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What is the difference between Authorized DHCP and Non Authorized DHCP? To avoid problems in the network causing by Mis-configured DHCP servers, server in windows 2000 must be validated by AD before starting service to clients. If an authorized DHCP finds any DHCP server in the network it stops serving the clients Difference between inter-site and intra-site replication. Protocols using for replication. Intra-site replication can be done between the domain controllers in the same site. Inter-site replication can be done between two different sites over WAN links BHS (Bridge Head Servers) is responsible for initiating replication between the sites. Inter-site replication can be done B/w BHS in one site and BHS in another site. We can use RPC over IP or SMTP as a replication protocols where as Domain partition is not possible to replicate using SMTP How to monitor replication We can use Replmon tool from support tools Storage Types:Microsoft Windows XP, Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2003 offer two types of disk storage: basic and dynamic. Basic Disk Storage Basic storage uses normal partition tables supported by MS-DOS, Microsoft Windows 95, Microsoft Windows 98, Microsoft Windows Millennium Edition (Me), Microsoft Windows NT, Microsoft Windows 2000, Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP. A disk initialized for basic storage is called a basic disk. A basic disk contains basic volumes, such as primary partitions, extended partitions, and logical drives. Additionally, basic volumes include multidisc volumes that are created by using Windows NT 4.0 or earlier, such as volume sets, stripe sets, mirror sets, and stripe sets with parity. Windows XP does not support these multidisc basic volumes. Any volume sets, stripe sets, mirror sets, or stripe sets with parity must be backed up and deleted or converted to dynamic disks before you install Windows XP Professional. Dynamic Disk Storage Dynamic storage is supported in Windows XP Professional, Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2003. A disk initialized for dynamic storage is called a dynamic disk. A dynamic disk contains dynamic volumes, such as simple volumes, spanned volumes, striped volumes, mirrored volumes, and RAID-5 volumes. With dynamic storage, you can perform disk and volume management without the need to restart Windows. Note: Dynamic disks are not supported on portable computers or on Windows XP Home Edition-based computers. You cannot create mirrored volumes or RAID-5 volumes on Windows XP Home Edition, Windows XP Professional, or Windows XP 64-Bit Edition-based computers. However, you can use a Windows XP Professional-based computer to create a mirrored or RAID-5 volume on remote computers that are running Windows 2000 Server, Windows 2000 Advanced Server, or Windows 2000 Datacenter Server, or the Standard, Enterprise and Data Center versions of Windows Server 2003.
Storage types are separate from the file system type. A basic or dynamic disk can contain any combination of FAT16, FAT32, or NTFS partitions or volumes. A disk system can contain any combination of storage types. However, all volumes on the same disk must use the same storage type. To convert a Basic Disk to a Dynamic Disk: Use the Disk Management snap-in in Windows XP/2000/2003 to convert a basic disk to a dynamic disk. To do this, follow these steps: 1. Log on as Administrator or as a member of the Administrators group. 2. Click Start, and then click Control Panel. 3. Click Performance and Maintenance, click Administrative Tools, and then double-click Computer Management. You can also right-click My Computer and choose Manage if you have My Computer displayed on your desktop. 4. In the left pane, click Disk Management. 5. In the lower-right pane, right-click the basic disk that you want to convert, and then click Convert to Dynamic Disk. You must right-click the gray area that contains the disk title on the left side of the Details pane. 6. Select the check box that is next to the disk that you want to convert (if it is not already selected), and then click OK. 7. Click Details if you want to view the list of volumes in the disk. Click Convert. 8. Click yes when you are prompted to convert the disk, and then click OK. Warning: After you convert a basic disk to a dynamic disk, local access to the dynamic disk is limited to Windows XP Professional, Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2003. Additionally, after you convert a basic disk to a dynamic disk, the dynamic volumes cannot be changed back to partitions. You must first delete all dynamic volumes on the disk and then convert the dynamic disk back to a basic disk. If you want to keep your data, you must first back up the data or move it to another volume.
Dynamic Storage Terms Brief explanation of RAID Levels RAID 0 ² Striping RAID 1- Mirroring (minimum 2 HDD required) RAID 5 ² Striping With Parity (Minimum 3 HDD required) RAID levels 1 and 5 only gives redundancy
A volume is a storage unit made from free space on one or more disks. It can be formatted with a file system and assigned a drive letter. Volumes on dynamic disks can have any of the following layouts: simple, spanned, mirrored, striped, or RAID-5.
A spanned volume cannot be mirrored and is not fault-tolerant. Normal backup A normal backup copies all selected files and marks each file as having been backed up (in other words. . the archive attribute is cleared). If a physical disk fails. and Ntdetect. you need only the most recent copy of the backup file or tape to restore all of the files. A mirrored volume is a fault-tolerant volume whose data is duplicated on two physical disks. You can extend a spanned volume onto a maximum of 32 disks. A RAID-5 volume is a fault-tolerant volume whose data is striped across an array of three or more disks. A mirrored volume cannot be extended. the same as the boot volume. concatenated regions. A spanned volume is created from free disk space that is linked together from multiple disks. the data can still be accessed from the remaining disk. Parity (a calculated value that can be used to reconstruct data after a failure) is also striped across the disk array. but does not have to be. it becomes a spanned volume. The boot volume can be. It can be a single region on a disk or consist of multiple. If a simple volume is extended across multiple disks. You usually perform a normal backup the first time you create a backup set. The data on this type of volume is allocated alternately and evenly to each of the physical disks. the same as the system volume. but does not have to be. Mirroring is also known as RAID-1. Ntldr.com).ini. The boot volume contains the Windows operating system files that are located in the %Systemroot% and %Systemroot%\System32 folders. The system volume contains the hardware-specific files that are needed to load Windows (for example. The system volume can be. A striped volume cannot be mirrored or extended and is not fault-tolerant. Striping is also known as RAID-0. With normal backups. What are the different backup strategies are available Normal Backup Incremental Backup Differential Backup Daily Backup Copy Backup The Backup utility supports five methods of backing up data on your computer or network. A RAID-5 volume cannot be mirrored or extended. If one of the disks fails. the portion of the RAID-5 volume that was on that failed disk can be re-created from the remaining data and the parity. A striped volume is a volume whose data is interleaved across two or more physical disks. Boot.A simple volume uses free space from a single disk. A simple volume can be extended within the same disk or onto additional disks. All of the data on one volume is copied to another disk to provide data redundancy.
