Competence No.6 (Course covered 6.2)6.2/9.
Theoretical knowledge of construction and operation of marine boilers including materials used.
A boiler is a closed pressure vessel wherein steam is generated by boiling distilled water / feed water under pressure. All boilers have a furnace or combustion chamber where fuel is burnt to release its energy. Air is supplied to the boiler furnace to enable combustion of the fuel to take place. A large surface area between the combustion chamber and the water enables the energy of combustion, in the form of heat, to be transferred to the water. Boilers are fitted with one steam drum and one water drum each to ensure steam and water can be separated. There must also be a variety of fittings and controls to ensure that fuel oil, air and feed water supplies are matched to the demand for steam.
Requirement of a Marine Boiler: • It should be capable of generating the maximum quantity of steam with minimum fuel consumption • It should be light in weight and should not occupy much space • It should have safe working conditions • The initial cost, installation cost and maintenance cost of the boiler should be low. • It should be accessible for easy inspection and repair. • It should be capable of quick starting and should be able to meet rapid variations of load. Types of boilers: • Fire tube boilers • Water tube boilers Fire tube boilers: In fire tube boilers, the hot gases pass though the tubes that are surrounded by water. The water is heated up and converted into steam. E.g. Cochran, Scotch boiler & Clarkson boiler. The FTB is usually chosen for low-pressure steam production on vessels requiring steam for auxiliary purposes. Operation is simple and feed water of medium quality is used.
Water tube boilers: In water tube boilers, water is circulated though the tubes and hot flue gases flow outside the tubes. e.g. Bobcock & Wilcox, Admiralty three drum, Y-160 and Foster wheeler D-type. The water tube boiler is employed for high pressure, high temperature, high capacity steam applications, e.g. providing steam for main propulsion turbines of cargo pump turbines. Firetube boilers are used for auxiliary purposes to provide smaller quantities of low pressure stem on diesel engine powered ships.
a. Smoke uptake b. Economizer A heat exchanger that transfers heat from Boiler Flue Gases to Boiler Feedwater. c. Steam outlet Saturated steam from the Steam Drum to the Superheater d. Cyclone A device inside the steam drum that is used to prevent water and solids from passing over with the steam. e. Stay tube for superheater f. Stays for superheater tubes g. Superheated steam outlet h. Superheater A bank of tubes, in the exhaust gas duct after the boiler, used to heat the steam above the saturation temperature. i. Superheater Headers Distribution and collecting boxes for the superheater tubes. j. Water drum k. Burner l. Waterwall Header Distribution box for waterwall and downcomers.
m. Footing n. Waterwall Tubes welded together to form a o. p. q. r. s. wall. Waterwall Header Distribution box for waterwall and downcomers. Back side waterwall Boiler hood Waterwall Header Collecting box for waterwall and risers. Riser Tubes in which steam is generated due to high convection or radiant heat. The water-steam emulsion rises in these tubes toward the steam drum. Downcomer A tube through which water flows downward. These tubes are normally not heated, and the boiler water goes through them to supply the generating tubes. Steam drum separates the steam from the water. Economizer Header Distribution box for the economizer tubes.
Construction of boilers: The construction of water tube boiler, which use small-diameter tubes and have a small steam drum, enables the generation or production of steam at high temperatures and pressures. The weight of the boiler is much less than that of the fire tube boiler and steam raising process is much quicker. This boiler has two drums namely steam drum (bigger in size) and water drum (smaller in size) and an integral furnace. This furnace is at the side of the two drums and is surrounded on all sides by walls of tubes. Between these two drums, large numbers of smaller diameter generating tubes are fitted. Tubes neighboring furnace are called fire row tubes of screen tubes which act as an upriser. Large bore down comer pipes are fitted between steam drum and water drum to ensure good natural circulation of water. In this arrangement, super heater is located between the drums, protected from the very hot furnace gases by several rows of screen tubes. Refractory material or brick work is used on the furnace floor and the burner wall. The double casing of the boiler
provides a passage for the combustion air to the control of register surrounding the burner. The furnace side, the floor and roof tubes are welded into the steam and water drums. The lower water wall headers are connected by external down comer from the steam drum and upper water wall header are connected to the steam drum by riser tubes. The gases leaving the furnace pass through screen tubes which are arranged to permit flow between them. The large number of tubes results in considerable heat transfer before the gases reach the secondary superheater. The gases then flow over primary superheater and the economizer before passing to exhaust. Fig.3 Water circulation: In the steam generation process the feed water enters the boiler where it is heated and becomes steam. The feed water circulates from the steam drum to the water drum and is heated in the process. The water from the water drums rise up to the steam drum due to the thermo-convection current through uprisers consisting of generator row tubes and screen tubes. The downcomers fitted on each boiler bring down the relatively cooler water from the steam drum to the water drum to establish a positive circulation during normal operation. Some of the feed water passes through tubes surrounding the furnace, i.e. water wall and floor tubes, where it is heated and returned to the steam drum (in case furnace is cooled by water filled tubes). Large bore downcomer tubes are used to circulate feed water between the drums. The downcomer tubes pass outside of the furnace and join the steam and water drums. The steam is produced in a steam drum and drawn of as a ‘saturated steam’ which contains small quantities water particles. Alternatively the steam may pass to a superheater which is located within the boiler. Here steam is further heated and dries, i.e. all traces of water are converted into steam. This superheater steam then leaves the boiler for use in the system. The temperature of this steam will be above that of the steam in the drum. An attemperator may be fitted in the system to control the temperature of the superheated steam as per requirements. Materials Used in Boiler Construction. Component Material Boiler Casing Mild steel plates (low carbon) Steam Drum Mild steel plates (low carbon) TS-430-490MN/m2 Fire Row & Gen. Cold drawn seamless (low Row Tubes carbon steel)
Composition & Description C, Si, Mn, (Hot finished rolled plates) C, Si, Mn (Hot finished) C, Si, Mn, S, P (cold drawn)
Mo (cold finished) C. Mn (hot finished rolled plate)
Mild steel plates (low carbon)
6. • For using as a steam ejector media for ejector pumps and vacuum devices • For Driving steam driven deck machineries like winches etc. Purifier.S/H Tubes S/H Tube Support Steam Piping (S/H range upto 9500F) Economiser Tubes
Cr. Pressures used: The working pressure used in marine boilers will vary from boiler to boiler as required. used.. Ni. P (stud resistance welded to tubes) C. P. S (hot finished) C. Si. • For tank washing in tanker ships and general cleaning.
. Calorifier. Si. Cr. Mn. Si. Mn. Still the normal working pressure of boilers used is as below:For Steam ships High pressure 60 bar and above For Motor ships Low pressure 6-15 bar Medium pressure 17-30 bar For Tanker Vessels Medium pressure 17-30 bar. C.2/10. Molybdenum alloy steel Heat resistant austenitic steel Cr-Mo low carbon alloy steel Cold drawn seamless steel
Cr. • For fresh water generation (Evaporators) • For fire major fighting (steam drenching) • For heating duties (ME fuel oil heater. Galley. Mo. Mi (cold finished) C. Si. Accommodation heating. Cr. Mn.
List the services provided by boilers and the typical pressures
For main engine propulsion/turbines (in case of steam ships) For power generation (to run steam turbo generators) • For running auxiliaries (in case of steam ships) • For soot blowing and for the steam atomized burners. P. Galley supply. stripping and other steam driven pumps. Si. Ni. Sea chests tracer lines for pipeline heating) • For cargo heating • For fuel treatment plant tank coil heating • For deck machineries • For running Cargo pump turbines • For operating bilge. S. Mn.
Operation is simple and feed water of medium quality is used.6. Y-160. water is circulated though the tubes and hot flue gases flow outside the tubes. The water tube boiler is employed for high pressure. Fire tube boilers Hot flue gases pass through tubes which are immersed in water Pressure range is limited to 25 bar Water tube boilers Water is circulated through tubes that are surrounded by hot flue gases This can generate steam at a pressure of 200 bar
. Package boiler: Where relatively small. The FTB is usually chosen for low-pressure steam production on vessels requiring steam for auxiliary purposes. fuel oil system and pump. This term is usually applied to self contained units mounted on a single bedplate and comprising a steam generating section. high temperature. Scotch boiler & Clarkson boiler. In addition suitable control equipment will also be required. Admiralty three drum. Fully automatic controls are provided and located in a control panel at the side of the boiler. together with a forced draught fan. Cochran.
Differences between fire tube and water tube boilers: S No a. This package now only needs connections Fig. intermittent steam demands are to be met. e. The water is heated up and converted into steam.2/11. Define a) Fire tube boiler b) Water tube boiler c) Packaged boiler and briefly explain the differences and why one type of boiler is preferred over other
Fire tube boilers: In fire tube boilers. feed water system and pump. e.4 to the ship’s electrical supply and other necessary services to become operational. the hot gases pass though the tubes that are surrounded by water.g.g. Bobcock & Wilcox. and high capacity steam applications. use is often made of package boilers. b. Foster wheeler D-type. Water tube boilers: In water tube boilers.
Whereas in case of flat plate the force applied tries to bend the plate until equilibrium is obtained. f. internal forces are set up which enable the plate to withstand the force without undue distortion.
6. d.2/12. hence the force acting per unit area gets distributed and load bearing capability is increased. h. The pressure vessels are often given hemispherical ends but.
. The stress acting on a circumferential area will be equally distributed throughout its area. j. g. The cylindrical shape has an advantage of reduction in space consumption and no supporting stays are required.
