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Laboratory Manual

Experiments in

Circuit
Analysis

Engr Khawar Javed


Asst Prof of Electrical Engineering

U n i v e r s it y o f S o u t hA s ia
L a h o r e ,C a n t t
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I n t r o d u c t i o n

Electric Circuit Manual, presents a series of projects in which a through,


practical investigation is made or basic electronics component/circuits and
the principles underlying their behavior.

The projects are designed to be correlated with a second course and the
content in each based upon concepts developed in preceding projects. The
projects were planned with the following objections.

1. To have all the essential hardware assembled on each panel so that


students need not concern themselves with time wasting procurement
to parts needed for given experiment.
2. To devise projects that verify the principles of electronics’ theory and
to include self-teaching features in the projects whereby the student
can observe a step-by-step pattern or structure of related ideas. This
cultivates the analytical powers of the students.
3. To present each project with introductory information of a theoretical
nature essential for an insight into the manner in which theory and
practice are bridged.

At the conclusion of each project the teacher should require the student to
write a brief report regarding the electrical principal or law under
discussion, and indicate the particular aspects of the project which reveal
this law to him. it is also suggested that in the preparation of such a report
the student should include a parts list of the components involved. This
will develop a familiarization with the standard nomenclature associated
with typical components.

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This Electric circuit Laboratory Manual is suitable for one of academic
term of study in Electronics and goes along with the second course of
Electronics.

Acknowledgment

This Laboratory manual is the result of the dedication and encouragement


of many individuals. Our sincere and heartful appreciation goes to all of
them.
First of all I would like to thanks Chairman of USA Mr Mehmood Sadiq
and Professor Engr Dr Junaid Zafar (Dean of Electrical Engineering,
University of South Asia, Lahore Cantt), The most knowledgeable and
experienced person in the field of Electrical Engineering. Also I would
like to express our sincere thanks to Asst Prof Manzar Ahmad (HOD of
Electrical Engineering, University of South Asia, Lahore Cantt) for this
helpful suggestion on the organization of the laboratory manual.

In additional, The following Professors and Students found errors while


using the laboratory manual in it’s pre-publication from in their Analogue
Electronic Circuit ,and we thank them sincerely ,Lecture of Electrical
Engineering Mr Naveed Khalid(USA) and Mr Waqas Arif(USA).

Muhammad Ali Johar (USA), Idrees sohail (USA), Kamran Tariq


(USA),Usman Waheed(USA) are brilliant students of Circuit Analysis
made many valuable suggestions.

We enjoyed writing this laboratory manual, and hope you enjoy reading it
and using it for your course and projects, please let us know if you have
any suggestions or find any error.

Author: Engr Muhammad Khawar Javed


Hafiz_khaver@hotmail.com

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Safety Rules and Operating Procedures

1. Note the location of the Emergency Disconnect (red button near the
door) to shut off power in an emergency. Note the location of the
nearest telephone (map on bulletin board).

2. Students are allowed in the laboratory only when the instructor is


present.

3. Open drinks and foods are not allowed near the lab benches.

4. Report any broken equipment or defective parts to the lab instructor.


Don’t open, remove the cover, or attempt to repair any equipment.

5. When the lab exercise is over, all instruments, except computers,


must be turned off. Return substitution boxes to the designated location.
Your lab grade will be affected if your laboratory station is not tidy
when you leave.

6. University property must not be taken from the laboratory.

7. Don’t move instruments from one lab station to another lab station.

8. Don’t tamper with or remove security traps, locks, or other security


devices. Don’t disable or attempt to defeat the security camera.

9. ANY ONE VIOLATING ANY RULES & REGULATIONS MAY


BE DINED ACCESS TO THESE FACULTIES.

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GUIDELINES FOR
LABORATORY NOTEBOOK
The laboratory notebook is a record of all work pertaining to the
experiment. This record should be sufficiently complete so that you or
anyone else of similar technical background can duplicate the
experiment and data by simply following your laboratory notebook.
Record everything directly into the notebook during the experiment.
Don’t use scratch paper for recording data. Don’t trust your memory to
fill in the details at a later time.
Organization in your notebook is important. Descriptive headings
should be used to separate and indentify the various parts of the
experiment. Record data in chronological order. A neat, organized and
complete record of an experiment is just as important as the
experimental work.
1. Heading: The experiment identification (number) should be at
the top of each page. Your name and date should be at
the top of the first page of each day’s experimental work.
2. Object: A brief but complete statement of what you intend to find
out or verify in the experiment should be at the beginning
of each experiment.
3. Diagram : A circuit diagram should be drawn and labeled so that
the actual experiment circuitry could be easily duplicated at any time in
the future. Be especially careful to record all circuit changes made
during the experiment.
4. Equipment List: list those items of equipment which have a direct
effect on the accuracy of the data. It may be necessary later to locate
specific items of equipment for rechecks if discrepancies develop in
the results.
5. Procedure: In general, lengthy explanations of procedures are
unnecessary. Be brief. Short commentaries alongside the corresponding
data may be used. Keep in mind the fact that the experiment must be
reproducible from the information given in your notebook.
6. Data: Think carefully about what data is required and prepare
suitable data tables. Record instrument readings directly. Don’t use
calculated results in place of direct data; however, calculated results

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may be recorded in the same table with the direct data. Data tables
should be clearly indentified and each data column labeled and headed
by the proper units of measure.

7. Calculations: Not always necessary but equations and sample


calculations are often given to illustrate the treatment of the
experimental data in obtaining the results.

8. Graphs: Graphs are used to present large amounts of data in a


concise visual form. Data to be presented in graphical form should
plotted in the laboratory so that any questionable data points can be
checked while the experiment is still set up. The grid lines in the
notebook can be used for most graphs. If special graph paper required,
affix the graph permanently into the notebook. Give all graphs a short
descriptive title. Label and scale the axes. Use units of measure. Label
each curve if more than one on a graph.