Universal Group membership information will be stored in global catalog servers and replicate to all GC·s in the forest. the archive attribute is not cleared). Active directory is derived from X. It does not mark files as having been backed up (in other words. which maintains the relationship between resources and enabling them to work together. It contains full information of the objects in its own domain and partial information of the objects in other domains. the archive attribute is not cleared). Information in Active directory can be queried by using LDAP protocol what is the physical and logical structure of AD? Active directory physical structure is a hierarchal structure which fallows Forests³Trees³Domains³ Child Domains³Grand Child³etc Active directory is logically divided into 3 partitions 1. The backed-up files are not marked as having been backed up (in other words. Copy backup A copy backup copies all selected files but does not mark each file as having been backed up (in other words.Configuration partition 2. reliable. Schema Partition 3. Application Partition (only in windows 2003 not available in windows 2000) Out of these Configuration. Whereas Domain partition can be replicated between the domain controllers in the same domain . the archive attribute is not cleared). Because of AD hierarchal structure windows 2000 is more scalable. you will need to have the last normal backup set as well as all incremental backup sets in order to restore your data. Differential backup A differential backup copies file created or changed since the last normal or incremental backup. What is Active Directory and what is the use of it Active directory is a directory service. Daily backup A daily backup copies all selected files that have been modified the day the daily backup is performed. It marks files as having been backed up (in other words. What is a global catalog Global catalog is a role.500 standards where information is stored is hierarchal tree like structure. If you use a combination of normal and incremental backups. Copying is useful if you want to back up files between normal and incremental backups because copying does not affect these other backup operations. Active directory depends on two Internet standards one is DNS and other is LDAP. which maintains Indexes about objects. If you are performing a combination of normal and differential backups. the archive attribute is cleared). Schema partitions can be replicated between the domain controllers in the in the entire forest. restoring files and folders requires that you have the last normal as well as the last differential backup. Domain partition 4.Incremental backup An incremental backup backs up only those files created or changed since the last normal or incremental backup.
rename. this is used to encrypt the time stamp of the client machine. We can set TTL in SOA (start of authority record) of DNS How to take DNS and WINS. We can perform following operations from recovery console We can copy. Global Catalog ² 3268 what is the use of LDAP (X. If user time stamp matches to its time stamp.What is the process of user authentication (Kerberos V5) in windows 2000? After giving logon credentials an encryption key will be generated. Then Domain controller decrypts the encrypted time stamp information based on the password information stored in AD for that user. LDAP and Global Catalog? Kerberos ² 88. Again client decrypts and if produced time stamp information is matching then it will use logon session key to logon to the domain. LDAP ² 389. Ticket granting ticket will be used to generate service granting ticket when accessing network resources What are the port numbers for Kerberos.g.500 standard?) LDAP is a directory access protocol. default gateway Incorrect creation of scopes etc What is the role responsible for time synchronization? PDC Emulator is responsible for time synchronization. or replace operating system files and folders Enable or disable service or device startup the next time that start computer Repair the file system boot sector or the Master Boot Record Create and format partitions on drives . which is used to exchange directory information from server to clients or from server to servers what are the problems that are generally come across DHCP? Scope is full with IP addresses no IP·s available for new machines If scope options are not configured properly e. It will provide logon session key and Ticket granting ticket to client in an encrypted format. Time synchronization is important because Kerberos authentication depends on time stamp information what is TTL & how to set TTL time in DNS? TTL is Time to live setting used for the amount of time that the record should remain in cache when name resolution happened. DHCP backup %System root%/system32/DNS %System root%/system32/WINS %System root%/system32/DHCP What is recovery console Recovery console is a utility used to recover the system when it is not booting properly or not at all booting. User name and encrypted timestamp information will be provided to domain controller for authentication.
number of Dfs roots per domain is unlimited. What is RIS and what are its requirements RIS is a remote installation service. Stand alone DFS can be used in workgroup environment which can be accessed through /server name/root1 (root 1 is DFS root name). We cannot provide redundancy for standalone DFS in case of failure. which is used to install operation system remotely. Domain DFS is used in a domain environment which can be accessed by /domain name/root1 (root 1 is DFS root name). There are two types of DFS-domain DFS and Stand alone DFS. numbers of Dfs root replicas are 31. Should meet minimum operating system requirements Software Requirements Below network services must be active on RIS server or any server in the network Domain Name System (DNS Service) Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) Active directory ´Directoryµ service High Level Can we establish trust relationship between two forests? In Windows 2000 it is not possible.000 How many root replicas can be created in DFS? 31 What is the difference between Domain DFS and Standalone DFS? There are two types of DFS-domain DFS and Stand alone DFS. Stand alone DFS can be used in workgroup environment which can be accessed through /server name/root1 (root 1 is DFS root name). Client requirements:PXE DHCP-based boot ROM version 1.What is DFS & its usage DFS is a distributed file system used to provide common environment for users to access files and folders even when they are shared in different servers physically. We cannot provide redundancy for standalone DFS in case of failure. number of Dfs links or shared folders in a Dfs root is 1. Domain DFS is used in a domain environment which can be accessed by /domain name/root1 (root 1 is DFS root name).00 or later NIC. In Windows 2003 it is possible . or a network adapter that is supported by the RIS boot disk. Both the cases we need to create DFS root (Which appears like a shared folder for end users) and DFS links (A logical link which is pointing to the server where the folder is physically shared) The The The The maximum maximum maximum maximum number of Dfs roots per server is 1.
while discarding the changes in all other DCs. Domain naming master: The domain naming master domain controller controls the addition or removal of domains in the forest. it is replicated from the schema master to all other DCs in the directory. One way Windows 2000/2003 deals with conflicting updates is by having a conflict resolution algorithm handle discrepancies in values by resolving to the DC to which changes were written last (that is. There can be only one schema master in the whole forest. you must have access to the schema master. the Active Directory performs updates to certain objects in a single-master fashion. . There can be only one domain naming master in the whole forest. provides the flexibility of allowing changes to occur at any DC in the enterprise. there are five FSMO roles that are assigned to one or more domain controllers. Although this resolution method may be acceptable in some cases. only one DC in the entire directory is allowed to process updates. there are times when conflicts are just too difficult to resolve using the "last writer wins" approach. "the last writer wins").0). The five FSMO roles are: Schema Master: The schema master domain controller controls all updates and modifications to the schema. In a single-master model. This DC is the only one that can add or remove a domain from the directory. In a forest. in which the PDC is responsible for processing all updates in a given domain. Once the Schema update is complete. Windows 2000/2003 Single-Master Model To prevent conflicting updates in Windows 2000/2003. Windows 2000/2003 incorporates methods to prevent conflicting Active Directory updates from occurring. It can also add or remove cross references to domains in external directories. To update the schema of a forest. This is similar to the role given to a primary domain controller (PDC) in earlier versions of Windows (such as Microsoft Windows NT 4. For certain types of changes. In such cases.What is FSMO Roles Flexible single master operation (FSMO) roles are Domain Naming Master Schema Master PDC Emulator Infrastructure Master RID Master Brief all the FSMO Roles Windows 2000/2003 Multi-Master Model A multi-master enabled database. it is best to prevent the conflict from occurring rather than to try to resolve it after the fact. but it also introduces the possibility of conflicts that can potentially lead to problems once the data is replicated to the rest of the enterprise. such as the Active Directory.
