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S.K.P Institute of Technology Doc No : 7.

1 / COE
Rev. No :
Tiruvannamalai – 606611. Date : 12-12-2010

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

EC 2254

LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS

QUESTION BANK

1
Prepared By: Faculty Verified By: HOD Approved By: Principal
A.Sugunapriya B.Abirami
LECT/ECE
S.K.P Institute of Technology Doc No : 7.1 / COE
Rev. No :
Tiruvannamalai – 606611. Date : 12-12-2010

UNIT 1
IC FABRICATION & CIRCUIT CONFIGURATION FOR LINEAR ICs
2 marks questions
1.Mention the advantages of integrated circuits.
• Miniaturisation and hence increased equipment density.
• Cost reduction due to batch processing.
• Increased system reliability due to the elimination of soldered joints.
• Improved functional performance.
• Matched devices.
• Increased operating speeds.
• Reduction in power consumption.
2. Write down the various processes used to fabricate IC’s using silicon
planar technology.
• Silicon wafer preparation.
• Epitaxial growth
• Oxidation.
• Photolithography.
• Diffusion.
• Ion implantation.
• Isolation.
• Metallization.
• Assembly processing and packaging.
3. What is the purpose of oxidation?
• SiO2 is an extremely hard protective coating and is unaffected by almost all
reagents.
• By selective etching of SiO2, diffusion of impurities through carefully defined
windows can be accomplished to fabricate various components.
4. Why aluminium is preferred for metallization?
• It is a good conductor.

2
Prepared By: Faculty Verified By: HOD Approved By: Principal
A.Sugunapriya B.Abirami
LECT/ECE
S.K.P Institute of Technology Doc No : 7.1 / COE
Rev. No :
Tiruvannamalai – 606611. Date : 12-12-2010

• It is easy to deposit aluminium films using vacuum deposition.


• It makes good mechanical bonds with silicon.
• It forms a low resistance contact.
5. What are the popular IC packages available?
• Metal can package.
• Dual-in-line package.
• Ceramic flat package.
6. Define an operational amplifier.
An operational amplifier is a direct-coupled, high gain amplifier consisting of one or
more differential amplifier. By properly selecting the external components, it can be
used to perform a variety of mathematical operations.
7. Mention the characteristics of an ideal op-amp.
• Open loop voltage gain is infinity.
• Input impedance is infinity.
• Output impedance is zero.
• Bandwidth is infinity.
• Zero offset.
8. What happens when the common terminal of V+ and V- sources is not
grounded?
If the common point of the two supplies is not grounded, twice the supply voltage
will get applied and it may damage the op-amp.
9. Define input offset voltage.
A small voltage applied to the input terminals to make the output voltage as zero
when the two input terminals are grounded is called input offset voltage.
10. Define input offset current. State the reasons for the offset currents at
the input of the op-amp.
The difference between the bias currents at the input terminals of the op-amp is
called as input offset current. The input terminals conduct a small value of dc current
to bias the input transistors. Since the input transistors cannot be made identical,
there exists a difference in bias currents.

3
Prepared By: Faculty Verified By: HOD Approved By: Principal
A.Sugunapriya B.Abirami
LECT/ECE
S.K.P Institute of Technology Doc No : 7.1 / COE
Rev. No :
Tiruvannamalai – 606611. Date : 12-12-2010

11. Define CMRR of an op-amp.


The relative sensitivity of an op-amp to a difference signal as compared to a common
–mode signal is called the common –mode rejection ratio. It is expressed in decibels.
CMRR= Ad/Ac
12.What are the applications of current sources?
Transistor current sources are widely used in analog ICs both as biasing elements
and as load devices for amplifier stages.
13. Justify the reasons for using current sources in integrated circuits.
• Superior insensitivity of circuit performance to power supply variations and
temperature.
• More economical than resistors in terms of die area required to provide bias
currents of small value.
• When used as load element, the high incremental resistance of current source,
results in high voltage gain at low supply voltages.
14. What is the advantage of widlar current source over constant current
source?
Using constant current source output current of small magnitude(microamp range) is
not attainable due to the limitations in chip area. Widlar current source is useful for
obtaining small output currents.Sensitivity of widlar current source is less compared to
constant current source.
15.Mention the advantages of Wilson current source.
• Provides high output resistance.
• Offers low sensitivity to transistor base currents.
16. Define sensitivity.
Sensitivity is defined as the percentage or fractional change in output current per
percentage or fractional change in power-supply voltage.
17. What are the limitations in a temperature compensated zener-reference
source?
A power supply voltage of atleast 7 to 10 V is required to place the diode in the
breakdown region and that substantial noise is introduced in the circuit by the
avalanching diode.
4
Prepared By: Faculty Verified By: HOD Approved By: Principal
A.Sugunapriya B.Abirami
LECT/ECE
S.K.P Institute of Technology Doc No : 7.1 / COE
Rev. No :
Tiruvannamalai – 606611. Date : 12-12-2010

18. What do you mean by a band-gap referenced biasing circuit?


The biasing sources referenced to VBE has a negative temperature co-efficient and
VT has a positive temperature co-efficient. Band gap reference circuit is one in which
the output current is referenced to a composite voltage that is a weighted sum of VBE
and VT so that by proper weighting, zero temperature co efficient can be achieved.
19. In practical op-amps, what is the effect of high frequency on its
performance?
The open-loop gain of op-amp decreases at higher frequencies due to the presence
of parasitic capacitance. The closed-loop gain increases at higher frequencies and
leads to instability.
20. What is the need for frequency compensation in practical op-amps?
Frequency compensation is needed when large bandwidth and lower closed loop
gain is desired. Compensating networks are used to control the phase shift and hence
to improve the stability.
21. Mention the frequency compensation methods.
Dominant-pole compensation and Pole-zero compensation.
22. What are the merits and demerits of Dominant-pole compensation?
• Noise immunity of the system is improved.
• Open-loop bandwidth is reduced.
23. Define slew rate.
The slew rate is defined as the maximum rate of change of output voltage caused
by a step input voltage. An ideal slew rate is infinite which means that op-amp’s
output voltage should change instantaneously in response to input step voltage.
24. Why IC 741 is not used for high frequency applications?
IC741 has a low slew rate because of the predominance of capacitance present in
the circuit at higher frequencies. As frequency increases the output gets distorted due
to limited slew rate.
25. What causes slew rate?
There is a capacitor with-in or outside of an op-amp to prevent oscillation. It is this
capacitor which prevents the output voltage from responding immediately to a fast
changing input.

5
Prepared By: Faculty Verified By: HOD Approved By: Principal
A.Sugunapriya B.Abirami
LECT/ECE
S.K.P Institute of Technology Doc No : 7.1 / COE
Rev. No :
Tiruvannamalai – 606611. Date : 12-12-2010

16 marks questions
1. Explain in detail the fabrication of ICs using silicon planar technology.
Ans:
• Silicon wafer preparation.
• Epitaxial growth
• Oxidation.
• Photolithography.
• Diffusion.
• Ion implantation.
• Isolation.
• Metallization.
• Assembly processing and packaging.
2. Design an active load for an emitter-coupled pair(differential amplifier)
and perform a detailed analysis to find its differential mode gain and the
output resistance.
Ans:
Output voltage, Vo=Vcc –VBE (on) + 2VA(eff) tanh (Vid / 2VT)
Gain, Avd = 1 / ( VT/VAN + VT/VAP )
Output resistance,Ro = ronpn || ropnp
3. Design a Widlar current source and obtain the expression for output
current. Also prove that widlar current source has better sensitivity than
constant current source.
Ans:
For Widlar current source, VT ln( Ic1/ Ic2 ) = Ic2 R2
Sensitivity is defined as the percentage or fractional change in output current per
percentage or fractional change in power-supply voltage. For constant current source
sensitivity is unity because the output current is directly proportional to supply
voltage. The sensitivity of a widlar current source is better compared to constant
current source because the output current has a logarithmic dependence on power
supply voltage.