Raising of steam is slow Reduced evaporation since heating surface area is less Bursting of even one tube affects the function of boiler very much The chances of bursting is less Suitable for rapid changes in load like locomotive boiler Space occupied per kg of steam generation is less It is not suitable for power plants since reduced evaporation Construction of this boiler is costlier and difficult
Raising of steam is more rapid Evaporation rate is high since water is circulated though tubes Bursting of one or two tubes does not affect the function of the boiler very much The chances of bursting is more Preferable for large load fluctuations extending over longer durations Space occupied per kg of steam generation is more It is best suitable for power plants Cheaper for the same capacity of fire tube boilers. if this is not possible. k. any flat surfaces must be stayed or of sufficient thickness to resist the pressure without undue distortion. The drums are protected form flame impingement or direct heat. i.c. e. Explain why shells of cylindrical forms are preferred and why end plates of spherical types are to be preferred over flat end plates
When a force is applied to a curved plate as shown in fig. The cylindrical end joint need not be as strong as longitudinal joint. thus comes the requirement of stays.
5 Stress in a curved plate
Internal stays Hemispherical end plates no Flat end plates internal stays must be internal stays required fitted to support them
6.2/13. transmitting the bending stresses from the top wrapper plate onto the vertical tube plate and back plate of the chamber.
What are different types of stays used in boiler and why?
Stay tubes are used in marine boilers to support boiler tubes in construction to resist the pressure without undue distortion.Forc Bursting Stress acts perpendicular to any radius Component of stress to balance
Fig. Types of Stays: • Girder stays • Gusset stays Girder stays: Girder stays are used to support the top of the combustion chamber.
Girde r Stays
Super heater tubes are also usually expanded and bell-mouthed up to steam temp of about 450⁰ C. such as down comers.a) Plain tube b) Stay tube c) Single flow tube (d) Swirl flow tube (e) Thimble tube Attachment of tubes in water tube boilers
Tubes can be attached to drums and headers by expanding or by welding.2/15. They must project through the tube plate by at least 6mm.Gusset stays: The Cochran is typical tank boiler of vertical type suitable for producing small amounts of low pressure steam for auxiliary purposes. In most cases the generating. and this is provided by means of a gusset stay which transfers the stresses from the flat top of the chamber into the boiler shell. To prevent tubes pulling out of the tube plate. screen and water wall tubes are expanded into plain seats. In case of tubes with larger diameters. hence heat transfer will be improved. In this boiler. above this the tubes are often attached by welding. Describe how tubes are expanded in tube plates and explain the differences in following:.
. the arrangement also gives increased heating surface area as compared to a plain furnace of similar dimensions.2/14. and then carefully drifted. Various types of corrugation are available. Gusset
6. they must be bell-mouthed. but the suspension bulb type is preferred since for a given working pressure and furnace diameter the material thickness can be less than any other form of corrugation. and then bell mouthed. or roller expanded into the holes in the tube plate.
6. the combustion chamber top requires support. it is usual to use grooved seats. The tube ends must be cleaned.
Explain the advantages of using corrugated furnaces
Furnaces are corrugated for strength.
Steam pipes or pipes in systems with considerable temperature variation may be supported on spring hangers which permit a degree of movement and are called ‘load hangers’. Swirl flow tube
. Welding can be used after screwing the stay tubes into the tube plates but the tubes must be expanded before and after welding. The thickness of these stay tubes varies according to the load to be supported. or may be spot-welded. but must not be less than 5mm the base of the thread. nuts are usually fitted at the front end but not in the combustion chamber to avoid overheating. An alternative to spring hangers is the use of expansion loops of piping or an expansion joint. One type consists of a bellows arrangement which will permit movement in several directions and absorb variation.Piping systems
Machinery space pipe work is made up of assorted straight lengths and bends joined by flanges with an appropriate gasket or joint between or very small bore piping may use compression couplings. The pipes are supported and held in by hangers or pipe clips in such a way as to minimize vibration. The front end of the tube often swelled out to allow for easier tube removal. The fitting must be selected according to the variation in system temperatures and installed to permit the expansion and contraction required in the system. which together with a number of tubes provide the necessary support is called stay tubes. Stay tubes Fire tube boiler has a number of flat surfaces which require support. After the tubes has been screwed and then expanded into the tube plates. Plain tube The plain or common tubes are used in the boiler between steam and water drum to generate steam and are expanded into the tube plates at both ends. These tubes being screwed and then expanded into both tube plates. The tubes have a diameter of about 65mm with a thickness of 5mm. Stays are fitted in the steam drum and in the annular water space. The piping material will be chosen to suit the system conditions.
Expansion of pipes
An expansion piece is fitted in a pipe line which is subject to considerable temperature variations. The back end of the tube is bell-mouthed after expansion.
Thimble tube The boiler was developed to generate steam by causing a prolonged series of spasmodic ebullitions to take place in a series of horizontal tapered thimble tubes heated externally. It is claimed that these tubes are more efficient than normal plain smoke tubes in that they cause the gases passing through to swirl so coming into more intimate contact with the tube wall and therefore increasing the rate of heat transfer. These are expanded and bell-mouthed into a cylindrical tube plate forming the combustion chamber. without any special means being provided for circulation within the tube. Thus reasonable quality of feed water should be provided. It enhances the heat transfer between the tubes and feed water to produce steam. they have a special twist along the greater part of their length.
Stay tube. if an undue amount of scale forms inside the thimble tubes. These boilers will operate for long periods without internal cleaning although. expanded before and after welding
. It consists of an outer shell enclosing a cylindrical furnace surmounted by the combustion chamber into which the thimble tubes project. The formation of scale will subject the thimble tubes to a certain amount of overheating. it is very difficult to remove. The tubes have a diameter of about 100mm. only a short portion at each end being left plain to allow for expansion. screwed into plate fitted with nut and expanded
Stay tube within nest.The vertical smoke tubes are known as swirlyflow tubes.
Sketch the path of water circulation and gas paths in boilers Path of Water circulation and gas paths:
.5 Scotch boiler tubes
6.Margin stay tube. expanded before and after welding
Plain tube. expanded
aux sup steam stop valves. (c) Auxiliary superheated steam stop valve Fitted to supply steam to auxiliary superheated steam range to run the auxiliaries and TAs and may be utilized to augment steam to the main steam range means for turbines through a suitable cross connection valve in case of an emergency. spindles. but in practice it is usual to fit three safety valves – two on the steam drum. These are fitted to protect the boiler form the effects of overpressure. Fitted on the steam drum to supply saturated
Feed check valve To give final control over the entry of feed water into the boiler and they must be SDNR valve so that in the event of a loss of feed pressure. the boiler water cannot be back into the feed line. main feed check valve. Boiler Mountings fitted on boiler are safety valves. robot feed regulator. main steam stop valves. (b) Main steam stop valves This is mounted on the superheater outlet header. As per international regulations. So automatic feed regulator are fitted to control the flow of water into the boiler and maintain the water level at its desired value. This too of SDNR type. Those attached directly to the pressure parts of the boiler are referred to as boiler mountings which are being performed either directly. (a) Safety valve. aux feed check valve. Two may be fitted to control the passage of steam from the boiler to the main steam range and of SDNR type to prevent steam flowing into a damaged boiler in the event of loss of pressure due to a burst tube. damage may result from overheating. sat steam stop valve. and enables the boiler to be isolated from the steam drum. List all boiler mountings: a) on shell b) internal and describe briefly their purposes
Boiler Mountings Various valves and other fittings are required for the proper working of the boiler. at least two safety valves are fitted to each boiler. Saturated steam stop valve steam. and one on the super heater outlet header. water gauges. or indirectly. boiler sampling cocks and soot blowers. If it is too low. The water level in a boiler is critical. The regulator is
.6. blow down cocks. super heater header drain valves. This is fitted to release excess steam pressure from the boiler. running down valves. too high and priming can occur with resultant carry-over of water and dissolved solids into superheaters steam lines. air cocks. by means of extended rods.2/17. Main and aux feed checks are fitted with extended spindles so that checks can be operated easily and quickly from the operator’s convenient positions. (f) Feed water regulator. pressure gauges.
The DOT demand that at least two water level gauges must be fitted on each boiler steam drum.fitted in the feed line (after the feed heater if provided) before the main feed check valve. These cocks are fitted in series with two other valves i. These ‘air cocks’ are fitted to purge out the air when the boiler is being topped up we have to release air while raising steam and also during ‘run down’ of a boiler. Superheater header drain valves These are fitted as required to boiler superheater header. (n) Soot blowers Soot tends to accumulate between the tubes of the boilers. These are fitted to the upper parts of the boiler as required to release air from drums and headers either when filling the boiler. (i) Pressure gauges Each boiler is fitted with two pressure gauge tappings on steam drum.e. Soot blowers consist of a steam nozzle which when operated directs a jet of steam through the tube banks.
. The sensing pressure gauge tapping after steam drum further branches to indicate drum pressure in boiler room and a remote position. superheaters and economisers. and a remote reading indicator placed at a convenient position. Blow down cocks There are mostly two blow down cocks fitted on each boiler. It requires to be cleared at frequent intervals while steaming to prevent subsequent blockage thereby reducing the boiler output. (m) Boiler water sampling cocks The main purpose of the ‘sampling cock’ is to take samples of the boiler water to calculate the alkalinity and salinity of the boiler water. or raising steam. The main purpose of these cocks is to blow down the boiler water deposits when the boiler is steaming thereby reducing density. These valves are fitted in connection with a steam trap to drain off water from the headers. (g) Air cocks or Air vents. (h) Water level indicators. In practice the usual arrangement consists of two direct reading water level gauges mounted on the steam drum. Water drum is provided with one sampling valve which allows the sampling water to pass through a cooling coil which reduces its temperature. (j) Running down valves The purpose of these valves is to run down the water from the water drum when there is a need to lower the level of water in the steam drum before steaming or to drain the boiler when it has to be emptied. The soot blowing routine is undertaken as required. One is for direct reading pressure gauge and the other for sensing pressure gauge. the “intermediate blow down valve” and the “overboard blow down valve”.