Infrastructure Master: When an object in one domain is referenced by another object in another domain. and it is not important which domain controller holds the infrastructure master role (or there is no requirement of Infrastructure master role) Relative ID (RID) Master: The RID master is responsible for processing RID pool requests from all domain controllers in a particular domain. At any one time. If all the domain controllers in a domain also host the global catalog. the PDC emulator role holder retains the following functions: Password changes performed by other DCs in the domain are replicated preferentially to the PDC emulator. the SID (for references to security principals). and a relative ID (RID) that is unique for each security Principal SID created in a domain. and should be configured to gather the time from an external source. all the domain controllers have the current data. At any one time. The domain RID master responds to the request by retrieving RIDs from the domain's unallocated RID pool and assigns them to the pool of the requesting DC. The infrastructure FSMO role holder is the DC responsible for updating an object's SID and distinguished name in a cross-domain object reference. When a DC creates a security principal object such as a user or group. Each DC in a domain is allocated a pool of RIDs that it is allowed to assign to the security principals it creates. . This is because a Global Catalog server holds a partial replica of every object in the forest. In a Windows 2000/2003 domain. and the DN of the object being referenced. there can be only one domain controller acting as the RID master in the domain. there can be only one domain controller acting as the infrastructure master in each domain. All Windows 2000/2003-based computers within an enterprise use a common time. When a DC's allocated RID pool falls below a threshold. that DC issues a request for additional RIDs to the domain's RID master. PDC emulator of a domain is authoritative for the domain. The PDC emulator at the root of the forest becomes authoritative for the enterprise. it attaches a unique Security ID (SID) to the object. The purpose of the time service is to ensure that the Windows Time service uses a hierarchical relationship that controls authority and does not permit loops to ensure appropriate common time usage. PDC Emulator: The PDC emulator is necessary to synchronize time in an enterprise. it represents the reference by the GUID. If the Infrastructure Master runs on a Global Catalog server it will stop updating object information because it does not contain any references to objects that it does not hold. This SID consists of a domain SID (the same for all SIDs created in a domain). All PDC FSMO role holders follow the hierarchy of domains in the selection of their in-bound time partner. Note: The Infrastructure Master (IM) role should be held by a domain controller that is not a Global Catalog server (GC). Account lockout is processed on the PDC emulator. crossdomain object references in that domain will not be updated and a warning to that effect will be logged on that DC's event log. Authentication failures that occur at a given DC in a domain because of an incorrect password are forwarded to the PDC emulator before a bad password failure message is reported to the user. As a result. Windows 2000/2003 includes the W32Time (Windows Time) time service that is required by the Kerberos authentication protocol.
while seizing the roles from a non-operational DC to a different DC is described in the Seizing FSMO Roles article. In most cases an administrator can keep the FSMO role holders (all 5 of them) in the same spot (or actually.0 or earlier are all upgraded to Windows 2000/2003. as described in Understanding FSMO Roles in Active Directory. RID master . member servers. The PDC emulator performs all of the functionality that a Microsoft Windows NT 4. The five FSMO roles are: Schema master .Forest-wide and one per forest.Editing or creation of Group Policy Objects (GPO) is always done from the GPO copy found in the PDC Emulator's SYSVOL share. and better prepare him or herself in case of a non-scheduled cease of operation from one of the DCs. Infrastructure master . However.Forest-wide and one per forest. How to find out which DC is holding which FSMO role? Well. and domain controllers that are running Windows NT 4.PDC Emulator is domain-specific and one for each domain.0-based or earlier clients. Domain naming master . At any one time. an AD administrator must have the exact knowledge of which one of the existing DCs is holding a FSMO role. How to manually configure FSMO Roles to separate DC·s How can I determine who are the current FSMO Roles holders in my domain/forest? Windows 2000/2003 Active Directory domains utilize a Single Operation Master method called FSMO (Flexible Single Master Operation). and what role it holds.0 Server-based PDC or earlier PDC performs for Windows NT 4. This part of the PDC emulator role becomes unnecessary when all workstations.Domain-specific and one for each domain. there are scenarios where an administrator would want to move one or more of the FSMO roles from the default holder DC to a different DC.Domain-specific and one for each domain. . the administrator can make better arrangements in case of a scheduled shut-down of any given DC. on the same DC) as has been configured by the Active Directory installation process. With that knowledge in hand. PDC . The transferring method is described in the Transferring FSMO Roles article. This article will list a few of the available methods. one can accomplish this task by many means. unless configured not to do so by the administrator. The PDC emulator still performs the other functions as described in a Windows 2000/2003 environment. there can be only one domain controller acting as the PDC emulator master in each domain in the forest. In order to better understand your AD infrastructure and to know the added value that each DC might possess.
2.One per domain The first DC in a domain (any domain. Open the Active Directory Domains and Trusts snap-in from the Administrative Tools folder. PDC Emulator. When you're done click close. Right-click the Active Directory Users and Computers icon again and press Operation Masters. Finding the Domain Naming Master via GUI To find out who currently holds the Domain Naming Master Role: 1.Number of DCs holding this role Original DC holding the FSMO role Schema:-One per forest The first DC in the first domain in the forest (i. and Infrastructure Master FSMO Roles: 1. When you're done click close.One per forest RID:.Method #1: Know the default settings The FSMO roles were assigned to one or more DCs during the DCPROMO process. PDC Emulator. and Infrastructure Masters via GUI To find out who currently holds the Domain-Specific RID Master. 3. any Tree Root Domain. the Forest Root Domain) Domain Naming:. 2. Right-click the Active Directory Domains and Trusts icon again and press Operation Masters.Schema snap-in Domain Naming:-AD Domains and Trusts snap-in RID :-AD Users and Computers snap-in PDC Emulator Infrastructure Finding the RID Master. including the Forest Root Domain. 4. Use this table to see which tool can be used for what FSMO role: FSMO Role Which snap-in should I use? Schema:. . Select the appropriate tab for the role you wish to view.e. 3. or any Child Domain) PDC Emulator One per domain Infrastructure One per domain Method #2: Use the GUI The FSMO role holders can be easily found by use of some of the AD snap-ins. The following table summarizes the FSMO default locations: FSMO Role:. Open the Active Directory Users and Computers snap-in from the Administrative Tools folder.
