SELECTION OF D.G.

SETS

INTRODUCTION Diesel Generating sets are used extensively in our department as standby source of power. Thus selection of the same depends upon different types of load and their nature, site conditions, capacity requirement of the engine and the alternator keeping departmental instructions in our mind. About the nature of different types of load we have already seen. Here, we shall study about the interpretation and application of various standards (B.I.S/B.S./I.S.O.) in selecting our E.A. sets. METHODOLOGY : Declaration of power, efficiency, fuel consumption and lubricating oil consumption has been laid down under I.S: 10000 (part iv) 1980. This deals with non-turbo charged engines. B.S. 5514 : part 1: 1982 deals comprehensively the diesel engines under our use. It may not be out of place to mention that both these standards are in conformity to I.S.O. 3046 (all the relevant parts). In this context it is remarked that B.S. 5514 supersedes B.S. 649 and I.S. 10000, I.S. 10001 and I.S. 10002 supersedes I.S. 1600, I.S. 1601 and I.S. 1602 respectively ; and so, older standards are required to be withdrawn Requirement for turbo-charged engines are dealt under I.S. 13018. Requirement for an alternator is dealt under I.S. 4722. In this section we shall deal with various terminologies of the standards and their applications for interpreting I.S. 10000/B.S. 5514. So far as this part is concerned we shall follow B.S. 5514 (since it covers both turbocharged and non-turbocharged engines) because I.S. 10000 part-iv gets covered under this in sec. A’ and I.S. 13018 in Sec. B. SECTION A : DISCUSSION ON DECLARATION OF POWER : A formula is evolved here to calculate the brake power under the conditions being considered to that of the reference conditions. The following standard reference conditions shall be used : Total barometric pressure : pr = 100 KPa Air temperature : Tr = 300 K (270 C) Relative humidity : φr = 60%

... ADJUSTMENT OF NET BRAKE POWER FOR AMBIENT CONDITIONS : When it is essential to operate the engine under conditions different from the standard reference conditions the net brake power output shall be adjusted as per the following formulae : where..... .......... q = a = It may be noted that putting q = 0 gives the same equation (3) of I. and so we can follow the B.. 5514... POWER ADJUSTMENT FACTOR ‘D’ : It is the ratio of power output under the ambient site conditions to the power output under standard reference conditions. 10000 (part iv) 1980.... (iii) where the symbols have their meaning as explained below : α pr φr psr px psx φx Tr Tx Tcr Tcx = = = = = = = = = = = power adjustment factor Standard reference total barometric pressure Standard reference relative humidity Saturation vapor pressure under standard reference conditions..... (I) α = K . these shall be stated)......S. K = ηm = Pr = Px = m..... Sharma (BSNL Electrical Zone Patna) 2 Charge air coolant temperature : Tcr = 300 K (270 C) (If other reference conditions are chosen. Relative humidity condition being considered Standard reference absolute air temperature.. Px = α Pr ... (ii)  K =    p p x r p − aφ p x r − aφ  sx   sr  m  Tr       Tx  n  Tcr       Tcx  q ..R... Standard reference absolute charge air coolant temperature Absolute charge air coolant temperature at charge air cooler inlet being considered............7 (1-K) (1/ηm-1) . Total barometric pressure conditions being considered Saturation vapour pressure under the conditions being considered.0... Ratio of indicated power Mechanical efficiency The brake power under reference condition The brake power under the conditions being considered Various constants a constant [either 1 (when power limited by air excess) or 0]...... n. Absolute air temperature being considered...........S.

.I... The following formulae will then be used  K =    p p  x   ra  m  Tra     Tx  r n  Tcr     Tcx  q .n.. Sharma (BSNL Electrical Zone Patna) 3 φxpsx = Water vapour pressure (depending upon air temperature and relative humidity)     p p x r − aφ p − aφ p x r   = The dry air pressure ratio. Tcr = Standard reference absolute charge air coolant temperature Tcx = Absolute charge air coolant temperature at charge air cooler inlet being considered. Tra = Substitute reference absolute air temperature to be stated by the manufacturer Tx = Absolute air temperature being considered.. rating B (without over load). Maximum available boost pressure ratio to be stated by the . Substitute reference total barometric pressure... (v) max πmax = manufacturer........ px pra πr = = = ra = p π π r .......... But BS covers only with overload..S. rating of the engine has been classified as two types ... Boost pressure ratio at declared power under reference conditions to be tested by the manufacturer.... m...........S.... But I.S. the manufacturer may declare substitute reference conditions to or from which power adjustment is to be made.........q = Constants.. rating A....  sr  sx In the case of turbo charged engines in which the limits of turbocharger speed and turbocharger turbine inlet temperature have not been reached at the declared power under standard reference conditions. In any case our departmental requirement is for I. Till new there is no difference.. (iv) p where..R. rating A (with overload) and I....S. total barometric pressure conditions being considered....