As steam passes through the valve no work is done since the reduction process is the throttling. A valve. They are mounted on the steam drum. These are fitted to the steam drum to enable feed treatment chemicals to be injected directly into the boiler (p) Scum valves. the inverted bucket floats when steam reaches the trap and rises to shut the valve.This range of steam traps operates by sensing the difference in density between steam and condensate. Explain purpose and working of a a) reducing valve b) steam straps c) drains
Reducing valve: Reducing valve is used for the reduction of steam or air pressure. they are:(a) Mechanical type (b) Thermostatic type (c) Thermodynamic type Mechanical (operated by changes in fluid density) . Both are essentially 'mechanical' in their method of operation
6. Fitted on the discharge side of the valve is a pressure gauge to record the reduced pressure and relief valve to prevent damage to the low pressure side of the system in the event of the reducing valve failing. Steam traps: A steam trap is a special type of valve which prevents the passage of steam but allows condensate to pass.(o) Chemical Dosing valve. valve seat and spindle of steel or bronze. Steam traps of three types. Choice of materials depends upon operating conditions. The reducing valve would normally have a body of cast steel or iron. with which to remove oil or scum from the surface of the water in the drum. In the 'ball float trap'.2/18. It works automatically and is put into drain lines so that these drain off condensate automatically without passing any steam. These should be fitted when there is a possibility of oil contamination of the boiler. With the 'inverted bucket trap'. having an internal fitting in the form of a shallow pan situated just below the normal water level. These valves discharge into the blow down line. As its name implies and permits only the passage of condensed steam. opening a valve which passes the denser condensate. These steam traps include 'ball float traps' and 'inverted bucket traps'. hence the total heat before and after pressure reduction is nearly the same. the ball rises in the presence of condensate.
Heat loss from the control chamber causes pressure to decrease and this causes the trap disc to open again and discharge condensate. Operation of a bimetal steam trap with two leaf element
Thermodynamic type High pressure drain traps are chiefly of the thermodynamic type. a large mass would have be used which would be slow to react to temperature changes in the steam system. which may not satisfy the requirements of a steam system possibly operating at varying pressures and temperatures Because the power exerted by a single bimetal strip is small. or to a drain tank where there is a cooling element supplied with circulating water from the auxiliary circulating system. The ideal response would closely follow the curve and be just below it. Simple bimetallic element
Operation of the steam trap takes place at a certain fixed temperature.
. When the hot condensate reaches the chamber some of it flashes off into low pressure steam (saturated) which is taken away into the exhaust range. the velocity under the disc is increased and recompression above the seat straps is shut.Thermostatic type (Bimetallic steam trap) As the name implies.
Fig. The drain tank is pumped out to the tank by a suitable pump. When steam reaches the trap. bimetallic steam traps are constructed using two strips of dissimilar metals welded together into one element.
The performance of any steam trap can be measured by its response to the steam saturation curve. The remaining condensate drains at low pressure through a ball float trap to the unit drain cooler. The element deflects when heated. A simple bimetal element tends to react to temperature changes in a linear fashion. Deflection of the bimetallic strip with increasing temperature closes the valve. There are two important points to consider regarding this simple element: Fig. Condensate and air raise the trap disc to permit the flow.
maintenance can easily be carried out without removing the trap from the line. and cool condensate plus air is immediately discharged from the inner ring. under the disc. Thermodynamic traps can be used on high pressure and superheated steam and are not affected by waterhammer or vibration. iv). and the pressure above the disc equals the pressure being applied to the underside of the disc from the inner ring subject to a greater force than the underside. drawing it towards its seat (Figure ii). operation in this position may result in wear of the disc edge. At this point. The disc is raised by the now higher condensate pressure and the cycle repeats (Figure. the flash steam is trapped in the upper chamber. However. simple. As the disc is the only moving part. Thermodynamic Advantages of thermodynamic steam trap
• • •
Thermodynamic traps can operate across their entire working range without any adjustment or change of internals. lightweight and have a large condensate capacity for their size. incoming pressure raises the disc. At the same time. The trap operates by means of the dynamic effect of flash steam as it passes through the trap. The only moving part is the disc above the flat face inside the control chamber or cap. The audible 'click' which occurs as the trap opens and closes makes trap testing very straight forward. Fig. Hot condensate flowing through the inlet passage into the chamber under the disc drops in pressure and releases flash steam moving at high velocity. and out through three peripheral outlets [Fig (i)]. The all stainless steel construction offers a high degree of resistance to corrosive condensate.
.The thermodynamic trap is an extremely robust steam trap with a simple mode of operation. Thermodynamic traps are not damaged by freezing and are unlikely to freeze if installed with the disc in a vertical plane and discharging freely to atmosphere. as depicted in Figure. They are compact. forcing it down against the incoming condensate until it seats on the inner and outer rings. Eventually the trapped pressure in the upper chamber falls as the flash steam condenses. This high velocity creates a low pressure area under the disc. as it has a greater surface area. On start-up. the flash steam pressure builds up inside the chamber above the disc.
One type of expansion joint has an anchored sleeve with a stuffing box
. and so prevent undue stress or distortion as pipes expand or contract. The pipework system must be sufficiently flexible to accommodate the movements of the components as they expand. In this system. These fittings are placed within a line. means that no undue stresses are imposed. initially the drains are put onto bilges in the boiler /engine room and thereafter may be led into suitable drain tank for use. A pipe. which has to be twisted or bowed when being connected. They are commonly called expansion bellows.
6. The loop could increase turbulence and be the location of an air pocket. sharp bends and loops must be avoided. without the total length of the line changing. the spacer is removed and the joint pulled up tight (see Figure). This can be a cheaper way to solve the problem. Provision must be made in pipe systems to accommodate changes in length due to change of temperature. Other expansion fittings can be made from the pipework itself. and are designed to accommodate the expansion. between two flanges. however. Vibration is the frequent cause of eventual pipe failure but supports and clips to prevent this problem must permit free expansion and contraction. Pipes should be accurately made and installed with simple supports before being permanently clipped.2/19. it will be necessary to incorporate some means of achieving this required flexibility.Drains: The drains are fitted to auxiliary exhaust and low pressure saturated steam systems. of length equal to half the expansion. Explain a) how lengths of steam pipes are joined b) how the pipes are supported c) how expansion is allowed for
Pipe Installation Pipe connections should be as direct as possible. has inbuilt stress which can lead to ultimate failure. When the pipework is fully installed and anchored at both ends. due to the length of the pipe and number of bends and supports. In many cases the flexibility of the pipework system. Expansion arrangements The expansion fitting is one method of accommodating expansion. In other installations. The pipework is assembled cold with a spacer piece. but more space is needed to accommodate the pipe.
which must be son installed that it is neither overcompressed nor over-extended. This is due to the design but causes no misalignment of the flanges.4. in certain cases. Its length must be correct for the temperature change. Simpler schemes allow for change of length with a right angle bend arrangement or a loop. Fig. Normally the bellows has an internal sleeve. Horseshoe or lyre loop When space is available this type is sometimes used. An indication of the expansion of pipe that can be accommodated by these assemblies is shown in Fig. Beyond that and for severe corrosive conditions. In usual marine application. the end connection will act adequately as anchors and that well designed hangers will be effective guides.
.and gland in which an extension of joining pipe can slide freely within imposed limits. it should have cover. bellows joints are designed and fitted to accommodate straight line axial movement only and the associated piping requires anchors and guides to prevent misalignment. reduce friction and heat losses. Stainless steel is the usual material for temperatures up to 5000 C. Pressure does not tend to blow the ends of the loop apart. eliminate maintenance. 10. It will be apparent that.8. If any of these arrangements are fitted with the loop vertically above the pipe then a drain point must be provided on the upstream side as depicted in Figure 10. to act as a heat shield and to prevent erosion. Stainless steel bellows expansion joints are commonly used since they will absorb some movement or vibration in several planes. If exposed to the possibility of external damage. other materials are required.8 Horseshoe or lyre loop Expansion loops The expansion loop can be fabricated from lengths of straight pipes and elbows welded at the joints (Fig).4. It is best fitted horizontally so that the loop and the main are on the same plane. but there is a very slight straightening out effect. For high pressures and temperatures with associated greater pipe diameter and thickness other methods may be more appropriate. Maximum and minimum working temperatures must be considered when choosing a bellows piece. to give smooth flow.
The various header vents should be closed as water is seen to flow from them. water and pressure gauge connections should be opened. 10. All vents. The operating burner can now be lit an adjusted to provide a low firing rate with good combustion.It can be seen from Fig that the depth of the loop should be twice the width.9 Expansion loop
6. and the width is determined from Fig. The fuel oil system should be checked for the correct positioning of valves. Describe operation and control
Boiler operation The procedure adopted for raising steam will vary from boiler to boiler and the manufacturer’s instructions should always be followed. The super heater circulating valves or drains should be opened to ensure a flow of steam through the superheater. should then be closed. The operation of the forced draught fan should be checked and where exhaust gas air heaters are fitted they should be bypassed. Raising Steam The forced draught fan should be started and air passed through the furnace for several minutes to ‘purge’ it of any exhaust gas or oil vapours. except the ‘lighting up’ burner. All the other boiler drains and blow-down valves should be checked to ensure that they are closed. knowing the total amount of expansion expected from the pipes either side of the loop.3/7. Fig. The fuel oil should then be circulated and heated. any dampers should be operated and then correctly positioned. The fuel oil pressure and forced draught pressure should be matched to
.4. alarm.2/20. The economizer should be checked to ensure that it is full of water and all air vented off. The boiler should then be filled to slightly below the working level with hot de-aerated water. etc. Describe correct procedure of raising steam boilers and coupling them to steam system 6. A number of aspects are common to all boilers and general procedure might be as follows:Preparations The uptakes should be checked to ensure a clear path for the exhaust gases through the boiler. The air slides (checks) at every register.
ensure good combustion with a full steady flame. (a) Shut the steam and water cocks. The boiler must be brought slowly up to working pressure in order to ensure gradual expansion and to avoid overheating the superheater elements and damaging any refractory material. (f) Open the steam cock slowly. The main and auxiliary steam lines should now be warmed through and then the drains closed. the pressure remaining in the water level glass will be blown to bilge.