CN=NTDS Settings. At the select operation target: prompt. select operation target: List roles for connected server Server "server100" knows about 5 roles Schema . 6. Select Active Directory Schema. At the server connections: prompt. .DC=net PDC . You should receive a success confirmation.CN=SERVER100. Caution: Using the Ntdsutil utility incorrectly may result in partial or complete loss of Active Directory functionality. 3. click Start.CN=Default-First-Site-Name. Type connections.CN=Default-First-Site-Name.CN=Default-First-Site-Name.CN=Servers. 4.CN=Servers.DC=dpetri.Finding the Schema Master via GUI to find out who currently holds the Schema Master Role: 1.CN=SERVER100. type Select operation target. type q. 4. 1. At the FSMO maintenance: prompt. Press OK. 7. Press the Close button.CN=Servers. On any domain controller. 5. Method #3: Use the Ntdsutil command The FSMO role holders can be easily found by use of the Ntdsutil command.DC=net Domain . Register the Schmmgmt.CN=NTDS Settings.CN=NTDS Settings. click Run. Type connect to server. Click the Active Directory Schema icon. and then press ENTER. and then press ENTER. where is the name of the server you want to use. 8. Press Add. From the Run command open an MMC Console by typing MMC.dll library by pressing Start > RUN and typing: 2.CN=Sites. and then press ENTER. Note: To see a list of available commands at any of the prompts in the Ntdsutil tool. After it loads right-click it and press Operation Masters. CN=Configuration.CN=Sites. and then press ENTER again.DC=dpetri. and then click OK.CN=SERVER100. On the Console menu. press Add/Remove Snap-in. Press Add and press Close. 2. Press OK. and then press ENTER again.CN=Sites. and then press ENTER again. and then press ENTER. 5. type List roles for connected server. 3. Type roles. type?. 6. CN=Configuration. type Ntdsutil in the Open box.
Install the package before attempting to use the tool. This tool is basically a one-click Ntdsutil script that performs the same operation described above. Method #4: Use the Netdom command The FSMO role holders can be easily found by use of the Netdom command. But Replmon can also provide valuable information about the AD.CN=Configuration. Replmon can be used for a wide verity of tasks.CN=SERVER100. Replmon. CN=Sites. click Run.exe is a part of the Windows 2000/XP/2003 Support Tools. type REPLMON in the Open box. and then click OK. Method #5: Use the Replmon tool The FSMO role holders can be easily found by use of the Replmon command. and also about other objects and settings.DC=dpetri.DC=net Infrastructure .CN=Sites. Just like Netdom. Download Windows XP SP1 Deploy Tools). 2.exe is a part of the Windows 2000/XP/2003 Support Tools. 1. about any DC. click Start. and then click OK. CN=Configuration. Type q 3 times to exit the Ntdsutil prompt.CN=NTDS Settings.DC=net select operation target: 8. Note: You can download THIS nice batch file that will do all this for you (1kb).CN=Default-First-Site-Name. click Run. such as GPOs and FSMO roles. .CN=Servers. found in the Windows 2000 Resource Kit (and can be downloaded here: Download Free Windows 2000 Resource Kit Tools). In the Command Prompt window. type netdom query /domain:monu fsmo (where is the name of YOUR domain). The Support Tools pack can be found in the \Support\Tools folder on your installation CD (or you can Download Windows 2000 SP4 Support Tools. Netdom.CN=Default-First-Site-Name. You must either download it separately (from here Download Free Windows 2000 Resource Kit Tools) or by obtaining the correct Support Tools pack for your operating system. Close the CMD window. On any domain controller.CN=Configuration.DC=dpetri. On any domain controller.CN=Servers. click Start.cmd. Note: You can download THIS nice batch file that will do all this for you (1kb). type CMD in the Open box. 1. mostly with those that are related with AD replication.DC=net RID .CN=SERVER100.DC=dpetri. Another Note: Microsoft has a nice tool called Dumpfsmos.CN=NTDS Settings.
Domain-specific and one for each domain. 3. Moving the FSMO roles while both the original FSMO role holder and the future FSMO role holder are online and operational is called Transferring.2. Right-click Monitored servers and select Add Monitored Server. and transfer the FSMO roles to a reliable computer. This operation. Click Finish. so it is not a problem to them to be unavailable for hours or even days. 4. and selects Properties. In the site list select your site. Click on the FSMO Roles tab and read the results. try to get it back on line. when the original FSMO role holder went offline or became non operational for a long period of time.Forest-wide and one per forest. should be performed only if the original FSMO role owner will not be brought back into the environment.Forest-wide and one per forest. expand it. and is described in this article. and is described in the Transferring FSMO Roles article.Domain-specific and one for each domain. 5. non-operational holder. RID master . If a DC becomes unreliable. on the same DC) as has been configured by the Active Directory installation process. Right-click the server that is now listed in the left-pane. Since none of the FSMO roles are immediately critical (well. 7. 6. Click Ok when you're done. If a DC holding a FSMO role fails. In most cases an administrator can keep the FSMO role holders (all 5 of them) in the same spot (or actually. Infrastructure master . How can I forcibly transfer (seize) some or all of the FSMO Roles from one DC to another? Windows 2000/2003 Active Directory domains utilize a Single Operation Master method called FSMO (Flexible Single Master Operation). the administrator might consider moving the FSMO role from the original. Administrators should use extreme caution in seizing FSMO roles.PDC Emulator is domain-specific and one for each domain. Make sure your AD domain name is listed in the drop-down list. Domain naming master . there are scenarios where an administrator would want to move one or more of the FSMO roles from the default holder DC to a different DC. the loss of the PDC Emulator FSMO role might become a problem unless you fix it in a reasonable amount of time). However. as described in Understanding FSMO Roles in Active Directory. PDC . in most cases. The five FSMO roles are: Schema master . However. In the Add Server to Monitor window. . the best thing to do is to try and get the server online again. Only seize a FSMO role if absolutely necessary when the original role holder is not connected to the network. select the Search the Directory for the server to add. and click to select the server you want to query. The process of moving the FSMO role from a non-operational role holder to a different DC is called Seizing. to a different DC. almost none.
