GS.

TA VAN DINH

PHUONG PHAp TINH.

(Dung cho cae trttdng dai hoc kI t.huat) {Ttii btin liin tlui 5)

NO..\. XUAT BAN GIAO Dl)C - 1999

Chtrang 1

SAl s6

,.( ..... ~.... ~ ~

§1.1. SAl SO TUYI;:T DOl VA SAl SO TUONG DOl

1. Sai so tuy~t doi

Trong tinh gan dung ta lam viec voi cac gia tr] gan dung cua cac dai Iuong. Cho nen van de dau tien can nghien cuu, lit van de sai so. Xet dai IUQng dung A co gia tri gan dung la a. Luc do ta nol "a xrip xl A" va viet "a =:: A". Tri tuyet doi I a - A I goi la sai s6 tu.yet d6i ella a (xem lit gia tri gan dung ella A). Vi noi chung ta khong biet s6 dung A, nen khong tinh dl.1QC sai s6 tuyet d6i cua a. Do do ta tim each uoc luang sai s6 do bang s6 ducng ~a nao do Ion han hoac bang I a - A I

I a - AI ~ ~a

0.1)

S6 duong D.a nay goi lit sai s6 tuyet doi gioi han. ella a. Ro rang neu ~a da lit sai s6 tuyet d6i gici han ella a thl moi s6 ~' > ~a deu co the xem lit sai s6 tuyet d6i gidi han cua a. Vi v~y trong nhung dieu kien cu the nguoi ta chon ~a lit s6 duong ~e nhat co the duoc thoa man 0.1).

Neu s6 xap xi a cua A co sai so tuyet d6i gioi han lit ~a thl ta quy l.1C1c viet :

A = a ± ~a

( 1.2).

voi nghla cua 0.1) tuc lit :

(1.3)

7

2. sat sO tuang dOi TI 86 :

~iI 0=-it lal

0.4)

~<;>i la sai so Luong doi gioi han. cua a.

Ta suy ra : ~it = I a I oa (J 5)

Cac cong thuc (1.4) va (1.5) cho lien M giira sai s6 tuong t6i va sai s6 tuyet d6L Biet ~a thl (1.4) cho phep tinh 0a, biet ia thl (1.5) eho phep tinh ~a'

Do (1.5) nan (1.2) cOng co th~ viet:

A = a(1 ± 0) (1.6)

Trong thuc te ngucl ta xem ~a la sai s6 tuyet d6i va luc do a cling goi la sai s6 tuong d6i.

3. cno thich

Sai s6 tuyet d6i kh6ng noi len day du "cluit Luong" cua m~t 6 xap xi, "chat luong" ay duoc phan anh qua sai so tuong doi. ,ay thi du : do hai chieu dai A va B duoc a = 10m vc:'Ji 'a = 0,05m va b = 2m voi ~b = 0,05m. R6 rang phep do A hue hien "chat lucng" han phep do B. Dieu do khong pha n nh qua sai s6 tuyet doi vi chung bang nhau, rna qua sai so rcng doi

0,05 10

= 0,5% < {)b

0,05 2

= 2,5%

§1.2. CACH VIET SO xAP xi

1. ChCl' so c6 nghfa

M¢t s6 viet d dang thap phan co the g6m nhieu chu so, hung ta chi k~ cac chir s6 tu chit s6 khac khong dau tien tlnh

chit 56 co nghla, s6 0,0207 cling co ba chit 56 co nghla.

2. cno s6 dang tin

M9i so thap phan deu co dang

a = ± Las10s

(1.7)

trong do : as 13. nhung 56 nguyen tu ° den 9, chang han s6 65,807 viet :

65,807 = 6.101 + 5.100 + 8.10-1 + 0.10-2 + 7.10-3 Wc la co dang (1.7) vci :

al = 6, ao = 5, a_I = 8, a_z = 0, a-3 = 7

Gia sit a 13. gia tri xap xl cua A voi sai so tuy~t doi giCti han i\a' Ta chu y chit so as' Neu i\;J ~ 0,5.10s thl noi as la chit 86 dang tin, neu i\a > 0,5.1Os thl noi as la chit 86 dang nghi,

TId du. : Cho a = 65,8274 voi i\a = 0,0043 thl cac chit s6 6, 5, 8, 2 13. dang tin, con cac chit so 7, 4 la dang nghi. Neu 4a = 0,0067 thi cac chir s6 6, 5, 8 la dang tin con cac chii 56 2, 7, 4 la dang nghi.

R6 fang neu as 13. dang tin thl tat ca nhirng ehft so co nghla dung CJ ben trai no cling la dang tin va neu as la dang nghi thl tat ca nhirng chit so eo nghla CJ ben phai no cung la dang nghi.

3. Cach viet s6 xap xl

Cho so a 13. gia tri xap xl cua A vdi sai so tuyet doi gioi han la i\a' Co hai each viet so xap xi a ; Cach thu nhat la viet keni theo sai 86 nhu a cong thiic (1.2) hoac (1.6). Cach thu hai la viet thea quy uoc : moi chit 86 co nghla La dang tin. M9t ~o viet theo each thu hai co nghla 13. no co sai so tuyet doi ~ioi han khong ion han mot nua dan vi a hang cu6i cung, Cac lang 56 cho san nhu bang logarit, V.v ... thuong in cac so xap :1 thea quy uoc nay.

9

.-

~ •• I •• I

-

"" ,

§1.3. SAl SO QUY TRON

1. Hi~n tllQ'ng quy tron so va sai s6 quy tron

Trong tinh toan khi gap met s6 co qua nhieu chit s6 clang ighi nguoi ta bO di mot vai chit s6 (j cudi cho gon, vir«: J:\ 1ll to goi la quy trim so. Moi khi quy trim m(>t s6 nguoi 11 t.io

'a mot sai SO moi goi la sai 56 quy trim no bang hieu gi ua sol ia quy tron va so chua quy tron. Tri tuy~t doi cua hieu do goi

a sai so quy tron tuyet d6i. Quy tac quy tron phai chon sao

cho sai so quy tron tuyet d6i ciJng be cang t6t, ta chon quy t<ic

sau day: quy tron sao cho sai 86 quy trim tuy~t d6i khong Ian

han mot nita don vi a hang duoc giil lqi cu6i cung, tile la 5

don vi a hang bO di d"du tien, C9 tb~ la, nlu chit 86 bO di

d"du tien. ~ 5 thi them. oai chil 56 giil lai cu6i cung mot don

vi, con neu chit 86 bb di dau tien. < 5 thi de nguyen ('hii 86

giit lai cu6i cicng,

Thi du : So G2,8274 quy tron d~n chit so Ie thap ph an thti ba (tire la giit lai cac chu s6 tit d!u den chit so Ie thap phan thu ba) se thanh so 62,827 ; cling so do quy tron den chu so Ie thap phan thir hai se thanh s6 62,83 ; va cling so do quy tron den ba chit so co nghla (tuc la chi gift lai ba chu so co nghla) se thanh so 62,8.

2. Sai s6 cua so da quy tron

Gis sit a la so xap xl cua so dung A vci sai so tuyet doi gidi han la ~a' Gis sil ta quy tron a thanh a' vdi sai so quy tron tuyet doi la ea, ttic la

[a' - a ] ~ ea, (1.8)

Hay tlnh sai so tuyet doi giai han ~a' cua a'. Ta co a' - A = a' - a + a - A

Do do

I a' - A I ~ I a' - a I + I a - A I ~ (Ja, + ~a

V~y co th~ la:y :

(1.9)

R6 rang .:la' > .:la tuc la viec quy tron so lam fang sai s6 tuyet d6i gioi han.

3. Anh huang cua sai so quy tron

Xet 1119t thl du, Ap dung cong thirc nhi thuc Niuton (Newton) ta co cong thuc dung :

(12 - 1)10 = 3363 - 237812

voi 12 = 1,41421356 ...

Btty giG ta tinh hai ve cua 0.10) bang each thay 12 Mi cac so quy tron (xem bang 1.1) :

(1.10)

Bdng 1.1

VI Vi! trai v« phlti
1.4 0.0001048576 33,8
141 0,000 13422659 10,02
U14 0,000147912 0,508
1.41421 0,000 14866399 0,00862
1.414213563 0.00014867678 0,0001472 Su khac biet gala cac gia tr] tinh ra cua hai ve chung to rang sai s6 quy tron co tM' co nhirng tac dung rat dang ngai trong cac qua trlnh tinh toano

§1.4. CAC QUY TAC TINH SAl SO

1. Ma dau

Xet ham so u cua hai bien s6 x va y

u = f(x, y)

(1.11)

Cho biet sai s6 ve x va y, hay l~p cong thiic tlnh sai s6 ve u.