9. Results: The results should be presented in a form which makes


the interpretation easy. Large amounts of numerical results are
generally used for small amounts of results. Theoretical and
experimental results should be on the same graph or arrange in the
same table in a way for easy correlation of these results.

10. Conclusion: This is your interpretation of the results of the


experiment as an engineer. Be brief and specific. Give reasons for
important discrepancies.

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Electric Circuit
Table of Contents [DC PART]
S. Description Page No. Date of
No Completion
1. Introduction to the Lab 6
apparatus & resistance
color code.
2(a). 10
To Measure the
CURRENT.
2(b). 15
To Measure the
VOLTAGE.
3.
20
To verify the Voltage
Rises & Voltage Drops.
4(a). 24
To verify experimentally
the relationship b/w I, V
& R in a circuit.
4(b).
28
To verify the Ohm’s
Law.
5. 32
To verify Ohm’s Law in
Parallel circuit.
6(a). 44
Voltage Division.

6(b). 49
Current Division.
6(c). 53
KCL.

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Table of Contents [ AC PART]

1.
Measuring Ac Voltage.

2.
Using an Oscilloscope

3.
Oscilloscope.

4.
Combining Resistors and
Capacitor.

5.
RC wave Shaping.

6.
Capacitive voltage
division and filtering.
7.
LC filters.

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Experiment – 1
Introduction to the Lab apparatus.
Introduction to Laboratory Apparatus:
This experiment will provide exposure to the various test equipment to be
used in subsequent experiments. A primary purpose of this lab course is for
you to master the use of electronic test equipment. The devices we will be
using include DC power supplies, breadboards, digital multi meters”DMM”,
oscilloscope and a function generator.

1. Introduction to resistor color code:

A resistor is a two-terminal electrical or electronic component that resists an


electric current by producing a voltage drop between its terminals in
accordance with Ohm's law: The electrical resistance is equal to the voltage
drop across the resistor divided by the current through the resistor. Resistors
are used as part of electrical networks and electronic circuits. Most axial
resistors use a pattern of colored stripes to indicate resistance. The resistors
in the lab have 4 bands but the resistors with six bands are also available. An
example given below describes how to calculate the resistance from color
bands.
R=V/I

2. To determine the value of resistance from its color


code.

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3. To determine the value of resistance from its color
code.

The first two bands on a resistor are always the first two digits of the
resistance. The third band contains the third digit, but may not be included in
some resistors. After the first two or three digits comes the multiplier. This
number represents the power of 10 that is then multiplied with the first digits
to give the resistance. Note that a gray or white band used as the multiplier
has two possible meanings. The bands usually represent 10^8 and 10^9, but
in some oddballs they may actually mean 10^-2 and 10^-1. More often you
will see a silver or gold stripe used to represent 10^-2 and 10^- 1. The next
band, and most often the last, is the tolerance band. This band indicates what
the actual value of the resistor may be. The actual resistance of the resistor
must be within this percentage of the rated value, or else it is considered no
good. The reliability and temperature coefficient bands are not included on
many resistors, and they will never both be on the same resistor. A reliability
band indicates the failure rate per 100 hours. The temperature coefficient
band specifies the maximum change in resistance with change in
temperature, measured in parts per million per degree Centigrade (ppm/°C).
You will see reliability bands more often on older resistors and temperature
coefficient bands on newer ones. If a resistor has four bands total (or three
bands if the tolerance is ±20%), it will contain two digits, a multiplier, and a
tolerance band. If a resistor has five bands and is a newer one, it most likely

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has three digits, a multiplier, and a tolerance band. If an older resistor
contains five bands, it is probably one containing two digits, a multiplier,
tolerance, and reliability band. You will probably only ever see newer
resistors with six bands, and they will include three digits, multiplier,
tolerance, and temperature coefficient bands. Let's say you have a resistor
with a yellow, violet, red, and gold band. The first band represents the first
digit, and a yellow band means 4, so the first digit in the value of
the resistor is 4. The next band is violet; meaning 7 is our next digit. The
next band is our multiplier, and will tell us to what power of 10 we must
multiply the first two digits by. A red band in the multiplier means 10^2, so
to get the value of the resistor we must multiply 47 by 10^2. This gives us
4,700 ohms, or 4.7 kilo ohms. The last band is the tolerance, a gold band
meaning the actual value must be ±5% of the value on the resistor. So the
actual value of the resistor may be anywhere from 4,465 ohms to 4,935
ohms. If we were to then measure the resistance of the resistor with a DMM
and found that it was <4,465 ohms or >4,935 ohms it would be defective.
4. To measure a resistor using multi-meter.
Your instructor will give you 5 resistors of various values and tolerances.
Examine each one and determine its resistance and tolerance according to its
color code. Record the color bands, the coded resistance value and the
tolerance in following table.
Resistor Coded Tolerance Max. Coded Min. Coded Measured Error
Color Code Value (%) Resistance Resistance Value using
() () DMM( ) (%)
(Record ()
four color
bands)
Red-violet- 27K 10% 27k+2.7K=2 27K2.7K=24.3K 25.1K 7.04
Orange-Silver

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Experiment 2(a)
To Measure the CURRENT.
Equipment & Component:

1. Digital Multi-meter
2. 1-foot of#22 copper wire
3. 1-foot of #22 nichrome wire
4. 15ohm 5% 1/2 watt resistor
5. Bread board
6. Power supply
PROCEDURE:
1. Construct the circuit shown in figure (below) using 1-foot of #22
copper wires.

2. Connect the positive lead of your digital multi-meter to the end of the
copper wire at point A in the figure above. Leave the negative end of your
multi-meter connected to the GND terminal.

3. Set up your multi-meter range to 500 mA and observe the current as


measured by the multi-meter. Record your measurement: _______mA.

