple:

DIC'fIONARY FORNI

liN FI NI.TI~V1!

isogu

STEM

isogl-

r

I .. I' ... ;"

nill,d-

nur-

yomu

"'Lt~m"", I~~ .

• ' for v'=siltem verbs., ad d nothing to the stern, [,I n th is con j u,ga~ tlon, the, stem and the ~r1ifi nitive are the serne . .} For ex;81lmpl,e:

iirUi

INfiNITIVE

r-

kangaeru

"

rni-

Verbs 85

• F'~ ,it the ." -":leg'l -'I ar Ijj,ia,",~,c;. th ~ form . ~ ~, .. ~. ~ ~ " .... III, .... ·w·e.,' · _ '(h I~" g I IT Q .. ' U \~¥ gl l)oq., -lll.gc ;;;:! !C:lII1 D G';:) II U. I!J. "~"

kuru

The J,apane~e luse d ufif18'rent S'8'tS.! or levets, of verb fonns dependi ngl on the po ~~t~ ness r€;q]ui rem ents of th e sltuan on ~

and .:If .... e~ rel atlons a.. 'I I'll "!iI'm~' 0'- 'iI"ii,1fj :tj!;..,n speakers II!::'o' r [ ... , .... ~n·· -Jap · . ....:!iln~;e!o ~ ~ . _ IIU III .. ~ ~~IL " ..... '1' !Q! ~ ~I_ f"'" ,~ _I" .. ,~ I;:; c !J1'!i;i' ,;:;JI t"".~Ii'\~1 ~" Ii". II I V .' _ .. n G";;:)'!~!

uS'jing the d ~fferent poillit,ermess, ~ eveiis co'rrec~I'y takJf!cs, a. great deall of 'so<penlen,clB 'wi~hl ·U'le· Japanese bang wage and ,ctJI:tu.m ..

1M t- t I I J ~ " d 1.' "- d"1 ~ l'~

• I. , .\', I ", I" - .. ']': .'. '. '. '. " .:. :: ~. ,,". 1 ' - . -' ., - .' - -, ~ - .'. .'.

e,WQ rn os - '6 ammon eves are ca ec I P ,~~un anc po J. e ~

The, plain verb forms are used \"ii~h ~ IlHtu9idiiiate tam illy mernoers

d II f· d d . II Th I't f h

--;-:-: I' . "', "', .. _._ - . i'· l '1' . ," ,'", '"., ,. . ,:. . .. ," . -',' ",' ". I: - /_', -

an_c,ose nsn ".S an aSSOCI8!. es .. I ie po I e arms, ave a,

wider r;iiI1IQ'Et. and are more approptiate for gene:r,al use, especwally 'for students OT! .Japanese.

The examples be!~ow show two' ways of sayinlQ the ·same ·t·k'· = g" '0','":-'--:' ,n,I'~(I'n' """h~lo and one p .... I."to. ~ty··I~ N'·· .... te ,tllo-..,~· dl'lff,'~~n-,'t"' _,~ I~n , .~' ne t"""iI;i!!J" ""!I,..1~·~:1 Pi! II ~ _ III !.....cu 1",'9 a .•. ' §. . I!J G !~ I",," I~i v ,

ve'rb to rm s

. - . . I - I I ' . :-

.' .. ' ",' .-.. '.

Pla;~n

da I dilct~o'nary form

d"1 - H' - /. t- d

,'." "'0"'1"' ~-.,:..

_"ai, _8,.. ta, ;,9,

Present Past

Present Past

desu I -mssu desh ita I -rnash ita

• B.Ot1~ plain and po,lute· forms are, introduced wtth new verbs, th rouglhout: th is chaptew~

86 Parts of Speech

l

a ta beta" J I ate dinner ..

I

fliAllN SENTlENC'E

dinner

po ilite 'fnrm

POil~TiE to tabernashlta II~ aite di n nero.

