The aggressors

Adolf Hitler - Nazi dictator of Germany (1933-45) General Hideki Tojo - Prime minister of Japan (October 1941 - July 1944). Benito Mussolini, was the prime minister of Italy (1922-1943).

The defenders
Winston Churchill kept warning of the Nazi danger in pre-war years. He was elected prime minister of Great Britain after the total collapse of the appeasement policy of his predecessor Neville Chamberlain. Joseph Stalin was the very brutal Communist dictator of Russia (1928-1953). Franklin Delano Roosevelt, president of the United States of America (1933-1945)

The victims
Edouard Daladier was prime minister of France three times in 1933,1934, and again in April 1938. Daladier was replaced by Paul Reynaud, but remained in government as war minister. Shortly before the French surrender, prime minister Reynaud replaced war minister Daladier with Charles De Gaulle, which was just a tank division commander, but he was the only commander in the French military which had some success against the invading Germans, and warned before the war of the weaknesses of the French military. King Zog of Albania King George II of the politically unstable Greece and his dictatorial prime minister Ioannis Metaxas King Leopold III of Belgium ± Queen Wilhelmina of Holland King Haakon VII of Norway Edward Smigly-Rydz, the military dictator of Poland Dr. Edvard Benes was the elected president of Czechoslovakia between 1935 and October 1938 when he resigned when the appeasement policy of his French and British allies led them to support Hitler's demand to annex parts of Czechoslovakia. His successor, was Dr. Emil Hacha. King Christian X of Denmark

joined World War 2 beside Great Britain when the war started. mainly to protect Romania from a possible Russian invasion because of their hostile territorial conflict. remained neutral in World War 2. the dictator of Portugal (1932-1968). Shortly after becoming prime minister he met Adolf Hitler. then commander in chief until 1944 under president Risto Ryti. Pibul Songgram was the pro-Japanese military dictator of Thailand during World War 2. prime minister of Canada joined World War 2 beside Great Britain when the war started. Ion Antonescu. Famous for its neutrality. Michael Savage. when he finally agreed to be a candidate and was elected president of Finland until his retirement in 1946. prime minister of Australia. Carl Mannerheim. invaded China's coastal region and heartland in 1937 and occupied a large part of them. Robert Menzies. the two rival leaders in China's civil war. the defense minister of Romania was made prime minister in September 1940.Allies and Neutrals General Jan Smuts. prime minister of South Africa (1919-1924. the dictator of Hungary (1920-1944) initially remained neutral. the Fascist military dictator of Spain (1939-1975) wisely managed to keep his country neutral.1939-1948). suspended their domestic struggle when Japan. Per Hansson was the prime minister of the neural Sweden. William King. was a key figure and the top military leader of Finland for three decades in various roles. Antonio Salazar. but his fear of Stalin's Communist Russia pushed him to ally with Hitler's Germany and join the war beside it in late 1940. allied with him. Admiral Miklos Horthy. King Boris III of Bulgaria allied with Hitler's Germany in March 1941. and as a banking and diplomatic center. its high mountains. Switzerland is a federation led in rotation by a group of seven elected members. prime minister of New Zealand joined World War 2 beside Great Britain when the war started. Mannerheim was chairman of the national defense council in 1931-1939. . General Francisco Franco. which already occupied North-East China and Korea. and allowed the German military to deploy in Romania. Mao Tse Tung and Chiang Kai Shek.

and the German military invaded and occupied the country until the end of the and ten days later the German Luftwaffe massively bombarded Belgrade. Manuel Quezon was re-elected as president of the Philippines in November 1941. The Philippines were liberated in 1945 by US forces. the dictator (self-declared king) of oil-rich Iran declared neutrality but maintained strong commercial relations with Germany which worried its neighbors Russia and Britain. was invaded and occupied by the Japanese. 1941 he was replaced in a pro-allies military coup. Quezon formed a exiled government in the US where he died in 1944.Reza Pahlavi. http://www. but a month later his country. the capital of its former ally. Prince-Regent Paul of Yugoslavia was an ally of Germany and Italy.2worldwar2. In March 27. a US ally with US military presence.htm .

Hitler was expansionist Many historians still think that the Second World War was Hitler's personal war. because he believed he could not trust Britain. which encouraged him to go further and further until in the end he went too far.3 5 Major Causes of World War II The Treaty of Versailles solved nothing Reparations left many people in the victorious nations feeling guilty. the events leading up to the war played a part in starting the fighting. and it failed to prevent Hitler breaking the Treaty of Versailles. y y The League of Nations failed to keep the peace It was weak from the beginning. It made Hitler think no one would dare stop him. This anger grew until Chamberlain declared war on Hitler on 3rd September 1939. y Britain and France abandoned collective security. y Events (the Eight Steps to War) In addition. y Most of a re-run of a First World War he did not believe that German had lost fairly. and that he always intended to fight a war .johndclare. y Self-determination surrounded Germany by a lot of small nation states that fell easy prey to and turned instead to appeasement. y The Sudetenland led Stalin to make the Nazi-Soviet Pact. y Countries left the failing League. http://www. y Appeasement encouraged aggression y Appeasement encouraged war. which resulted in an arms race. The loss of all that land to other countries simply made Hitler's early aggression look justified. Each event created anger in the allies. just waiting their chance for revenge. and had spectacular failures in Manchuria and Abyssinia. y It failed to achieve disarmament. the Treaty made the Germans angry. and realised that they would have to fight a war.htm .

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