4.Replace the 1ft copper wire in your circuit with 1ft of nichrome wire and
repeat steps(2) and (3) and record your measurement: __________mA.

5. Is the current measured in step (4) greater than current observed in step (3)
of the experiment? _________

CONCLUSION:

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The current will travel at a different rate through different materials. The
copper wire allows electrons to pass at a higher rate than the nichrome wire.
Therefore, the copper wire is a better conductor than the nichrome wire. It
could also be stated that nichrome wire has a higher resistivity or resistance
than a copper wire of the same length and gauge.

Observations:

Conclusions:

Registered No _______________

Teacher’s Initial ______________


Experiment 2(b)

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To Measure the VOLTAGE
Objective:
To measure voltage using digital Multi-meter.

Equipment:
1. Digital Multi-meter.
2. Power supply.

Procedure:

1. Set your Multi-meter to measure 15 volts DC.


2. Connect the positive lead of your multi-meter to the positive
of your power supply. Connect the negative lead of your multi-
meter to the ground terminal.
3. Switch your meter to measure 5 volts DC. Record your
measurement _______V.
4. Switch your meter to measure 10 volts DC. Record your
measurement _________V.
5. Measure the voltage at 15V and record your measurement
___________________V.

6.Measure the voltage between the negative and ground


terminals with the voltage control set to the following positions.

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Record the measured voltages in the spaces provided in the
figure below.
Discussion:-
In this experiment you gained some practice using multi-meter (voltmeter).
First you measured the voltages produced by the positive power supply. This
voltage can be set to any value from +1volt to 15 volts. Next you measured
the voltages produced by the negative power supply. This voltage can be set
to any value from -1V to -15V
Observations:

(-)Voltage Control SET Voltage Measured


TO:

(-) 1
(-) 5

(-)10

(-)15

Conclusion:

Registered No _______________

Teacher’s Initial ______________

Experiment – 3

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To verify the Voltage Rises & Voltage Drops
Objective:
To verify that the sum of the voltage drops is equal to the sum of the
voltage rise.
Equipment& Component:
1. Digital multi-meter
2. 1-1kohm 1% 1/2w resister
3. 2-1kohm 5% ½ w resisters(brown, black, red, gold)
4. Slide switch(60-2)
5. Soldering iron and solder
6. Bread board
7. Power supply.

Procedure:

1. Connect the circuit shown in figure below.

2. Connect your Multi-meter between the positive and ground


terminals and adjust the voltage control for exactly 9v.) Operate
the slide switch. Does the voltage disappear when current stops
flowing------------? Is this a voltage rise or a voltage drop?

3. Connect the Multi-meter across R1 and measure its voltage


drop--------------v.

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4. Measure the voltage drop across R2-------------------------------
v.

5. Measure the voltage drop across R3-------------------------------


v.

6. Add the three voltages drop together---------v. Is this the same


voltage rise from step2?

Observations:

1.The voltage across the resistor exists only when current flows
and therefore, is a voltage drop.

2. Voltage drop across R1+ Voltage drop across R2+voltage drop


across R3=Voltage rise.

Conclusion:

Registered No _______________

Teacher’s Initial ______________

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Experiment 4(a)
To verify experimentally the relationship b/w I, V
& R in a circuit.
Objective:
To verify experimentally, the relationship between current,
voltage and resistance in a circuit
Equipment & Components:
1. DMM.
2. Power Supply
3. Resistors.
VOLTAGE:
This is sometimes called potential difference or P.D.Here is some
typical values:

70mv The voltage across the inside outside of a


human nerve.
1.5v The voltage of a walkman battery
6v The voltage of a moped battery
12v The voltage of a car or motorcycle battery
24v The voltage of a 50 seater coach battery
110v Mains voltage in the USA & some continental
countries.
240v Nominal mains voltage in the UK
Thousands of volt Voltages in amateurs’ antennas whilst
transmitting.
As you can see, there is a lot of difference between the voltages in
our nerves and muscles and the voltages in the mains power
supply. It does not make a lot of sense to put your fingers in the
mains power sockets! 1.5 volts might be enough to light up a small
tent with a torch, but not enough to light up your living room.

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1mv (one millivolt) is 1 thousandth of a volt.
1Mv (one Megavolt) is 1 million volts.

Batteries, the mains, dynamos and electrical generators provide the


energy to force electrons around electric circuits. The bigger the
voltage is, the greater the "force" making electrons go round a
circuit. You can think of it as being like a hill: if you fall down the
hill you could roll to the bottom. The steeper the hill is the quicker
you will roll down it.

CURRENT:
Current is measured in amperes or amps for short. We use the
symbol "I" in the formula to represent current. (The reason for
using "I" rather than "C", is that "C" is already used for something
else.) The kind of current flowing in our nerves and muscles is
only a few micro amps: the currents flowing in the mains might be
as much as 13 amps.

RESISTANCE:
Resistance is to do with how easy it is for the electric current to
flow through a material, e.g. a piece of copper wire. Although your
physics teacher will tell you that copper is a very good conductor
of electricity, it does have a measurable resistance. Some materials
have virtually no resistance when they are cooled down to absolute
zero, they are called super conductors. Mercury will do this.
Materials like plastic, wood, polythene, ceramics and rubber have
very high resistances so that it is almost impossible for electric
currents to flow through them. These materials are called
insulators. They may not be perfect.
Materials like copper, silver, and gold have very low resistances. In
fact all metals will conduct electricity. They are called conductors.
Even so, they do have some resistance to the flow of electrons
through them. A perfect conductor is called a superconductor, it
has zero resistance; very cold mercury acts as a superconductor.
Resistance is measured in Ohms.

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Ohm's Law says that there is a relationship between these three
factors. So if you know two of the values you can easily work out
the third one.
V=IxR
I=V/R
R=V/I

Procedure:
The purpose of this laboratory is to practice making voltage,
current, and resistance measurements and become acquainted with
Ohm’s Law. Refer to the following circuit.