However. or Domain Naming FSMOs are seized. then the original domain controller must not be activated in the forest again. then there will be no impact. NT 4. Infrastructure Group memberships may be incomplete. The following table summarizes the FSMO seizing restrictions: FSMO Role Restrictions Schema Original must be reinstalled Domain Naming RID PDC Emulator Can transfer back to original Infrastructure Another consideration before performing the seize operation is the administrator's group membership. Domain Naming Unless you are going to run DCPROMO. PDC Emulator Will be missed soon. Important: If the RID.What will happen if you do not perform the seize in time? This table has the info: FSMO Role Loss implications Schema The schema cannot be extended. It is necessary to reinstall Windows if these servers are to be used again. Schema.0 BDCs will not be able to replicate. If you only have one domain. unless you're building hundreds of users or computer object per week. then you will not miss this FSMO role. you will probably not be able to change or troubleshoot group policies and password changes will become a problem. RID Chances are good that the existing DCs will have enough unused RIDs to last some time. in the short term no one will notice a missing Schema Master unless you plan a schema upgrade during that time. there will be no time synchronization in the domain. as this table lists: FSMO Role Administrator must be a member of Schema Schema Admins Domain Naming Enterprise Admins RID Domain Admins PDC Emulator Infrastructure .
ldap_modify_sW error 0x34(52 (Unavailable).CN=Default-First-SiteName.CN=Sites. and then press ENTER. 5. Ldap extended error message is 000020AF: SvcErr: DSID-03210300. and then press ENTER again. The current FSMO holde r could not be contacted.CN=NTDS Settings. type Ntdsutil in the Open box. For example.CN=Sites.CN=NTDS Settings.CN=SERVER200.CN=Servers.CN=SERVER100. 6. problem 5002 (UNAVAILABLE) data 1722 Win32 error returned is 0x20af(The requested FSMO operation failed. 2. Type connect to server . fsmo maintenance: Seize infrastructure master Attempting safe transfer of infrastructure FSMO before seizure.CN=Default-First-SiteName. Type roles. and then press ENTER.CN=NTDS Settings. and then press ENTER. You will receive a warning window asking if you want to perform the seize.CN=Default-First-SiteName.CN=SERVER100. Server "server100" knows about 5 roles Schema . click Start.CN=SERVER200. to seize the RID Master role. and then click OK.CN=Sites. 4..CN=Configuration. click Run.CN=Servers. Type seize . or role transfer error.DC=dpetri.CN=Configuration.CN=Servers.CN=Servers. proceeding with seizure . 3.To seize the FSMO roles by using Ntdsutil. where is the name of the server you want to use.CN=Sites. On any domain controller.DC=net PDC .DC=dpetri.CN=NTDS Settings..DC=netDomain . type ?.CN=Configuration.CN=Servers. where is the role you want to seize. you would type seize rid master: Options are: 7.DC=net .CN=SERVER100.CN=Default-First-SiteName. Click on Yes. Type connections.CN=NTDS Settings. type q.CN=Sites. follow these steps: Caution: Using the Ntdsutil utility incorrectly may result in partial or complete loss of Active Directory functionality.DC=dpetri. and then press ENTER.Ldap.CN=Configuration.) ) Depending on the error code this may indicate a connection. Note: To see a list of available commands at any of the prompts in the Ntdsutil tool.DC=dpetri. Transfer of infrastructure FSMO failed. At the server connections: prompt.DC=net Infrastructure . 1.CN=Default-First-SiteName.CN=Configuration.DC=net RID .DC=dpetri.
What is the difference between authoritative and non-authoritative restore In authoritative restore. and then press ENTER until you quit the Ntdsutil tool. After you seize or transfer the roles. What is Active Directory De-fragmentation? De-fragmentation of AD means separating used space and empty space created by deleted objects and reduces directory size (only in offline De-fragmentation) Difference between online and offline de-fragmentation The size of NTDS. not the database. Determine which roles are to be on which remaining domain controllers so that all five roles are not on only one server.the database file cannot be compacted while Active Directory is mounted. so there is no guarantee that the files are going to be the same size across all domain controllers. 8. If the Infrastructure Master runs on a GC server it will stop updating object information because it does not contain any references to objects that it does not hold. 9. Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2003 servers running Directory Services (DS) perform a directory online defragmentation every 12 hours by default as part of the garbage-collection process. This can be used specifically when the entire OU is disturbed in all domain controllers or specifically restore a single object. Note: Do not put the Infrastructure Master (IM) role on the same domain controller as the Global Catalog server. .DIT will often be different sizes across the domain controllers in a domain.fsmo maintenance: Note: All five roles need to be in the forest.DIT) and doesn·t reduce the file·s size . Repeat steps 6 and 7 until you've seized all the required FSMO roles. Remember that Active Directory is a multi-master independent model where updates are occurring in each of the domain controllers with the changes being replicated over time to the other domain controllers. Active Directory routinely performs online database defragmentation. This defragmentation only moves data around the database file (NTDS. The database file cannot be compacted while Active Directory is mounted (or online). type q. Objects that are restored will be replicated to all domain controllers in the domain. which is disturbed in all DC·s In non-authoritative restore. This is because a GC server holds a partial replica of every object in the forest. Restored directory information will be updated by other domain controllers based on the latest modification time. but this is limited to the disposal of tombstoned objects. The changed data is replicated between domain controllers. If the first domain controller is out of the forest then seize all roles.
replace the old NTDS. So why defrag it in the first place? One reason you might want to defrag your NTDS. for example if you deleted a large number of records at one time.DIT file is to save space. you·ll see the following text. . and boot as normal.. select Run and type cmd. the database self-tunes and automatically tomb stoning the records then sweeping them away when the tombstone lifetime has passed to make that space available for additional records.DIT file and to enable offline defragmentation.) C:\> ntdsutil ntdsutil: files file maintenance:info . with no DS running. Reboot the server. W2K will start in safe mode. To create a new.DIT file that has been defragmented offline (compacted).exe In the command window. It will be remain 60 days by default (which can be configurable) it adds an entry as marked for deletion on the object and replicates to all DC·s.An NTDS.. After 60 days object will be deleted permanently from all Dc·s.) C:\> copy c:\temp\ntds.DIT file probably won·t help your AD queries go any faster in the long run. However. and press F8 for advanced options. file maintenance:compact to c:\temp You·ll see the defragmentation process. From the Start menu. Defragging the NTDS.dit %systemroot%\ntds\ntds.DIT file isn·t something you should really need to do. defragmenting the NTDS. (Enter the commands in bold. (Enter the commands in bold. Click OK. perform the following steps: Back up Active Directory (AD).dit Restart the computer. If the process was successful. enter quit to return to the command prompt. select the OS option. What is tombstone period Tombstones are nothing but objects marked for deletion. Press Enter again to start the OS. Then. You·ll see a dialog box that says you·re in safe mode. smaller NTDS. and press Enter.. compressed version. Select the Directory Services Restore Mode option.DIT file on its peers. Normally. Use the local SAM·s administrator account and password to log on. can be much smaller than the NTDS. After deleting an object in AD the objects will not be deleted permanently.DIT file with the new.