11

De tranh nham IAn truce het ta nhac lai y nghla cua cac

[y hieu :

~x, ~y, ~u chi cac s6 gia cua x, y, u. dx, dy, du chi cac vi phan x, y, u.

~x' ~Y' ~u II;\i la cac sai s6 tuy~t d6i ctia x, y, U. Th. 19h1a u.n ta luon co :

I ~x I ~ ~x; l.1y I ~ d,

Ta phai tim ~u de eo I~ul "'" Au·

(1.12)

2. Sai so ella t6ng u = x + y Ta co : Llu = ~x + ~y

Ta suy ra I ~u I ~ I ~x 1 + l.1y i Do do theo (1.12) ta co

I ~ul ~ ~x + ~y Ta chon : ~x+y = ~x + Lly

Ie co I ~u I ~ ~u. V~y Co quy tae :

0.13)

Sai s6 tuyet d6i (gioi han) ella mot tong Mng tong cae sai 6 tuy~t d6i (gioi han) cua cdc so hang.

Chu thich, Xet trucng hop u = x - Y voi x va y cung dau, ,\Ie do :

~x+~ [x -yl

Cho nan neu I x - y I rat be thi sai s6 tuong d6i giai han at Ion. Do do trong tlnh toan nguci ta tim each tranli pluii ric ccc s6 gem nhau,

3. Sai so ella tlch u = xy

Ta co : Llu :::::: du = ydx + xdy :::::: y~x + x~y

I ~u I ~ I y I I ~x I + I x I I ~y I ~ I y I Llx + I x I ~

2

Ta suy ra : Llu =

I y I Llx + I x Illy. IYILlx + Ixl~ IxYI

~ Lly

= [x ] + TYT

(1.'14)

V~y co quy tac : Sai 86 tuong d6i (gioi Iian) eua mot ticb bang t6ng cae sai 86 tuong d6i (gioi han) eua cdc 86 hang eua tich, Doc biet to e6 :

(1.15)

4. Sai s6 ella thllong u = x/y, y ~ 0 'I'uong tu nhu truong hQP tich ta co quy tac

Sai 86 tuong d6i eua mot thuong bang t6ng cae sai s6 tuong d6i eua cae s6 hang :

~x/Y = ~x + ~y

5. Cong thuc tong quat

Cho u = f(xl, x2' ... , xn)

n iJf

Llu = L I aX. I ~,

i=l I

0.16)

ta eo :

(1.17)

va tit do ta suy ra ~u theo dinh nghla 0.4).

ru du : Tinh sai s6 tuyet d6i (gioi han) va sai 86 tuong d6i (gioi han) cua tM' tich hlnh cau :

V = _!:.. nd3 6

n€u eho duong kinh d = 3,7 ± 0,05 em va n = 3,14.

Guii. Xem x va d la d6i 86 cua ham V, thea 0.14) va 0.15) ta eo :

~v == ~;r + Md

~Jl = 0,0016/3,14 = 0,0005

13

Suy ra : o~ :;:; 0,0005 + 3.0,0135 :;:; 0,04 1

Ml)t khac : V :;:; 6' .nd3 :;:; 26,5 em3

V~y eo: ~v:;:; 26,5.0,04 :;:; 1,06 =:: 1,lem3

V :;:; 26,5 ± 1,1em3

§1.5. SAl s6 Ti;-';H TO;\N vA. SAl s6 PHL'O~G PU;\P

1. Ma dau

Khi giai gan dung mot bai toan phuc tap ta phai t hay bai Dan da cho bang mot bai toan don gian hon eo the i{iai duoc hong qua viec thuc hien cac phep tinh thong thuong bang tay oac tren may tlnh dien ttt. Phuong phop thay bai toari phuc tp bang bai toan dan guin. nhu the goi La phuong phap gan ung. Sai s6 do phuong phap gan dung tao ra goi la sai s6 huang phap, D~ giai bai toan don gian ta phai thuc hien cac hep tlnh thong thuong, ta luon luon phai quy tron cac ket qua rung gian. Sai s6 tao ra hoi tat ca cac Ian quy trim nhu vay oi la sai s6 tinli toano Sai s6 eu6i cung la t6ng hop cua hai )~i sai so phuong phap va tlnh toan ndi tren.

2. Thi du

a) Hay tinh tdng :

111 A:;:;---+-

13 23 33

1 1 + -- -

43 5' 6'

Guii. A la tdng cua 6 phan sO. Ta co the tinh true tiep A la khong phai thay no bang met t6ng don gian hon. Vi v~y C1 ~y khong eo sai s6 phuong phap De tinh A ta hay thuc hien

4

• __ A ----- -~ .. va "UU • ."U i~ W~p pnan va danh gia cac sai so quy tron tuong ung :

1

1 = 1,000 vai 8, = 0

~ = 0,125 voi ez = 0

- =

23 _!_ = _!_ = 0037 vdi 8 = 1 10-4

33 27' 3'·

1

614 = 0,016 vCfi 84 = 4.10-4

43 _!_ = _1_ = 0 008 voi e = 0

53 125' 5

1 1 ,. -4

63 = 216 = 0,005 Val ()6 = 4.10

V~y A :::::; a = 1,000 - 0,125 + 0,037 - 0,016 + 0,008 - - 0,005 = 0,899

1 1 1

= I (13 -1) - (23 - 0,125) + (33 -0,037) -

IA -al

1 1 1

- (43 - 0,016) + (53 -0,008) - (63 -0,005) I

1 1

IA -al ~ 113 -11 + 123 -0,1251 +

1 1 1

+ 1 33 -0,0371 + I 43 -0,0161 + I 53 -0,0081+

+ 1 6~ - 0,0051 ~ 8, + ()z + 193 + ()4 + 85 + ()6 = 9.10-4

Do do

a = 0,899 IS. gia tr] g~n dung ella A vCfi sai 56 tlnh toan 9.10-4 :

Ta viet A = 0,899 ± 9.10-4

(1.18)

15

b) Hay tink dqi luang

(

1 1 1 n+ I 1

B = "3 - "3 + "3 - '" + (-1) 3 + ...

123 n

~ sai s6 tuyet d6i khong VI1Qt qua 5.10-3.

Gidi. V€ phai cua B la mot chu6i s6 dan dau h(ii tu.

Do do viec tfnh B la hop ly. Nhung ve phai la mot "t6ng vt: an s6 hang", ta khOng the cong het s6 nay den s6 khac mai uoc. Do do de tlnh B ta phai stt dung mot phuong phap gan ung, cu the IS. thay B bang t6ng cua n s6 hang dau

1 1 . n+I 1

Bn = "3 - 3 + ... + (-1) 3 + ...

1 2 n

Bai toan tlnh Bn don gian han bai roan tlnh B. Luc do B - Bn I IS. sai s6 phuong phap, va 56 n phai duoc chon sao ho sai s6 phuong phap l1y cong voi sai s6 tlnh toan vdn con ho han 5.10-3. Ta co :

IB - B I = I_I_

n (n+l)3

1 1

(n + 2)3 + ... I < (n + 1)3

(theo li thuyet ve chudi s6 dan dau), Voi n = 6 ta thay :

I B - B(> I < ;3 = 3!3 < 3.10-3

Ta chu y rAng B6 = A dii tlnh a tren (xem 1.18):

B() = A = 0,899 ± 9.1O-~

V~y co

B - 0,899 = B - Bb + A - 0,899

IB - 0,8991 ~ IB - Btl I + IA - 0,8991 I B - 0,8991 ~ 3.10-3 + 9.10-4 < 4.10-3

V$.y ta dii tinh duoc B ::::; 0,899 voi sai s6 tuy~t d6i kh6ng vuct qua 4.10-3 :

B = 0,899 ± 4.10-3

16

-

sai s6 phuong phap va co phan cua sai s6 tlnh toan, cho nan

ta phai kheo phan b6 sao cho sai s6 cu6i cung nho hon sai s6 cho phep.

§1.6. PHl,J i.uc 1

su 6N DJNH eVA MOT QuA TRINH TiNH

1. Ma dau

Xet mot qua trlnh tinh vo han (tUc la g6m vo s6 buoc) dt; tlnh ra mot dai IUQng nao do. Ta noi qua trlnh tinh Ia 6n dinh. neu sai 86 tinli toari tuc la cdc sai s6 quy trim tlcb luy lai kh6ng tang v6 han,

Neu sai s6 do tang v6 han. thi ta noi qua trinh. tinb. 10, kh6ng 6n dinh,

R6 rang neu qua trlnh tinh khong 6n dinh thl khOng co hi vong tlnh duoc dai IUQng can tinh vci sai s6 nho hon sai s6 cho phop. Cho nan trong tlnh toan k] nhat Ia cac qua trlnh tinh khcng 6n dinh.