Build the circuit as shown. Use your regulated power supply to


generate 10 V and connect it to the 2.2 k and 4.7 k resistors as
indicated. Measure the voltage across each resistor and the current
through the circuit (hint: make sure your millimeter's leads are
connected properly for a given measurement).

V2.2 k = __________
V4.7 k = __________
I = __________
Calculate the theoretical resistance of each resistor by Ohm’s Law.
R2.2 k = V2.2 k / I = __________

R4.7 k = V4.7 k / I = __________

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Now measure the actual resistance of each resistor using your
multi-meter

R2.2 k(actual) =__________

R4.7 k(actual) =__________

Observations:

1) Consider the circuit shown in fig.c for the fixed values of


resistances calculate current by increasing voltage. Increase
the voltage from 10 to 18 V.

Voltage(V) Current(A)
10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

Draw the graph between Current (I) and Voltage (V):

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2) Now fix the voltage and start increasing resistance. (Anyone of
the resistance).Fix the voltage at 10V.

Resistance(ohm) Current(mA)

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Draw the graph between current and resistance:

3) Now make the current constant (1.45 mA) and change the
resistance and voltage to make the current 1.45mA.
Voltage(V) Current(mA)

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Draw the graph between Voltage and Resistance:

Conclusion:

Registered No _______________

Teacher’s Initial ______________

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Experiment 4(b)
To verify Ohm's Law.
Equipment & Components:
1. DMM.
2. Power Supply
3. Resistors.

OHM'S LAW:
Ohm's law, named after its discoverer, states that the potential
difference V between the ends of a conductor or resistor R and the
current I flowing through R are proportional at a given
temperature:

In other words where V is the voltage and I is the current; the


above equation yields the proportionality constant R, which is the
electrical resistance of the device. The law is strictly true only for
resistors whose resistance does not depend on the applied voltage,
which are called ohmic or ideal resistors or ohmic devices. Ohm's
law is never completely accurate, if R is assumed to be constant,
for "real world" devices, because no real device is an ohmic device
for every voltage and current – at some level, the device will open
or short, for example, by burning up or arcing. Moreover,
temperature is an important factor determining the accuracy of
Ohm’s law. When the temperature of the metal increases, the

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collisions between electrons and atoms increase, so that when a
substance heats up because of electricity flowing through it (or by
whatever heating process), the resistance will increase.
The relation V / I = R even holds also for non-ohmic devices, but
then the resistance R depends on V and is no longer a constant. To
check whether a given device is ohmic or not, one plots V versus I
and compares the graph to a straight line through the origin.

Blue line is ohmic, red line is non-ohmic. Yellow is a semi-


conductor.

So, from above discussion we get to know that Ohms law is about
three things Voltage, Current and Resistance.

Conclusions:

Registered No _______________

Teacher’s Initial ______________

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Experiment – 5
To verify Ohm’s Law in Parallel circuit.
Purpose:

To prove that ohm’s law applies to parallel circuits.

Equipment:

1. Bread Board.
2. Multi-meter.
3. Power supply.
4. 2.1k ohm resistor.
5. 2.10k ohm resistor.

Procedure:

1. Construct the circuit shown in figure below.

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2. Connect your multi-meter (voltmeter) from the GND terminal to
the POS terminal on the terminal and adjust the +voltage to exactly
+10volts.
3. Connect your multi-meter (ohm meter) to the circuit shown
above between point C and ground. The current through the circuit
is ____________mA.
4. Now using the voltage applied to the circuit and the total current
through the circuit, use ohm’s law to calculate the total resistance
of circuit--------ohms.
5. Calculate Resistance of the complete circuit Rt using the
equations. RT _______ Ohm. Is there any difference between the
total resistance calculated in step (4) and the total resistance
calculated in step (5)? Yes or NO _________.
6. Use the nominal value of resistor R1 1000ohms and the current
measured in step 3 to calculate the voltage dropped across the R1.
The calculated voltage drop is _________V. Now using the multi-
meter, measure the voltage across R1 the measured voltage is
________V.
7. Measure the voltage drop across the parallel network consisting
of resistors, R2 (10k), R3 (10K), and R4 (1K). The voltage drop is
__________V.
8. Using the voltage drop measured across the parallel network and
the nominal value of resistor R2, R3, and R4 determine the current
through each of the branches. I=________mA, I2=______mA,
I3=________mA. Is total current approximately the same as the
sum of the three calculated branches? Yes or NO_______

Conclusion:

Registered No _______________

Teacher’s Initial ______________

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Experiment 6(a)
Voltage Division.
Objective:
To verify experimentally Voltage Division.
Equipment:

1. DMM.
2. Power Supply.
3. Resistors.
4. Jumpers.
5. Cutter

Introduction:
A voltage divider referenced to ground is created by connecting
two resistors as shown in the following diagram:

Vout = R2 / R1 + R2 x Vin
It may be useful to note that R1 and R2 may each comprise
many resistors in series.
As a simple example, if R1 = R2 then
Vout = ½ x Vin

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OBSERVATIONS AND CALCULATIONS:-

1. Use your regulated power supply to generate 6 V and connect it


to the circuit as shown. Measure V, V, I, I, and I.
V 2= __________
V3 = __________
V4= __________
I = __________
I 1= __________
I2 = __________
I3= __________
2. Does I 1+ I2 + I3 =I? Why or why not?

Conclusion:

Registered No _______________

Teacher’s Initial ______________

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Experiment 6(b)
Current Division.
Objective:

To verify experimentally Current Division.

Equipment:
1. DMM.
2. Power Supply.
3. Resistors.
4. Jumpers.
5. Cutter

Introduction:

The current divider rule (or CDR) is used to find the electrical
current flowing through impedance or other circuit when it is
connected in parallel with impedance. It is similar in form to the
voltage divider rule. The key difference, however, isthatthe
numerator of the equation is the impedance you are not
considering.
If two or more impedances are in parallel to each other, the current
that enters them will be split between them in inverse proportion to
their resistance (from Ohm's law). It also follows that if the
impedances have the same value the current is split equally.