SENT1t;l~ldE

At-~hOlJgh raa~er.sof thiis, bQQlk ~houldl'use the

po~ ite levell' both ~or,m'S rn u S'~ be' II,eB;finedL TIl is, rnSI beo$us~ fj~I~' p!II~J n fdm, can 'frunc,tion ,oth;er ttl an as 'lIne main '~erb~. When the Mlain verb 1011' the :senten~e~ the one 81 t!&U3' end I' '~ s i ~I ·~tl9 pol its formJ: .. 'D~n er verbs, earner'~ n 1t:he same ~e~mencel uSlIal'ly take th e pi rain fot'rr'L

The 'follow iing exam p'~es show' two sentences that 'say the same thingl" one pl.E:ti;n style, ~he other polute~ Nets that both sentences use a p~ai 11 vef1b form, t~beta ~ 'For ate. ,And ke-ep Ii n mind that: th s< verb at the end ds'b3'rmli nes t ~~H3< po~iteness, Ilevel fer the entlre sentence.

Verbs

B~'.., . .. .,~

EXaJrrn piies

II

PLAINI SEN'''n~,N[:E

Ban gohan

I

t b t t t b· tt

' :, ,'- "'_ ,I', .', ,:' '_, ,; ," ,"',' " I

Q aoe a ,a, 011' -ere ""il 0 mna ..

I I

dinn.er

I After '~ ate d iinlne,.

"

I watched TV;,

p,llain form

POILrrE SENlEINC:E

ilean gahanl 0 itab~a ate. lerebi 0 mi ma~hita.

I ,I I ~ I

dinner

watched!

I ,Afte,I''' I ate d i nll,er;.

I 'watched W@

In the sections, on verbs, that: fo,IIIIOW~ both the plain and pol it€: forms w'~I~ I b €' gli\H:~n. A~ttiough ttu~n} are oth er" more forlnal verb torms, 'these '~wo Ill!vels should b e ,appro'r~Hla~'e for the Irea,der~ needs.

IE'ri'g ~h~h has one verb '~O express, the, mean ing 10 be'i aJtJt1 oug h

that !LJ'~"b" '*, .... kes 156\,1""'" ",r-i.~ 'oI!l ..... i'i;mn.~ 1~;i;!i;F!I'!i. "i,~, ~i\;ffi; 'il'"'.fffii!i'!' 'iilliiniJiIA etc ~

,om II'QI~, V ~u : ~~ ,!pl~ ';:;';~'11!!:;>lf CJI~ II VI II :!l.~, ~1;;II.11'll~ I,~, !I1;III1. ~ ,lI'IIg ..... :!; .. '~. ~'I I!.? ''''''"'''J •

,J apan ese has three different: words,! each expressl rig a pa.rti(: l]tI,aw' aspect a,f the mean i ngl of' 10 be':: des'U ~ arimasu'l

d"

an Imasu.

'Oft~n ca~'led the, cop ILl ~a,. aeeu is used when you want to ii ndi = cats sueh 1hi f}lgs as co nd rUo n, q llJaHt.y numbet, ch a raeterlstlcs or idelnt~ty:. 'Vo u can unde rstan d it. more easHy ~f yo u think of aesu as mesn i rag not on Iy :ils" but also lequalsj, 'especially wi'~h two nou ns or noun phrases, Ilif you can StU bstltute e qjllJal:s; tor Is in an Engl ish senb3',fU:;19 such as Tihis equ81ls/lis 81 'bololk air Mrsm Smith equ:81lsJis my best 'friend~ aeeu is the, word you want:..