D€ ki€m tra tinh on dinh cua mot qua trlnh tinh thuong nguoi ta gia st:t sai s6 chi xay ra tai mot buoc, sau do cac phep tinh dEiu lam dung khong co sai s6, neu cu6i cung sai s6 tinh toan khong tang vo han thl xem nhu qua trlnh tlnh la 6n dinh,

2. Thi du

Xet qua trlnh tinh

Yi+} = qyi'

(1.19)

Yo va q cho truec,

Gia st:t tai buoc i xac dinh nao do khi tinh Yi ta pharn mot sai s6 <5j (day khong phai la ki hieu cua sai s6 tucng d6i nhu

truce day), nghla Ia thay cho Yi ta chi thu dUQc Yi voi :

IYi - yd = <5, <5 > 0 (1.20)

2 - PPT 17

-

Yi+l = qyi

0.21)

L:1y 0.21) tru (1.19) ve vdi ve ta duoc

- -

Yi-+l - Yi+l = qyi - qYi

Yi+l - Yi+l = q(Yi - Yi) Tiep theo ta co :

BAng phep tru nhu tr~n ta lai co

~

Yi+2 - Yi+2 = q( Yi+l - Yi+l)

2 -

= q (Yi - Yi)

M¢t each tlSng quat ta co :

Nhu vay, neu " buoc i ta mac met sai s6 I Y - Yi I = <5 va au do moi phep tinh d~u lam dung thi " buec i + n ta se mac

rai s6 :

I Yi+n - Yi+n = Iqln<5

Ta th:1y co hai truong hop c~n phan bi~t

1) Truong hop I q I E; 1 - luc do I q In E; 1 nan sai s6

19h1a 18. sai s6 tlnh toan bi chan (khong tAng vO han). V~y qua rlnh tinh lSn dinh,

8

Iqln - 00 khi n - 00, nan sai s6

I Yi+n - Yi+nl - 00 khi n - 00

V~y qua trlnh tlnh khong 6n dinh,

Trong thuc te, mac du qua trlnh tlnh la v6 han, nguoi ta cling chi lam ml)t s6 huu han buoc, nhung vAn phai doi hOi qua .trlnh tinh ()n dinh moi hi vong vdi met s6 hiru han buec c6 the dat duoc muc dl) chlnh xac mong mu6n.

BAI T~P

1. Khi do met so g6c ta duoc cac gia tri sau

Hay tlnh sai s6 tuong d6i cua cac so xap xl do bi~t rAng sai s6 tuy~t d6i trong cac phep do IS. 1".

2. Hay xac dinh sai 86 tuy~t doi cua cac 86 x«p xl sau dAy cho bir-t sai s6 tuong d6i Clla chung :

a = 13267 ;

b = 2,32 ;

3. Hay X8.C dinh s6 cac chu s6 dang tin trong cac s6 a vai sai so tuyet d6i nhu sau :

a) a = 0,3941 ;

da :: 0,25.10-2 db = 0,27.10-2

b) b = 38,2543 ;

4. Hay xac dinh s6 nhung chu so dang tin trong cac s6 a vci sai s6 tuong doi nhu sau

a) a = 1,8921 ;

b) a = 22,351 ;

19,

I l;U ngma Gang tin va xac c1!nhsai s6 tuyet d6i fl va sai s6 .rong d6i 0 cua chung :

a) 2,1514 ; b) 0,16152 ;

c) 0,01204 ; d) -0,0015281.

6. Hay xac dinh gia tri cua ham 56 duoi day cung vbi sai S tuy~t d6i va sai 56 tuong d6i ting vdi nhirng gia tr] cua cac 6i s6 eho vbi moi chtr s6 e6 nghla deu dang tin :

a) u = In(x + /) ; x = 0,97 ; y = 1,132

b) u = (x + y2)/z ; x = 3,28 ; y = 0,932 ; z = 1,132.

7. 'I'Inh tc1ng S sau day vbi ba chir s6 Ie thap phan dang tin:

1 1 '1 1 1 1 1

S = 11 + 12 + 13 + 14 + 15 + 16 + 17

8. 'I'inh s6 e :

1 1 1

e = 1 + -1' + -2' + ... + I' + ...

" n.

'bi sai s6 tuy~t d6i khong qua 10-4

Tra lai

1. e, = 0,13.10-4 ;

2. fla = 0,13.102 ;

3. a) 2 ; b) 4.

4. a) 3 ; b) 1.

5. a) 2,15 ; fl

b) 0,162 ; fl

e) 0,0120 ; fl

d) -0,00153; fl

6. a) u = 0,81; flu = 0,27.10-2 ; b) u = 3,665; flu = 0,7.10-2 ;

7. S = 0,511.

8. e = 2,7182 ± 0,0001.

0b = 0,28.10-3 flb = 0,16.10-1

0-2 0 = 0,65.10-3
= 0,14.1 ;
= 0,48.10-3 ; 0 = 0,3.10-2
0-4 0 = 0,33.10-2
= 0,4.1 ;
= 0,19.10-5 ; 0 = 125.10-2 0u = 0,33.10-2 0u = 0,20.10-2

Chtrong 2

TINH GAN DUNG NGHI~M rauc ellA MQT PHUONG TRINH

§2.1. NGHIItM vA KHOANG PHAN LI NGHIItM

1. Nghi~m thl,fc cua pmronq trinh m¢t in Xet phuong trlnh mot an :

f(x) = 0

(2.1)

trong d6 : f Ia mot ham s6 eho truce cua d6i s6 x.

N ghiem thuc cua phuong trinh (2.1) Ia s6 thuc a thoa man (2 I) tile la khi thay a vao x a v€ trai ta duoc

f(a) = 0

2. Y nghia hinh hoc cua nghi~m

Ta ve d6 thi cua ham s6 :

y = f(x) (2.3)

trong mot M toa d¢ vuong goo Oxy (hlnh 2-1). Gill sa d6 thi cat true hoanh tai mot di~m M thl di~m M nay c6 tung d¢ y = 0 va hoanh d¢ x = a. Thay chung vao (2.3) ta duoc :

o = f(a)

(2.4)

(2.2)

Innh 2-1

21

V~y hoanh d¢ a ella giao ti~m M chinh Is m¢t nghiem :lla (2.1)

TruCle khi vEl d6 thj ta cling :0 th~ thay phuong trlnh (2.1) ,Ang phuong trlnh tuong Iuong :

g(x) = htx) (2.5)

r6i vEl d6 thi ella hai ham s6 .hlnh 2-2)

y = gtx),

y = htx)

(2.6)

Hinh 2-2

Gis su hai d6 thi ay cat nhau tai di~m M co hoanh d¢ x = a chi ta eo

g(a) = h(a)

(2.7)

V~y hoanh d¢ a cua giao di~m Mella hai d6 th] (2.6) chinh la met nghiem ella (2.5), tuc la cua (2.1).

3. 51! t6n t,i nghi~m thuc cua phLtang trinh (2.1)

Truce khi tim each tlnh gan dung nghiem thuc ella phuong .rlnh (2.1) ta phai tu hoi xem nghiem thuc ay co t6n tai hay khong. D~ tra lbi ta co th~ dung phuong phap d6 thi a muc 2 ;r~n.· Ta cling eo the dung dinh H sau :

Dinh. u 2.1 - Neu co hai 86 thuc a va b (a < b) SM cho O( a) va ((b) trai dau tuc la

f(a).f(b) < 0

(2.8)

ibng thoi {(x) lien tuc tren fa, b] thi d trong khodng fa, b] co t nMt m.~t nghiem. 'h;1C cua phuong tr'inh (2.1).

Di~u do co the minh hoa tran d6 th] (hlnh 2-3). D6 thi cua ham s6 y = f'(x) tai a ~ x ~ b la met duong li~n n6i hai diem A va B, A CJ duci, B CJ trsn true hoanh, nan phai cat true hoanh tai it nhat met diem CJ trong khoang tit a den b. Vf}.y phuong trlnh (2.1) co it nhat met nghiern CJ trong khoang [a, b].

ffinll 2-3

4. Khoang phin Ii nghi,m (con gOi 18 khoanq tach nghiem) Dinh. nghla 2.1 - Khoting fa, bl ruu» do goi la khodng phan. li nghiem. cua phuong trinli (2.1) neu no chua mot ua chi mot nghieni cua phuong trinli do.

De tim khoang phan li nghiem ta co dinh H :

Dinh. u 2.2 - Ntu fa, b] la mot khodng trong do ham 86 (r,;) lien t1!-C va don dieu, dong thai {(a) va [tb) trai ddu, tuc La co (2.8) thi fa, b] la mot khoting plum. li nghiem. cua phuong trinli (2.1).