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This is a general form of the current divider.

Note that Rt is the parallel resistance hence the reciprocal of each


resistor must be added.

OBSERVATIONS AND CALCULATIONS:-

1. Find out the values of VAB, V3 and VCD.


2. VAB= ________

3. V3= ________
4. VCD= ________

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5. See that sum of the three voltages is equal to the supplied
voltage.

6. Measure V1, V2, V3, V4, and V5.

V1 = __________
V 2= __________
V 3= __________
V 4= __________
V 5= __________
V 6= __________

7. Does V1 + V3 = V? Why or why not?


Does V1 + V4 + V5 + V6 = V? Why or why not?

8. Does V4 + V5 + V6 = V3? Why or why not?

Conclusion:
Registered No _______________

Teacher’s Initial ______________

34
Experiment 6(c)
Kirchoff's Laws
Objective:
To verify Kirchoff's Laws.
Equipment & Components:
1. DMM.
2. Power Supply.
3. Resistors.
4. Jumpers.
5. Cutter

Introduction to Kirchhoff's Current Law:

This fundamental law results from the conservation of charge. It


applies to a junction or node in a circuit -- a point in the circuit
where charge has several possible paths to travel.

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In Figure 1, we see that IA is the only current flowing into the
node. However, there are three paths for current to leave the node,
and these current are represented by IB, IC, and ID.
Once charge has entered into the node, it has no place to go except
to leave (this is known as conservation of charge). The total charge
flowing into a node must be the same as the total charge flowing
out of the node. So, a circuit

IB + IC + ID = IA

Bringing everything to the left side of the above equation, we get

(IB + IC + ID) - IA = 0

Then, the sum of all the currents is zero. This can be generalized as
follows

Conclusion:

Registered No _______________

Teacher’s Initial ______________

36
AC PART
Experiment – 1
Measuring Ac Voltage.
Objective:-
1. To demonstrate how an AC voltmeter is used to measure
voltages.
2. To demonstrate the relationships between AC voltages
and current, in series resistive circuit.
Equipment & Components:
1. Bread board.
2. Power Supply.
3. 1-470ohm, ½watt resistor (Yellow-violet-brown).
4. 1ohm, ½ watt resistor (brown-black-red).
5. Digital multi-meter.
Procedure:-
1. Construct the circuit shown in Figure below.

2. Measure the 15volt AC with your multi-meter to determine is


exact value------V.
3. Measure the voltage across R1 with your multi-meter.
V1= ---------Volts.
4. Now measure the voltage across R2 with your multi-meter.

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V2= -------------Volts.
5. Add the individual voltages (V1 & V2) that you measured in
the two previous steps. The sum of the two voltages is.
V1+V2= ----------Volts.

6. Use Ohms law to calculate the current in the circuit. First, find the
total resistance (RT). RT= R1+R2 or---------------ohms.

7. Use Ohm’s law to calculate the voltage across R1.


V1=IxR1=-----------Volts.

8. Use Ohms law to calculate the voltage across R2.


V2= IxR2 or------------Volts.

9. Compare the V2 value measure in step 4 with the V2 value


calculated in step 10. The V2 value in step4 is;
A. Approximately equal to the V2 value in
B. Much higher than the V2 value in step 10.
C. Much lowers than the V2 value in step 10.

Conclusion:

Use data and conclude your result. Use separate sheet.

Registered No _______________

Teacher’s Initial ______________

38
Experiment – 2
Oscilloscope
What is an Oscilloscope?
1. One of the instruments which are very important for making
electrical measurements in the circuits which you will learn is the
oscilloscope.
2. The oscilloscope is capable of automatically displaying is ac or
dc voltage graphed versus time as shown in figure below.
3. An oscilloscope is an instrument which converts electrical
signals to visual wave forms on a screen.
Basic Functions of an Oscilloscope
An oscilloscope performs three basic functions.
a. Waveform observation.
b. Amplitude measurement.
c. Measurement of time.
There are many different oscilloscopes in use today. However,
there are many basic controls and functions common to all scopes.
The scope can be divided into two 2 major segments:-
a. Cathode Ray Tube (CRT).
Controlling units.

Cathode Ray Tube (CRT)


The CRT is the heart of the scope. it consists of 3 major parts
a. Electron gun.
b. Deflection system.
c. A screen.
Electron Gun:-
It is located at the rear end of the CRT. Its job is to emit a narrow
stream of electrons.

39
Digital Multi-meter: - A DMM is used to measure the voltage,
current or resistance is an electronic circuit. From the ESCORT-
178DMM available in your lab, one can measure AC voltage, DC
Voltage, Resistance, Capacitance, AC current, and DC current.
Oscilloscope: - The main function of the oscilloscope is to view
and measure AC waveform. Most oscilloscopes have a dual trace
capability, which means they can display two waveforms at the
same time.
Power Supply: - A power supply is a unit capable of supplying
d.c. voltage and current to electronic circuit under test, Modern
power supplies have regulated outputs. This means that their output
voltage does not fluctuate as the load current varies.
Function Generators: - A function generator is a piece of test
equipment capable of producing a number of different output
waveforms, (sine and square waves at frequencies from 200Hz to
20KHZ. All function generators have controls to adjust the
amplitude frequency and shape of the output waveform.
Solder: - Solder is a metal alloy that use to join electronic
components together There are several varieties of solder available,
but for electronic hand soldering 60/40 rosin core solder is used.
The 60/40 ratio refers to mixture containing 60% tin and 40 %
lead.
Soldering irons:- In any kind of soldering the primary
requirement, beyond the solder itself is heat can be applied in a
number of ways-conductive(e.g. soldering iron etc.) convective
( hot air) or radiant (IR) they are mainly conserved with the
conductive method, which uses a soldering iron. A pencil soldering
iron (20-40 watt) is usually preferred for most electronics circuit
repairs.
Deflection System:-

40
The electron beam travelling toward the screen passes through the deflection
system. The deflection system consists of four (4) deflection plates as shown
in figure below.