Step 2 : Note down the standard reference conditions.7 Exponents n 0. (or alternatively the water vapour pressure or the wet and dry bulb (temperature) ruling at the maximum temperature conditions.2 0. px. (c) The highest and lowest ambient air temperatures around the engine. tx. Non turbo charged Turbocharge d with charge air cooling Naturally aspirated 0 1 Low and medium speed 4 stroke engines 0 0. (e) The maximum and minimum temperatures of the cooling water available (for water cooled engine).75 1 2 q 0 0 0 Turbocharge d without charge air cooling Turbocharge d with charge air cooling. & φx.75 Spark ignition engines using gaseous fuel Spane ignition engines using liquid fuel 1 1 0. (b) The monthly mean minimum and maximum air temperatures during the hottest and the coldest months of the year.55 0.H.e.57 1.R.5 0 STEPS TO BE FOLLOWED FOR CALCULATION : Step 1 : Obtain site conditions i. Guidelines for site conditions : (a) Site barometric pressure (highest and lowest readings available : In absence of these data take altitude above mean sea level.85 0. Factor a 1 0 0 m 1 1 0.. Sharma (BSNL Electrical Zone Patna) 4 To find out the value of different constants the following table may be followed : Engine type Compression ignition oil engine and duel fuel engines Condition Nonturbocharged Power limited by air excess Power limited by thermal reasons Low and medium speed fourstroke engines. . (d) The R.7 0.55 1 0 1.

m. n and q. α Exercise 1 : A non-turbocharged engine with its power limited by air excess has an ISO standard power of 500 KW with a mechanical efficiency of 0.   Obtain the value of  Tcr  using Annexure D. air temperature 450 C and relative humidity 80% ? (750 mm Hg = 100 KPa) Answer : Here px = 650 mm Hg tx = 450C ∴ Tx = 318 K φx = 0. Note the Engine type and from the previous table obtain the value of a.95 here a = 1. Obtain the value of dry air pressure ratio at given px and φxpsx (use Annexure E). if not given).5%.    Tcx    Obtain the value of  Tcr  using Annexure D. Sharma (BSNL Electrical Zone Patna) 5 Step 3 : Step 4 : Step 5 : Step 6 : Step 7 : Step 8 : Step 9 : Obtain mech.S. efficiency ηm of the engine (assume 0.R.8 Standard reference conditions are pr = 750 mm Hg Tr = 300 K. Step 10 : For given values of K & ηm obtain value of α and β using Annexure B & C respectively.80. Step 11 : Obtain px = αpr & bx = βbr where b is the specific fuel consumption k β = .75 and q = 0 . and fuel consumption at a site with a total barometric pressure of 650 mm Hg. n = 0. and an I.O Specific fuel consumption of 220g/KWh. Also ηm = 0. What is the expected continuous net brake power.  Tcx  q n Obtain the value of K from the values obtain above. m = 1. called fuel consumption adjustment factor. Obtain the value of φxpsx at given tx and φx (use Annexure F).

36 ∴ pra = 750 x 2.R. What power will be available at an altitude of 4000 m with an ambient temperature of 323K and a charge air coolant temperature of 310K ? (750 mm Hg = 100 KPa) Answer : From the table we get a = 0.7.957  Tx  ∴ K = 0. the chosen reference charge air coolant temperature being 300K . n = 1. at 4000 m altitude.75 318   We have  Tr  = 0. [Formula V] 2.0.4 g/KWh Exercise 2 : A turbocharger and charge cooled medium speed four stroke engine has a declared power of 1000 KW at standard reference conditions with a mechanical efficiency of 90%. Sharma (BSNL Electrical Zone Patna) 6 From Annexure F at tx = 450 C & φx = 0.2 and q = 1.772 (formula 3) From Annexure C.772 and ηm=0. Also pr = 750 mm Hg .36. T T r x = 300 =0.  p − aφ p  sx  x We get  x = 0.807  p − aφ p   r sr  r From Annexure D at n From Annexure E. πr = 2.744 = 372 KW Site specific fuel consumption = 220 x 1.62 mm Hg. at K = 0.744.36 From Annexure E.038 From Annexure B at K = 0. φxpsx = 58 mm Hg.and the boost pressure ratio 2. p = 4.943 and n = 0. The manufacturer declares that the limits of temperature and turbocharger speed have not been reached under standard reference condition and gives a substitute reference temperature of 313K and a maximum available boost pressure ratio of 2.0. m = 0.0 = 636 mm Hg. at px = 650 mm Hg.807 x 0.957 0.0 & πmax = 2.772 and ηm = 0.8 we get (by interpolation) φxpsx = 58 mm Hg. ∴ pra Tra = = 636 mm Hg 313 K .85 we get α 0.85 we get β = 1.038 = 228. ∴ Site continuous new brake power = 500 x 0.