High water level in boiler (Priming of Boiler) Causes
. Initially. If the drain is clear. (d) Close the drain cock.2/21.1 bar has been reached the drum air vent may be closed. After ensuring the correct functioning of gauge glass watch keeper has to monitor closely the boiler water level and any variations in water level to be attended promptly.
6. If the steam cock is clear it will blow to bilge. In addition the water level gauges should be blown though and checked for correct reading. the boiler is to be flashed up for minimum 24 hrs to ensure the settlement of furnace and correct combustion process. If the water cock is clear it will blow to bilge. (b) Open and close the steam cock. The superheater header vents may be closed once steam issues from them. (c) Open and close water cock. Describe how to check correctly the water level in steaming boiler. When the steam pressure is about 3 bar below the normal operating value the safety valves should be lifted and released using the easing gear.
Checking correct water level in boiler: Following is to be strictly adopted to ensure the correct functioning of gauge glass to check water level in boiler. When a drum pressure of about 2. (e) Open the water cock slowly. the dangers of low level and high level and corrective actions required in either place. Boiler manufacturers usually provide a steam raising diagram in the form of a graph of drum pressure against hours after flashing up. All other vents. Once at operating pressure the boiler may be put on load and the su0perheater circulating valves closed. Open the drain cock. The water level in the boiler should be carefully checked and the automatic water regulating arrangements observed for correct operation. drains and bypasses should then be closed.
(b) Sudden drop in steam temperature. Low water level in boiler (Tube leak / tube failure) Causes (a) Flame impingement due to badly aligned burners. Burners are taken off the affected boiler and all steam stops are shut. (e) Impurities in feed water. (d) External corrosion of tubes.
. noise and leaks in steam system due to water hammer Actions (a) Upon symptoms boiler controls are taken over to servo manual and appropriate valve pertaining to control the feed to be operated. Monitor and check feed water tanks for contamination. Drains of FD blowers and TAs are opened. (d) High water level in boilers. (b) In the engine room. the main engine throttles are shut. (c) Low water level in boiler tubes by means of valve stuck/partial open . (f) Very high firing rate in the beginning that causes steam blanketing and ultimately tube burst. Symptoms (a) Leakage will result in high rushing noise of water.(a) High water level in boiler (b) Feed regulator non-operational (c) Auxiliary feed check valve opened accidentally (d) Rapid increase in power (e) High salinity of boiler water (f) Addition of excess boiler compound (g) Underwater explosion close to the ship. (e) Vibrations. (c) Drop in speed of main machinery. but the affected shaft can be expected to trail. Put all drains to bilges. The unaffected boiler water level is maintained using the main feed check valve. (b)Heavy loss of feed water. (b) Lack of circulation in boiler tubes.
Symptoms (a) Dimming of lights. Gauge glass showing dropping water level.
sulphates and nitrates are not decomposed by boiling and are known as permanent
. The auxiliary feed pump is started on cold suction and the affected boiler is flooded with cold water. Boiler is fed with water till the furnace becomes black. Common impurities found in the boiler water are chlorides. This is actual cracking of the metal which may lead to serious failure. When boiler water is contaminated by suspended matter. will produce a condition known as ‘caustic cracking’. These salts then adhere to the heating surfaces as a scale and reduce heat transfer. This is a foam or froth which collects on the water surface in the boiler drum. then ’foaming’ may occur. Other salts remain solution and may produce acids which will attack the metal of the boiler. (b) All clear evaporators are changed over to MUF. It has been estimated that a 3mm thickness scale increases the fuel consumption by 16% and 6mm by 50%. Salts whose solubility increases with increase in temperature do not normally form scale upon heating surfaces. Foaming leads to ‘priming’ which is the carry over of water with the steam leaving the boiler drum.Actions (a) Boiler controls are taken on servo manual and boiler is flamed out immediately. An excess of alkaline salts in a boiler. to some extent sulphur. These dissolved salts in water make up what is called the ‘hardness’ of the water.
Explain how water treatment is provided and why is it necessary
Purity of Boiler Water Most ‘pure’ water will contain some dissolved salts which come out of solution on boiling. All steam stops on the affected boiler are shut. This proves that the effect is not a straight line gradient but is exponential. which can result in local overheating and failure of the tubes. (c) Shaft restrictions may be imposed. The bicarbonates of calcium and magnesium are decomposed by heat and come out of solution as scale-forming carbonates. The presence of dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide in a boiler feedwater can cause considerable corrosion of the boiler and feed systems. Any water present in the steam entering a turbine will do considerable damage. These alkaline salts are known as temporary hardness. Calcium and magnesium salts are the main causes of hardness.
6. together with the effects of operating stresses. an excess of salts or oil. Salts whose solubility decreases with increase in temperature are those that form scale upon heating surfaces .2/22. magnesium and. The chlorides. sulphates and bicarbonates of calcium.
iron oxides copper particles. weld spatter. reduce risk of caustic cracking.hardness.treat in the same way as caustic soda. the boiler of foreign matter such as oil. Hydrazine should be stored in a cool. Total hardness is the sum of temporary and permanent hardness and gives a measure of the scale-forming salts present in the feed water Necessity of boiler water treatment (a) To (b) To (c) To (d) To (e) To (f) To (g) To amines prevent scale formation in the boiler give alkalinity and minimize corrosion condition sludge (by sodium aluminate). By careful use of oil heating arrangements (close watch on steam drains). It is usual to carry a reserve of chemicals in the boiler water in order to deal with any ingress of dissolved oxygen that may result due to mal-operation of the deaerating equipment. When handling. (c) Control of the sludge formation and prevention of carry over with the steam (d) Prevention of entry into. well ventilated place since it is a fire hazard. protective clothing should be worn. (b) Prevention of corrosion in the boiler and feed system by maintaining the boiler water in an alkaline condition and free from dissolved gases. mill-scale. Deaeration can be accomplished either mechanically or chemically. The chemicals used for this purpose are usually sodium sulphate or hydrazine. Hence de-aeration of the feed water is essential.
. etc. remove oxygen from water. or a combination of both. waste. or some other circumstances. sand. reduce risk of carry over of foam (by antifoam) minimize feed and condensate system from corrosion and filming
Feed water treatment: Feed water treatment is achieved by adding suitable chemicals with the boiler water in appropriate quantities and is as below:(a) Prevention of scale formation in the boiler and feed system by (i) using distilled water or (ii) precipitating all scale forming salts into the form of a non-adherent sludge. De-aeration It has been stated for corrosion to take place O 2 must be present to accomplish the formation of metal oxides. effective pre-commission cleaning and maintaining the steam and condensate systems in a non-corrosive condition.
steam brought the advent of power to the shipping world. most ships nowadays use the more economical diesel or heavy fuel engines. pardon the pun. However it's time as passed. to the basic design shown here. Some ships also use boilers for auxiliary power.steam. These types of boilers are most common because of their ability to deliver large quantities of steam. Duties like heating cargo. With its ease of control and delivery. the heat (flue gases) travel throughout the boiler. Such as deck winches and pumps. fuel. To the left is the basic theoretical design of a modern boiler. fuel and air are force into the furnace by the burner. Thousands of tubes are placed in strategic location to optimize the exchange of energy from the heat to the water in the tubes. But it all boils down.2/21. The water absorbs the heat. high power shaft requirements to propel the ship. it burns to produce heat. and accommodations. There.
. There are still some steam powered vessels such as ULCC ( Ultra Large Crude Carrier ) where steam turbines can provide the necessary. the Babcock Marine Water Tube Boiler (below) looks very complicated. The water tube boiler As you can see. Steam Theory Within the boiler. where electrical machines would prove to be a hazard as in the oil industry. Describe the steam plant as fitted on board the ship including the design
Steam Plants Water in the form of steam has the ability to store great amounts of energy. Boiler makers have developed various designs to squeeze the most energy out of fuel and to maximized its transfer to the water.6. and eventually absorb enough to change into a gaseous state . Describe the construction of steam plants as fitted on board the ship 6. From there. Although boilers may no longer be commonplace for ship propulsion they are almost guaranteed to be one boiler for various duties on board a ship.3/6.
Water enters the boiler. It is treated with chemicals to neutralize various minerals in the water. The hundreds of tube start and eventually end up at the steam drum.
Rear/Front Water wall headers
Water wall tubes
Super heater Super heaters tubes
DRUM TYPE BOILER. The water heats up and flows back to the steam drum where the steam collects. this water is know as feedwater. at the top. As well. The ht water naturally circulates through the tubes down to the lower area where it is hot. Meanwhile. Feedwater is not your regular drinking water.The large tube like structure at the top of the boiler is called the steam drum. rusting them. or shut it down. Not all the water gets turn to steam. would cling to the tubes clogging or worst. along with numerous other readings. You could call it the heart of the boiler. Water keeps on circulating until it becomes steam.11
. preheated. to determine if it should keep the burner burning. This would make the boiler expensive to operate because it would not be very efficient. which untreated. the control system is taking the temperature of the steam drum. That's where the steam collects before being discharged from the boiler. so the process starts again. FIG. sensors control the amount of water entering the boiler.
know as superheated steam or dry steam (all water particle have been turn to a gaseous state). But on a larger vessel it is more efficient for the auxiliary boiler to take advantage of the main engine's flue gases to heat the water.On the fire side of the boiler. 100 degrees Celsius steam with particle of water. All the tubes are surrounded by water which absorbs the heat. three pass type fire tube boiler.650 degrees Celsius. They are generally supplied as a complete package. At a specified time the engineer uses a long tool and inserts it into the fire side of the boiler. and accommodation heating system. fuel tanks. Heat . This device. once enough pressure has built up the engineer will open main steam outlet valve slowly. Basically this means that the hot gases from the main engine must pass through a heat exchanger
.flue gases . The steam temperature's can vary between saturated steam. has a tip at the end which "blows" steam. This is the original design of boiler which brought the tide of power to the marine world. This blowing action of the steam "scrubs" the outside of the water tubes. This is a single furnace. carbon deposit resulting from improper combustion or impurities in the fuel can accumulate on the outer surface of the water tube. As the water turns to steam. This creates an insulation which quickly decreases the energy transfer from the heat to the water.
