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23 February 2005

**How to use Eurocode 2: Flat Slabs
**

R Moss xxx xxxx xxxx, O Brooker BEng CEng MICE

Introduction

Common Intro. for all publications - TBC

Designing to Eurocode 2

The design of flat slabs with Eurocode 21 is essentially the same as with BS 81102, however, the layout and content of Eurocode 2 will initially appear alien to designers familiar with BS 8110. British designers will find it strange that Eurocode 2 does not contain the derived formulae or specific guidance on determining moments and shear forces. This has arisen because it has been European practice to give principles in the codes and for the detailed application to be presented in other sources such as text books. The checks for flexural capacity and deflection can be carried out using similar procedures to those in BS 8110. However, assessment of the punching shear capacity may initially appear unusual. This guide will lead the designer through the design steps required for flat slabs and highlight key points that will enable Eurocode 2 to be used with confidence. The first guide in this series How to use Eurocode 2: Introduction3 highlighted the key differences between Eurocode 2 and BS 8110, including terminology. Eurocode 2 terminology will be used throughout this guide to aid familiarity, eg units of stress will be quoted in MPa, not N/mm2. It should also be noted that values from the UK National Annex have been used throughout this guide; this includes values that are embedded in derived formulae.

Analysis

In terms of analysis of flat slabs Eurocode 2 and BS 8110 are very similar; the following methods of analysis may be used: • • • • Grillage Analysis Finite element analysis Yield line analysis Equivalent frame method

The code gives further advice, in appendix I, on the equivalent frame method; those used to designing flat slabs using BS 8110, will find this very familiar. Whatever method is used to determine the moments and shears, the following guidance can be used for the design of the reinforcement.

Flexural Capacity

Eurocode 2 offers alternative methods for determining the stress-strain relationship of concrete. For simplicity and familiarity the method presented here is the simplified rectangular stress block which is very similar to that found in BS 8110 (see figure 1). Eurocode 2 gives recommendations for the design of concrete up to grade C90/105, however, the factor, λ, modifies the strength capacity for concretes above grade C50/60. It is important to note that concrete strength is based on the cylinder strength and not the cube strength (eg for grade C28/35 the cylinder strength is 28 MPa, whereas the cube strength is 35 MPa). As with BS 8110, K can be determined from the design ultimate moment, concrete strength and the width and depth of the section. K’ is similarly dependant of the amount of redistribution carried out. Knowing K and K’, the lever arm, z, the area of reinforcement can be determined using formulae derived from the stress block (see Figure 2). Finally, checks can be carried out to ensure that the area of reinforcement is within the maximum and minimum areas permitted by the code. Note that minimum area of reinforcement is greater than under BS 8110 where the cylinder strength is over 25 MPa.

0 1.0 for other phenomena (From UK National Annex) 500 MPa for grade XXX fyk/γm = 435 MPa for grade XXX 0.8 – (fck – 50)/400 for 50 < fck < 90 αcc fck/γc 0.h See table 7.2.8 for fck≤ 50 MPa 0.4N √fck/1000 As/bd As2/bd See section 5.85 for flexure and axial loads.1.5 for concrete (γc) b.15 for reinforcement (γy) 1.4 (δ .3.0 – (fck – 50)/200 for 50 < fck < 90 0.0 for fck≤ 50 MPa 1. 1.Revision 1/OB 23 February 2005 Figure 1: Simplified Rectangular Stress Block from Eurocode 2 Selected Symbols Symbol x xmax bw d d2 δ As As2 η λ fcd fck αcc fyk fyd fctm γm Ac K ρ0 ρ ρ ’ Definition Depth to neutral axis Limiting value for depth to neutral axis Width of section.30 fck(2/3) for fck ≤ C50/60 (from Table 3. Eurocode 2) 1.2 (1) leff .4)d where δ≤1.0. or width of web on flanged beams Effective depth Effective depth to compression reinforcement Ratio of the redistributed moment to the elastic bending moment Area of tension steel Area of compression steel Factor defining the effective strength Factor defining the effective height of the compression zone Design value of concrete compressive strength Characteristic cylinder strength of concrete Coefficient taking account of long term effects on compressive strength and of unfavourable effects resulting from the way load is applied Characteristic yield strength of reinforcement Design yield strength of reinforcement Mean value of axial tensile strength Partial factor for material properties Cross sectional area of concrete Factor to take account of the different structural systems Reference reinforcement ratio Required tension reinforcement at mid-span to resist the moment due to the design loads (or at support for cantilevers Required compression reinforcement at midspan to resist the moment due to the design loads (or at support for cantilevers Effective length of member Value (d-z)/0.