Dieu nay co the minh hoa bang d6 thi (hlnh 2-4). D6 thi cua ham s6 y = f'(x)

cat true hoanh tai met va chi met diem CJ trong [a, b]. V~y [a, b] chua mot va chi met nghiem ella phuong trlnh (2.1).

Neu f(x) eo dao ham thl di~u ki~n den di~u eo the thay bang di~u kien khOng d6i dau ella dao ham VI dao ham khong d6i dilu thl ham s6 don dieu. Ta co :

Dinn u 2.3 - Ntu fa, b] ia mot khodng trong do ham {(x) lien. t1!-C, doo ham f'(x) kh6ng d6i

!I

,

t~~

A

H1nh 2-4

6u va {(aJ, {(bJ trai d6u th'i [a, bl la mot khodng phan. li ghiem. eua phuong trinli (2.1).

Mu6n tim cac khoang phan li nghiern cua phucng trlnh (2.1) luang nguoi ta nghien ctiu str bien thien cua bam s6 y = f'(x) 5i ap dung dinh If 2.3.

5. Thf dt,l

Ciao phuong trlnh

f(x) = x3 - x-I = 0

(2.9)

Hay chung to phuong trinh nay c6 nghiam thuc va tim hoang ph an Ii nghism.

Gidi : 'I'rucc h~t ta xet s1.1 bi~n thien cua ham s6 f(x). N6 IlC dinh va lien tuc tai moi x, d6ng thai

1 f''{x) = 3x2 - 1 = 0 tai x = ± va

Ta suy ra bang bien thien

'(x)

M-_

- 00

-1113

1/V3

+00

+

o

+

o

Ix)

____ .

- 00 ---

1

'Ong d6: M = f ( - v:r) =

V~y d6 thi cAt true hoanh ~i met di~m duy nhat (h. 2-5), o d6 phuong trlnh (2.9) co l"t nghism thuc duy nhat, ki li(\u no la a.

Ta tfnh them

f( 1 ) = 13 - 1 - 1 < 0

f(2) = 23 - 2 - 1 > 0

Vf!.y khoang [1, 2] chua nghiem cua phuong trlnh (2.9).

__. + 00 m---

1 1

3{3 + v:r - 1 < 0

If I

-1/13 -{ IV]

t----- --+---- --

, ,

,

I

I

ron" 2-5

N hung vi phuong trinh nay chi co mot nghiem nan chlnh nghiem fly phan Ii a trong [1, 2].

Tom lai, phuong trinli (2.9) co mot nghiem, thuc duy nluit a, phan li a trong khoang [1, 2].

§2.2. PHUONG PHAP CHIA DCn

1. MO til phU'ong phap

Xet phuong trlnh (2.1) voi gia thiet no co nghiern thuc a da phan Ii a trong khoang [a, b].

Ta tim each thu nho dan khoang phan li nghiem bang each chia doi lien. tiep cac khoang phan li nghiem da tim ra. Truce het ta chia d6i khoang [a, b], dh~m chia la c = (a + b)/2. Ri) rang khoang phan li nghiern moi se la [a, c] hay [c, b]. Ta tinh f(c). Neu f'(c) = 0 thl c chinh la nghiem dung a. 'I'hucng thl f'(c) ~ O. Luc do ta so sanh dau cua f'(c) voi dau cua f(a) d~ suy ra khoang phan li nghiem thu nho, Neu f(c) trai dau f'(a) thl khoang phan li nghiem thu nho la [a, c] . Neu' f(c) cung dau f(a) thl khoang phan li nghiern thu nho la [c, b]. Nhu v$.y sau khi chia d6i khoang [a, b] ta duoc khoang phan li nghiem thu nho la [a, c] hay [c, b], ki hieu la [aI' b1], no nam trong [a, b] va chi dai bang mra khoang [a, b] tUe la :

1

bI - a1 = '2 (b - a).

Tiep t\1C ehia doi khoang [ai' b.] va lam nhu tren ta se ducc khoang phan li nghism thu nho moi, ki hieu la [az, b2], no nam .rong [ai' bI] tue la trong [a, b] va chi dai bang nita khoang :al' bt] :

1 '.

= - (b - a) 22

Lap lai viec lam tren den Ian thu n ta duoc khoang phan Ii nghiem thu nho thu n, ki hieu la [an' bn], no nam trong [a, b] la chi dai bang 1I2n cua [a, b] :

25

(b -a)

b -a =--

n n 2n

V~y co th~ IA:y an lam gia tr] g~n dung cua a, luc do sai 56 ia :

la - A I ::E; b - a = (b-a) (2.10)

II n n 2n

cling co th~ IA:y bn lam gia tri g11n dung cua a, hie do sai s6 la :

(2.11)

Do do vOi n dll Ion, an hay bn deu dli g~n a.

Khi n - 00 thl an.- a, bn - a. Nen ta noi phuong phap chia dOi Mi tu.

Chu thich .' Trong qua trlnh chia dOi lien tiep rat co th~ g~p m¢t di~m chia tai do gia tr] cua f bang khOng. Ltic do ta dttQc nghism dung: hoanh d() cua di~m chia do.

2. Thr dl,l

Xet phuong trlnh (2.9)

Ta da chang minh rang phuong trlnh nay chi co mot nghiem thuc a da phan li <'.I trong khoang [1, 2]. V~y

a E [1, 2] va f(l) = 1 - 1 - 1 < °

f(2) = 23 - 2 - 1 > °

Ta chia dOi khoang [1, 2] di~m chia Iii 3/2.

f( ~) = (~) 2 - ~ - 1 > ° trai dau f(1). V~y a E ir, 3/2]. Ta chia dOi khoang [1, 3/2], di~m chia Ia 5/4. Ta co f(5/4) < 0,

cung dau vOi f(1). V~y a E [5/4, 3/2].

Ta chia dOi khoang [5/4, 3/2], diem 0 chia la 11/8. Ta co f(11/8) > 0, trai dau f(5/4). V~y a E [5/4, 11/8].

26

Ta chia dOi khoang [5/4, 11/8], diem chia la 21116. Ta co f(21116) < 0, cung dau vCfi f(5/4). V~y a E [21/i6, 11/8).

Ta chia dOi khoang [21/16, 11/81], diem chia 18. 43/32. Ta co f(43/32) > 0, trai dau f(21116). V~y a E [21/16, 43/32].

Ta dang qua trlnh chia dOi tai ddy va l~y 21/16 = 1,3125 hay 43/32 = 1,34375 lam gia tr] gan dung cua a thl sai s6 khong VUc,1t qua 1/25 = 1/32 = 0,03125.

Vi ta dB. chia dOi 5 l~n va d¢ dai khoang [1, 2] la 2 - 1 = 1, (xem cong thuc (2.10) va (2.11».

3. Sa d6 t6m tAt phuang phap chia dOi

1) Cho phucng trlnh f'(x) = O.

2) An djnh sai s6 cho phep E.

3) Xac dinh khoang phan Ii nghiem [a, b)

4) 'I'Inh c = (a + b)/2, tlnh f (c) 1<-----.

a ::::: a

la - a ] < E la - b ] < E

Kat qua:

a ::::: b

27

§2.3. PHUONG PHAP LAp

1. Me ta phuong phap

Xet phuong trinh (2.1) vdi gia thist no co nghiem thuc a phan Ii 0 trong khoang [a, b] ;

Truce het ta chuyeri phuong trinh (2.1) ve dang tuong duong :

x = f'(x) (2.12)

Sau do ta chon mot 56 Xo nao do E [a, b] lam xa:p xi d~u r6i tlnh dan day so xn theo quy tac :

n = 1, 2 ...

(2.13) (2.14)

Xo cho truce E [a, b]

Qua trlnh tlnh nay co tlnh lap di I~p lai n~n phucng phrip a day gol Ia phuong phap lqp, ham 'I' goi Ia ham /6 p.

2. 5" hOi t ...

Dinb: nghla 2.2 - Neu xay xn - a khi n - 00 thi ta n6i ohuong pluip lap (2.13) (2.14) hoi tu .

Khi phuong phap lap h(>i tu thl xn cang gan a neu n cang lon. Cho nan ta co the xeni xn uoi n xac dinh. la gia tri gun riung eua a. Neu phucng phap lap khOng h(>i tu thl xn co the rat xa a. Vi vay chi e6 phuong pluip /.4p hfli tu moi e6 gia trio De kiem tra xem mot phuong phap l~p co hoi tu hay khong ta co dinh H sau :

Dinh. u 2.4 - Xe: phuong phap lap (2.13) (2.14) gid SIL

1) [a, b] la khodng phan. li nghieni a eua phuong trinli (2.1) ttic la eua (2.12) ;

2) MQi xn tinh theo (2.13) (2.14) deu E [a, b] :

3) Ham 'I'(x) e6 dao ham thoa man

I '1" (x) I ~ q < 1, a < x < b

(2.15)

trong d6 q la m~t hling 86.