The fire tube boiler
This type of boilers started it all. In water tube boilers that could be as low as 1.travels through three different sets of tubes. such as the one pictured above. Water tube boilers can have pressures from 7 bar (one bar = ~15 psi) to as high as 250 bar. which looks like a lance. supplying steam for service. Auxiliary boiler
On smaller ships the auxiliary boiler can be a stand alone unit and would most likely be of the fire tube boiler arrangement as described above. or be as high as 600 . Fire tube boilers are also known as "smoke tube" and "donkey boiler". cleaning the carbon build up. The performance of boiler is generally referred to as tons of steam produced in one hour. To remedy this problem the engineer will carry out soot blowing.5 t/hr to as high as 2500 t/hr. the fire tube boiler meet the ship's heating needs and is generally not used for deck machinery. The steam produced will circulate through coils in the cargo tanks. On a modern ship. pressure builds up within the boiler.
Describe preparations to be made for putting the steam plant in operation
Before closing up the boiler inspect the internal surfaces to ensure they are clean all openings to the boiler mountings clear obstruction buy means of search
Fig. It is called the "cargo heating boiler". Should the damper not allow engine flue gases through.
Describe circuit of generated steam
SCHEMATIC ARRANGEMENT OF STEAM PLANTS IN BOILER ROOM
MAIN FD PP
. the flow of flue gases from the engine is controlled by a damper. It would do so until the controls of the damper allowed the flue gases to flow through the boiler providing the necessary heat for the water. As you can imagine if the ship's main engine was not running. With this Cochran type boiler. the burner would then shut down. there would be no hot flue gases to make steam.3/9. the burner would automatically come on and provide heat for the water to absorb.3/8. 9
6. Fig.(the auxiliary fire tube boiler) before exiting to the atmosphere. The auxiliary boiler also has a burner assembly which can be operated while the ship is in port or when the flue gases are not hot enough to provide the necessary steam.
Check that all other drains and blow down valves are closed. Operate all boiler mountings to ensure they work freely. water is showing in the glass. The super heater drains are also opened. Leave them closed or in mid-position as necessary. which are then replaced. At this stage the initial dose of chemical treatment can be added through the top manhole doors. Heat the fuel oil to the required temperature. and operate over their correct traverse.balls. Check the fuel oil system to ascertain it is in good order. provided this entails a flow of steam through the superheater. using the recirculating line to get the heated oil through the system. checking to ensure they are correctly positioned and secured. the superheater circulating and drain valves are closed. When the steam pressure reached a value of about 300 kN/m2 blow through the water level gauges to ensure they are working correctly. The boiler is now ready to commence raising steam. The boiler casing doors are now replaced. Start the forced draught fan. Replace any internal fittings which have been removed. The isolating valves on the remote reading water level indicator can now be opened. Carry out a final check to make sure water level gauge cocks are open. With the steam pressure at about 1000 kN/m2 follow up the nuts on all new boiler joints. air or water jets. and ensure that all air checks operate correctly and that the forced draught fans are in working order. Close any header vents as water issues. when issuing strongly. and the indicator placed in service. and that steam drum and superheater vents are open. use gas oil until sufficient steam is available to heat the residual fuel oil normally used. Continue to fill until water just shows in the water level gauges.
. leaving all the valves in a closed position. Commence to fill the boiler with hot deaerated water. Now close all the air checks except for the burner to be flashed up. Open the direct reading water level gauge isolating cocks. Remove the funnel cover. this being done byu means of ignition equipment or a paraffin torch. together with all boilers. crack open the auxiliary stop valve and warm the auxiliary line through. flexible wires. making sure any gas control dampers are in mid position so giving a clear air passage. and with all the air checks full open purge the boiler. If gas air heaters are fitted that should be by-passed. The header handhole plugs and lower manhole doors are now replaced. Make sure the soot blowers are correctly fitted. open the superheater circulating valve and close the air vents. Operate any gas or air control dampers fitted to ensure they move freely for their full travel. alarm and pressure gauge connections. If no heat is available for this. Start up the fuel oil service pumps and check for leaks. At a pressure of bout 1400 kN/m2 open the drains on the auxiliary steam lines. Now close the drains and fully open the auxiliary stop valve. can be put into service and. Check the gas side of the boiler is clean and in good order. Various auxiliary equipment such as fuel oil heaters. turbo-feed pumps. Use the lowest possible firing rate. Adjust about one hour steam should show at the drum and superheater vents and.
rags or other things left inside. keeping the firing rate as steady as possible. forced draft fan and fuel oil pump
. All opening of the mountings are clean properly. and crack open the main stop valve and warm through the main steam line. Soot blowers are correctly fitted and air control dampers move freely for their full travel. rags. At all times during the raising of steam the superheaters must be circulated with steam to prevent them overheating. no tools. header boilers with their greater amount of refractory material will require about eight hours to reach full pressure. The header hand hole cover and bottom manhole door now replaced.Bring the boiler up to working pressure. Only in emergency should it be carried out more rapidly. feed water pump.3/10. for example. water cocks and shut drain cock. If the temperature of the superheater goes above the permitted value for the boiler reduce the rate of firing.g. Ensure all tools are accounted for. Then close the drains and fully open the main stop valve. Top manhole door is replaced. Furnace door is replaced with new joint. Open the gauge glass steam.
Describe checks to be made during firing up of boilers
Inspect the internal surface to ensure they are clean e. no tools. Check gas side of boiler and ensure they are clean e.g. Open vent. and avoiding intermittent flashing up. Check the water level alarms. If new refractory material has been installed carry out the procedure more slowly. the foregoing procedure is only to be taken as a guide. alarm and pressure agauge connection valves. Thus the engineer should always follow the procedure laid down for his particular boiler. Operate all mounting valves to ensure they work freely and leave all valves in closed position. Mountings to be fixed back with new set of gaskets or joints. which may vary in detail from the basic principles previously stated. Open the main steam line drains. It must be noted that. The procedure from flashing up to coupling up at full working pressure should take about four to six hours. or other thing left inside. Ensure all other drain valves are shut. Switch on the power for the combustion control panel. due to the great variety of water tube boiler designs in use.
ensuring air supply is adjusted for best combustion. ensure re-circulation is operating. controllers & control valves. at lowest possible firing rate.
6. Initial chemical dosage can be added. As boiler heats up water level rises to about normal level. steam pressure control.
Now commence to fill boiler with hot distilled water until water level below normal water level. Start the forced draught fan and purge the boiler 3-5 minutes. Bring the air damper to firing position.
. maintain design conditions for steady steaming. fuel oil pressure control. Describe automatic control for starting up & shutting down exhaust gas boiler and oil fired boiler
Marine boiler plants require adequate control systems to raise steam. superheat temperature control etc. When steam pressure is about 3 bar then blow though the gauge glass to ensure they are working correctly. secure the boiler units and detect promptly malfunctions and failures. blowdown control. then shut the vent. The automatic control arrangement on a shipboard boiler is divided into two parts: (a) Safety system that controls that all values are within the predetermined limits and give automatic alarm if some of them are not. (b) Continuously control of the different parameters for water level control. fuel oil temperature control. Ready for raising steam. Start fuel pump. and also initiate an automatic burner trip in case of a dangerous situation. Check all control air is available to the combustion control. Fire the boiler.3/11. When steam c0omes out the vent.
. ..... . . . . . ..Pressure switch
boiler Water level
Photo cell non conducting charging fluid
fuel initiator Solvent valve electrode initiator signal signal
Level controller and amp
not – feedback signal lines shown dotted
Variable speed motor
Centrifugat feed pump
AUTOMATIC BOILER CONTROL SYSTEM
air indiactor signal
high and low level alarm
Master initiatin g relay
. ........ .supply . . . . . .. . /\/\/\/\/\/\ . .
mercury Electroform level transmitter
… .. .
AUT O FLAME FAILURE FAIL TO IGNITE FAILURE HIGH HIGH WATER LEVEL HIGH WATER LEVEL LOW WATER LEVEL LOW LOW WATER LEVEL LOW FO TEMP LOW PILOT FO PRES LOW FO PRES LOW STM PRES FD FAN NON START COMBUST AIR PRES LOW BURNER NOT IN POSITION HIGH STEAM PRESSURE FEED WATER PRES LOW ALARM / CONTROL PANEL A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A MAIN BURNER FAIL TO IGNITE FLAME FAILURE
LOCK OUT CLEAR PREPURGE 180 SECS
FO V/V SHUT
PILOT BURNER ON
LOCK OUT FLAME ON 5 SECS YES
FLAME ON 5 SECS
FO V/V SHUT POSTPURG E ON
BLR SET PRES
FLAME YES ON STM CUTIN PRESSUR E
BOILER MODULATIN G
PILOT BURNER OFF
BOILE R S/BY
All the classification societies have special requirement for marine applications due to the environment and the fact that one can't escape from an accident nor get service when the ship is sailing at sea. the air will lead the oil. an alarm bell rings and the cycle is repeated. The ‘arc made’ feed back signal allows a 3 second time delay to proceed. (d) The master now allows the fuel initiating signal to proceed. Sequential level resistors are immersed in conducting mercury or non-conducting fluid. (ii) Water level is controlled by an Electroflo type of feed regulator and controller. 7 for emergency devices. so that with an increased boiler load.. The more advanced combustion controls transmit the air and oil loading simultaneously but with a slight lag between air and oil. if not then fuel is shut off. and on a decrease in the boiler load the oil will lead the air. If in order the cycle is complete. so deciding pump speed by variable limbs level.