. When active server fails the application will FAILOVER to stand by server automatically. Briefly define & explain it Clustering is a technology. Heartbeat: Heartbeat is a private connectivity between the servers in the cluster. the object was deleted on another DC more than than 180 days ago. The deleted object will ´lingerµ in the restored local copy of Active Directory. In Windows we can configure two types of clusters NLB (network load balancing) cluster for balancing load between servers. When a DC deletes an object it replaces the object with a tombstone object. This is very important if Quorum disk fails entire cluster will fail. which is used to provide High Availability for mission critical applications. The tombstone object is a placeholder that represents the deleted object. In 2 node active-passive cluster one node will be active and one node will be stand by. We need to approve new update based on the requirement. which is used to identify the status of other servers in cluster. If a DC is restored from a backup that contains an object deleted elsewhere. We can configure cluster by installing MCS (Microsoft cluster service) component from Add remove programs. after which they are garbage-collected and removed. Tombstone objects are kept for 180 days. Server Cluster: This provides High availability by configuring active-active or active-passive cluster. which can only available in Enterprise Edition and Data center edition. and so it will never be notified of the deletion. This can happen if. the restored DC will not receive the tombstone object (via replication). When the original server backs we need to FAILBACK the application Quorum: A shared storage need to provide for all servers which keeps information about clustered application and session state and is useful in FAILOVER situation. the tombstone object is transmitted to the other DCs. which causes them to delete the AD object as well. Because the tombstone object on the other DCs has been removed. the object will re-appear on the restored DC. How to deploy the patches and what are the software·s used for this process Using SUS (Software update services) server we can deploy patches to all clients in the network. Usually preferable at edge servers like web or proxy. SNMP Need to enable . What is white space and Garbage Collection? refer question 7 What are the monitoring tools used for Server and Network Health. This cluster will not provide any high availability. after the backup was made.What Are Lingering Objects? A lingering object is a deleted AD object that re-appears (´lingersµ) on the restored domain controller (DC) in its local copy of Active Directory. When replication occurs. Then approved update will be deployed to clients We can configure clients by changing the registry manually or through Group policy by adding WUAU administrative template in group policy What is Clustering. How to define alert mechanism Spot Light . We need to configure an option called ´Synchronize with Microsoft software update serverµ option and schedule time to synchronize in server.
This can be configured from services. We can configure TTL.How to configure SNMP SNMP can be configured by installing SNMP from Monitoring and Management tools from Add and Remove programs. especially in a split namespace scenario. What is SOA Record SOA is a Start Of Authority record. What are the different types of partitions present in AD? Active directory is divided into three partitions Configuration Partition³replicates entire forest Schema Partition³replicates entire forest Domain Partition³replicate only in domain Application Partition (Only in Windows 2003) What are the (two) services required for replication File Replication Service (FRS) Knowledge Consistency Checker (KCC) Knowledge consistency checker. and retry intervals in this record.SNMP service -. called replication topology. In windows 2003 it is possible.Security Is it possible to rename the Domain name & how? In Windows 2000 it is not possible. Also an administrator can configure connection objects. On Domain controller by going to MYCOMPUTER properties we can change.msc--. They also help reduce the amount of DNS traffic on your network. which controls the startup behavior of DNS. The KCC maintains a list of connections. DELL OPEN MANAGER) running. which is a first record in DNS. refresh. But the BIND version should be 8 or greater . making DNS more efficient especially over slow WAN links. For SNMP programs to communicate we need to configure common community name for those machines where SNMP programs (eg. Stub zones are a new feature of DNS in Windows Server 2003 that can be used to streamline name resolution.it generates the replication topology by specifying what domain controllers will replicate to which other domain controllers in the site. What is a Stub zone and what is the use of it. The KCC ensures that changes to any object are replicated to all site domain controllers and updates go through no more than three connections. Can we use a Linux DNS Sever in 2000 Domain? We can use. to other domain controllers in the site.
ASR also creates a file that contains information about the backup. and all the disks that are associated with the operating system components. ASR reads the disk configurations from the file that it creates. system services. because by default it will be associated with domain GPO. What is the use of SYSVOL FOLDER? Policies and scripts saved in SYSVOL folder will be replicated to all domain controllers in the domain. What are the different levels that we can apply Group Policy We can apply group policy at SITE level---Domain Level---OU level What is Domain Policy. FRS (File replication service) is responsible for replicating all policies and scripts What is folder redirection? Folder Redirection is a User group policy. Where as Domain controller policy will be applied only on domain controller. You can access the restore portion by pressing F2 when prompted in the text-mode portion of setup. volumes. thus allowing the system to dynamically create a newly redirected folder for each user to whom the policy object applies. located in Backup. The %USERNAME% variable may be used as part of the redirection path. does the backup portion. the disk configurations (including basic and dynamic volumes). The wizard backs up the system state. ASR then installs a simple installation of Windows and automatically starts a restoration using the backup created by the ASR Wizard. . Local policy will be applied to that particular machine only and effects to that computer only. you can choose Basic or Advanced folder redirection. it includes ASR backup and ASR restore.What is the difference between IIS Version 5 and IIS Version 6? Refer Question 1 What is ASR (Automated System Recovery) and how to implement it ASR is a two-part system. and you can designate the server file system path to which the folder should be redirected. Local policy and Group policy Domain Policy will apply to all computers in the domain. It restores all the disk signatures. and partitions on (at a minimum) the disks that you need to start the computer. an administrator can designate which folders to redirect and where To do this. Once you create the group policy and link it to the appropriate folder object. Domain controller policy. The ASR Wizard. but under some circumstances it might not be able to. By default domain controller security policy will be associated with domain controller GPO. and how to perform a restore. ASR will try to restore all the disk configurations. the administrator needs to navigate to the following location in the Group Policy Object: User Configuration\Windows Settings\Folder Redirection In the Properties of the folder.