Th~ thi phuong phap lq.p (2.13) (2.14) Mi tu

Xn - a khi. n - 00

(2.16)

Chung minli : Truce M't VI a la nghiem ella (2.12) nsn co a = ¥'(a)

. Dem dAng thuc nay trir (2.13) ve voi ve ta duoc :

(2.17)

Ta se ap dung cong thuc Lagrangio van ve phai ella dAng thuc tren.

'I'ruoc het ta nhac lai cong thuc Lagrangio

Cong thrrc Lagrangid - Cho ham s6 Ftx) lien. tuc tren. [a, b], eo dao ham trong (a, b) thi ton tqi s6e E (a, b), tuc la e = a + 8(b - a), 0 < 8 < 1 sao cho

F(b) - F(a) ::; F'(eHb - a)

(2.18)

Ap dung ceng thuc Lagrangio van (2.17) ta duoc

(2.19)

voi e = a + 8(a - xn--l) E (a, b)

Theo gia thi~t (2.15) ta co I¥"(c) I ~ q < 1. Do do (2.19) cho : la - xnl = I¥"(e)I la - xn--d ~ qla - xn-d

V~y co : I a - xn I ~ q I a - xn-ll

B~t dAng thirc nay dung vdi moi n. Do do co I a - xn I ~ q I a - Xn- 1 I

I a - Xn-" ~ q I a - Xn- 2 I

I a - x21 ~ q I a - xd I a - xIi ~ q I a - Xo I

29

--- -- ... ---6 "" ...... _ ..... "''''-J ........

I a - Xn I ~ s" I a - Xo I

..

(2.20)

Vi Xo va a da xac dinh, qn -+ 0 khi n -+ 00 do ch6 0 < q < 1, l~n ve phai -+ 0 va ta co :

I a - xn I -+ 0 khi n -+ 00

Do chlnh la ket luan (2.16) cua dinh li 2.4.

3. Chu thfch

Khi ham IfJ da thea man gia thiet 3) cua dinh Ii 2.4 thl su thoa man gia thi~t 2) phu thuec vi~c chon Xo va no thoa man

trong di~u ki~n sau : Gi80 sit 11fJ' (x) I ... q < 1.

N~u rp'(x) > 0 ta co thl chon Xo E [a, b] mot each btlt hi, ~on nlu rp'(x) < 0 thi pltdi chon. Xo thea quy tac :

Xo a khi a < a < (a +b)
= 2
Xo = b khi (a +b) < a < b
2 I

(2.21)

Mu6n bilt a thuoc nita khodng nao ta chi' uiec tinb. p- +b

~ \-2-) r(}i so sanh dau cua no voi dau cua f(aJ.

4. Danh 9ta sai s6

Gi80 sit ta tlnh theo (2.13) (2.14) n l~n va xem Xn 180 gia tri r'n dung cua a. Khi do sai s6 I a - xn I co th~ danh gia b;\ng :Ong thuc (2.20) va nh~n xet I a - Xo I < b - a

(2.22)

Nhung cong thuc nay thuong cho sai s6 qua Ion so VCli thl,tc teo Sau day ta chung minh m¢t cong thuc danh gia sai s6 sat «m, lip dung dUQc cho nhi~u truong' hQP.

Dinh li 2.5. Xet phuong trtnn.

F(x) = 0

(2.23)

~o nghiem. X E [c, d] ua X la mot 86 E [c, .d] duoc xem La ~ia tri gan dung cua X. Luc do ta co :

(X - XI IF(X) I

m

(2.24)

trong do m La m~t 86 duong thoa m.an :

I F'(x) I ~ m > 0, c < x < d

Chung minh: : Thea gill thi~t ta co F(X) = 0 nan co :

(2.25)

F(X) = F(X) = F(X)

Ap dung ceng thtic Lagrangio (2.18) vao v~ phai ta duoc F(X) = F'(C)(X - X)

c = X + 8(X - X) E (c, d). Thea gill thiet (2.25) ta co :

I F(X) I = IF'(C)IIX - XI = miX - XI

Ttl do ta 5Uy ra k~t luan (2.24).

Bay gib ta lip dung (2.24) de danh giA sai 56 cua phuong phap lap (2.13) (2.14).

Vdi F'(x) = x - <p(x), c = a, d = b

X=a, X=xn

ta thu duoc

(2.26)

trong dd m Ia m~t s6 duong thaa man :

o < m Et I (x - <p(x»' I, a < x < b

31

I (x - cp(x»' I = 11 - cp'(x) I ~ 1 - I cp'(x) I ~ 1 - q > 0 M~t khac :

cp(xn) - xn = cp(xn) - cp(xn- I)

= cp'(c)(Xn - xn-I)

trong d6 c = xn--l + 8(xn - xn--I) E (a, b).

Do d6

I cp(xn) - xn I = I cp'(c) I I xn - xn-ll ~ q I xn - xn- I I V~y (2.26) tr<'1 thanh :

(2.27)

DAy la mot cong thuc danh gia sai so thong qua nhirng dai Iucng vita tlnh ra xn- 1 va Xn·

5. Thf du

Xet phuong trlnh 2.9 d §2.1. Ta da chung minh duoc rang no co mot nghiem thuc a phan Ii <'1 trong khoang [1, 2]. Bay gio ta dung phuong phap lap de tinh gan dung nghiem a d6. Muon the truce het ta phai tim duoc ham lap cp(x) thich hop :te phuong phap lap Mi tu, ttlc III tp(x) phai thoa man nhirng gia thiet cua dinh 11 2.4.

Tit (2.9) ta c6 the viet

(2.28)

Nhung luc d6

cp'(x) = 3x2 ~ 3 tai moi x E [1, 2]

V(:Ji ham cp chon nhu vfj.y phuong phap lap khOng co hi vong l(>i tu,

BAy gib ta viet (2.9) CJ dang : x3 = x + 1

x = (x + 1)1/3

va dat so(x) = (x + 1) 1/3

Luc do so'(x) = (~) (x + 1)-213 = (~)

(2.29) 1

Nen

1

° < so'(x) "3 tai moi x E [1, 2)

Nhu v~y ham so(x) cho bdi (2.29) thea man gia thiet cua dinh If 2.4. va chu thich CJ cong thuc (2.21). Do do de bat dau qua trlnh tlnh lap ta chon Xo la mot 86 bat ki E [1, 2] chang han Xo = 1. Sau do ta tinh xn theo cong thiic lap (2.13). Duei dAy la mot 86 gia t ri xn xem la gia tri gan dung cua a cung

1 voi sai 86 danh gia theo cong thuc (2.27) trong do q = 3

Xo = 1

xl = 1,25992105; I a - xII ~ 0,13 x2 = 1,312293837; la - x21 ~ 0,027

x3 = 1,322353819; la - x:l1 ~ 0,005 r x4 = 1,324268745 ; I a - x41 ~ 0,00096 x5 = 1,324632625 ; I a - xII ~ 0,000182

Ket qua nay co qua nhieu chit 86 dang nghi. Ta quy trim

10 den bon chir 86 Ie thap phan bang each viet :

a - 1,3246 = a - x5 + x5 - 1,3246

I a - 1,32461 ~ I a - xsi + I x5 - 1,32461 I a - 1,32461 ~ 0,000182 + 0,00003265

Do do I a - 1,32461 ~ 0,00025

V~y co a = 1,3246 ± 0,00025

So vci phuong phap chia d6i thl phuong phap lap CJ day h(>i .u nhanh hen nhieu.

3 - PPT

33

6. cno y

Trong thuc t~ nguoi ta dung qua trlnh tinh khi IXn - xn-11 < sai so cho phep E.

7. T6m tit phuong phap I~p

1) Cho phucng trinh f(x) = 0

""

2) An dinh sai s6 cho phep E

3) Xac dinh khoang phan u nghiem [a, b]

4) Tim ham lap hQi tu <p

5) Chon dp xi dau Xo

6) TInh

xn = <P(xn-I)

n = 1, 2,-3, ...

cho toi khi I xn - xn- I I < E thl dung

7) K~t qua a == xn

q

vci sai s6 I a - xn I ~ -1 - E

-q

trong d6 q 1a s6 duong < 1 thoa man

I <p'(x) I ~ q < 1

x E (a, b).

tai moi

§2.4. PHUONG PHAP NIUTO~ (tiep tuyen) 1. Mo ta pturonq pnap

y chu dao cua phuong phap Niuton 1a tim each thay phuong trlnh '(2.1), phi tuyen doi vai x, bang m(?t phuong trlnh gan dung, tuyen tinh doi vci x.

'I'rudc het ta nhdc lai cong thdc Taylo : Cong thuc Taylo.