. The ‘fuel on’ feed back signal allows a 5 second time delay to proceed (this may be preceded by a fuel heating sequence for boiler oils). The solenoid valve allows fuel on to the burner. Things just have to work. The fixed limb level passes over a weir in the feed box. The air feedback confirms ‘air on’ and allows 30 second time delay to proceed. (e) The master now examines the photo electric cell. The combustion control system maintains constant steam pressure by controlling the flow of air and oil to the burner. (i) High or low water levels initiate alarms and allow the master to interrupt and shut down the sequential system. (c) The master now allows the arc to be struck by the electrode relay. Such an arrangement makes it possible to minimize the emission of smoke during maneuvering. The switch is often arranged to cut in at about 1 bar below the working pressure and cut out at about 1/5 bar above the working pressure (this differential is adjustable) (b) The master initiating relay now allows ‘air on’. Obviously failure of any item in the above cycle causes shut down and alarm operation. Refer to fig. In addition the following apply.Automatic boiler control system:
(a) The pressure switch initiates the start of the cycle.
Shut main steam stop valves and shut all fuel valves to boilers. retract and park hoses. do not blow down. Change over M/E. Stop lighting up pump (if provided). Shut down boiler.
Reduce boiler pressure as required. Switch off power and off the circuit breaker for forced draft fan. Ensure boiler pressures are dropping. feed pump and combustion control panel.3/12. throttle and exhaust valves shut on shut down machinery. Take care to establish a controlled rate of increase before the level leaves the top of the gauge glass Check header drains shut.
Describe safety devices of plant mandatory safety requirements. stop HO and LO purifiers Stop all tanks and tracing steam heating and carry out soot blow Change over from automatic combustion control to manual firing of boiler. Clean boiler room for inspection by Chief Engineer
6. Stop firing of boiler. Pump up boilers for 30 sec over the top by opening appropriate feed check valve. steam purge. As burners are taken off. Let the boiler cool down. FO pump.
. Hang necessary notices.Shutting down procedures of oil fired boiler Following routines are to be carried out assiduously for shutting down of boilers: Inform Chief Engineer and inform duty officer in bridge. A/E and boiler to diesel oil Top up diesel oil service tank. Check all auxiliary master.
maintain. eye protection and coveralls. Workers should be familiar with the boiler manufacturer's operating manual and instructions. and other functions. including valves. Boilers should always be brought on line slowly and cold water should never be injected into a hot system. Repair workers should wear personal protective equipment such as hard hats. there should be plenty of clearance for workers to move around the room. the steam energy is released instantly. or “lagging. proper combustion. Boiler repairs are allowed only by authorized boiler repair technicians. is operating properly with no leaks. Boiler rooms can be noisy. the condition of the draft. Spills should be mopped or cleaned up immediately. diesel or fuel oil. so the area should be posted and workers should wear hearing protection when working inside the boiler room. Signs of cracked surfaces. The area around the boiler should be kept clean of dust and debris. Only trained and authorized workers should operate a boiler. To prevent furnace explosions. Detailed logs of boiler operation and maintenance can help ensure boiler safety. Many older boilers and hot water and steam piping may have asbestos insulation coatings. if the boiler fails to contain the expansion pressure. Though boilers are usually equipped with a pressure relief valve. lines. bulges. or deteriorating. special precautions need to be taken. Floors are often sealed concrete and can be very slippery when wet. and the flame to make sure that it is not too high and not smoky.Workers that use. Boiler operators should ensure that the fuel system. Because boilers have hot surface areas. it is imperative that boiler operators purge the boiler before ignition of the burner. flaking. wraps. and no flammable materials should be stored near any boiler. and tanks.” Workers should periodically inspect these areas to make sure that the materials are not damaged. corrosion or other deformities should be repaired by an authorized technician immediately. Damaged materials should be reported and repaired or removed immediately by a certified asbestos contractor. operation of safety devices and gauges. This combination of exploding metal and superheated steam can be extremely dangerous. Sudden changes in temperature can warp or rupture the boiler. Ventilation systems should also be inspected and maintained to make sure that combustion gases do not build up in the boiler room. heavy-duty work gloves. Because many boilers are fire-operated by natural gas. Workers should check the fuel to air ratio. Make sure that adequate lighting is provided and that malfunctioning light fixtures are repaired immediately. and service boilers know that they can be potentially dangerous. Boiler operators should frequently inspect boilers for leakage. When entering a boiler for service or
This is fitted to release excess steam pressure from the boiler before a dangerous pressure can be built up. the entry of the oil or other contaminants. This hole is sealed with a metal of low melting point. and one on the super heater outlet header. (e) Boilers shall be provided with means to supervise and control the quality of the feed water. (c) Water tube boilers serving turbine propulsion machinery shall be fitted with a high water level alarm. with a tapered hole drilled completely through its length. or which could be rendered dangerous by the failure of its feed water supply. water. authorized boiler repair workers should treat the vessel as a permit-required confined space. at least two safety valves are fitted to each boiler. (d) Every steam generating system which provides services essential for the safety of the ship. and fuel lines should be relieved by following proper bleed and block or capping procedures. Its purpose is to act as a last-resort safety device in the event of the water level falling dangerously low: when the top of the plug is out of the water it overheats. As per international regulations. all sources of energy should be isolated using approved Lock-out / Tag-out procedures and residual pressure in steam. air supply failure or flame failure. noting that a single penetration of the steam drum is acceptable. which will prevent over-pressure in any part of the system. which may adversely affect the boiler. but in practice it is usual to fit three safety valves – two on the steam drum. usually of bronze. Pressure setting of one steam drum safety valve should be same as the design pressure of the boiler and the other should be 2-3% more than the design pressure of the boiler. shall be provided with not less than tow separate feed systems from and including the feed pumps. (b) Each oil fired boiler which is intended to operate without manual supervision shall have safety arrangements which shut off the fuel supply and give an alarm in the case of low-water level. typically extending about an inch into the water space above. at least one of which shall be a direct reading gauge glass. Unless overpressure is prevented by the pump characteristics. When the boiler is shut down for repair. usually lead or tin. (a) Every steam boiler and every unfired steam generator shall be provided with not less than two safety valves of adequate capacity. (f) Every boiler essential for the safety of the ship and designed to contain water at a specified level shall be provided with at least tow means for indicating its water level. Fusible plugs A fusible plug is a threaded metal plug. means shall be provided. Safety valves These are fitted to protect the boiler form the effects of overpressure. as far as practicable. the lead core melts away and the resulting noisy release of steam into the
. It is screwed into the crown sheet (the top plate) of a steam engine firebox. Suitable arrangements shall be provided to preclude. brass or gun metal.repair.
drilled in them which leak before they become unsafe. mill-scale. (d) To remove oxygen from water. it is not expected to have any great impact in quenching the fire. at which temperature copper. copper particles.
6. sand weld spatter etc. from which historically most fireboxes were made. as little or no water passes through. By careful use of coil heating arrangements.3/13. the stays may have longitudinal holes. (b) Prevention of corrosion in the boiler and feed system by maintaining the boiler water in and alkaline condition and free from dissolved gases.
. (f) To reduce risk of carry over of foam (by antifoam) (g) To minimize feed and condensate system from corrosion and filming amines The principal objects of boiler feed water treatment should be:(a) Prevention of scale formation in the boiler and feed system by (i) Using distilled water or (ii) Precipitating all scale forming salts into the form of a nonadherent sludge. (c) Control of sludge formation and prevention of carry over with the system.
Describe the testing and treatment of boiler feed water
What is the purpose of boiler water treatment? (a) To prevent scale formation in the boiler (b) To give alkalinity and minimize corrosion (c) To condition sludge (by sodium aluminate). effective pre-commission cleaning and maintaining the steam & condensate system in a non-corrosive condition. The temperature of the flue gases in a steam engine firebox can reach 1000 °F (550 °C). waste. iron oxide. softens to a state which can no longer sustain the boiler pressure and a severe explosion will result if water is not put into the boiler quickly and the fire thrown out. preventing them from warping. The hole is too small to have any great effect in reducing the steam pressure and. (d) Prevention of entry into the boiler of foreign matter such as oil. physically link the firebox and boiler casing.firebox serves to warn the operators of the danger before the top of the firebox itself runs completely dry. (e) To reduce risk of caustic cracking. or ties. Stays Stays. Since any corrosion is hidden. called tell-tales.
The end point is a pure sky blue color without any reddish tinge. Add one plastic scoop of Drew Dry Total Hardness indicator. the hardness is zero. TOTAL HARDNESS TEST Apparatus 1-Burette. 5. 2. Refined tests are being practiced to ascertain the exact quantity of alkalinity and salinity concentrations. For accurate testing of the boiler water. If a pure blue color develops. If test result is in excess of _____________ add ____________ B according to dosing instructions and investigate source of contamination. Reagents 16 oz. 4. Titrate with standard versenate solution. adding the reagent drop by drop with continuous stirring as the red color fades. Transfer 50 ml feedwater sample to the evaporating dish. bottle Versenate solution Ethylenedimaine Tetraacetate (1ml equals 1 ml as CaCO3) 4 oz. Any reddish color indicates hardness is present. automatic. For low pressure boilers salinometers and litmus paper s are still frequently used as testing equipment. ALKALINITY TEST
. 3. Stir until dissolved. above said tests are inadequate. graduated. Stir until dissolved. bottle Drew Dry total Hardness Buffer Reagent with plastic scoop 4 oz.100ml capacity 1-Strirring Rod 1-Brass measuring scoop Procedure 1. 10 ml 1-Evaporating Dish 1-Cylinder. bottle Drew Dry Total Hardness Indicator
Calculations: Total hardness (PPM as CaCO3) equals ml versenate solution X 20. Add one brass scoop of Drew Dry Total Hardness indicator.Boiler water should be regularly tested and the treatment of the boiler water should be conducted according to the results obtained from the results.
measure 50ml of boiler water to be tested. bottle with burette Phenolphthalein Indicator1 oz dropping bottle Total Alkalinity Indiacator 1 oz. record Zero phenolphthalein alkalinity.6) X 20 = ppm Total Alkalinity. the test is ended. When a permanent. dropping bottle Procedure A. For convenience use titration chart to get results. sample turns pink or red with Phenolphthalein. Record the Phenolphthalein Alkalinity in the daily log and proceed with Part B TOTAL ALKALINITY TEST 1. Color change will go from green to slate gray to purple. 2. pale purple color develops throughout the sample. Record the total alkalinity in the daily log. PHENOLPHTHALEIN ALKALINITY TEST 1.