6
Prepared By: Faculty Verified By: HOD Approved By: Principal
A.Sugunapriya B.Abirami
LECT/ECE
S.K.P Institute of Technology Doc No : 7.1 / COE
Rev. No :
Tiruvannamalai – 606611. Date : 12-12-2010

4. Explain the supply independent biasing technique using VBE as the


reference voltage. Also, find the dependence of its output current on
temperature.
Ans:
The output current is given by, Iout = VBE1 / R2 = (VT /R2) ln ( Iref / Is1 )
(Circuit diagram, self-biasing VBE reference circuit, start-up circuit to avoid zero
current state)
Temperature co-efficient, TCF = ∂VBE1/ VBE1 ∂T - ∂R/R∂T
5. Explain supply independent biasing using zener-referenced bias circuit.
Also, design a temperature compensated zener-reference source.
Ans:
The output current is given by, Iout = VZ / R2
(Circuit diagram, self-biasing zener bias reference circuit, temperature compensated
zener reference source)
6. Obtain the frequency response of an open-loop op-amp and discuss about
the
methods of frequency compensation .
Ans:
The open-loop gain of op-amp decreases at higher frequencies due to the presence
of parasitic capacitance. The closed-loop gain increases at higher frequencies and
leads to instability. Frequency compensation is needed when large bandwidth and
lower closed loop gain is desired. Compensating networks are used to control the
phase shift and hence to improve the stability.
Frequency compensation methods:
• Dominant-pole compensation
• Pole-zero compensation.

UNIT 2
APPLICATIONS OF OP – AMPS
2 Marks Questions:
7
Prepared By: Faculty Verified By: HOD Approved By: Principal
A.Sugunapriya B.Abirami
LECT/ECE
S.K.P Institute of Technology Doc No : 7.1 / COE
Rev. No :
Tiruvannamalai – 606611. Date : 12-12-2010

1. Mention some of the linear applications of op – amps :


Adder, subtractor, voltage –to- current converter, current –to- voltage converters,
instrumentation amplifier, analog computation ,power amplifier, etc are some of the
linear op-amp circuits.
2. Mention some of the non – linear applications of op-amps:-
Rectifier, peak detector, clipper, clamper, sample and hold circuit, log amplifier, anti
–log amplifier, multiplier are some of the non – linear op-amp circuits.
3. What are the areas of application of non-linear op- amp circuits?
• Industrial instrumentation
• Communication
• Signal processing
4. What is the need for an instrumentation amplifier?
In a number of industrial and consumer applications, the measurement of physical
quantities is usually done with the help of transducers. The output of transducer has
to be amplified So that it can drive the indicator or display system. This function is
performed by an instrumentation amplifier.
5. List the features of instrumentation amplifier:
• high gain accuracy
• high CMRR
• high gain stability with low temperature co-efficient
• low dc offset
• low output impedance
6. What are the applications of V-I converter?
• Low voltage dc and ac voltmeter
• LED
• Zener diode tester
7. What do you mean by a precision diode?
The major limitation of ordinary diode is that it cannot rectify voltages below the cut
– in voltage of the diode. A circuit designed by placing a diode in the feedback loop of

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Prepared By: Faculty Verified By: HOD Approved By: Principal
A.Sugunapriya B.Abirami
LECT/ECE
S.K.P Institute of Technology Doc No : 7.1 / COE
Rev. No :
Tiruvannamalai – 606611. Date : 12-12-2010

an op – amp is called the precision diode and it is capable of rectifying input signals of
the order of millivolt.
8. Write down the applications of precision diode.
• Half - wave rectifier
• Full - Wave rectifier
• Peak – value detector
• Clipper
• Clamper
9. List the applications of Log amplifiers:
• Analog computation may require functions such as lnx, log x, sin hx etc. These
functions can be performed by log amplifiers
• Log amplifier can perform direct dB display on digital voltmeter and spectrum
analyzer
• Log amplifier can be used to compress the dynamic range of a signal
10. What are the limitations of the basic differentiator circuit?
• At high frequency, a differentiator may become unstable and break into
oscillations
• The input impedance decreases with increase in frequency, thereby making the
circuit sensitive to high frequency noise.
11. Write down the condition for good differentiation :-
For good differentiation, the time period of the input signal must be greater than or
equal to Rf C1
T > Rf C1
Where, Rf is the feedback resistance
Cf is the input capacitance
12. What is a comparator?
A comparator is a circuit which compares a signal voltage applied at one input of an
op-amp with a known reference voltage at the other input. It is an open loop op - amp
with output + Vsat .
13. What are the applications of comparator?

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Prepared By: Faculty Verified By: HOD Approved By: Principal
A.Sugunapriya B.Abirami
LECT/ECE
S.K.P Institute of Technology Doc No : 7.1 / COE
Rev. No :
Tiruvannamalai – 606611. Date : 12-12-2010

• Zero crossing detector


• Window detector
• Time marker generator
• Phase detector

14. What is a Schmitt trigger?


Schmitt trigger is a regenerative comparator. It converts sinusoidal input into a square
wave output. The output of Schmitt trigger swings between upper and lower threshold
voltages, which are the reference voltages of the input waveform.
15. What is a multivibrator?
Multivibrators are a group of regenerative circuits that are used extensively in
timing applications. It is a wave shaping circuit which gives symmetric or asymmetric
square output. It has two states either stable or quasi- stable depending on the type
of multivibrator.
16. What do you mean by monostable multivibrator?
Monostable multivibrator is one which generates a single pulse of specified duration
in response to each external trigger signal. It has only one stable state. Application of
a trigger causes a change to the quasi-stable state. An external trigger signal
generated due to charging and discharging of the capacitor produces the transition to
the original stable state.
17. What is an astable multivibrator?
Astable multivibrator is a free running oscillator having two quasi-stable states. Thus,
there are oscillations between these two states and no external signal is required to
produce the change in state.
18. What is a bistable multivibrator?
Bistable multivibrator is one that maintains a given output voltage level unless an
external trigger is applied. Application of an external trigger signal causes a change of
state, and this output level is maintained indefinitely until a second trigger is applied.
Thus, it requires two external triggers before it returns to its initial state.
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Prepared By: Faculty Verified By: HOD Approved By: Principal
A.Sugunapriya B.Abirami
LECT/ECE
S.K.P Institute of Technology Doc No : 7.1 / COE
Rev. No :
Tiruvannamalai – 606611. Date : 12-12-2010

19. What are the requirements for producing sustained oscillations in


feedback circuits?
For sustained oscillations,
• The total phase shift around the loop must be zero at the desired frequency of
oscillation, fo. ie, ∟AB = 0 (or) 360°
• At fo, the magnitude of the loop gain | A β | should be equal to unity
20. Mention any two audio frequency oscillators:
• RC phase shift oscillator
• Wein bridge oscillator
21. What are the characteristics of a comparator?
• Speed of operation
• Accuracy
• Compatibility of the output
23. What are the demerits of passive filters?
Passive filters works well for high frequencies. But at audio frequencies, the
inductors become problematic, as they become large, heavy and expensive. For low
frequency applications, more number of turns of wire must be used which in turn adds
to the series resistance degrading inductor’s performance ie, low Q, resulting in high
power dissipation.
24. What are the advantages of active filters?
Active filters used op- amp as the active element and resistors and capacitors as
passive elements.
• By enclosing a capacitor in the feedback loop , inductor less active fulters can
be obtained.
• Op-amp used in non – inverting configuration offers high input impedance and
low output impedance, thus improving the load drive capacity.
25. Mention some commonly used active filters:
• Low pass filter
• High pass filter
• Band pass filter

11
Prepared By: Faculty Verified By: HOD Approved By: Principal
A.Sugunapriya B.Abirami
LECT/ECE
S.K.P Institute of Technology Doc No : 7.1 / COE
Rev. No :
Tiruvannamalai – 606611. Date : 12-12-2010

• Band reject filter


16 marks questions
1. Discuss the need for an instrumentation amplifier? Give a detailed
analysis for the same.
Ans:
In a number of industrial and consumer applications, the measurement of physical
quantities is usually done with the help of transducers. The output of transducer has
to be amplified So that it can drive the indicator or display system. This function is
performed by an instrumentation amplifier. Circuit diagram, instrumentation amplifier
with transducer bridge, Analysis, Expression for out put voltage.
2. Explain the operation of the Schmitt trigger.
Ans:
Schmitt trigger is a regenerative comparator. It converts sinusoidal input into a
square wave output. The output of Schmitt trigger swings between upper and lower
threshold voltages, which are the reference voltages of the input waveform.
Circuit diagram, Analysis.
Expression for upper and lower threshold voltages with and without Vref.
Hysterisis width.
Waveforms.
3. Discuss in detail the operation of Astable multivibrator.
Ans:
Astable multivibrator is a free running oscillator having two quasi-stable states.
Thus, there is oscillations between these two states and no external signal are
required to produce the change in state.
Circuit diagram, Analysis.