(A). If a voltage is applied across the vertical deflection plates as


shown below the electron beam moves up words. If the polarity
applied to the plates in reversed, the beam moves downward.

(b). If the voltage is applied across the horizontal deflection plates


as shown below, the electron beam will travel from left to right. If
the polarity applied to the deflection plates is reversed, the beam
moves from right to left.

(c) If voltages are applied to the vertical & horizontal deflection


plates simultaneously, the beam moves vertically and horizontally
at the same time diagonally.

(d) If no potential is applied to the plates, the beam returns to the


centre of the tube. This was the original position.

The Screen:-
The third and the remaining of the CRT is the screen. After the
beam is emitted and travels through the deflection system, it strikes
the screen at a point determined by the deflection plates. The inside
surface of the screen is coated with a phosphor material which has
the ability to emit light after being struck by the electrons.

CONTROL CIRCUITS:-
The control circuits are electronic circuits that perform several
functions. They cause the CRT to (i) emit electrons, (ii) regulate
how many electrons make up the beam current and control the
direction of the beam of electrons. The controls are at the front
panel of the scope.

41
Screen Graticule:-
To the left of all of these controls, of the scope is the CRT. Notice
that the screen has been marked into eight vertical division and ten
horizontal divisions. Each division has been further marked off into
five equal increments. Each increment represents two-tenths (2/10)
of one division. This scale is called graticule.
Equipped with a graticule, the oscilloscope provides an electronic
graph of Voltage against time. It essentially is a calibrated scale
with the vertical divisions of the graticule representing voltage
values and the horizontal divisions representing increments.
Determination of the Voltage amplitude & period of the
waveform
E= (number of divisions) x (volts per divisions)
T= (number of divisions) x (seconds per division)
Example Given: Volts/division=2V
Time/division=10micro seconds
Wave Type=Square wave
Amplitude= 4 divisions
Y axis= the period of waveform is contained within 8
horizontal divisions.
Find: - Epp, FP, Erms, T, f
Solution: - EPP= (4division) (2V/division) =8V
EP = (1/2 (8V) =4V
Erms= (0.707) (Ep) = (0.707) (4) = 2.83V
T= (4division) (10micro second) /division) =
40micro second
F= 1/T = 1/40 = 25Khz.
Conclusion:
Use data and conclude your result. Use separate sheet.
Registered No _______________

Teacher’s Initial ______________

42
Experiment – 3
Using an Oscilloscope
Objective:-
1. To use the oscilloscope to measure an AC wave from
amplitude and period.
2. To observe the phase relationship between voltage
and current in an AC resistive circuit.
3. To observe the shape of sine waves and square
waves.
4. To observe and calculate peak, peak, effective, and
Peak-to peak Ac voltages.
5. To measure DC voltages with an oscilloscope.
Equipment & Components:
1. Bread board.
2. Power Supply.
3. Freq Generator.
4. Oscilloscope.
5. 1-100ohm, ½ watt resistor (brown, black, brown).
6. 1-100, ½ watt resistor (brown, black, red).
Procedure:-
Set the oscilloscope controls as follows:-
1. Turn the INTENSITY control to mid-range.
2. Set the TRIGGER SOURCE switch to the INT position.
3. Set the TRIGGER MODE switch to the AUTO position.
4. Set the TIME/CM control to the 2ms position and the
SWEEP/VAR to CAL.
5. Set the HORIZ POS control to mid- range.
6. Set the AC-GND-DC switch to the GND position.
7. Set the VOLTS/CM control to 5 and the Variable to CAL.
8. Set the VERT POS control to mid range.
9. Connect the oscilloscope to the proper power source.
10. Turn the POWER switch ON.

43
11. Allow the oscilloscope to warn up for one minute, and
then adjust the VERT- POS and HORIZ POS controls to
centre the sweep on the scope.
12. Adjust the FOCUS control for a sharply focused
presentation.
13. Set the AC-GND-DC switch to the AC position.
14. Attach the probe to the VERTICAL INPUT.
15. Construct the circuit shown in figure e-2.1
16. Ensure that the TIME/CM control is set to the 2ms-per-
centimeter position.
17. Set the VOLTS/CM control to a position that allows the
entire waveform to be displayed on the oscilloscope. A total
deflection of form four to six centimeters is desirable for most
amplitude (vertical) measurements. The Y1 switch should be
set to 5V/CM.
18. Make sure that both the SWEEP/VAR and the
VARIABLE control are in the calibrate position (usually fully
clockwise).

Conclusion:

Use data and conclude your result. Use separate sheet.

Registered No _______________

Teacher’s Initial ______________

44
Experiment – 4
Combining Resistors and Capacitor
Objective:-
1. Demonstrate the characteristics of a series RC
network.
2. To show the effect of capacitors in series and
parallel.
Equipment & Components:
1. Bread board.
2. Power Supply.
3. Digital multi-meter.
4. 1-0.039uf capacitor.
5. 1-0.1uf capacitor.
6. 1-0.4uf capacitor.
7. 1-4.7k ohm ½ watt resistor.
Procedure:-
1. Construct the circuit shown in figure E3-1.