Cho ham 86 Ftx) xac dinh. ua co dao ham d{n cap n + 1 tai

34

Xo va <1 lan. e~n xo' The thi eo e6ng thuc sau ddy goi la khai trien Taylo b4-e n eua F'(x) tai Xo :

(x - xo)2

F(x) = F(x() + (x - xo)F'(xo) + 2! F"(xo) + ... +

(x - xo)n (n) (x - xo)n+l

+ F ( ) + . F(n+l)(c), (2.30)

~;! Xo (n + I)!

e = Xo + 8(x - xo), 0 < 8 < 1 (2.31)

Cong tliuc nay eo gia tri tai x <1 lan. e~n xO' Ceng thuc (2.31) muon noi rang c la mot 86 trung gian giiia Xo va x.

Bay gib xet phuong trlnh (2.1) voi gia thi~t no co nghiem thuc a phan li 0 trong khoang [a, b]. Gia su. ham f co dao ham f''(x) ~ 0 tai x E [a, b] dao ham efi:p hai f'(x) tl;li x E (a, b). Ta chon Xo E [a, b] r6i vi~t khai trien Taylo b~c nhat cua f tai Xo :

x E [a, b], e = Xo + f1(x - xo) E (a, b).

Nhu vfJ.y phucng trlnh (2.1) vi~t :

[(xo) + (x - xo)r(xo) + ~ (x - x(lf'(c) = 0

Ta bo qua so hang eu6i cung va duoc phuong trlnh

(2.32)

Nhu v~y, ta dd thay phuong trinli (2.1) bang phuong trinli (2.32) don gian hen nhieu vi (2.32) tuyen. tinh d6i uoi x.

Duong nhien viec thay th~ do chi la gan dung. GQi xl la nghiem cua (2.32) ta e6 :

f(xo)

(2.33)

35

Ttl xl ta tinh mot each tuong h! ra Xz, v.v ... va mot each ng quat, khi da biet xn ta tinh xn+ I theo cong thuc :

f(xn) xn+1 = xn - f'(xJ

Xo chon truce E [a, b]

(2.34)

(2.35)

. xeni xn lii gia tri gun dung cua ngbiem c.

Phuong phap tfnh xn theo (2.34) (2.35) goi Ia phuong pluip iuton.

Chit Y 1 - Vi phuong trlnh '(2.32) dung d~ thay cho phuong Inh (2.1) la tuyen tinh d6i voi X nan phuong phap Niton cling .i la phirong phap tuyen tlnh hoa ,

Chit y 2 - Nhln (2.34) (2.35) ta thay phucng phap Niton U9c loai phuong phap lap ooi ham lap

f(x) ~(x) = x - f'(x)

(2.36)

Chit Y 3 - ve nuit liinh. hoc thl f(xo) la he s6 goc cua tif>'p .j;

yen cua do th] ham y = f(x) tai xo' Xet met truong hQP

l th~.

Ta ve do thi trong hinh 2-6. Cung do thi AB cat true hoanh i M co hoanh d9 chinh la nghiem a. D~ tlnh gan dung a ta ay mot each gan dung cung AB boi tiep tuyen tai B, B co )anh de? xo' tiep tuyen nay cat

~c hoanh t~i P, P co hoanh ) xI va ta xem XI la gia tri in dung cua a.

De tlnh xI ta viet phuong 'lnh tiep tuyen tai B : veJi ) = b ta co :

Y - f(xO> = f' (xo) (X - xo) Tai P ta co X = xl' Y ;:: 0, ~n co :

y

o

fflnh 2-6

;;.>~ '''t ..

;. • ..J

Ta do ta suy ra (2.33). Cho nen phuong phap Niuton con co ten la phuong phap tiep tuyen,

2. SI! hQi tu va sai so

Muc dich cua ta la tlnh g~n dung a. Dieu do chi co th~ thuc hien duoc bang phuong phap Niutcn neu xn -+ a. Khi n -+ 00. Ta co k?'t qua (khong cluing minh) sau :

Dinl: u 2.6. Gid su [a, b] la khodng pluui li nghiem. a eua phuong trinli (2.1), f c6 dao ham f', f" vdi f va f' lien tuc tren [a, b], f' oa f" khOng d6i ddu trong (a, b). Xap xi d~u Xo chon la a hay b sao cho f(xo) cung dau vci f". Khi do xn tinn boi (2.34) (2.35) ht)i tu ve a khi n -+ 00, CI! thi han ta co xn don di~u tang toi a neu f'f" < 0, xn don dieu guini toi a n(u f'f" > O.

Dang lai CI buoc tlnh thu n xac dinh, ta duoc xn va xem xn La gia tri gan dung cua a.

Ve sai 86, lip dung dinh u 2.5, ta co I f(xn) I

I a - xn I ~ (2.37)

m

voi

o < m ~ I f'(x) I,

a ~ x ~ b

(2.38)

Ta khong chung minh dinh H 2.6, nhung minh hoa no bang b6n hinh ve (h. 2-7 a, b, c, d).

J "

I A

I I

~ti-

A

Hid 2-7a

mill, 2-7b

37

.Y

t-~ .xl Ilo(._

I I

I I

I I

6 ..r

A

Innl. 2-7c

A

Innl. 2-7d

3. Thf dl,l

1) Hay tinh can bac hai ducng cua mot s6 duong a. .vl uo n l~ ta xet phuong trinh

f'(x) = x2 - a = 0 (2.39)

Rei rang nghiem ducng cua phuong trinh (2.39) ph an ll a .ong khoang [1, 3] chang han. Trong khoang do f'(x) = 2x > 0, "(x) = 2 > O. V~y ta co thg ap dung dinh If 2.6. Ceng thuc .nh (2.34) vi~t :

(2.40)

Voi a = 2 ta co

f(2) = 22 - 2 > 0 cung dau voi f" n~n ta chon Xo = 2. Voi

o dy cong thuc tinh (2.40) cho

xl = 1,5

x2 = 1,417

X3 = 1,41421

Vi V2 = 1,414213562, nen ta thay ro phuong phap Niuton I~i tlJ rdt nhanh.

2) Lai xet phuong trlnh (2.9). Ta da chung minh dUQc n6 c6 nghiem thuc a phan Ii C1 trong khoang [1, 2]. Trong khoang d6

f" (x) = 3x2 - 1 ~ 3 - 1 = 2 > 0 f''(x) == 6x ~ 6 > 0

Vf}.y c6 the ap dung dinh If 2.6. De chon Xo ta tfnh f(2) = 23 - 2 - 1 = 5 > 0 cung dau vdi f".

V~y chon Xo = 2. Do d6 co cong thirc tlnh

x3 - x-I

n n

Xo = 2

Sau day la mot s6 ket qua tlnh xn kern theo sai s6 tinh thea (2.37) :

Bdng 2.1

n xn sal so
0 2
1 1.545454545
2 1,359614916
3 1,325801345
4 1,324719049 0,0000024
5 1,324717950 2.10-10 4. cno y

Trong thuc te thuong nguoi ta dung qua trlnh tlnh khi IXn - xn-d < sai s6 cho phep E.

5. So' d6 t6m tAt phuO'ng phap tiap tuyan 1) Cho phucng trlnh f(x) = 0

2) An dinh sai s6 cho phep E

3) TIm khoang phan li nghiem [a, b) trong do f' va f" khong d6i dau.

4) Chon Xo

39

0)

Tfnh
[(Xo)
Xl = Xo - f(xo) I---
i
Tlnh e = IXI - xol I D

Ket qua: a == Xl

.

Sai 86

I [(xl) I la - xIi ~ --m

ong d6 :

o < m l!;'; I f(x) I,

X E (a, b).

§2.S. PHlJONG PHA.P DAY CUNG

1. MO ta phuong phap

Trong phuong phap Niuton We la phuong phap tiep tuyen (J !.4. Ta da thay eung do thi AB ella ham y = f'(x) hOi tiep ly~n va tai A hay B. Bay gio ta thay cung AB boi d4y cung B r6i lA:y hoanh d¢ xl ella giao di~m P ella dAy eung v<Ji true )anh lam. gia tri gan dung eua nghiem. a (hlnh 2-8).

- - .~ a ... ...a _._

Phuong trlnh day cung AB viet:

Y - f(a) f(b) - f(a)

X-a

=--

b -a

T'ai giao di~m P ta co Y = 0, X = Xl' nan co

-f(a) f(b) - f(a)

Xl -a

=

b -a

Tit dO'suy ra :

Xl = a - (b - a)f(a) (2.41)

f(b) - f(a)

hay

af(b) - bf(a) Xl = f(b) - f(a)

(2.42)

A

ffin/,2-8

Phuong phap tlnh Xl nhu v~y goi la phuong pluip dfLy cung:

Sau khi tlnh duoc Xl ta co th~ xet xem khoang phan Ii nghiem moi la [a, Xl] hay [Xl' b] rai tiep t1,1C ap dung phucng phap day cung vao khoang phan li nghiem moi, nho hen khoang cu. Va cu the tiep t1,1C ta s~ duc;lc cac gia tri ~, x3, ... , x4' ... ngay cang gan a. Sai s6 co th~ tinh bang ceng thuc (2.24).