Expression for time period , 2RC

Waveforms.
Circuit for asymmetric square wave generator.
4. Discuss in detail the operation of Monostable multivibrator.
Ans:

12
Prepared By: Faculty Verified By: HOD Approved By: Principal
A.Sugunapriya B.Abirami
LECT/ECE
S.K.P Institute of Technology Doc No : 7.1 / COE
Rev. No :
Tiruvannamalai – 606611. Date : 12-12-2010

Monostable multivibrator is one which generates a single pulse of specified duration


in response to each external trigger signal. It has only one stable state. Application of
a trigger causes a change to the quasi-stable state.An external trigger signal
generated due to charging and discharging of the capacitor produces the transition to
the original stable state.
Circuit diagram, Analysis.
Expression for time period , T = RC ln ( 1 + VD / Vsat ) / ( 1 –β)
Waveforms.
5. What are the requirements for producing sustained oscillations in
feedback circuits?Discuss any two audio frequency oscillators.
Ans:
For sustained oscillations,
• The total phase shift around the loop must be zero at the desired frequency of
oscillation, fo. ie, ∟AB = 0 (or) 360°
• At fo, the magnitude of the loop gain | A β | should be equal to unity.
RC phase shift oscillator: Circuit diagram,Derive the condition for frequency of
oscillation. Gain, Av >= - 29
Wein bridge oscillator : Circuit diagram,Derive the condition for frequency of
oscillation. Gain, Av = 3

UNIT 3
ANALOG MULTIPLIERS AND PLL
2 marks questions
1. Mention some areas where PLL is widely used:
• Radar synchronization
• satellite communication systems
• air borne navigational systems
• FM communication systems
• Computers.
2. List the basic building blocks of PLL:

13
Prepared By: Faculty Verified By: HOD Approved By: Principal
A.Sugunapriya B.Abirami
LECT/ECE
S.K.P Institute of Technology Doc No : 7.1 / COE
Rev. No :
Tiruvannamalai – 606611. Date : 12-12-2010

• Phase detector/comparator
• Low pass filter
• Error amplifier
• Voltage controlled oscillator
3. What are the three stages through which PLL operates?
• Free running
• Capture
• Locked/ tracking
4. Define lock-in range of a PLL:
The range of frequencies over which the PLL can maintain lock with the incoming
signal is called the lock-in range or tracking range. It is expressed as a percentage of
the VCO free running frequency.
5. Define capture range of PLL:
The range of frequencies over which the PLL can acquire lock with an input signal is
called the capture range. It is expressed as a percentage of the VCO free running
frequency.
6. Define Pull-in time.
The total time taken by the PLL to establish lock is called pull-in time. It depends on
the initial phase and frequency difference between the two signals as well as on the
overall loop gain and loop filter characteristics.
7. For perfect lock, what should be the phase relation between the incoming
signal and
VCO output signal?
The VCO output should be 90 degrees out of phase with respect to the input signal.
8. Give the classification of phase detector
• Analog phase detector
• Digital phase detector
9. What is a switch type phase detector?
An electronic switch is opened and closed by signal coming from VCO and the input
signal is chopped at a repetition rate determined by the VCO frequency. This type of

14
Prepared By: Faculty Verified By: HOD Approved By: Principal
A.Sugunapriya B.Abirami
LECT/ECE
S.K.P Institute of Technology Doc No : 7.1 / COE
Rev. No :
Tiruvannamalai – 606611. Date : 12-12-2010

phase detector is called a half wave detector since the phase information for only one
half of the input signal is detected and averaged.
10. What are the problems associated with switch type phase detector?
The output voltage Ve is proportional to the input signal amplitude. This is
undesirable because it makes phase detector gain and loop gain dependent on the
input signal amplitude.
The output is proportional to cosφ making it non linear.
11. What is a voltage controlled oscillator?
Voltage controlled oscillator is a free running multivibrator operating at a set
frequency called the free running frequency. This frequency can be shifted to either
side by applying a dc control voltage and the frequency deviation is proportional to
the dc control voltage.
12. On what parameters does the free running frequency of VCO depend on?
• External timing resistor, RT
• External timing capacitor, CT
• The dc control voltage Vc.
13. Give the expression for the VCO free running frequency.
fo = 0.25 / RT CT
14. Define Voltage to Frequency conversion factor.
Voltage to Frequency conversion factor is defined as,
Kv = Δfo/ΔVc = Vcc
Where, ΔVc is the modulation voltage required to produce the frequency shift Δfo
15. What is the purpose of having a low pass filter in PLL?
• It removes the high frequency components and noise.
• Controls the dynamic characteristics of the PLL such as capture range, lock-in
range, band-width and transient response.
• The charge on the filter capacitor gives a short- time memory to the PLL.

16. Discuss the effect of having large capture range.


The PLL cannot acquire a signal outside the capture range, but once captured, it will
hold on till the frequency goes beyond the lock-in range. Thus , to increase the ability
15
Prepared By: Faculty Verified By: HOD Approved By: Principal
A.Sugunapriya B.Abirami
LECT/ECE
S.K.P Institute of Technology Doc No : 7.1 / COE
Rev. No :
Tiruvannamalai – 606611. Date : 12-12-2010

of lock range, large capture range is required. But, a large capture range will make
the PLL more susceptible to noise and undesirable signal.
17. Mention some typical applications of PLL:
• Frequency multiplication/division
• Frequency translation
• AM detection
• FM demodulation
• FSK demodulation.
18. What is a compander IC? Give some examples.
The term companding means compressing and expanding. In a communication
system, the audio signal is compressed in the transmitter and expanded in the
receiver. Examples: LM 2704- LM 2707 ; NE 570/571.
19. What are the merits of companding?
• The compression process reduces the dynamic range of the signal before it is
transmitted.
• Companding preserves the signal to noise ratio of the original signal and avoids
non linear distortion of the signal when the input amplitude is large.
• It also reduces buzz, bias and low level audio tones caused by mild interference.
20. List the applications of OTA:
OTA can be used in
• programmable gain voltage amplifier
• sample and hold circuits
• voltage controlled state variable filter
• current controlled relaxation oscillator.
16 marks
1. Briefly explain the block diagram of PLL and derive the expression for
Lock range and capture range.
Block diagram of PLL
Explanation for each block.
Derivation for capture range and lock range.

16
Prepared By: Faculty Verified By: HOD Approved By: Principal
A.Sugunapriya B.Abirami
LECT/ECE
S.K.P Institute of Technology Doc No : 7.1 / COE
Rev. No :
Tiruvannamalai – 606611. Date : 12-12-2010

2. With a neat functional diagram, explain the operation of VCO. Also derive
an expression for fo.
Internal diagram for VCO IC.
Explanation
Derivation for fo.
3. Analyse the Gilbert’s four quadrant multiplier cell with a neat circuit
diagram. Discuss its applications.
Circuit diagram
Analysis
Expression for output current
Applications.
4. In detail dicuss the applications of PLL:
AM detection
FM demodulation
FSK demodulation
Frequency multiplication/division.
UNIT 4
A/D AND D/A CONVERTERS
2 marks questions
1. List the broad classification of ADCs.
1. Direct type ADC.
2. Integrating type ADC.
2. List out the direct type ADCs.
1. Flash (comparator) type converter
2. Counter type converter
3. Tracking or servo converter
4. Successive approximation type converter
3. List out some integrating type converters.
1. Charge balancing ADC
2. Dual slope ADC
17
Prepared By: Faculty Verified By: HOD Approved By: Principal
A.Sugunapriya B.Abirami
LECT/ECE
S.K.P Institute of Technology Doc No : 7.1 / COE
Rev. No :
Tiruvannamalai – 606611. Date : 12-12-2010