. If. Continue until pink color disappears (sample is back to its original color.) Do not discard sample do not refill burette 6. 3. stirring continuously. Stir. however. drop by drop. 4. For convenience. Fill burette to 0. If no pink or red color develops. Calculations of results (Ml of N/50 sulfuric acid) X 20 = (ppm phenolphthalein alkalinity). use the titration chart to get result.0 mark with N/50 sulfuric acid\ Using graduated cylinder. 3. Use the same sample that was used for the Phenolphthalein Alkalinity test and add exactly 4 drops of Total Alkalinity Indicator.
7. 4. Do not refill burette.Apparatus 10 ml automatic burette White porcelain evaporating dish 100ml graduated cylinder Stirring rod Reagents Sulfuring acid N/50 16 oz. A purple color will soon begin to form where the drops fall into the sample. Add sulfuric acid. 2. add N/50 sulfuric acid drop by drop while stirring continuously. Add 4 drops of phenolphthalein Indicator. The purple color is the end point. Proceed to Part B (Total Alkalinity test) 5. B. Discard sample. Calculation of result: (Total ml of N/50 sulfuric acid – 0. Sample will turn a green color.
3. Make up fresh every 4 weeks. Measure 100ml alcohol and add to bottle. 2. amber glass dropping bottle. Do not use th4e sample that was used for the Alkalinity tests. CAUTION! METHYL ALCOHOL IS POISONOUS. Discard any indicator over 4 weeks old Nitric Acid N/50 1 oz. Discard any indicator that is 4 weeks old. AVOID
. Cap bottle. Fill burette to 0.0 mark with 0.bottle with burette Preparation of mixed chloride indicator Apparatus 100 ml graduated cylinder 4 oz. 2. Dissolve powder by swirling or shaking. Amber glass dropping bottle Reagents 1 capsule of mixed chloride indicator (Diphenyl Carbazone Indicator) Methyl alcohol (anhydrous) Procedure 1.0141 N Mercuric Nitrate. Add 10 drops of Mixed Chloride Indicator. measure 50 ml of boiler water and transfer into the evaporating dish. Using graduated cylinder. 0. 3.CHLORIDE TEST Apparatus 10 ml automatic burette White porcelain evaporating dish 100ml graduated cylinder Stirring rod Reagents Mixed Chloride Indicator – Make up fresh every 4 weeks. CONTACT WITH EYES Test procedure 1.0141 N 16 0z. DO NOT SWALLOW. Empty capsule of indicator powder into 4 oz. 4. Stir. dropping bottle Mercuric Nitrate.
double the ppm reading. the actual reading is 30 ppm). 5. When a color match is obtained. while stirring. Procedure (1) Filter 5 ml of boiler water into the phosphate mixing tube. for results. Move the slide form side to side. In the latter case. read the test result in ppm phosphate from the numbers on the slide.0141 N Mercuric Nitrate) X 10 = ppm Chloride. For convenience. Dilute to 10 ml with distilled or demineralized* water. while comparing the color of the sample with those of the standards in the slide. The cartridge is good until the demineralizer beads change color as indicated in the manufacturer’s instructions. use the titration chart to get results.4. simply fill plastic bottle with distillate and squeeze though demineralizer cartridge. Repeat test in 30 minutes. Continue until sample just turns yellow. Continue until the color of the sample color appears to be between two standards. Proceed with steps 2 through 8 and. The hydrazine is an optional extra (Spectrapak 312). Add N/5 Nitric Acid drop by drop. (In the “Deem” cartridge. start continuous blowdown and investigate source. Readings in excess of limits require blowdown. the color change is from blue to brown. NOTE that a comparison can be made only when one of the white lines on the slide is opposite the middle (sample) tube. it will be necessary to repeat the testing using a diluted sample. 7. P&M alkalinity chloride and pH. Sampling
. If too high. simply replace the cartridge.0141 N Mercuric Nitrate drop by drop while stirring until the sample shows the first permanent violet color. Then add another 5 drops of the acid. Add 0. Calculation of results: (Ml of 0. Readings below recommended limits require proportionate dosing. 6. (for example if slide shows 15 ppm with diluted sample. Read the burette. Refer to dosing instructions. The water discharged from the cartridge will be equivalent to distilled water. Place the comparator base slide in its slot the base. 8. To make demineralized water. If the results of the phosphate test show a reading above the upper limit of 25 ppm. take the average of both readings. Compare test result with limit marked on the control chart. Compare phosphate readings with limit marked on the control chart.
Boiler water treatment using “BOILER WATER TEST KIT (FULL SERVICE) SPECTRAPAK 311 This test kit is for phosphate.) When this occurs.
Phosphate PPM PO4 • • • • • • • • • Take the comparator with the 10 ml cells provided. Slide the phosphate disc into the comparator. against the date on which the test was taken. against the date on which the test was taken. one at a time (giving time for the tablet to dissolve). Filter the water sample into both cells up to the 10ml mark. Allow the water to flow from the sample cock before taking the sample for testing to ensure the line is clear of sediment. After 10 min place this cell into the right hand compartment of the comparator. Record the result obtained on the log sheet provided. Always take water sample from the same place. until the blue colour turns to permanent yellow. Rotate the disc until a colour match is obtained. ppm CaCO3 = (Number of tablets x 20) – 10 e. 12 tablets = (12 x 20)-10 = 230 ppm CaCO3 • Record the result obtained on the log sheet provided. Hold the comparator towards a light. Repeat the tablet addition.A representative ware sample is required.
P Alkalinity (PPM CaCO3) • • • • • Take a 200ml water sample in the stopped bottle. Count the number of tablets used and carry out the following calculations:P Alkalinity.
. Place one cell in the left hand compartment To the other cell add one phosphate tablet.g. If alkalinity is present the sample will turn blue. Add one P alkalinity tablet and shake or rush to disintegrate. crush and mix until completely dissolved.
• Add one chloride tablet and shake to disintegrate.g.
M Alkalinity (PPM CaCO3) • • • To the P alkalinity sample add one M alkalinity tablet and shake or crush to disintegrate. e. against the date on which the test was taken. The higher the chloride level the smaller the size of water sample used – this saves tablets.g. and 5M. • Repeat the tablet addition. ppm CaCO3 = (Number of P & M tablets x 20) – 10 e. • Count the number of tablets used and perform the following calculations:For 100ml water sample – Chloride ppm = (Number of tablets x 10)-10 e. until the yellow colour changes to permanent red/brown.
Chloride (PPM) Cl The range of chloride to be tested determines the size of water sample used. for low chloride levels use 100ml water sample for higher chloride levels use 50ml water sample • Take the water sample in the stoppered bottle provided.•
Retain the sample for the M Alkalinity test. Count the number of tablets used and carry out the following calculations:M Alkalinity.g.g.
. Repeat tablet addition. one at a time (giving time for the tablet to dissolve). one at a time (giving time for the tablet to dissolve). 4 tablets = (4 x 10) – 10 = 30 ppm For 50ml water sample – Chloride ppm = (Number of tablets x 20)-20 e. 12 P. For larger steps of ppm chloride use a smaller sample. Sample should turn yellow if chlorides are present. until the sample turns to permanent red/pink. Alkalinity tablets are used M alkalinity = [(12+5) x 20)]-10 = 330 ppm CaCO3 • Record the result obtained on the log sheet provided. 4 tablets = (4 x 20) – 20 = 60 ppm For smaller steps of ppm chloride use a larger sample.
• To the other cell add one measure of hydrazine powder (using the black 1grm scoop provided) and mix until completely dissolved. pH Test 7. • Add the water sample to both cells up to the 10 ml mark. Frequent problem observed is that whenever there is sudden load change the boiler drum level control goes haywire leading to
. • Wait 2 minutes and place the cell in the right hand compartment of the comparator.5 – 10.0 For condensate water • Take a 50ml sample of water to be tested in the plastic sample container provided. • Slide the hydrazine disc into the comparator.6grm scoop provided. This test must be performed below 210C. Cloudy samples should be filtered before testing. • Withdraw the strip from the sample and compare the colour obtained with the colour scale on the pH indicator strips container. • Using the white 0. Safety: These reagents are for chemical testing only. allow to dissolve. • Place one cell in the left hand compartment of the comparator. against the date on which the test was taken.Record the result obtained on the log sheet provided. • Record the pH value obtained on the log sheet provided. • Hold up to the light and rotate the disc until a colour match is obtained. against the date at which the test was taken. • Select the correct range of pH test strip and dip it into the water sample for approximately 10 seconds. Wash hands after use.