2. Thi du

Lai xet phuong trlnh (2.9). Khoang phan Ii nghiem dB. biet Iii [1, 2].

Ta co

a = 1 ;

f(a) = f(1) = 13 - 1 - 1 = -1 < 0 f(b) = f(2) = 23 -2 - 1 = 5 > 0

b = 2; V~y (2.42) cho :

1.5 -2.(-1) Xl = 5 - (-1)

Tiep t1,1C ta co

f(xI) = -0,58 < 0

= 1,167

41

Vf;.y khoang phan Ii nghiem moi la [1,167 ; 2] BAy gio ap dung (2.42) v<'1i a = 1,167 va b = 2 Ta duoc :

x2 = 1,253.

Sai s6 tlnh thea (2.24) Iii 0,15

Ta thay rang phuong phap dAy cung hQi t\1 cham han phuong phap Niutcn.

/', S

<- e < E)>------------

-; /"

"r D

3. Sa d6 t6m tAt phllang phap day cung

1) Cho phuong trlnh f(x) = 0

,."

2) An dinh sai s6 cho phep E

3) TIm khoang phan u nghiem [a, b]

4)

I Kllt qua: a ~ xJ

42

I f(XI) I Sai s6 I a - x 1 I <

m

trong do 0 < m < I f'(x) I, x E (a, b)

BAI T~P I. Giai gan dung phuong trlnh : x - sinx = 0,25

bang phuong phap lap voi ket qua eo hai chir 56 Ie thap phan dang tin.

2. Dung phuong phap Niuton tlnh nghism duong ella phuong trlnh :

1,8x2 - sin l Ox = 0

voi sai 56 tuy~t d6i kh6ng qua 10- 5 .

3. Dung phuong phap Niuton tinh gan dung nghiem ella cac phuong trlnh sau voi sai s6 tuyet d6i khong qua 10-5

a) x2 - sinzx = 0 b) x2 - coszrx = 0

x 1

e) 2logx - -2 + 1 = 0 d) logx - 1 = 0

x'"

e) xlogx - 1,2 = 0

4. Dung phuong phap lap hay tinh gan dung nghiem duong l(1n nhat ella phuong trlnh :

x3 - x - 1000 = 0 Ifoi sai s6 tuyet d6i khong qua 10- 5

Tra loi

1. 1,17

2. a = 0,29810 ± {),OOOOI

3. a) 0,0 ; 0,78724. b) - 0,43843 ; 0,43843.

d) 1,89665. e) 2,74065

4. 10,03333.

e) 0,39754.

43

~- .••. --.

Chtrang 3'

TiNH GAN DUNG NGHIEM

., "" ,,' ,! ,

CUA MOT HE DAI SO TUYEN TINH

. . .

§3.1. MO DAU

1. O,ng tong quat ella met h~ dal so tuyen tinh

• Ml)t M dai 86 tuyen tinh co the eo m phucng trlnh nan. o day ta chi xet nhung M eo n phuong trlnh n an

allx1 + a1zX2 + + al~n = f1

azlxl + a22x2 + + a2~n = f2

(3.1)

trong do : ajj la M 86 ella an Xj CJ phuong trlnh thu i, fj la ve phai ella phucng trlnh thit i. Gill 8tl da. biet ajj va fj ta phai tim cac an Xj'

Ma tran

A=

all a12 a1n

a21 a22 a2n

(3.2)

~1 ~2 .. , ann

goi 18. ma tran M 86 ella M (3.1). Cac vecto :

fl xl

f = f2 X = X2

(3.3)

44

-

iUQe got la veeta v~ phai va vecto jln cua M. Sau nay di3 ti~t kiern giay, thay eho each viet tren ta e6 the viet.

T . T

f = (f1, f2' ... , fn) , x = (xl' X2' ... , Xn) .

Bi€t rang tich cua ma tran A voi vecto x, viet Iii Ax, III mot recta e6 toa d<:l thu i la :

n

(Ax)i = "" a.x. L.. I) J '

j=l

D6 chinh Ia. ve trai cua phucng trlnh thu i cua M (3.1). VfJ.y M (3.1), e6 the viet (j dang uecto nhu sau :

Ax = f (3.4)

2. SI! tein t~i va duy nhat nghi~m cua h~

GQi dinh thuc cua rna tran A la dinh thiic cua h~, viet III ~ : !!. = det (A). Neu !!. = 0 ta n6i ma tran. A suy bien vll M (3.1), tuc III (3.4) III suy bien.

GQi !!'j la dinh thiic suy tir !!. bang each thay cot thu i hOi ::<:It ve ph ai. Ta e6 dinh ll sau :

Dinli u 3.1. (Crame) : Neu !!. ~ 0 tuc la nsu M khong suy 'lien thl h~ (3.1) co nghiem. duy nluit cho boi cong thuc

h.j •

xl = 15: ' 1 = 1, 2, ... , n

(3.5)

3. cno tntcn

K~t qua nay rat gon va rat dep ve mat 11 thuyet nhung tinh nghiem bang cong thuc (3.5) rat ddt nghla la mat rat nhieu ~6ng, s6 cac phep tinh so cap (+, -, x, : ) din thiet Ia vao eo (n + 1) In. K{ hieu s6 d6 la Ne(n) ta e6 :

Ne(n) "" (n + 1) !n

V(Ji n = 15 ta e6 Ne(15) "" 3.1014. DAy la mnt s6 rat Ion.

Sau dA.y ta trlnh bay mot phuong phap khac tiet kiem. duoc eOng tinh rat nhieu, D6 la phucng phap Gaoxo.

45

~_'.:l. PHUONG PHAP GAOXO (GAUSS)

1. PhLtO'ng phap Gaoxc

Phuong phap Gaoxo <tUng each khiL dan cat an de dua M fa cho ve mot M co dang tam giiu: tren. r6i giai M tam giac lAy ttl dttbi len t~n, kh6ng pluii ti nh: mot dinli thuc nao.

Lay mot thi d1.1 don gian : xet M

2x} + x2 = 1

4x} + 6x2 = 3

Khir xl khoi phuong trlnh thu hai ta diroc 2xI + x2 = 1

4X2 = 1

H~ nay co dang tam giac. GhU no tu dudi leu ta du-.. x2 = 0,25

Xl = (1 - x2)/2 = 0,375

Ta thay rang bai toan cung kha don gian. Nhung n~u he co lhieu phuong trlnh nhieu an thl van de tro nen phuc tq):; : ihieu.

De trinh bay phuong phap Gaoxo cho d~ hieu ta chi xet M ~6m 3 phuong trlnh 3 an de suy ra cac cong thirc tfnh, cac :6ng thuc nay suy rong' duoc cho truong hop n phuong trlnh 1 an.

Xet M

(3.6a) (3.6b) (3.6c)

H~ tam giac ma ta mong mu6n co dang :

Xl + b12x2 + blY'3 = bl4 .j X2 + b23X3 = b24 X3 = b34

(3.7)

Cac s6 hang d ve phai ta viet Iii aj4 va bi4 Iii c6t de viet !ac cong thiic sau nay ti~n 1Qi.

Qua trlnh khu de dua M (3.6) v~ dang (3.7) goi 1a qua trinli uoi ,. qua trlnh giai M (3.7) goi Iii qua trinli nguoc,

2. Qua trlnh xuOi

BllOC 1 : Khu xI' Gia su all d (3.6a) ~ 0 ta goi no la tru.

Itll nluit va chia phuong trlnh (3.6a) cho all' ta duoc.

1(3.8)

(3.9)

Ta dung (3.8) de khir xl khoi cac phuong trinh (3.6b) va 3.6c). De khu xl khoi (3.6b), ta nhan (3.8) vai a21 (M 86 cua 1 d (3.6b) :

R6i l~y phuong trinh (3.6b) trit phuong trlnh nay ta duoc

(3.10)

aW = a2j - a2laW ' j = 2, 3, 4

D~ kh\:i xl khOi (3.6c) ta cling lam tuong tl,t Nhan (3.8) vai a31 (h~ s6 cua xl d (3.6c»

a31xI + ~31aWX2 + a31alYx3 = a31aW

(3.11)

47

t6i lay (3.6c) tru phuong trinh nay aWx2 + a~Yx3 = a~~

aW = a3j - a31alP ' j = 2, 3, 4

(3.12) (3.13)

D€n day hai phuong trlnh (3.10) va (3.12) khong chua xl nua. a~YX2 + a~~X3 = a~~

aWxz + a~YX3 = a~Q

Chung tao thanh mot M g6m hai phuong trlnh hai An x2 va " tuc la co 86 an it di mot so voi an s6 cua M ban dau. Tel p lai viec lam tren dEt khir x2 khoi (3.12).