45
2. Using your multi-meter measure the AC voltage source
which is connected to the circuit. The AC line voltage
------------ Volts.
The Voltage you have measured is expressed as a/an; Avg /
eff /peak-value------.
3. With the resistor and capacitor values given and the voltage
measured in step2, compute and record the following;
Xv-----------ohms; Z=-----------ohms; 1= ----------Amperes,
VR=-------------volts, Vc=--------volts, -----------degrees,
PT= -----------watt.
4. Measure the resistor and capacitor voltages in the
experimental circuit and record your measurements in the
spaces provided; VR= -------------volt& Vc= --------volts. Are
your calculated and measured values equal=?
Yes or no ________.
5. Add the resistor and capacitor voltages that you measured
and record the sum in the space provided below;
------------ Volt.
Does the sum of the resistor and capacitor voltage equal the
applied voltage that you measured in step2?
Yes or No. _________.
6. Using the measured resistor voltage and the resistance,
compute circuit current I------------Ampere.
Does the computed circuit current in step 6 equal with the
current value calculated in step3?
Yes or No--------------------- if no why-----------------------------
7. Construct the circuit shown in figure E3-2.

46
8. Compute the total circuit capacitance using the rules for
parallel capacitance.
CT--------------------------------------uF.
9. Apply power to the experimental circuit. Using your AC
voltmeter, measure the voltage across the resistance and the
voltage across the parallel capacitor combination.
VR=-----------volts. VC=-------------volts.
10. Using the capacitor voltage you measured in step 9 above
and the circuit resistance; compute the current floating in the
circuit. I= ------------amperes.
11. Using the capacitor voltage you measured in step 9 and
the current you computed in step 10, compute the capacitive
reactance in the circuit Xc= -----ohms.
12. Knowing the capacitive resistance and the frequency of
the applied voltage, you can now calculate the total circuit
capacitance. CT= ----------------uf.
How does your computed value of capacitance obtained in
step 2 compare with the value obtained from measurement in
step 12? -----------------------------------------.
Agree/Disagree
13. Construct the circuit shown in figure E3-3.

47
14. Find the total capacitance of the series circuit.
CT= ----------------uf.
15. Apply voltage to your experimental circuit. Measure the
resistor and capacitor voltages with your AC voltmeter,
VR= -------------volts. Vc=--------------------volts.
16. Using the measured resistor voltage and the resistance
value, compute circuit current; I. ----------------amperes.
17. Using the measured capacitor voltage and the current you
computed in step 16, find the total capacitive resistance in the
circuit.
Xc= -------------------ohms.
18. using your computed value of capacitive reactance and the
frequency of the applied AC voltage, compute the total circuit
capacitance.
CT= ----------------uf.

Conclusions:

Registered No _______________

Teacher’s Initial ______________

48
Experiment – 5
RC wave Shaping
Objective:-
1. To examine the operation of an RC coupling circuit.
2. To examine the operation of a differentiator circuit.
3. To examine the operation of an integrator circuit.
Equipment & Components:
1. Bread board.
2. Power Supply.
3. Digital multimeter.
4. Oscilloscope with probe.
5. Frequency generator.
6. 1-0.01uf capacitor.
7. 1-0.0022uf capacitor.
8. 1-0.001uf capacitor.
Procedure:-
1. Construct the circuit shown in figure E6-1. Turn on the circuit
and set the generator frequency to 1000Hz.

2. Set the potentiometer fully clockwise. Using the oscilloscope,


view the rectangular wave input to the RC circuit. Draw two cycles
of the waveform in Figure e6-2A. What is the time of one cycle of
the 1000Hz square wave? ------------- Microseconds. What is the
time of the positive portion of the waveform? ------------
Microseconds.

49
3. Set the 100k ohm potentiometer fully counter clockwise. With
an oscilloscope observe the output. Draw two cycles of the output
waveform in figure E6-2B. How much resistance is now in series
with the capacitor? -------------- Ohms.
What is the RC time constant ----------------- microseconds?
How does the amplitude of the input waveform compare with the
amplitude of the output waveform- Larger/ smaller/the same?
Ans: ------------------.

4. Set the potentiometer fully clockwise and measure the output


with oscilloscope. Draw two cycles if the output waveform in
Figure E6-2C. How much resistance is now in series with the
capacitor? ---------- Ohms.
Compute the RC time constant and record you
answer------------------microseconds.

Compare the shape of the output waveform, first with the input
waveform, and then with the output waveform you drew in step 3.
Output-to-input- Different/ Same: - Ans------------------------------.
Output to E6-2B: Different/ Same: - Ans------------------------------.

5. Replace the 0.0022 microfarad capacitor with a 0.1 microfarad


capacitor. Set the potentiometer fully clockwise. Draw two cycles
of the output waveform in Figure E6-2D.
The RC time circuit is; ------------------ microseconds.
Which is longer, one time constant or the positive portion of the
input waveform?
-----------------------.

6. Set the potentiometer fully clockwise. Use the oscilloscope to


view the output waveform, cycle of the output waveform in the
space provided in figure E6-2E.
Compare the rectangular waveform that you drew in figure E6-2.
The waveform is most the RC time constant is;
---------------------microseconds.

50
7. Construct the circuit shown in figure E6-3. Turn on the circuit
and set the generator frequency 1000Hz.

Repeat step 2 through 6 for circuit shown in figure E6-4. Draw the
cycles of the output the space provided in Fig E6-4. Please note
that in step 5, replace the 0.0022 microfarad capacitor the 0.1
microfarad capacitor.

Conclusions:

Registered No _______________

Teacher’s Initial ______________

51
Experiment – 6
Capacitive voltage division and filtering
Objective:-
1. To investigate the properties of a capacitive voltage
divider.
2. To verify the operation and characteristics of low and
high pass RC filters.
Equipment & Components:
1. Bread board.
2. Power Supply.
3. Digital multi-meter.
4. 0.001 microforad capacitor.
5. 0.039 microforad capacitor.
6. 0.1 microforad capacitor.
7. 0.47 microforad capacitor.
8. 4.7k, 1/2 watt resistor.
9. 47k, 1/2 watt resistor.
Procedure:-
1. Wire the circuit shown in figure E5-1.
2. Using your AC voltmeter, measure the input voltage.
Vin= ---------------VAC.