4. What is integrating type converter?


An ADC converter that perform conversion in an indirect manner by first changing
the analog I/P signal to a linear function of time or frequency and then to a digital
code is known as integrating type A/D converter.
5. Explain in brief the principle of operation of successive Approximation
ADC.
The circuit of successive approximation ADC consists of a successive approximation
register (SAR), to find the required value of each bit by trial & error. With the arrival of
START command, SAR sets the MSB bit to 1. The O/P is converted into an analog
signal & it is compared with I/P signal. This O/P is low or High. This process continues
until all bits are checked.
6. What are the main advantages of integrating type ADCs?
i. The integrating type of ADC’s doing not need a sample/Hold circuit at the input.
ii. It is possible to transmit frequency even in noisy environment or in an isolated
form.
7. Where are the successive approximation type ADC’s used?
The Successive approximation ADCs are used in applications such as data loggers &
instrumentation where conversion speed is important.
8. What is the main drawback of a dual-slop ADC?
The dual slope ADC has long conversion time. This is the main drawback of dual
slope ADC.
9. State the advantages of dual slope ADC:
It provides excellent noise rejection of ac signals whose periods are integral
multiples of the integration time T.
10. Define conversion time.
It is defined as the total time required to convert an analog signal into its digital
output. It depends on the conversion technique used & the propagation delay of
circuit components. The conversion time of a successive approximation type ADC is
given by
T(n+1)
where T---clock period

18
Prepared By: Faculty Verified By: HOD Approved By: Principal
A.Sugunapriya B.Abirami
LECT/ECE
S.K.P Institute of Technology Doc No : 7.1 / COE
Rev. No :
Tiruvannamalai – 606611. Date : 12-12-2010

Tc---conversion time
n----no. of bits
11. Define resolution of a data converter.
The resolution of a converter is the smallest change in voltage which may be
produced at the output or input of the converter.
Resolution (in volts)= VFS/2n-1=1 LSB increment. The resolution of an ADC is
defined as the smallest change in analog input for a one bit change at the output.
12. Define accuracy of converter.
Absolute accuracy:
It is the maximum deviation between the actual converter output & the ideal
converter output.
Relative accuracy:
It is the maximum deviation after gain & offset errors have been removed. The
accuracy of a converter is also specified in form of LSB increments or % of full scale
voltage.
13. What is settling time?
It represents the time it takes for the output to settle within a specified band
±½LSB of its final value following a code change at the input (usually a full scale
change). It depends upon the switching time of the logic circuitry due to internal
parasitic capacitance & inductances. Settling time ranges from 100ns. 10μs
depending on word length & type circuit used.
14. Explain in brief stability of a converter:
The performance of converter changes with temperature age & power supply
variation. So all the relevant parameters such as offset, gain, linearity error &
monotonicity must be specified over the full temperature & power supply ranges to
have better stability performances.
15. What is meant by linearity?
The linearity of an ADC/DAC is an important measure of its accuracy & tells us how
close the converter output is to its ideal transfer characteristics. The linearity error is
usually expressed as a fraction of LSB increment or percentage of full-scale voltage. A
good converter exhibits a linearity error of less than ±½ LSB.

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16. What is monotonic DAC?


A monotonic DAC is one whose analog output increases for an increase in digital
input.
17. What is multiplying DAC?
A digital to analog converter which uses a varying reference voltage VR is called a
multiplying DAC (MDAC). If the reference voltage of a DAC, VR is a sine wave give by
V (t)=VinCos2πft
Then, Vo (t)=Vom Cos(2πft+180º)
18. What is a sample and hold circuit? Where it is used?
A sample and hold circuit is one which samples an input signal and holds on to its
last sampled value until the input is sampled again. This circuit is mainly used in
digital interfacing, analog to digital systems, and pulse code modulation systems.

19. Define sample period and hold period.


The time during which the voltage across the capacitor in sample and hold circuit is
equal to the input voltage is called sample period. The time period during which the
voltage across the capacitor is held constant is called hold period.
20. What is meant by delta modulation?
Delta modulation is a technique capable of performing analog signal quantisation
with smaller bandwidth requirements. Here, the binary output representing the most
recent sampled amplitude will be determined on the basis of previous sampled
amplitude levels.
16 marks
1. What is integrating type converter? Explain the operation of dual slope
ADC:
An ADC converter that perform conversion in an indirect manner by first changing
the analog I/P signal to a linear function of time or frequency and then to a digital
code is known as integrating type A/D converter.
Functional diagram of Dual slope ADC.
Explanation, Derivation.
2. Explain the principle of operation of successive Approximation ADC.

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The circuit of successive approximation ADC consists of a successive approximation


register (SAR), to find the required value of each bit by trial & error.With the arrival of
START command, SAR sets the MSB bit to 1. The O/P is converted into an analog
signal & it is compared with I/P signal. This O/P is low or High. This process continues
until all bits are checked. Functional diagram Operation, Truth table, Output graph.
3. Explain the operation of sample and hold circuit .
Circuit diagram
Operation
Output waveforms.
4. Explain the various types of digital to analog converters:
Weighted resistor DAC
R-2R ladder DAC
Inverted R-2R ladder DAC
Circuit diagram & operation for each
5. What is delta sigma modulation? Explain the A/D conversion using Delta
modulator.
Delta modulation is a technique capable of performing analog signal quantisation
with smaller bandwidth requirements. Here, the binary output representing the most
recent sampled amplitude will be determined on the basis of previous sampled
amplitude levels. Functional diagram Operation.
UNIT 5
WAVEFORM GENERATORS & SPECIAL FUNCTION ICs
2 mark questions
1. Mention some applications of 555 timer:
• Oscillator
• pulse generator
• ramp and square wave generator
• mono-shot multivibrator
• burglar alarm
• traffic light control.

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2. List the applications of 555 timer in monostable mode of operation:


• missing pulse detector
• Linear ramp generator
• Frequency divider
• Pulse width modulation.
3. List the applications of 555 timer in Astable mode of operation:
• FSK generator
• Pulse-position modulator
4. What is a voltage regulator?
A voltage regulator is an electronic circuit that provides a stable dc voltage
independent of the load current, temperature, and ac line voltage variations.
5. Give the classification of voltage regulators:
• Series / Linear regulators
• Switching regulators.
6.What is a linear voltage regulator?
Series or linear regulator uses a power transistor connected in series between the
unregulated dc input and the load and it conducts in the linear region .The output
voltage is controlled by the continous voltage drop taking place across the series pass
transistor.
7. What is a switching regulator?
Switching regulators are those which operate the power transistor as a high
frequency on/off switch, so that the power transistor does not conduct current
continously.This gives improved efficiency over series regulators.
8. What are the advantages of IC voltage regulators?
• low cost
• high reliability
• reduction in size
• excellent performance
9. Give some examples of monolithic IC voltage regulators:
• 78XX series fixed output, positive voltage regulators

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• 79XX series fixed output, negative voltage regulators


• 723 general purpose regulator.
10.What is the purpose of having input and output capacitors in three
terminal IC regulators?
A capacitor connected between the input terminal and ground cancels the inductive
effects due to long distribution leads. The output capacitor improves the transient
response.
11. Define line regulation.
Line regulation is defined as the percentage change in the output voltage for a
change in the input voltage.It is expressed in millivolts or as a percentage of the
output voltage.
12. Define load regulation.
Load regulation is defined as the change in output voltage for a change in load
current. It is expressed in millivolts or as a percentage of the output voltage.
13. What is meant by current limiting?
Current limiting refers to the ability of a regulator to prevent the load current from
increasing above a preset value.
14. Give the drawbacks of linear regulators:
The input step down transformer is bulky and expensive because of low line
frequency.
Because of low line frequency,large values of filter capacitors are required to
decrease the ripple.
Efficiency is reduced due to the continous power dissipation by the transistor
as it operates in the linear region.
15. What is the advantage of switching regulators?
Greater efficiency is achieved as the power transistor is made to operate as low
impedance switch.Power transmitted across the transistor is in discrete pulses rather
than as a steady current flow.
By using suitable switching loss reduction technique, the switching frequency can
be increased so as to reduce the size and weight of the inductors and capacitors.
16. What is an opto-coupler IC? Give examples.