and the current forest functional level must be at Windows 2000 native or Windows Server 2003 domain level.etc) What are the domain and forest function levels in a Windows Server 2003-basedActive Directory? Functional levels are an extension of the mixed/native mode concept introduced in Windows 2000 to activate new Active Directory features after all the domain controllers in the domain or forest are running the Windows Server 2003 operating system. Important:raising the domain and forest functional levels to Windows Server 2003 is a nonreversible task and prohibits the addition of Windows NT 4. ensure that you will never need to install domain controllers running Windows NT 4. You can also add objects to group membership lists by dragging one or more objects (including other group objects) to the target group. Drag and drop functionality Allows you to move Active Directory objects from container to container by dragging one or more objects to a location in the domain hierarchy.0 or Windows 2000²based domain controllers in the environment will no longer function. a set of default Active Directory features becomes available. the administrator can raise the domain functional level (read Raise Forest Function Level in Windows Server 2003 Active Directory for more info). Before raising functional levels to take advantage of advanced Windows Server 2003 features. After this requirement is met. . all domain controllers in the domain must be running Windows Server 2003. the administrator can raise the domain functional level to Windows Server 2003 (read Raise Domain Function Level in Windows Server 2003 Domains for more info). native & interim«. The following table summarizes the Active Directory features that are available by default on any domain controller running Windows Server 2003: Feature Functionality Multiple selection of user objects Allows you to modify common attributes of multiple user objects at one time. After this requirement is met.0 or Windows 2000 in your environment.What different modes in windows 2003 (Mixed. Additional Active Directory features are available when all domain controllers in a domain or forest are running Windows Server 2003 and the administrator activates the corresponding functional level in the domain or forest. These levels only affect the way that domain controllers interact with each other. When a computer that is running Windows Server 2003 is installed and promoted to a domain controller. all domain controllers in the forest must be running Windows Server 2003. To activate the new domain features.0²based or Windows 2000²based domain controllers to the environment. Any existing Windows NT 4. new Active Directory features are activated by the Windows Server 2003 operating system over its Windows 2000 counterparts. When the first Windows Server 2003²based domain controller is deployed in a domain or forest. To activate new forest-wide features. Note: Network clients can authenticate or access resources in the domain or forest without being affected by the Windows Server 2003 domain or forest functional levels.
Domain Functional Level Domain functionality activates features that affect the whole domain and that domain only. Partial synchronization of the global catalog Provides improved replication of the global catalog when schema changes/add attributes to the global catalog partial attribute set.The inetOrgPerson class has been added to the base schema as a security principal and can be used in the same manner as the user class. Saved queries Allows you to save commonly used search parameters for reuse in Active Directory Users and Computers Active Directory command-line tools Allows you to run new directory service commands for administration scenarios. Signing LDAP traffic guarantees that the packaged data comes from a known source and that it has not been tampered with. The four domain functional levels. only Windows Server 2003 domain controllers can operate in that domain or forest.Efficient search capabilities/Search functionality is object-oriented and provides an efficient search that minimizes network traffic associated with browsing objects. Only the new attributes are replicated. the domain or forest operates by default at the lowest functional level that is possible in that environment. InetOrgPerson class:. For example. however. or computer can own in a given directory partition. the Windows Server 2003 interim forest functional level supports more features than the Windows 2000 forest functional level. For example. their corresponding features. Universal group membership caching Prevents the need to locate a global catalog across a wide area network (WAN) when logging on by storing universal group membership information on an authenticating domain controller. Members of the Domain Administrators and Enterprise Administrators groups are exempt from quotas. you cannot introduce any domain controllers that are running versions of Windows earlier than Windows Server 2003 into that domain. you can control the replication scope of Domain Name System (DNS) zone data stored in Active Directory so that only specific domain controllers in the forest participate in DNS zone replication. group. a user. When you raise the functional level of a domain or forest. Secure Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) traffic Active Directory administrative tools sign and encrypt all LDAP traffic by default. a set of advanced features becomes available. Active Directory quotas can be specified in Active Directory to control the number of objects. Ability to add additional domain controllers by using backup media Reduces the time it takes to add an additional domain controller in an existing domain by using backup media. This applies to the forest functional level as well. not the entire global catalog. When the first Windows Server 2003²based domain controller is deployed in a domain or forest. The Windows Server 2003 functional level supports the most advanced Active Directory features. but fewer features than the Windows Server 2003 forest functional level supports. and supported domain controllers are as follows: . If you raise the domain functional level to Windows Server 2003. Application directory partitions Allows you to configure the replication scope for application-specific data among domain controllers. Windows Server 2003 is the highest functional level that is available for a domain or forest. This allows you to take advantage of the default Active Directory features while running versions of Windows earlier than Windows Server 2003.
This mode is only used when you upgrade domain controllers in Windows NT 4. if you raise the domain functional level to Windows Server 2003.0 domains to Windows Server 2003 domain controllers.0. converting groups between security groups and distribution groups. Windows Server 2003 Supported domain controllers: Windows Server 2003 Supported features: domain controller rename. domain controllers that are running Windows 2000 Server cannot be added to that domain. After the domain functional level is raised. Domains that are upgraded from Windows NT 4. You can raise the domain functional level to either Windows 2000 native or Windows Server 2003. you can redirect the Users and Computers containers. application partitions. Windows Server 2003 Activated features: local and global groups. Windows 2000 (default) Supported domain controllers: Windows NT 4. Note that with each successive level increase. and their supported domain controllers are listed below. install from media. User password support on the InetOrgPerson object Class. Windows 2000. Single Instance Store (SIS) for System Access Control Lists (SACL) .0. logon timestamp attribute updated and replicated. the corresponding features. Windows 2000. you can raise domain levels by increasing the forest level settings Windows Server 2003 interim Supported domain controllers: Windows NT 4. universal groups. domain controllers that are running earlier operating systems cannot be introduced into the domain. Forest Functional Level Forest functionality activates features across all the domains in your forest. Windows Server 2003 Activated features: group nesting.0 or created by the promotion of a Windows Server 2003-based computer operate at the Windows 2000 mixed functional level. For example. Windows Server 2003 New features: Partial list includes universal group caching. Three forest functional levels. Windows Server 2003 Supported features: There are no domain-wide features activated at this level. All domains in a forest are automatically raised to this level when the forest level increases to interim.Windows 2000 mixed (Default) Supported domain controllers: Microsoft Windows NT 4.0. SidHistory. global catalog support Windows 2000 native Supported domain controllers: Windows 2000. Windows 2000 domains maintain their current domain functional level when Windows 2000 domain controllers are upgraded to the Windows Server 2003 operating system. quotas. Constrained delegation. rapid global catalog demotion. The following describes the domain functional level and the domain-wide features that are activated for that level. the feature set of the previous level is included.
