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Welding

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(pg 784)

Due to lower initial cost, many structural parts of a machinery formerly made by casting are now fabricated by welding. In the Figure 1 below, smaller components are fabricated separately and later welded together to form the complete assembly.

Fig. 1

Welded Parts

As a fasterner, welding usually provide greater strength at a reduction in weight compare to bolts, rivets and others - an important advantage for moving parts of machines and transport equipment. A common type of welding used is arc welding and gas welding. This topic concentrate on the selection of the correct welding size for arc welding type.

Fig. 2

Arc Welding with coated electrode

Objective:

• to do stress analysis on the group of welding. • to decide the correct size of the welding under static loading.

Scope:

• Only arc-welding is considered in this analysis. • Fillet welding only. Butt welding is not included.

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Sample of Welding symbols applied on work-piece

Fig. 3 FILLET WELD (a) number indicate leg(h) size and (b) symbol indicate that the welds are intermittent and staggered 60 mm along a 200 mm centers

Fig. 4 FILLET WELD The circle on the weld symbol indicates that the fillet welding is to go all around.

Fig. 5 BUTT or GROOVE WELD (a) square butt-welded on both sides; (b) single V with 600 bevel and root opening of 2 mm;

FORCE AND STRESS ANALYSIS (Fillet Weld) - DIRECT AND SHEAR LOADINGS
If load, whether direct or shear, is applied to weld, failure will occurs at the section of smallest cross-sectional area ABCD which is called the throat area i.e along line AB which is called the throat line. Loads applied in welding can be categorized into Primary and Secondary Loads.

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PRIMARY LOADS i) Axial loads (Tensile or Compressive)
If l is the length of the weld, t is throat size, F is load applied, then in diagram below for Weld resisting tensile load ,

σ=

F F F = = AreaABCD A t ⋅l F 0.707 ⋅ w ⋅l 1.414F w ⋅l

σ=

=

ii) Shear loads
For diagram below, shear load is applied to the weld and the failure occurs along the line AD.

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τ=

V V = AreaABCD t ⋅l V 0.707 ⋅w ⋅ l 1.414V w ⋅l

τ=

=

SECONDARY LOADS iii) Bending Load

Secondary SHEAR stress due to bending ,

σs =

M ⋅yi I

iv) Torsional Load

Secondary SHEAR stress due to twisting ,

τs =

T ⋅ ri J

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Using STANDARDS (to find weld size)
The objectives of the analysis is to employ several tables and figures in specifying the length of the legs of the fillet, the pattern of the weld and the length of the weld. The tables and figures are provided in the standards (but only a few is shown in this book).

Allowable shear stresses and forces on welds

The allowable shear stress and force per in of leg is obtained from Table 20-3 Pg 785.

Formula for Type of Loading
Direct tension & compression f= P Aw V Aw M Sw T ⋅c Jw Eqn 20-4

Direct transverse shear

f=

Eqn 20-5

Bending

f=

Eqn 20-6

Twisting

f=

Eqn 20-7

Geometry Factors for weld analysis
Various formulaes for different welding patterns are shown in Fig 20-8 Pg 786.

Minimum weld sizes for thick plate
Minimum leg size for fillet weld is influenced by plate thickness. See Table 20-4 Pg 787.

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Procedure to analyze welding
1. 2. 3. Draw freebody diagram Identify the geometry of the weld according to Figure 20-8 pg 786. Identify the types of Loading/stresses to which the joint is subjected (bending, twisting, vertical shear, direct tension or compression). Analyze the joint to determine the magnitude and the direction of the force on the weld due to each type of load. Combine the forces vectorially at the point(s) of the weld where the forces appear to be maximum.

4.

5.

Sample 1
Find Aw, centroid,Sw, M, Jw, T, c (if appropriate) for welding patterns 1a & 1b. 1b) bending load (weld region E-F-G-H) (given EF=140mm, FG=200mm)

1a) twisting load

Aw = 2 ⋅( 100) Jw = 100
3 2 + 3 ⋅ ( 100) ⋅80

Aw = 200 + 2 ⋅( 140) y = 200 + 2( 140) 2 ⋅( 200) ⋅( 140) + 140 3 140 ⋅⎡2 ⋅( 200) + 140⎤ ⎣ ⎦ 3( 200 + 140)
2 2

140

2

6 Swt = Swb =

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Sample 2
The bracket in (as in Sample 1b) with F = 7.5kN and horizontal distance, L = 12cm) is shown in figure below. Determine the safety factor if leg size w = 6mm of AWS E70 and the bracket is located in a building. ASTM A36, A441 for building structures & Electrode AWS E60, E70, etc Given: force F = 7.5 ⋅ kN Distance L = 120 ⋅mm  w = 6 ⋅mm b = 60 ⋅mm    d = 120 ⋅mm M = 9 × 10 N ⋅mm
5

Bending moment, M = F × L   PRIMARY LOADS:

Direct Vertical Shear Aw = b + 2d F fs = Aw Aw = 300 mm N fs = 25 mm

Geometric Factors for shear, Welding length : Max force applied per mm thk

SECONDARY LOADS: Geometric Factors for Bending : At top pt. B: At bot pt. A:

Bending Force (secondary) Swt = Swb = 2b ⋅d + d 3 d ⋅( 2b + d)
2 2

Swt = 9.6 × 10 mm
3

3

2

3( b + d)

Swb = 6.4 × 10 mm N fbt = 93.75 mm N fbb = 140.625 mm

2

Max force applied per mm thk

At top pt. B:

M fbt = Swt M fbb = Swb

At bot pt. A:

( critical )

Combine both secondary and primary loads The equivalent force: fe = fbb + fs
2 2

N fe = 142.83 mm

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Calculating allowable load (strength) of welding rod For E70 : Allowable force per inch of leg 11200 lbf N = 1961 in mm

N ⎞ ( w) in of leg ⎛ N ⎞ ( w) ⋅mm N ⎞ ( w) ⋅mm of leg Fall = ⎛ 1961 = ⎜ 1961 = ⎛ 77.2 ⎜ ⎟⋅ ⎟⋅ ⎜ ⎟⋅ mm ⎠ ( 1) in of leg ⎝ mm ⎠ 25.4 mm of leg ⎝ mm ⎠ mm of leg ⎝ N ⎞ . = ⎛ 77.2 ⎜ ⎟ ⋅w mm ⎠ ⎝ Welding rod size, w = 6mm Conclusion : Allowable Load, Fall = ⎜ Fall 463.228 η= = fe 142.83

⎛ 1961 ⎞ ⎟ ⋅6 25.4 ⎠ ⎝

N Fall = 463.228 mm

η = 3.243