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Opto-coupler IC is a combined package of a photo-emitting device and a


photosensing device.Examples for opto-coupler circuit : LED and a photo diode, LED
and photo transistor, LED and Darlington.
Examples for opto-coupler IC : MCT 2F , MCT 2E .
17. Mention the advantages of opto-couplers:
• Better isolation between the two stages.
• Impedance problem between the stages is eliminated.
• Wide frequency response.
• Easily interfaced with digital circuit.
• Compact and light weight.
• Problems such as noise, transients, contact bounce are eliminated.
18. What is an isolation amplifier?
An isolation amplifier is an amplifier that offers electrical isolation between its input
and output terminals.
19. What is the need for a tuned amplifier?
In radio or TV receivers , it is necessary to select a particular channel among all
other available channels.Hence some sort of frequency selective circuit is needed that
will allow us to amplify the frequency band required and reject all the other unwanted
signals and this function is provided by a tuned amplifier.
20. Give the classification of tuned amplifier:
(i) Small signal tuned amplifier
• Single tuned
• Double tuned
• Stagger tuned
(ii) Large signal tuned amplifier.

16 marks
1. What is 555 timer? What are the features of 555 timer? Explain the
monostable mode in detail?
• Features of 555

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• Description about 555


• Circuit diagram
• Derivation for frequency.
2. Explain the Astable mode of operation using 555 timer.
• Description about 555
• Circuit diagram
• Derivation for frequency.
3. In detail dicuss the 723 IC general purpose voltage regulator.
• Functional diagram
• Low and high voltage regulation using 723
• Features of 723.
4. Explain the operation of switching regulators.Give its advantages.
• Functional diagram
• Operation
• Output waveforms.
• Advantages.
5. Explain the functional diagram of LM 380 power amplifier.
• Introduction
• Internal diagram
• Operation
• Features.

2 marks Q & A

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IC Fabrication
1. Define an Integrated circuit.
An integrated circuit(IC) is a miniature, low cost electronic circuit consisting of active and passive
components fabricated together on a single crystal of silicon. The active components are transistors and
diodes and passive components are resistors and capacitors.
2. What are the basic processes involved in fabricating ICs using planar technology?
• Silicon wafer (substrate) preparation
• Epitaxial growth
• Oxidation
• Photolithography
• Diffusion
• Ion implantation
• Isolation technique
• Metallization
• Assembly processing & packaging
3. List out the steps used in the preparation of Si – wafers.
• Crystal growth &doping
• Ingot trimming & grinding
• Ingot slicing
• Wafer policing & etching
• Wafer cleaning
4. Write the basic chemical reaction in the epitaxial growth process of pure silicon.
The basic chemical reaction in the epitaxial growth process of pure silicon is the hydrogen reduction
of silicon tetrachloride.
1200oC
SiCl4 + 2H2 Si + 4 HCl
5. What are the two important properties of SiO2?
1. SiO2 is an extremely hard protective coatng & is unaffected by almost all reagents except by
hydrochloric acid. Thus it stands against any contamination.
2. By selective etching of SiO2 , diffusion of impurities through carefully defined windows in the SiO2
can be accomplished to fabricate various components.

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6. Explain the process of oxidation.


The silicon wafers are stacked up in a quartz boat & then inserted into quartz furnace tube. The Si
wafers are raised to a high temperature in the range of 950 to 1150oC & at the same time, exposed to a gas
containing O2 or H2O or both. The chemical action is
Si + 2H2O SiO2+ 2H2
7. What is meant by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE)?
In the molecular beam epitaxy, silicon along with dopants is evaporated. The evaporated species are
transported at a relatively high velocity in a vacuum to the substrate. The relatively low vapour pressure of
silicon & the dopants ensures condensation on a low temperature substrate. Usually, silicon MBE is
performed under ultra high vacuum (UHV) condition of 10-8 to 10-8 to 10-10 Torr.
8. What are the advantages of Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE )?
• It is a low temperature process, useful for VLSI. This minimizes out diffusion & auto doping.
• It allows precise control of doping& permits complicated profiles to be generated.
• Linear doping profile desirable for varactor diode in FM , can be obtained with MBE.
• Widler choice of dopants can be used.
9. What is oxidation induced defects in semi conductor?
1. Stacking faults
2. Oxide isolation defects
Stacking faults:
Structural defects in the silicon lattice are called oxidation induced stacking faults. The growth of
stacking faults is a strong function of substrate orientation, conductivity type & defect nuclei present. The
stacking faults formation can be suppressed by the addition of HCl.
Oxide isolation defects:
The stress along the edges of an oxidized area, produce severe damage in the silicon. Such defects
results in increased leakage in nearby devices. High temperatures (around 950oC ) will prevent stress
induced defect formation.
10. What is bird’s beak?
In local oxidation process, the oxidation of silicon proceeds slightly under the nitride as well. Also, a
large mismatch in the thermal expansion co-efficient of Si3N4 & Silicon results in damage to the semi
conductor during local oxidation. This damage can be greatly reduced by growing a thin layer of SiO2 prior
to placement of the Si3N4 mask. Typically 100 to 200Ao is used for this purpose. Unfortunately, this greatly

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enhances the penetration of oxide under the nitride masked region, resulting in oxide configurations called
bird’s beak.
11. What is lithography?
Lithography is a process by which the pattern appearing on the mask is transferred to the wafer. It
involves two steps: the first step requires applying a few drops of photoresist to the surface of the wafer &
the second step is spinning the surface to get an even coating of the photoresist across the surface of the
wafer.
12. What are the different types of lithography? What is optical lithography?
The different types of lithography are:
1. Photolithography
2. Electron beam lithography
3. X ray beam lithography
4. Ion beam lithography
Optical lithography:
Optical lithography comprises the formation images with visible or UV radiation in a photoresist
using contact, proximity or projection printing.
13. What are the two processes involved in photolithography?
a) Making a photographic mask
b) Photoetching
The development of photographic mask involves the preparation of initial artwork and its
reduction, decomposition of initial artwork or layout into several mask layers.
Photoetching is used for the removal of SiO2 from desired regions so that the desired impurities can
be diffused.
14. Distinguish between dry etching & wet etching.
Dry etching Wet etching
1 .Gaseous mixture is used as the chemical reagent.
Chemical reagents used are in the liquid form.
2. Smaller line openings ( 1μm) are possible with dry etching
Line opening are larger (> 1μm).
3. It produces straight walled etching process.
It produces patterns with undercutting.
15. What is meant by reactive plasma etching?
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The term reactive plasma is meant to describe a discharge in which ionization & fragmentation of
gases takes place& produce chemically active plasma species, frequently oxidizers and reducing agents.
Such plasmas are reactive both in the gas phase & with solid surfaces exposed to them. When these
interactions are used to form volatile products so that material is removed or etching of material form
surfaces that are not masked to form lithographic patterns, the technique is known as reactive plasma
etching.
16. What is isotropic & anisotropic etching processes?
Isotropic etching is a wet etching process which involves undercutting.
Anisotropic etching is a dry etching process which provides straight walled patterns.
17. Define diffusion.
The process of introducing impurities into selected regions of a silicon wafer is called diffusion. The
rate at which various impurities diffuse into the silicon will be of the order of 1μm/hr at the temperature
range of 900oC to 1100oC .The impurity atoms have the tendency to move from regions of higher
concentrations to lower concentrations.
18. What is dielectric isolation?
In dielectric isolation, a layer of solid dielectric such as SiO2 or ruby completely surrounds each
components thereby producing isolation, both electrical & physical. This isolating dielectric layer is thick
enough so that its associated capacitance is negligible. Also, it is possible to fabricate both pnp & npn
transistors within the same silicon substrate.
19. What are the advantages of ion implantation technique?
1. It is performed at low temperature. Therefore, previously diffused regions have a lesser tendency for
lateral spreading.
2. In diffusion process, temperature has to be controlled over a large area inside the oven, whereas in ion
implantation process, accelerating potential & beam content are dielectrically controlled from outside.
20. What is metallization?
The process of producing a thin metal film layer that will serve to make interconnection of the
various components on the chip is called metallization.

Characteristics of Op-Amp
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1. What are the advantages of ICs over discrete circuits?


1. Minimization & hence increased equipment density.
2. Cost reduction due to batch processing.
3. Increased system reliability
4. Improved functional performance.
5. Matched devices.
6. Increased operating speeds
7. Reduction in power consumption
2. What is OPAMP?
An operational amplifier is a direct coupled high gain amplifier consisting of one or more differential
amplifiers , followed by a level translator and an output stage .It is a versatile device that can be used to
amplify ac as well as dc input signals & designed for computing mathematical functions such as addition,
subtraction , multiplication, integration & differentiation.
3. Draw the pin configuration of IC741.