R. 7  Tra     Tx  1.S.726)0. Also from Annexure C at K = 0.726 Hence Site power = 0. the reference conditions in this standard are as follows : pr Tr Tcr φr = = = = Total barometric pressure = 100 kPa Air intake temperature = 298 K (250C) Charged air coolant temp. Sharma (BSNL Electrical Zone Patna) 7 Tcr px Tx Tcx ηm Hence = = = = = 300 K 462 mm Hg 323 K 310 K 0.030 SECTION B : This section deals with turbocharged engines as dealt under I. (0.969)1.968 = 0. (0.726 x 1000 = 726 KW at 236 boost pressure ratio.90 β = 1.90 p p T T x = ra 462 = 0.963 x 0. = 298 K (250C) Relative humidity = 30% . 2  Tcr     Tcx  1.746 ∴ From Annexure 8 at K = 0. 0 = 0. α = 0. Most of the definition discussed above remains the same.963  ∴K=    p p    ra  x 0.90 .968 310 From Annexure D.726 636 313 = 0.746 & ηm = 0.969 & 323 ra x = T T cr = cx 300 = 0.7 = 0. 13018 : 1990.2 = 0.746 & ηm = 0.800 x 0. However.800.

to maintain for an approximately constant thermal and/or mechanical load on critical engine components. changing the fuel injection timing or other mechanical charger. In general. the calculation procedure by which power determined under engine test conditions is modified so that it represents the power expected under other operational or reference conditions without any engine adjustment is called power correction. Power adjustment may result in engine adjustment. Non-adjusted engines where the fuel settings are pre-set so that power and performance parameters may vary as a function of ambient condition. the power and specific fuel consumption shall be adjusted or corrected if any of the ambient conditions under which the engine operated during test or on site differ from the standard reference conditions. THUS WE FIND THAT THERE ARE SOME DIFFERENCES IN TREATING THE ENGINES AS PER THEIR CLASS : (i) (ii) Engines with pre-set fuel settings and as such we have to calculate power correction factor (Non-adjusted engines). The manufacturer shall specify which method (power adjustment or power correction) is applicable to his engine. rematching the turbocharger. SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION ADJUSTMENT AND POWER CORRECTION : The adjustment procedures are carried out when required to determine : (a) (b) Whether the values of power and fuel consumption attained under engine test ambient conditions correspond to the declared results. However. Adjusted engines with adjusted fuel settings for which we have to calculate the power adjustment factor etc. a procedure of modifying an engine to adopt to a different set of ambient conditions. Power adjustment is the calculation procedure by which power at the set of ambient conditions is modified to represent the power expected under another set of ambient conditions. Sharma (BSNL Electrical Zone Patna) 8 POWER ADJUSTMENT.R. where the power is adjusted to control limiting performance parameters when the ambient conditions differ from the standard reference conditions (for example. (ii) . This may be by moving the limiting fuel stop. Here the possible cases could be as under : (i) Adjusted engines. The permissible maximum power under test ambient conditions to prevent the engine overloading which excess air allows.

114.e.2). Calculate the Engine factor fm by the formula fm = 0. POWER CORRECTION FOR NON-ADJUSTED ENGINES : Step 1 : Calculate the corrected fuel delivery per cycle (mg/litre) using the formula qc = q/π where qc q π Step 2 : = = = corrected fueled delivery per cycle (mg/litre) fuel delivery per cycle in mg per litre of total swept volume . (This formula shall be used only if 40 ≤ qc ≤ 65. Sharma (BSNL Electrical Zone Patna) 9 For the latter case.R. For mechanically pressure charged engine  p −φ p  f a =  p r − φ r psx     y sy  y and for turbocharged engines 0. case (ii) the method and formula to be followed is exactly as discussed in section ‘A’ and so needs no discussion. . whether it is mechanically pressure charged or turbocharged with or without charge air cooling and in each case calculate the atmospheric factor fa. 7 1. We shall discuss only case (i) and its methodology.3 and for qc > 65. i. mg/litre Absolute pressure of compressor outlet to that of compressor inlet. 7  Ty       Tr  0.e.5  p −φ p   Ty   r sx  r fa =  p −φ p       Tr   y sy  y where the suffix y denotes the test condition.036 qc . If qc < 40 take fm = 0. Step 4 : The power correction factor αd can be given by αd = (fa)fm Step 5 : Use the equation Px = αd x Py to get power at site ambient condition (Px) from that of the power at test condition (Px). fm = 1. Step 3 : Determine the type of the engine i.