Revision 1/OB START 23 February 2005 No Concrete grade ≤C50/60? Outside scope of this guide Yes Determine K and K’ from: M K= 2 bd f ck & K' = 0.18δ 2 − 0.0 No Is K ≤ K’ ? Compression reinforcement required – Not recommend for typical slabs Yes No compression reinforcement required δ 1.1800 15 0.80 0.1 Figure 2: Procedure for Determining Flexural Reinforcement .95d 2 Calculate tension reinforcement required from As = M/fyd.9 32 3.95 0.1512 25 0.70 Calculate lever arm Z from d z = 1 + 1 − 3.0 35 3.26 fctm bt d/fyk where fck ≥ 25 Check maximum reinforcement requirements As.z [ ] Table X: Values for K’ % K’ Redistribution 0 0.85 0.1188 Check minimum reinforcement requirements: As.2052 5 0.53K ≤ 0.max = 0.90 0.4 Ac for tension of compression reinforcement outside lap locations Table X: Values of fctm fck fctm 25 2.min = 0.8 50 4.1355 30 0.594δ − 0.8 30 2.5 45 3.1931 10 0.2 40 3.75 0.6 28 2.00 0.2088 where δ≤1.1661 20 0.

090 0.856 0.849 0.060 0.771 23 February 2005 Deflection In principle the assessment of deflection is similar in both Eurocode 2 and BS 8110.120 0.145 0.160 0.868 0.982 0.085 0.843 0.795 0.4N from the code presents some basic span to depth ratios and introduces a factor.924 0.991 0.Revision 1/OB Table X: z/d for singly reinforced rectangular sections K z/d 0.897 0. The deflection by calculation method is described in How to use Eurocode 2: Deflection4.816 0.908 0.130 0.010 0.779 0. The span to depth ratios should ensure that deflection is limited to span over 250 and this is the method presented in this guide.809 0.165 0.040 0.115 0.135 0.175 0.959 0.065 0.195 0.045 0.929 0.977 0.190 0.110 0.075 0. K.020 0.944 0.050 0. which takes account of the different structural systems and is reproduced here for convenience.939 0.885 0.200 0. either by limiting the span to depth ratio or by calculation of actual deflection.155 0.100 0.949 0. Eurocode 2 gives two methods for determining whether deflection is acceptable.015 0.918 0.880 0.802 0.902 0.4N be .185 0.[RW: Can table 7.830 0.125 0.836 0.105 0.987 .095 0.180 0.973 0.934 0.170 0.891 0.150 0.823 0.968 0.913 0.862 0.035 0.954 0.963 0.030 0.055 0.787 0.025 0. Table 7.080 0.874 0.070 0.140 0.

3. Note 4: Values are obtained using expressions (7.Revision 1/OB 23 February 2005 interpolated?] A more accurate method is to use the formulae on which Table 7.4N is based and these are given in Figure 3 which presents a flow chart for checking the deflection of beam elements.4N √fck/1000 As/bd As2/bd See section 5.2 (1) .16) for grade C30/37 concrete and σs = 310 MPa Symbols for Deflection Checks Symbol l/d K ρ0 ρ ρ’ fck leff Definition Limiting span to depth ratio Factor to take account of the different structural systems Reference reinforcement ratio Required tension reinforcement at mid-span to resist the moment due to the design loads (or at support for cantilevers Required compression reinforcement at midspan to resist the moment due to the design loads (or at support for cantilevers Characteristic strength of concrete Effective length of member Value See table 7.2.

Revision 1/OB START 23 February 2005 Select K from Table 7.0 No Yes m1 = 8.4N (K = 1.m1? No Yes Check complete Increase section depth or increase area of tension reinforcement.prov/(fyk As.5 √fck ρ0/(ρ .5m & support brittle partitions? 3/2 m1 = 1.5 √fck ρ0/ρ + 3. The basic l/d can be modified by: 310/σs = 500 As.2 for flat slab) No Is ρ ≤ ρ0 l/d = K[11+1.5/leff Is actual l/d < (l/d).ρ’) + √fck√{ρ’/ρ0}/12] Yes l/d = K[11+1.2√fck{ρ0/ρ-1} ] Does the slab span exceed 8.req) Where σs is tensile steel stress under SLS design load Figure 3: Procedure for Assessing Deflection .