1 8
OFFSET NULL NO CONNECTION

INVERTING 2 7 POSITIVE
INPUT IC 741 SUPPLY (V+ )

NONINVERTING 3 6
OUTPUT
INPUT
NEGATIVE 4 5
SUPPLY (V- ) OFFSET NULL

4. List out the ideal characteristics of OPAMP?


• Open loop gain infinite
• Input impedance infinite
• Output impedance low
• Bandwidth infinite
• Zero offset, i.e., Vo=0 when V1=V2=0

5. What are the different kinds of packages of IC741?


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a) Metal can (TO) package


b) Dual-in-line package
c) Flat package or flat pack
6. What are the assumptions made from ideal op - amp characteristics?
• The current drawn by either of the input terminals (noninverting/ inverting) is negligible.
• The potential difference between the inverting & non-inverting input terminals is zero.
7. Mention some of the linear applications of op – amps
Adder, subtractor, voltage –to- current converter, current –to- voltage converters, instrumentation
amplifier, analog computation, power amplifier, etc are some of the linear op-amp circuits.
8. Mention some of the non – linear applications of op-amps
Rectifier, peak detector, clipper, clamper, sample and hold circuit, log amplifier, anti –log amplifier,
multiplier are some of the non – linear op-amp circuits.
9. What are the areas of application of non-linear op- amp circuits?
industrial instrumentation
Communication
Signal processing
10. What happens when the common terminal of V+ and V- sources is not grounded?
If the common point of the two supplies is not grounded, twice the supply voltage will get applied
and it may damage the op-amp.
11. Define input offset voltage.
A small voltage applied to the input terminals to make the output voltage as zero when the two input
terminals are grounded is called input offset voltage.
12. Define input offset current. State the reasons for the offset currents at the input of the op-amp.
The difference between the bias currents at the input terminals of the op-amp is called as input offset
current. The input terminals conduct a small value of dc current to bias the input transistors. Since the input
transistors cannot be made identical. There exists a difference in bias currents.
13. Define CMRR of an op-amp.
The relative sensitivity of an op-amp to a difference signal as compared to a common –mode signal
is called the common – mode rejection ratio. It is expressed in decibels.
CMRR= Ad/Ac

14. In practical op-amps, what is the effect of high frequency on its performance?
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The open-loop gain of op-amp decreases at higher frequencies due to the presence of parasitic
capacitance. The closed-loop gain increases at higher frequencies and leads to instability.
15. What is the need for frequency compensation in practical op-amps?
Frequency compensation is needed when large bandwidth and lower closed loop gain is desired.
Compensating networks are used to control the phase shift and hence to improve the stability.
16. Mention the frequency compensation methods.
* Dominant-pole compensation
* Pole-zero compensation.
17. What are the merits and demerits of Dominant-pole compensation?
• Noise immunity of the system is improved.
• Open-loop bandwidth is reduced.
18. Define slew rate.
The slew rate is defined as the maximum rate of change of output voltage caused by a step input
voltage. An ideal slew rate is infinite which means that op-amp’s output voltage should change
instantaneously in response to input step voltage.
19. Why IC 741 is not used for high frequency applications?
IC741 has a low slew rate because of the predominance of capacitance present in the circuit at higher
frequencies. As frequency increases the output gets distorted due to limited slew rate.
20. What causes slew rate
There is a capacitor with-in or outside of an op-amp to prevent oscillation. It is this capacitor which
prevents the output voltage from responding immediately to a fast changing input.
21. Define thermal drift.
The bias current, offset current & offset voltage change with temperature. A circuit carefully nulled
at 25oC may not remain so when the temperature raises to 35oC.This is called thermal drift . Often, offset
current drift is expressed in nA/ oC and offset voltage drift in mV/ oC.
22. Define supply voltage rejection ratio (SVRR)
The change in OPAMP’s input offset voltage due to variations in supply voltage is called the supply
voltage rejection ratio. It is also called Power Supply Rejection Ratio (PSRR) or Power Supply Sensitivity
(PSS).

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Applications of Op Amp
1. What is the need for an instrumentation amplifier?
In a number of industrial and consumer applications, the measurement of physical quantities is
usually done with the help of transducers. The output of transducer has to be amplified So that it can drive
the indicator or display system. This function is performed by an instrumentation amplifier.
2. List the features of instrumentation amplifier
high gain accuracy
high CMRR
high gain stability with low temperature co-efficient
low dc offset
low output impedance
3. What is a comparator?
A comparator is a circuit which compares a signal voltage applied at one input of an op-amp with a
known reference voltage at the other input. It is an open loop op -amp with output +Vsat .
4. What are the applications of comparator?
Zero crossing detector
Window detector
Time marker generator
Phase detector
5. What is a Schmitt trigger?
Schmitt trigger is a regenerative comparator. It converts sinusoidal input into a square wave output.
The output of Schmitt trigger swings between upper and lower threshold voltages, which are the reference
voltages of the input waveform.
6. What is a multivibrator?
Multivibrators are a group of regenerative circuits that are used extensively in timing applications. It
is a wave shaping circuit which gives symmetric or asymmetric square output. It has two states either stable
or quasi- stable depending on the type of multivibrator.
7. What do you mean by monostable multivibrator?
Monostable multivibrator is one which generates a single pulse of specified duration in response to
each external trigger signal. It has only one stable state. Application of a trigger causes a change to the

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quasi-stable state. An external trigger signal generated due to charging and discharging of the capacitor
produces the transition to the original stable state.
8. What is an astable multivibrator?
Astable multivibrator is a free running oscillator having two quasi-stable states. Thus, there are
oscillations between these two states and no external signal is required to produce the change in state.
9. What is a bistable multivibrator?
Bistable multivibrator is one that maintains a given output voltage level unless an external trigger is
applied. Application of an external trigger signal causes a change of state, and this output level is maintained
indefinitely until an second trigger is applied . Thus, it requires two external triggers before it returns to its
initial state.
10. What are the requirements for producing sustained oscillations in feedback circuits?
For sustained oscillations,
The total phase shift around the loop must be zero at the desired frequency of oscillation, fo. ie,
LAB =0 (or) 360°
At fo, the magnitude of the loop gain | A β | should be equal to unity
11. What are the different types of filters?
Based on functions: Low pass filter, High pass filter, Band pass filter, Band reject filter
Based on order of transfer function: first , second, third higher order filters.
Based on configuration: Bessel, Chebychev, Butterworth filters.
12. List the broad classification of ADCs.
1. Direct type ADC.
2. Integrating type ADC.
13. List out the direct type ADCs.
1. Flash (comparator) type converter
2. Counter type converter
3. Tracking or servo converter
4. Successive approximation type converter
14. List out some integrating type converters.
1. Charge balancing ADC
2. Dual slope ADC

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15. What is integrating type converter?