3. Using the values given in the figure compute the voltage


division ratio.

52
4. Using the value of input voltage obtained in step 2, compute the
output voltage expected with the voltage division ratio computed in
step 3. Predicted V o= --------.
5. Using your AC voltmeter, measure the voltage across C2. This is
the output voltage of the voltage divider. Measured
Vo= ------------Volts.
How does your computed value compare with your measured
higher/lower/same-----------?

6. Construct the circuit shown in figure E5-2. Set the generator


range switch to the LOW position (Hz to 2 KHz) and adjust the
frequency dial to the 200Hz position.
The experimental circuit is an RC filter. The experimental filter
circuit is a; -----------pass filter.
7. Using the values of resistance and capacitance shown in figure
E5-2 compute the cut-off frequency Fco= ---------------.
8. Using your AC voltmeter measure the output voltage of the
signal generator. Be sure the ground lead of your voltmeter is
connected to the GND output terminal. (Measure the voltage

53
applied to the circuit where the 4.7k ohm resistor connects to the
SINE output. Record this voltage Vs= ---------------------V.
9. Determine the output voltage of the circuit at the cut-off
frequency. Make this computation using input voltage you
measured in the previous step. Record the output voltage at the cut-
off frequency.
Vo = ------------------------VAC.
10. Connect your AC voltmeter across the 0.039 uf capacitor .Then
slowly vary the frequency dial on the generator in the clockwise
direction until the voltmeter reads the value of the voltage you
computed for the cut-off frequency. When this voltage is reached,
stop turning the knob and note the approximate frequency setting
of the dial. The generator frequency dial is only roughly calibrated,
but you can estimate the frequency within several hundred cycles.
Record your estimate Fco= -----------Hz.
11. Construct the circuit shown in Figure E5-3 statement below.
The RC network shown is a; ----------------- pass filter.
12. Compute the cut-off frequency of the circuit in step 11, using
the component value given. Record your answer;

Fco= --------KHz.

54
13. Be sure that the generator range switch is in the LOW position
(200Hz to 2KHz). Turn the frequency dial to 200Hz. Connect your
AC voltmeter across the 47k ohm resistor. Measure the output
voltage of the circuit as you decrease the frequency. At this time
the output voltage from the circuit is. Increasing/decreasing
-----------------------.
14. With the range switch on the generator in the HIGH position,
rotate the frequency dial to the maximum clockwise position (20
KHz). With your AC voltmeter, measure the input voltage to the
circuit, in other word, measure the voltage coming directly out of
the generator between the SINE and GND terminals.
Vs= ------------------------VAC.

15. Using the voltage you measured in the previous step as a


reference, compute the output voltage of this filter at the cut-off
frequency. Vo at cut-off= --------VAC.

16. Connect your AC Volt meter to the output of the circuit (across
the 47k ohm resistor). Rotate the frequency dial counter clockwise
until the voltmeter reads the voltage you connected for the cut off
frequency. When this voltage has been reached, note the dial
setting. The dial will give you only an approximation of the cut-off
frequency. Fco = --------------------Hz

Conclusions:

Registered No _______________

Teacher’s Initial ______________

55
Experiment – 7
LC filters
Objective:-
1. To investigate the frequency response of band-pass filters.
2. To investigate the frequency response of band-stop filters.
3. To investigate the frequency response of high-pass filters.
4. To investigate the frequency response of low-pass filters.
Equipment & Components:
1. Bread board.
2. Power Supply.
3. Digital multi-meter.
4. Frequency generator.
5. 107mH choke.
6. 1-01 microforad capacitor.
7. 2-4700ohm ½ watt resistors (yellow, violet, red).
8. 1-1000ohm, ½ watt resistors (brown, black, red).
9. 1-10k ohm ½ watt resistor (brown, black, orange).
Procedure:-
1. Construct the circuit shown in figure E10-1.

2. Set the generator range switch to the high position (2 KHz to 20


KHz).

56
3. Refer to Figure E10-2. This diagram shows a typical response
curve for the circuit you built in step1. The curve was constructed
by measuring and plotting the response of several frequencies.
4. Connect your voltmeter across R. Set the generator frequency
control fully counter clockwise.
Measure the voltage across R, V out = -----------VAC.

5. Rotate the frequency control clockwise to halfway between the


left most mark on the dial and the point labeled 2 KHz. The voltage
across the resistor is;
Vout = -----------------VAC.
6. Continue to turn frequency control clockwise. Measure Vout at
each of the marked points on the frequency dial and at several
points in between. Try to measure at least 15 different points across
the frequency range. Record these voltages on a spate piece of
paper in order of increasing frequency.

7. Return to Figure E10-2 Establish a scale for Vout bon the left
hand side of the graph, ensuring your maximum and minimum
voltages can be plotted. Plot all of your voltage measurements,
including those voltages in step 4 and 5, on the graph.

8. Construct the circuit shown in Fig E10-11.

57
9. Connect the voltmeter across R. Using the above procedure plot
the response curve for this circuit. Use the graph in Fig E10-12 to
plot the curve.
10. Examine the circuit and its response curve. Determine the type
of filter that the capacitor and coil form.
--------------------------filter.
11. Examine the circuit and its response curve. Determine the type
of filter that the capacitor and --------------------------filter.
12. Construct the circuit shown in Fig E10-7.
13. Connect the Voltmeter across R2 (not R1). Using the above
procedure, plot the response curve for this circuit. Use the graph in
Figure E10-8 to plot the curve.
14. Examine the circuit and its response curve. Determine the type
of filter that the capacitor and coil form.
15. Construct the circuit shown in figure E10-9.
16. Connect the voltmeter across R. Using the above procedure
plot the response curve for this circuit. Use the graph in Figure
E10-10 to plot the curve.

Conclusions:

Registered No _______________

Teacher’s Initial ______________

58
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