Revision 1/OB 23 February 2005 Design for punching shear In principle the Eurocode 2 and BS 8110 methods for punching shear capacity checks are similar. although such designs may not be economic or desirable. the point at which no shear reinforcement is required can be calculated directly and then used to determine the extent of the area over which shear reinforcement is required. β can be calculated directly to give more efficient designs. Where shear reinforcement is required the procedure in Eurocode 2 is simpler. The maximum value of shear at the column face is not limited to 5 MPa. However.corner column Figure 4: Recommended standard values for β . . Eurocode 2 does not limit the provision of shear links to less than twice the concrete shear stress. The main differences are as follows: • • • • • The standard factors for edge and corner columns (β) which allow for moment transfer are greater in Eurocode 2. The perimeters for rectangular columns in Eurocode 2 have rounded corners. It is assumed that the reinforcement will be in a radial arrangement. • The procedure for determining the punching shear requirements are shown in Figure 5 together with a commentary.

No Is vEd > vRD.Revision 1/OB 23 February 2005 START Commentary β is a factor to allow for the additional shear stress that arises from applied moments. it can be taken from Figure 4.ef = β.13 in code.sq = [Uout. Alternatively and less conservatively it can be calculated from expressions 6.VEd/(vRd.max? Redesign slab VEd may be reduced by the load within the area of the column.max vRd.VEd/(ui.5 fywd. taken over a width equal to column width plus 3d each side.75vRd. u1 can be assessed from Figure 6. and r.035k 3 2 f ck ½ Where k = 1 + √(200/deff) ≤ 2 & ρl = (ρly. (design shear stress) from: vEd = β.deff) where u1 is length of control perimeter.cir = π(ø + 4d) where ø is column diameter.ρlz are the reinforcement ratios in two orthogonal directions for fully bonded tension steel.c)sr.ef = 250 + 0.25 deff ≤ fywd (See Table x) The strength of the shear reinforcement is limited because a full bond cannot be developed at the ends of the shear links.12k (100 ρ l f ck ) 1 3 ≥ 0.max < vRD.deff) where ui is perimeter of column Determine value of vRd. See table x ρly.d).ef) Where sr is the radial spacing of shear reinforcement fywd.ef – 2(cx + cy)]/2π for rectangular column The extent of the area requiring punching shear reinforcement can be determined by finding the position of the outer perimeter where shear reinforcement is no longer required.c? No punching shear reinforcement required Yes Determine area of punching shear reinforcement from: Asw = (vEd – 0.c.38 to 6. Determine radius of outer perimeter where shear reinforcement not required from: Uout.ρlz) ≤ 0.max (design shear stress at face of column) from: vEd.sq = 2(cx + cy) + 4πd for rectangular column where cx & cy are column dimensions u1. Determine concrete punching shear capacity (without shear reinforcement) from: vRD .VEd/(u1. Where bent-up bars are proposed refer to the code. or from the following: u1.46 in the code.max is related to concrete strength refer to Table x No Is vEd. Yes Determine value of vEd.47 from code. deff = (dy + dz)/2 where dy and dz are the effective depths in orthogonal directions Determine value of factor β Determine value of vEd.max = β. From expression 6.u1/(1.38 in code. Determine layout of punching shear reinforcement from detailing rules – see figure 4 Figure 5: Procedure for Determining Punching Shear Capacity . c = 0. Note it is assumed that the reinforcement will be laid-out radially.02 Expression 6.