An ADC converter that perform conversion in an indirect manner by first changing the analog I/P
signal to a linear function of time or frequency and then to a digital code is known as integrating type A/D
converter.
16. Explain in brief the principle of operation of successive Approximation ADC.
The circuit of successive approximation ADC consists of a successive approximation register (SAR),
to find the required value of each bit by trial & error. With the arrival of START command, SAR sets the
MSB bit to 1. The O/P is converted into an analog signal & it is compared with I/P signal. This O/P is low or
High. This process continues until all bits are checked.
17. What are the main advantages of integrating type ADCs?
i. The integrating type of ADC’s do not need a sample/Hold circuit at the input.
ii. It is possible to transmit frequency even in noisy environment or in an isolated form.
18. Define conversion time.
It is defined as the total time required to convert an analog signal into its digital output. It depends on
the conversion technique used & the propagation delay of circuit components. The conversion time of a
successive approximation type ADC is given by
T(n+1)
where T---clock period
Tc---conversion time
n----no. of bits
19. Define resolution of a data converter.
The resolution of a converter is the smallest change in voltage which may be produced at the output
or input of the converter. Resolution (in volts)= VFS/2n-1=1 LSB increment. The resolution of an ADC is
defined as the smallest change in analog input for a one-bit change at the output.
20. Explain in brief stability of a converter
The performance of converter changes with temperature age & power supply variation. So all the
relevant parameters such as offset, gain, linearity error & monotonicity must be specified over the full
temperature & power supply ranges to have better stability performances.
21. What is meant by linearity?
The linearity of an ADC/DAC is an important measure of its accuracy & tells us how close the
converter output is to its ideal transfer characteristics. The linearity error is usually expressed as a fraction of
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LSB increment or percentage of full-scale voltage. A good converter exhibits a linearity error of less than
±½ LSB.
22. What is a sample and hold circuit? Where it is used?
A sample and hold circuit is one which samples an input signal and holds on to its last sampled value
until the input is sampled again. This circuit is mainly used in digital interfacing, analog to digital systems,
and pulse code modulation systems.
23. Define sample period and hold period.
The time during which the voltage across the capacitor in sample and hold circuit is equal to the
input voltage is called sample period. The time period during which the voltage across the capacitor is held
constant is called hold period.
Special ICs
1. What are the applications of 555 Timer?
• astable multivibrator
• monostable multivibrator
• Missing pulse detector
• Linear ramp generator
• Frequency divider
• Pulse width modulation
• FSK generator
• Pulse position modulator
• Schmitt trigger
2. List the applications of 555 timer in monostable mode of operation
• missing pulse detector
• Linear ramp generator
• Frequency divider
• Pulse width modulation.
3. List the applications of 555 timer in Astable mode of operation
* FSK generator
* Pulse-position modulator

36
Prepared By: Faculty Verified By: HOD Approved By: Principal
A.Sugunapriya B.Abirami
LECT/ECE
S.K.P Institute of Technology Doc No : 7.1 / COE
Rev. No :
Tiruvannamalai – 606611. Date : 12-12-2010

4. Define 555 IC?


The 555 timer is an integrated circuit specifically designed to perform signal generation and timing
functions.
5. List the basic blocks of IC 555 timer?
• A relaxation oscillator
• RS flip flop
• Two comparator
• Discharge transistor.
6. List the features of 555 Timer?
• It has two basic operating modes: monostable and astble
• It is available in three packages. 8 pin metal can , 8 pin dip, 14 pin dip.
• It has very high temperature stability.
7. Define duty cycle?
The ratio of high output and low output period is given by a mathematical parameter called duty
cycle. It is defined as the ratio of ON Time to total time.
8. Define VCO.
A voltage controlled oscillator is an oscillator circuit in which the frequency of oscillations can be
controlled by an externally applied voltage.
9. List the features of 566 VCO.
• Wide supply voltage range (10-24V)
• Very linear modulation characteristics
• High temperature stability
10. What is meant by PLL?
A PLL is a basically a closed loop system designed to lock output frequency and phase to the
frequency and phase of an input signal.
11. Define lock range.
When PLL is in lock, it can trap freq changes in the incoming signal. The range of frequencies over
which the PLL can maintain lock with the incoming signal is called as lock range.
12. Define capture range.

37
Prepared By: Faculty Verified By: HOD Approved By: Principal
A.Sugunapriya B.Abirami
LECT/ECE
S.K.P Institute of Technology Doc No : 7.1 / COE
Rev. No :
Tiruvannamalai – 606611. Date : 12-12-2010

The range of frequencies over which the PLL can acquire lock with the input signal is called as
capture range.
13. Define pull-in time.
The total time taken by the PLL to establish lock is called pull-in time.
14. List the applications of 565 PLL.
• Frequency multiplier
• Frequency synthesizer
• FM detector
Application ICs
1. What is a voltage regulator?
A voltage regulator is an electronic circuit that provides a stable dc voltage independent of the load
current, temperature, and ac line voltage variations.
2. Give the classification of voltage regulators:
• Series / Linear regulators
• Switching regulators.
3. What is a linear voltage regulator?
Series or linear regulator uses a power transistor connected in series between the unregulated dc
input and the load and it conducts in the linear region .The output voltage is controlled by the continuous
voltage drop taking place across the series pass transistor.
4. What is a switching regulator?
Switching regulators are those which operate the power transistor as a high frequency on/off switch,
so that the power transistor does not conduct current continuously. This gives improved efficiency over
series regulators.
5. What are the advantages of IC voltage regulators?
• low cost
• high reliability
• reduction in size
• excellent performance
6. Give some examples of monolithic IC voltage regulators:
78XX series fixed output, positive voltage regulators
79XX series fixed output, negative voltage regulators
38
Prepared By: Faculty Verified By: HOD Approved By: Principal
A.Sugunapriya B.Abirami
LECT/ECE
S.K.P Institute of Technology Doc No : 7.1 / COE
Rev. No :
Tiruvannamalai – 606611. Date : 12-12-2010

723 general purpose regulator.


7. What is the purpose of having input and output capacitors in three terminal IC regulators?
A capacitor connected between the input terminal and ground cancels the inductive effects due to
long distribution leads. The output capacitor improves the transient response.
8. Define line regulation.
Line regulation is defined as the percentage change in the output voltage for a change in the input
voltage. It is expressed in millivolt or as a percentage of the output voltage.
9. Define load regulation.
Load regulation is defined as the change in output voltage for a change in load current. It is
expressed in millivolt or as a percentage of the output voltage.
10. What is meant by current limiting?
Current limiting refers to the ability of a regulator to prevent the load current from increasing above a
preset value.
11. Give the drawbacks of linear regulators:
• The input step down transformer is bulky and expensive because of low line frequency.
• Because of low line frequency, large values of filter capacitors are required to decrease the ripple.
• Efficiency is reduced due to the continuous power dissipation by the transistor as it operates in the
linear region.
12. What is the advantage of switching regulators?
• Greater efficiency is achieved as the power transistor is made to operate as low impedance switch.
• Power transmitted across the transistor is in discrete pulses rather than as a steady current flow.
• By using suitable switching loss reduction technique, the switching frequency can be increased so as
to reduce the size and weight of the inductors and capacitors.
13. What is an opto-coupler IC?
Opto-coupler IC is a combined package of a photo-emitting device and a photo sensing device.
14. What are the types of Opto - couplers?
• LED and a photo diode,
• LED and photo transistor,
• LED and Darlington.
15. Give two examples of IC Opto - couplers?
Examples for Opto - coupler IC
39
Prepared By: Faculty Verified By: HOD Approved By: Principal
A.Sugunapriya B.Abirami
LECT/ECE
S.K.P Institute of Technology Doc No : 7.1 / COE
Rev. No :
Tiruvannamalai – 606611. Date : 12-12-2010

• MCT 2F
• MCT 2E.
16. Mention the advantages of Opto - couplers:
• Better isolation between the two stages.
• Impedance problem between the stages is eliminated.
• Wide frequency response.
• Easily interfaced with digital circuit.
• Compact and light weight.
• Problems such as noise, transients, and contact bounce are eliminated.
17. What is an isolation amplifier?
An isolation amplifier is an amplifier that offers electrical isolation between its input and output
terminals.
18. What are the features of isolation amplifier?
• Easy to use
• Ultra low leakage
• 18 pin DIP package
19. What is LM380?
It is a power amplifier produced by national semiconductor. It is capable of delivering 2.5W min, to
8 ohm load.
20. What are the features of MA78s40?
• Step up, step down or inverting operation
• Operation from 2.5 to 40 V.
• 80dB line and load regulation.

40
Prepared By: Faculty Verified By: HOD Approved By: Principal
A.Sugunapriya B.Abirami
LECT/ECE
S.K.P Institute of Technology Doc No : 7.1 / COE
Rev. No :
Tiruvannamalai – 606611. Date : 12-12-2010

B.E./B.Tech. DEGREE EXAMINATION, NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2010


Fourth Semester

Electronics and Communication Engineering


EC 2254 — LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS
(Regulation 2008)

(Common to PTEC 2254 – Linear Integrated circuits for B.E. (Part Time) Third
Semester Electronics and Communication Engineering Regulation 2009)
Time : Three hours Maximum : 100 Marks
Answer ALL questions

PART A — (10 × 2 = 20 Marks)

1. Define slew rate and CMRR.


2. Why are active loads preferred than passive loads in the input stage of an
operational amplifier?
3. Compare the performance of inverting and non inverting operational amplifier
configurations.
4. Why is frequency compensation required in operational amplifier?
5. Draw and write equation of an integrator using an op-amp.
6. What is lock range and capture range of PLL?
7. Compare and contrast binary ladder and R-2R ladder DAC?
8. Define resolution and conversion time of DAC.
9. Sketch the monostable multivibrator circuit diagram using 1C555.
10. What is meant by thermal shutdown applied to voltage regulators?