A~~holJ gh the pol rre forms des'U (p re'sent) and d~S'h'ita (past) ,am the ones you wilill U~H3' moat often" yuu s,houlldi know th e followiing forms as well,

I

P'res:~r:tt

da dssu

[Plainl Polib!,

Pm"J~L\.;,I~ .. lUdI\a!§

Plain P;olite'

dew,s iIlakatta de'WI~l ,a!ri rnasen dsshlta

dew,s nal daJiO deW,B nai ch!sn6

IEx:,amplles,

K,o,r!s wa, ho n dssu, l This, ls a book~,

T ··Ik·· ',',. I .... . .. ,.c ~ '~i I ..... c -, I· 11··1'· Ta···, 'k" .. ' •. ... _ .... :-h - rana a san wa~, sense aesu. .. " ,rvlFlO II na,a IS ill lie·ale er ..

weaihe'l!" good

Otenkl ga,

de sh 0-::-' /. TIl..- W ..... ·!'!:i~ .... A' .... ' .. iliili·1111

f' . ,0. _ .•. e 1I'I!~ 'l!Iio;uUIIII'!I!!O'II'H1 I

b hi b- - b- - - d-

." ,,". .' .... ' i . i·

pro ay e .,·AI· ~

bad will probably [ble

wa, kl no byo,ki desblta, I Hel was sick

'yesterday~

he

,,'~c;ll;,erd~ ~ yeQ~ __ ----'1

sick. was·

Ar:im8SU m eans is, or exis1:s for the locaticN'1' of i nanlmate thilingls" It also expresses the idea. of Engliiish ,to have" [~' you thiiin'jk, of the M1ealn ing as, i(somet1h~ng) e,xis,ls/is located l{somewhenJ'), arim'8;su is the wOi~d you 'want BeC,amJS8'

.' .

arl'm,{flS'U ls a, sta~ive (no'tl -actlonl verb, the pat1~(~:~e ni is used

wUhi expressio,ns ,erf location.

Examlple

!Han wa, tebu ru no ue n i srlmasu. I The: book. is on tthe table'.

tab1e 's top on

~ n the to have meenl n 9 of enmesu, ~he tn i ng possessed ~ s the SIJ b]ect of the se ntenee, and takes the particle ga.

Examp,les

Okane ga anm asu ka .. tlDiD YCNLI have ,any m,[Hley?

('As fOIf Y'cu, d:oles Imoney e.xisti?),

IH ere are th e other forms, of' ari rnasu:

wima'su' I is, B,xists, Afiirmatiiye' Ne.gatlive I ' ~I
J
" ~ -
PI~e~ent: Plain ar11U I n:a:il
."
Polilite aMiimasu awimas~n
I
"
Pas\ P~ain fl I n.akatta.
an a I
T~ _.-
Pollir~e a~~mashita - ~"- - d' h"ita
I aJrlm,a$~n ~'eS-II'-
. ~, •
Probabl,s, P~lain ai'lL! dJ .~ ~ -~ 'daror
, am na]
PoU't'l~' aru ~!;¥:5hffi rial des~a
, ; Examples

in ls

Verbs 91

station 'where

J ~ she g,a ,a,'ni mas UJ ka, I Do yo u have II d ie,tiona rrv?

I

d. ,.1

II ctUlnalry

~ ~e I a rlmase n. I No i 'II dO(II1't l(hav1e a d i c1iiQ1neIllY) ..

Koko nl koen 'ga ,a:rimasi~dta,. I There was a park here.

I I i

here Dark was

lmasu ~ s all so a ::;,taUv9 {no n -a,etion.) verb used to e,-xlPress 'is or e\xists for leeatlon, 'B ut tmssu is used for i ivi tJ'1IQ th ~ng,S'people, snlmals, mseets tno:t plants). lin,s particle ni ls used with imasu when 'the Ilocaftiolri i's, specified.

,"mariti ii S also used as an auxillii,8Jfy verb to, i'olrm the pro-

g rssslvs te nsss, where it tu nctions just, Illi ke the IEng I iislh ls: He is, '{:1 Ding'l I was Qloi I1lg" etc;~ B ecause th~ s mean i I1>g of ims'su is disclISSH!d i~n §7~:7-' ,8Jndl '§,1,J"--811 the ,examp'~es, below w~ill oeal with on ~y the ;1 oeatlonal mean ~ng. If-liirst~ ,rN3r18 ate 'Ul'6 other forms of' irn'Qsu:

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