9 70. (use Annexure F) ∴ Power in KW = 0.p. To correct the engine power directly from test condition to site condition introduces bearable inaccuracy in the calculation provided the limit are observed.93  315 = 0.997 x 0. ∴ q = (1000 x 60 x 2) x 5.8 litre and fuel delivery is 45. Sharma (BSNL Electrical Zone Patna) 10 Example 1 : A four stroke turbocharged compression ignition engine with charge air cooling will develop 896 kW at test ambient conditions.5  p −φ p   Ty   r r sx  ∴ fa =  p −φ p       Tr   y sy  y [Note we can take site conditions in place of reference condition for cases where 80 < px < 110 KPa.m.939 = 0.1 and the ambient temperature of the air inlet of the engine is T+150 C. total swept volume is 51.7 1.  =    f a p −φ p p −φ p r r y y  sx   sy  0.15 ≅ 27. New fm = 0.934)0. 2.42 = 70.3 ≅ 0.3.934 Now αd = (0.5 1. this is the correct approach in general.98 x 896 = 878 KW (Site power) . What is the corrected power expected at the listed site ambient conditions.R.9 < αd < 1. In fact.9 x 1500 ∴ = 80 x 45.98.5  98 .2 Site ambient conditions : .15 mg / litre 51.] 0. The engine speed is 1500 r.42 51. 0.4.0. If these limits are exceeded then we have to first correct from test conditions to standard reference conditions and then from standard reference conditions to the site condition.42 gm/sec. The turbocharger pressure ratio of compressor outlet to compressor inlet is 2.7  Ty       Tr  0. px Tx φx = = = 98kpa 315 K 0.3 ( q < 40) q c = c Since it is turbocharged engine. Test ambient conditions : py Ty φy Answer : = = = 96 Kpa 302 K 0.6. 7 1.3   303 ∴ fa =      96 .

0.R.14 = 0.044 ⇒ Pr = αd Py = 1. conditions : pr Tr φr Answer : q = Site ambient conditions : px = 69 Kpa Tx = 283 K φx = 0.5 = 1. Sharma (BSNL Electrical Zone Patna) 11 Exercise 2 : A four stroke trubocharged compression-ignition engine without charge air cooling with a mechanical efficiency of 0. Now f a  100 .2 Standard ref.044 x 700 = 731 KW Now Px = αdPr where α = K .036 x 57) . The turbocharger pressure ratio of compressor outlet to compressor inlet is 2.912 = 1. Test ambient conditions : py = 96 Kpa Ty = 302 K φy = 0.0.0. ∴ Expected power shall be calculated at reference standard condition and then from that we shall calculate power developed at site condition.95 =    96 − 0.912 Since px < 80 KPa therefore power correction cannot be applied directly from test condition to site condition.05)0.05.3 = 80 x 64.049 ≅ 1. total swept volume is 45 litres and fuel delivery is 64. 7  302     298  1.020 ≅ 1.028 x 1. What is the corrected power expected at the listed site ambient condition ? The engine speed is 1500 per min.85 will develop 700 KW at test ambient conditions.1 x 1000)  1500  45 x    2 x 60  Hence qc = 114 = 57 2 ∴ fm = (0.1 gm/sec.1 ≅ 114 mg / litre 45 (64.4 = = = 100 Kpa 298 K 0. ∴ αd = (1.7(1-K) (1/ηm -1) .1.83  0.

5 Above 1000 up to 2000 241.8 3.0 56.S.145 x 0.0 28.8 1.75 Above 2000 308.0 90. 10001 & 10002 deals with it.0 100 112 125 140 160 180 200 224 250 280 315 355 400 450 500 etc.0 45.0 1. The specific fuel consumption of the Engine varies with the speed of the Engine and shall have the following value as maximum -------------------------------------------------------------------Rated Engine Speed SFC. Sharma (BSNL Electrical Zone Patna) 12  and K =    p  p  x r m  Tr   Tcx       Tx   Tcr  n q where m = 0.25 1.0 2.0 4.5 40.18) = 0.7.0 20.1 5.1088 ≅ 0.0 63.) (g/kWh) -------------------------------------------------------------------Up to 500 332. Max (rev/min.3 7.55 4. The power of the engine is to be rated in KW and the recommended preferred ratings are as follows : 0.837 ∴ Px = 0.15 3.0 5.5 2.0 11.0 80.3 7.6 6.24 2.0 50.5 Above 500 u to 100 275.5 35.7712 x 1.4 1.0 31.2 12.0.0 16.8 2.75 -------------------------------------------------------------------- .6 1.0 71.0 10.1 8.5 14.0 5.6 6.7  298     283  2 = 0.5 5.7 (0.855 ∴ α = 0.855 .0 9. n = 2 and q = 0  69  ∴K=    100  0 .12 1.84 ≅ 612 KW RATING AND SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION : A problem is faced while mentioning the engine capacity in our specification I.0 18.837 x 737 = 611.R.0 22.4 25.

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