42 6.80 450 0.94 225 0. but I assume this is the case!] The minimum area of vertical shear reinforcement is Asw.62 0.71 0. outside lap locations should not exceed As.05 4.75 0.75 0.40 0.64 7.40% the following factors may be used: fck 25 28 32 35 40 45 50 factor 0.51 0.87 0.63 0.08fck fyk.36 0.82 0. MPa ρl 0.52 0.85 0.59 0.79 0.0013bt.65 0.82 400 0.max = 0.756 1.87 0.02 1.71 0.77 600 0.69 0.81 0.78 0.000 1.48 0.80 0.72 0.20 Table x: Values for fywd.d [RW it does not actually state this for flat slabs.94 0.max 3. Where sr is the spacing of the links in the radial direction ½ st is the spacing of the links in the tangential direction Maximum area of reinforcement The maximum area of tension or compression reinforcement.943 1.87 300 0. where r1 exceed 0.853 1.57 0.89 0.02 5.78 0.79 0.4 Ac Minimum spacing of reinforcement The minimum spacing of bars should be the greater of: • • • Bar diameter Aggregate size plus 5 mm 20 mm .50% 1.68 0.c resistance of members without shear reinforcement.05 6.st) ≥ 0.52 0.51 0.25% 1.25% 0.816 1.75 5.78 500 0.577 1.61 0.50 0.667 1.55 0.63 0.64 0.00% 1.48 4.56 0.74 0.14 1.max fck 20 25 28 30 32 35 40 45 50 vRd.74 0.ef deff 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 fywd.55 0.75% 2.49 0.43 0.70 0.67 0.05 1.71 0.71 0.min = 0.68 0.45 0.ef 288 294 300 306 313 319 325 331 338 Table X: vRd.73 0.83 0.75 0.516 Note: This table has been prepared for fck = 30.54 0.53 0.69 0.80 0.77 0.82 0.73 0.50% 0.10 1.00% 2.26 fctm bt d/fyk but not less than 0.632 1.59 0.66 0.85 350 0.85 0.894 1.5/(sr.73 0.47 0.58 0.54 0.Revision 1/OB 23 February 2005 Table x: Values for vRd.19 Rules for spacing and quantity of reinforcement Minimum area of principal reinforcement The minimum area of reinforcement is As.98 1.66 0.94 0.71 k 2.57 0.85 0.65 0.61 0.91 250 0. d (mm) 200 0.45 0.47 0.64 0.83 0.75% 1.59 0.91 0.56 0.76 0.48 0.31 4.62 0.78 0.90 0.38 0.68 0.77 0.41 0.74 750 0.50% Effective depth.89 275 0.71 0.min = 1.67 0.707 1.

In this case the reinforcement should be placed in the zone 0.3d and 1. The distance between the face of the column and the nearest shear reinforcement should be less than 0. k is 1.5d.5d from the face of the column.3.75d (see figure X). For slabs 200mm thick or greater reference should be made to section 7.3 of the code or the How to use Eurocode 2: Getting Started5 guide Spacing of punching shear reinforcement Where punching shear reinforcement is required that following rules should be observed: • It should be provided between the face of the column and kd inside the outer perimeter. The tangential spacing of the links should not exceed 1.Revision 1/OB 23 February 2005 Maximum spacing of main reinforcement For slabs less than 200mm thick the following maximum spacing rules apply: • • • • For the principal reinforcement: 3h < 400 mm For the secondary reinforcement: 3.5h < 450 mm For the principal reinforcement: 3h < 400 mm For the principal reinforcement: 3h < 400 mm Except in areas with concentrated loads or areas of maximum moment where the following applies: Where h is the depth of the slab. where no shear reinforcement is no longer required. The radial spacing of the links should not exceed 0. The tangential spacing of the links should not exceed 2d for any other perimeter. • • • • • Perimeter of outermost shear links Outer control perimeter – no reinforcement required Further Guidance TBC .5d within the 2d of the column face. There should be at least two perimeters of shear links. unless the perimeter at which reinforcement is no longer required is less than 3d from the face of the column.5.

2005. BS EN 1992-1-1: 2004. 2005 3 4 5 . BS 8110-1: 1997 THE CONCRETE CENTRE How to use Eurocode 2: Introduction.Revision 1/OB 23 February 2005 References BRITSH STANDARDS INSTITUTION Eurocode 2: design of concrete structures – Part 1-1 General rules and rules for building. 2 1 BRITSH STANDARDS INSTITUTION The structural use of concrete – Part 1 Code of practice for design and construction. 2005 THE CONCRETE CENTRE How to use Eurocode 2: Getting Started. THE CONCRETE CENTRE How to use Eurocode 2: Deflections.

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