Different Active Directory features are available at different functional levels. Raising domain and forest functional levels is required to enable certain new features as domain controllers are upgraded from Windows NT 4. See the "Upgrade from a Windows NT 4. Dynamic auxiliary classes. When a server is behind a network address translator. Trust-Attributes. Message Queuing-Multicast-Address. Trust-Partner. domain controllers that are running Windows NT 4. Cross Forest Trust. Windows Server 2003. Attributes added to the global catalog.0 or Windows 2000 Server cannot be added to the forest.0 and Windows 2000 to Windows Server 2003 Domain Functional Levels: Windows 2000 Mixed mode. Windows Server 2003 interim Supported domain controllers: Windows NT 4. Defunct schema objects. Ms-DS-Trust-Forest-Trust-Info. Print-Rate. Print-Memory.0 Domain" section of this article. Microsoft doesn·t recommend Internet Protocol security (IPSec) network address translation (NAT) traversal (NAT-T) for Windows deployments that include VPN servers and that are located behind network address translators.in the Jet Database Engine. ISTG Aliveness no longer replicated. Improved Replication Topology Generation. Print-Rate-Unit Windows Server 2003 Supported domain controllers: Windows Server 2003 Activated features: all features in Interim Level. and the server uses IPSec NAT-T. InetOrgPerson objectClass change. you may experience connection problems because clients that connect to the server over the Internet require a public IP address. 15-second intrasite replication frequency for Windows Server 2003 domain controllers upgraded from Windows 2000 After the forest functional level is raised. Trust-Type. if you raise forest functional levels to Windows Server 2003. Windows 2000 Native mode. Security-Identifier. No global catalog full sync when attributes are added to the PAS Windows Server 2003 domain controller assumes the Intersite Topology Generator (ISTG) role. Windows server 2003 and Windows server 2003 interim (Only available when upgrades directly from Windows NT 4. Domain Rename. Improved topology generation event logging. ms-DS-Entry-Time-To-Die. Message Queuing-SecuredSource. Activated features: Windows 2000 features plus Efficient Group Member Replication using Linked Value Replication. unintended side effects may occur because of the way that network address translators translate network traffic If you put a server behind a network address translator. domain controllers that are running earlier operating systems cannot be introduced into the forest. Application Groups. To reach servers that are located behind network address translators from the Internet. For example. static mappings must be .0. Trust-Direction.0 to Windows 2003) Forest Functional Levels: Windows 2000 and Windows 2003 Ipsec usage and difference window 2000 & 2003.
Between forests we can create explicit trust Two-way trust One-way: incoming One-way: Outgoing what is universal group membership cache in windows 2003? Information is stored locally once this option is enabled and a user attempts to log on for the first time. the authenticating domain controller running Windows Server 2003 will obtain the universal group membership information from its local cache without the need to contact a global catalog. the universal group membership information contained in the cache of each domain controller will be refreshed every 8 hours. except security principals. Application directory partitions are usually created by the applications that will use them to store and replicate data. The domain controller obtains the universal group membership for that user from a global catalog. members of the Enterprise Admins group can manually create or manage application directory partitions using the Ntdsutil command-line tool. By default. . Is it possible to do implicit transitive forest to forest trust relationship in windows 2003? Implicit Transitive trust will not be possible in windows 2003. Only domain controllers running Windows Server 2003 can host a replica of an application directory partition. The next time that user attempts to log on. These mappings are required so that all Internet Key Exchange (IKE) and IPSec NAT-T traffic that is sent to the public address of the network address translator is automatically translated and forwarded to the Windows Server 2003-based computer How to create application partition windows 2003 and its usage? An application directory partition is a directory partition that is replicated only to specific domain controllers. A domain controller that participates in the replication of a particular application directory partition hosts a replica of that partition. Once the universal group membership information is obtained. Public IP address/UDP port 4500 to the server's private IP address/UDP port 4500. Applications and services can use application directory partitions to store application-specific data. configure the network address translator with the following static network address translator mappings: Public IP address/UDP port 500 to the server's private IP address/UDP port 500. to reach a Windows Server 2003-based computer that is behind a network address translator from the Internet. For example. Application directory partitions can contain any type of object. For testing and troubleshooting purposes. it is cached on the domain controller for that site indefinitely and is periodically refreshed.configured on the network address translator. TAPI is an example of a service that stores its application-specific data in an application directory partition.
With Publish option you can apply only on users. Once user click the shortcut or open any document having that extension then the application install into the local machine. If it is applied to computer then the policy will apply to user who logs on to that computer. site. on which OU·s the policies applied. read and write data on a local drive (including drives formatted to use NTFS).GPMC & RSOP in windows 2003? GPMC is tool which is used for managing group policies and display information like how many policies applied.msi package for that application. Who are the users effecting by these polices. There are two ways to start the Recovery Console: If you are unable to start your computer. you can install the Recovery Console on your computer to make it available in case you are unable to restart Windows 2000. Assign & Publish the applications in GP & how? Through Group policy you can Assign and Publish the applications by creating . It will be appear in Start menu³Programs. Folder Redirection. When policies are applied on multiple levels (for example. domain. In addition. or if you need to reconfigure a service that is preventing your computer from starting properly. Using the Recovery Console. Security Settings. The Recovery Console is particularly useful if you need to repair your system by copying a file from a floppy disk or CD-ROM to your hard drive. RSoP provides details about all policy settings that are configured by an Administrator. it should only be used by advanced users who have a thorough knowledge of Windows 2000. domain controller. you can run the Recovery Console from your Windows 2000 Setup disks or from the Windows 2000 Professional CD (if you can start your computer from your CDROM drive). What are the settings enabled in each policy. who is managing these policies. you must be an administrator to use the Recovery Console. GPMC will display all the above information. As an alternative. including Administrative Templates. format drives. and organizational unit). RSoP can help you determine a set of applied policies and their precedence (the order in which policies are applied). and Group Policy Software Installation. the results can conflict. You can then select the Recovery Console option from the list of available operating systems . Scripts. How to use recovery console? The Windows 2000 Recovery Console is a command-line console that you can start from the Windows 2000 Setup program. Because the Recovery Console is quite powerful. you can start and stop services. With Assign option you can apply policy for both user and computer. If it is applied on user it will apply where ever he logs on to the domain. Internet Explorer Maintenance. If any application program files missing it will automatically repair. It will not install automatically when any application program files are corrupted or deleted. and perform many other administrative tasks.
enabling remote users to access corporate networks securely across the Microsoft Windows NT® Workstation.PPTP protocol for VPN in windows 2003? Point-to-Point-Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) is a networking technology that supports multiprotocol virtual private networks (VPN). Windows® 95. and Windows 98 operating systems and other pointto-point protocol (PPP)-enabled systems to dial into a local Internet service provider to connect securely to their corporate network through the Internet .