PART B — (5 × 16 = 80 Marks)

11. (a) (i) Explain the term epitaxy and describe the epitaxial growth process.
(ii) Describe in detail the processing steps involved in the fabrication of monolithic IC.
Or
(b) Draw the circuit diagram of the output stage of the IC 741 OP AMP and
explain its operation with clearly indicating the protection mechanisms indicated.
12. (a) With relevant circuits, explain the following applications of OPAMP
(i) Voltage to current converters
(ii) Multiplier [Marks 16]
Or
(b) (i) Explain the steps involved in the design of a band pass filter using OPAMP.
(ii)Write a note on Schmitt trigger. [Marks 16]
13. (a) Draw the functional block schematic of a NE565 PLL and explain the roles of the low
pass filter and VCO. Derive the expression for the capture range and lock in range of the PLL.
41
Prepared By: Faculty Verified By: HOD Approved By: Principal
A.Sugunapriya B.Abirami
LECT/ECE
S.K.P Institute of Technology Doc No : 7.1 / COE
Rev. No :
Tiruvannamalai – 606611. Date : 12-12-2010

Or
(b) With suitable block diagram, explain the operation of 566 voltage controlled oscillator. Also derive
an expression for the frequency of the output waveform generated. [Marks 16]
14. (a) Describe the operation of dual slope and successive approximation type ADC. What are the
advantages of dual slope ADC? [Marks 16]
Or
(b) (i) Explain voltage mode and current mode operations of R-2R ladder type DAC.
(ii) Discuss the operation of sample and hold circuit with circuit diagram. [Marks 16]
15. (a) (i) How can the current drive capability be increased while using three terminal voltage regulators?
(ii) Design an adjustable voltage regulator circuit using LM317 for the following specifications :
Input dc voltage = l3.5 V
Output DC voltage = 5 to 9 V
Load current (maximum) =1 A [Marks 16]
Or
(b) Describe the working of IC723 voltage regulator and explain the importance of current limiting
techniques. [Marks 16]

42
Prepared By: Faculty Verified By: HOD Approved By: Principal
A.Sugunapriya B.Abirami
LECT/ECE
S.K.P Institute of Technology Doc No : 7.1 / COE
Rev. No :
Tiruvannamalai – 606611. Date : 12-12-2010

Electronics and Communication Engineering


EC2254 — LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS

(Regulation 2008)
Time: Three hours Maximum: 100 Marks
Answer ALL Questions

PART A — (10 × 2 = 20 Marks)

1. What is an integrated circuit?


2. What is current mirror?
3. Give the schematic of op-amp based current to voltage converter.
4. Draw the circuit diagram of differentiators and give its output equation.
5. What is a VCO?
6. Draw the relation between the capture ranges and lock range in a PLL.
7. Define resolution of a data converter.
8. Give the advantages of integrating type ADC.
9. Draw the internal circuit for audio power amplifier.
10. What are the three different wave forms generated by ICL8038?

PART B — (5 × 16 = 80 Marks)

11. (a) (i) Define CMRR. Draw the circuit of an Op-amp differential amplifier and give the expression for
CMRR. (Marks 8)
(ii) Define Slew Rate. Explain the cause of slew rate and derive an expression for Slew rate for an op-
amp voltage follower. (Marks 8)
Or
(b) Briefly explain the various processes involved in fabricating monolithic IC which integrates bipolar
transistor, diode, capacitor and resistor. (Marks 16)

12. (a) (i) Design a first order Low-pass filter for cut-off frequency of 2 KHz and pass-band gain of 2.
(Marks 8)
(ii) Explain a positive clipper circuit using an Op-amp and a diode with neat diagrams.
Or
(b) (i) Design a circuit to implement 0 3 4 1 2 V =0.545V + 0.273V -1.25V -2V . (Marks 8)
(ii) Draw and explain a simple Op-amp differentiators. Mention its limitations. Explain with a neat
diagram how it can be overcome in a practical differentiators. Design an Op-amp differentiators that will
differentiate an input signal with maximum frequency f 100Hz max = 100Hz. (Marks 8)

13. (a) (i) With a neat diagram explain the variable trans conductance technique in analog multiplier and
give its output equation. (Marks 8)
(ii) Briefly explain the working of voltage controlled oscillator. (Marks 8)
Or

43
Prepared By: Faculty Verified By: HOD Approved By: Principal
A.Sugunapriya B.Abirami
LECT/ECE
S.K.P Institute of Technology Doc No : 7.1 / COE
Rev. No :
Tiruvannamalai – 606611. Date : 12-12-2010

(b) What are important building block of phase locked loop ( PLL) explain its Working? (Marks 16)

14. (a) (i) Explain the working of R-2R ladder DAC. (Marks 8)
(ii) Explain the working of success approximation ADC. (Marks 8)
Or
(b) (i) A dual slope ABC uses a 16-bit counter and a 4 MHz clock rate. The maximum input voltage is
+10V. The maximum integrator output voltage should be -8V when the counter has recycled through n 2
counts. The capacitor used in the integrator is0.1µF . Find the value of resistor R of the integrator. (Marks 8)
(ii) What is a sample and hold circuit? Briefly explain its construction and application. (Marks 8)

15. (a) (i) How is voltage regulators classified? Explain a series voltage regulator. (Marks 8)
(ii) What is an op to coupler? Briefly explain its characteristics. (Marks 8)
Or
(b) With a neat circuit diagram and internal functional diagram explain the working of 555 timers in as-
table mode. (Marks 16)

44
Prepared By: Faculty Verified By: HOD Approved By: Principal
A.Sugunapriya B.Abirami
LECT/ECE
S.K.P Institute of Technology Doc No : 7.1 / COE
Rev. No :
Tiruvannamalai – 606611. Date : 12-12-2010

B.E./B.Tech. DEGREE EXAMINATION, APRIL/MAY 2010


Fourth Semester
Electrical and Electronics Engineering
EE2254 — LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS AND APPLICATIONS
(Regulation 2008)
(Common to Instrumentation and Control Engineering and Electronics and Instrumentation
Engineering)
Time: Three hours Maximum: 100 Marks
Answer ALL Questions
PART A — (10 × 2 = 20 Marks)

1. What is the purpose of oxidation process in IC fabrication?


2. What is parasitic capacitance?
3. List any four characteristics of an ideal OP-Amp.
4. Design an amplifier with a gain of –10 and input resistance of 10 k.
5. Define slew rate and state its significance.
6. An 8 bit DAC has a resolution of 20mV/bit. What is the analog output voltage
for the digital input code 00010110 (the MSB is the left most bit)?
7. Draw the pin diagram of IC 555 timer.
8. Mention any two application of multiplier IC.
9. List the important parts of regulated power supply.
10. What are the advantages of switch mode power supplies?
PART B — (5 × 16 = 80 Marks)
11. (a) Explain the basic processes used in silicon planar technology with neat diagram (Marks16)
Or
(b) Discuss the various methods used for fabricating IC resistors and compare their performance.(Marks
16)
12. (a) (i) Explain the functions of all the basic building blocks of an Op-Amp. (Marks 8)
(ii) Explain the application of OPAMP as (1) integrator (2) differentiators. (Marks 8)
Or

13. (a) Design and explain triangular wave generator using Sch mitt trigger and integrator circuit.(Marks 16)
Or
(b) (i) Explain the operation of dual slope ADC. (Marks 8)
(ii) Explain the following characteristics of ADC resolution, accuracy, settling time, linearity. (Marks 8)
14. (a) With neat block diagram, explain IC566 VCO operation and discuss any two applications.(Marks 16)
Or
(b) What are the modes of operation of IC555? Derive the expression of time delay of a monostable
multi vibrator.(Marks 16)
15. (a) With a neat diagram, explain working principle of switch mode lower supply.(Marks 16)
Or
(b) Write brief notes on:
(i) IC MF10
(ii) Opto coupler

45
Prepared By: Faculty Verified By: HOD Approved By: Principal
A.Sugunapriya B.Abirami
LECT/ECE