FAQs on Marine Boilers
Question: Boiler drum level control goes haywire We are having 100 tones FBC boilers. • Record the reading shown as ppm hydrazine. A cooling coil should be fitted at the sampling point or the sample should be cooled immediately under cold running water.5 – 14. Hydrazine PPM Spectrapak 312 This is an optional extra (order Spectrapak 312). add one measure of the pH reagent to the water sample. Stir if required. • Take the comparator with the 10ml cells provided. Not to be taken internally.0 For boiler water 6. Keep away from children.
from deck to the burner rails of the boiler.tripping of boiler and turbine on drum level low or high. Our drum level control is 3element control in auto mode. You may also get foam in the boiler that will cause difficulties to maintain the water level and water droplets might follow with the steam.g. there have to be ducting enclosing the entire fuel-system with forced draft fans that vent 30 times the volume of the trunking to the outside. Question: Seawater in the boiler If the boiler had to be operated with seawater what would be the result. be fired with light crude oil directly from the cargo-tanks? Answer: A completely new fuel system is required. Naturally there have to be new burners and so is the burner management. and you have to control the salt concentration by frequently blowing off from the bottom of the boiler and form the water surface to keep the salinity below 9. To prevent any possibility of gasses leaking from flanges. but even that water caused problem with salt in the boilers although it is supposed to be fresh-water. equally vented. In the old days some ships sailing on lakes used the lakes water as make up water for their boilers.5% (boilermakers and classification societies may recommend other values). causing problems with turbines and engines. It is very dangerous to operate a boiler with salt in it. e.
Question: Heavy fuel oil viscosity Heavy fuel oil viscosity is defined in the standards as the viscosity at 100°C yet the oils are often described in terms of their nominal 40 or 50°C temperature viscosities. Question: Firing light crude oil Can a Main Boiler built to fire 380 cst HFO. There are two main contractors who are capable and willing to carry this out: HAMWORTHY-Combustion Engineering in UK and SAACKE in Germany. It would also be a good measure to reduce the capacity of the boiler. Also there have to be a burner hood to be constructed all over the burner roof. Salt will son precipitate and accumulate on the bottom and also on the heating surface where it. just as boiler-scales. inhibit the heat transmission to the water and causes the metal to overheat and in worst case burst. Answer: The salinity will rise rapidly since the salt remains in the boiler while the water boils off. After this emergency operation it would be wise to open up the boiler for inspection since seawater further accumulation of scales. a G35 oil (35cst at 100°C) is often described as anything from a 350cst to 390cst
. Answer: The most common fault with a three-point level controller is the steam flow transmitter. Loosen the impulse pipes and cleanse the holes into the measuring orifice.
it is difficult to make a good correlation between the 50°C and 100°C measurements. Question: Oil showing in the water level gauge glass Whilst on your engine room rounds. You will be on the safe side if you slowly heat up the boiler to. Testing aboard ship or in boiler houses appears to test the viscosity at 50°C. sometimes a carbonized layer. Answer: Stop the burner immediately. explaining why such actions must not be delayed. Describe the remedial actions you would take. The temperature of the heavy fuel oil is very often 130°C to 150°C and water introduced to that temperature would immediately evaporate into steam. My question is. Even a
. The leaks occur when some part expands more.oil. The situation might be dangerous since the safety valves not are designed for steam. Question: Water in the heavy fuel oil Is it possible to overheat heavy fuel oil thus causing any water in it to turn to steam and cause problems at the pump and burner?
Answer: Yes it is. Question: Heating up a fire-tube boiler Is there a minimum temperature that a fire-tube boiler should reach before going to a high fire state to prevent tubes from leaking? Answer: The important thing is to heat up the boiler slowly so all parts of the boiler expand just as much. I assume that an automatic viscosity-controller would be indispensable. over tubes or shell surfaces. Refineries blend to control the viscosity at 100°C. it expands about 1590 times. than the rest of the boiler. or less. you discover oil showing in the water level gauge glass of an auxiliary boiler. What are the benefits of air preheating? Answer: The combustion air will be heated to the flame temperature. For a diesel engine on the other hand. This heating cost money. Because of the variation in quality of the residual oil and distillate that make up a heavy fuel oil. Oil present. If you have some waste heat to be used for preheating the combustion air it will pay. even small quantities. normal operation pressure before you start high firing. or almost to. Question: Combustion air preheating Please tell me how air inlet temperature affects boiler efficiency. in boiler water will cause foaming and moisture carry-over. how is the blending of oil in the terminals or on fuel barges controlled? and how reliable is this in achieving the required viscosity? Answer: The values you get from my Fuel Oil Calculation program are normally sufficient for firing a boilers heavy fuel oil burner. When boiling. This kind of problem is very likely to occur when you change fuel oil tank and some water from a poorly drained pipe mixes with the heavy fuel oil. It also forms a heat insulating film.
. This system requires an extra sensor to trip burner at emergency low water level. Question: Differential pressure transmitters for the steam drum level Way is the high pressure leg of the transmitter connected to the water side and the low-pressure leg connected to the steam side? Answer: The signal from the transmitter ought to increase when the water level raises and decreases when the level falls.very thin layer may result in tube or plate material failure due to overheating. in case of transmitter malfunction.
. but not the burner. This signal can be used to control the level as well. One can of course use the emergency high water level alarm to stop the burner.What is your course of action? (Assuming the gauge glass to be clear & good working order) Answer: Normally a boiler is provided with two independent sensors for emergency low water level burner cut-outs. Question: Emergency low boiler water level You are an officer on watch. The emergency high water level shall stop the feed water pump and whenever applicable stop the steam turbine. This is the common method. but the signal can not be used to stop the burner for emergency low level in case of power failure or cable breakdown. power failure or cable breakdown. which is also over the highest heat exchange surface in a firetube boiler. The oil manifests itself by forming an oily ring inside the water gauge glasses. it means that there is still a water level in the water leg. A quick test to see if it is safe to put water into the boiler is to temporarily close the steam cock on the gauge glass. However. but this is not correct. If the level rises to the top of the glass. The water rises because of the vacuum caused in the glass with condensing steam. To compensate for the water column in the reference leg the output signal's zero-point has to be elevated. at the water level. Both requirements will be fulfilled if the transmitter is mounted with the high pressure measuring point connected below the lowest water level and the low pressure measuring point connected above the highest water level. then the signal will decrease when the level is raised.. if it does. don’t take any chances! Shut off the burners immediately! Before you start raising the level in the boiler you have to find out if any part of the furnace walls has been overheated. Furthermore the signal shall be zero. The output will increase when the level is raised. with the low pressure side to lower end and the high pressure side to upper end. If you raise the level over a glowing steel-wall then the boiler might produce more steam than the safety valves can handle and a nasty explosion would be the result. So this would never happen. and give impulse to stop the burner. & finds the boiler water-level gauge glass to be empty & the burner firing. If the transmitter is swapped.
Statistically calculated faults in control systems. • The suction filter to the feed water pump is satisfactory clean.e. then you will get a projectile of one kg rushing down the pipe. Thermal stress is another reason to be very cautious and drain out water carefully
. Question: Most likely source of errors In which part of a boiler control system is it most likely to get a failure. Answer: Check if: • The control valve really is fully open by means of the hand-maneuver device. prevent the burner from increasing the load just after the burner start. or at least a big steam valve. (>=2 bar or >=30 psi) Question: The burner starts and stops very often The burner starts and stops very often. sometimes every second minute. • Run the burner in minimum load. At next valve. i.. • The feed water pump discharge pressure is sufficient. but it's not always possibly. but on the other hand. You can hardly imagine the damage this energy can cause. • The feed water control valve pressure drop is normal. Then the fan will continue to run during the shortest burner stops and the combustion air fan motor will get a little rest from the start current.Question: Fluctuating boiler water level The feed water control valve is fully open and the water levels fluctuate at normal boiler load. bend or other obstacle the speed of the water mass will be converted into pressure. your problem might not be among the most common. An alarming temperature-raise has been observed in the combustion air fans electric motor. to be opened slowly? Answer: If you have a one liter of water standing in the pipe just after the valve and open the valve too fast. Answer: When you have problem with a boiler control system you should keep in mind that most faults occur outside the control cubicle. Transmitters and sensors 40 % Actuators 25 % Controllers 10 % Loss of electric power 5% Others 20 % Question: Open steam valves slowly Why has a steam valve. Answer: Increasing the burners turn down ratio would be a nice solution. • All stop valves in the line are fully open. • Install a five to ten minutes' time-delay in the fan-motor stop function.
When this condition occurs we have a serious water carryover problem. each with an integrated building management control system. CCAI What is the CCAI of a fuel oil? Answer: The CCAI. One single composite boiler does not fulfill normal requirement of redundancy when the steam is used for essential service purpose. Over-sized control valves are very common cause of problems.
Question: Steam valves open causing a sudden large load I have two 82. is a measure of the Fuel Oils Ignition Quality.
Heating of one part of a boiler at the time often causes thermal stress that may lead to leakage. Due to an unresolvable characteristic of the building control system. A large steam valve ought to have a small by-pass valve to simplify preheating of the pipe. metered/cross limited air-fuel ratio . Answer: The steam capacity doesn’t seem to be sufficient to supply all the fully open control valves. To avoid water hammering the pipe-line should slop slightly downwards in the steam flowing direction.5 Km? Answer: Calculate with a velocity of 15 m/s (49 ft/s). Shall we try to correct thorugh the control algorithm or add backpressure control valves. The boilers serve a large campus with numerous buildings. Question: Composite Boilers What is the inherent problem in Composite Boiler? Answer: There are different types of composite boilers. Normally one part of the boiler is heated by means of a fuel oil burner and the other part is heated by the exhaust gases from a diesel engine. I look forward to any advise. three element drum level and oxygen trim.when you open a steam valve.
. Our combustion control system is a PLC based system. occasionally all of the building steam valves open causing a sudden large load on the boilers that lasts for 20 to 30 minutes. The demand for steam is not real in that no heat is actually required by the buildings. First of all recalculate the control valves.000 lb/hr natural gas fired boiler that is designed for 300 psig and operating at 205 psig (saturated). Question: Transport superheated steam Is it possible to transport superheated steam of the order of 45 t/h at 30 bar pressure and temp of 300 deg from a aux boiler to a distance of 1. the Calculated Carbon Aromaticity Index. My question is how can we maintain boiler pressure and water level while either ignoring or controlling the sudden false load. To start up the line you will need a drain valve on every 30 m (100 ft). Question: Fuel Oil Ignition Quality.