Buoc 2 : Khu xi. Gia sa aW a (3.10) ~ 0, ta gol no Ut' ~U hai va chia (3.10) cho a~y

X2 + a~~x3 = a~~

a\2) = a(l)/a(l) J' = 3,4

~.1 2) 2L'

(3.15)

Nhan (3.14) vdi aW a (3.12) (h~ s6 cua X2 a (3.12» a~Yx2 + a~ya~1x3 = a~ya~~

Lay (3.12) tru phucng trlnh nay

a~~x3 = a~~ (3.16)

aW = aW - aWaW, j = 3,4 (3.17)

Phuong trlnh (3.16) khong co x2 nira,

BUGe 3 (buoc cu6i cung d6i voi M 3 an)

Gia sa a~~ a (3.16) ~ O. Ta chia (3.16) cho a~~

x3 = a~~ (3.18)

(3.19)

. ,

Bay gib ta ghep cac phuong trlnh (3.8) (3.14) va (3.18) l(li ta se duoc M tam giac dang (3.7) :

Xl + aWxz + aWx3 = aW Xz + aWx3 = a&~ x3 = a~~

(3.20a) (3.20b) (3.20e)

3. Qua trinh ngltC;7C GiAi M tam giac.

Tit (3.20e) ta co x3, thay x3 ~y vao (3.20b) ta e6 xz, r6i thay X3' Xz H.y vao (3.20a) ta co xl :

(3.21)

Yay til M (3.6) da gial xong.

4. Thf du

Xet M 2xI + 4xz + 3x3 = 4

3xI + Xz - 2x3 = -2

4xI + llxz + 7x3 =_ 7

(3.22a) (3.22b) (3.22e)

a) Qua trinn xuoi

Buoc 1 : Khit xl' Chia (3.22a) eho a11 = 2 (M 86 ¢ 0 cua xl d (3.22a» :

Xl + 2xz + 1,5x3 = 2 (3.23)

Nhan (3.23) v(1i 3 (M 86 cua xl d (3.22b» r6i trit kh6i (3.22b).

(3.24)

4 - PPT

49

NhAn (3.23) vCsi 4 (M 86 cua xl (j (3.22c» r6i trit khoi (3.22c)

(3.25)

Ta duoc M 2 phuong trlnh 2 dn x2' x3 (3.24) (3.25). Buoc 2 .' Khti x2 khoi (3.25). Chia (3.24) cho -5 (h~ 86 :;II!: 0 :ua x2 (j 3.24):

(3.26)

NM.n (3.26) veJi 3 (M 86 cua x2 (j (3.25» r6i tra khoi (3.25) :

-2,9x3 = -5,8

Buoc 3 (buec cu6i -cung cua qua trlnh xuoi) Chia (3.27) cho (-2,9) (M 86 :;II!: cua X3 (j do)

x3 = 2

Ghep cac phueng trlnh (3.23) (3.26) (3.28) lai xl + 2x2 + 1,5x3 = 2

(3.27)

(3 ,.,

X3 = 2 V~y xong qua trlnh xuei.

b) Qua trinh. nguoc .' Giai M tam giac (3.23) (3.26) ,3.28) ,it dl1eJi :

x2 = 1,6 - 1,3x3 = -1

V~y nghiem cua h~ 18.

Qua trlnh tfnh toan (j t~n co th~ ghi tom tAt V8.0 bang 3.1

Bdng 3.1

I H~ s6 eUa XI Hf s6 eUa "2 Ht s6 eua x) Vl phal PhU'01lg trlnh
2 4 3 4 (3.22a)
3 1 -2 -2 (3.22b)
4 11 7 7 (3.22c)
1 2 1,5 2 (3.23)
-5 -6,5 -8 (3.24)
3 1 1 (3.25)
1,3 1,6 (3.26)
-2,9 -5,8 (3.27)
I
1 2 (3.28)
1 -1
1 1 6. ChQn tr... t6i d,i

Trong qua trlnh xuOi cua phuong phap Gaoxc ta da. phai gill thi~t all ~ 0, ~~ ;t; 0, a~~ ~ o. N~u met trong cac h~ 86 do bAng kheng thl qua trlnh tlnh khong ti~p t\lC dl1Qc. Luc do ta phai thay ddi each tinh. Gill sU khi khu xl ta ~p all = 0 thl ta nhln cac h~ 56 8z1' a31 ella Xl a cac phuong trlnh CJ dl1lJi, n~u co eat nao khac khong ta co th~ Ia:y nd thay cho vai tro Clla au bAng each hoan vi hai phuong trlnh. N~u cll ba h~ 86 all' a21' a3l d~u bAng khOng thl M di1 cho BUY bien, Ta chu y tMm rAng khi chia cho met 86 thi sai 86 tfnh toan cang be khi 86 chia co trj tuy~t d6i cang Ibn. Vi vf!.y d~ han ch~ blJt sai 86 tfnh toan ta chon trong cac 86 all' a21' a31 s6 cd trj tuy~t d6i Ibn nha:t lam tr1.l thu nha:t goi lA tru t6i d(J,i thtl nhat d~ khu Xl. Khi khu X2 va X3 ta cting lam tuong' t\f. Sau dAy ta tfnh theo each lam deS tr~n thi du di1 xet a tr~n (xem bang 3.2).

51

Bting 3.2

Hf 56 coo Xl H~ s6 cUa Xz H~ s6 cua X3 V~ phai
2 4 3 4
3 1 -2 -2
4 11 7 7
4 11 7 7
3 1 -2 -2
2 4 3 4
1 2,75 1,75 1,75 I
-7,25 -7,25 -7,25 i
-1,5 -0,5 0,5 J
I
I 1 1 I
-
1 2
1
- 1
1 1 I Chu y la khi khli Xl vi 4 = max {121, 13" 141} nan ta fa hoan V! dong thu nhat vdi dong thii ba (j bang tr~n trU'ac thi lam cac d¢ng tac de khu xl'

6. cno y

each nho cac cong thuc tinh atk). Xet cac cOng thuc (3.11) 'a (3.9). Chung cho phep tinh aW thea aij' D~t aij = 8;~0) cac :Ong thiic do cho :

a~~) a~r' a\~)

j = 2, 3, 4

M¢t each tuong tl1, cac cOng thuc (3.13) va (3.9) cho a~~) aW) = a~OJ) - al~)

j = 2, 3, 4

=:;;;: -

Hai cong thuc nay e6 th~ vi~t chung thanh met af?) aloJ) af·l) = a(~) - --:..._

J IJ al~)

i = 2,3

j = 2, 3, 4

Vi tri ella cae phan tli o ve trai ~ xep thanh mot hlnh
sap
chii nhat
al~) aW)
af?) a(O)
IJ Hlnh chir nh~t nay e6 dlnh tren ben trai lit al~) (tru thu nhat) dinh dudi ben phai lit a~O) (d6 lit phan tli can bien d6i thanh a~l».

Sau khi da xac dinh duoc hlnh chir nhat tren thl cong thuc tinh lij)l) da viet 0 tren phat bil~u thanh loi nhu sau :

aij (moi) bang aij (cu), tru tich ella ail (cu) nhan voi alj (cu) ehia eho all (cu) ; hay lit phan tli (mci) nam 0 g6e duai ban phai bang phan tli (cti) nam a goc duci ben phai tru tich ella phan tli (cu) nam a g6e duai ben trai nhan vai ph an tli (cfi) nam a g6e tren ben phai ehia cho phan tli (cu) nam a g6e tr~n ben trai (We lit phan tli t1\1 cu).

Quy tlie nay goi la quy tlie hlnh chit nhat. N6 giup ta d~ nho each tinh a~l).

each tinh aW dua vito (3.17) va (3.15) thOng qua lij)l) cung co th~ nho theo quy tlie tuong W

r aW aW

~~

aW a~~aW

aW

j = 3,4

53

Quy tAc hlnh chu nhat co th~ giup ta d~ nhes each tfnh ~k) thea ~)k-l) nhu sau :

(k-l) (k+I)

akk akj

(k+ l) a(k-l)

~'k 1J

7. Khoi ItlQ'ng tlnh va cOng thUc tinh doi vai mQt h~ n an Phuong phap Gaoxo co th~ ap dung cho m.,t M dai s6 tuyv n Inh g6m n phucng trlnh n ~n.

86 cac phep tfnh +, -, x, : phai lam d~ giili m¢t h(\ n phucr..r rlnh n ~ri la

-Oi n = 15 thl NG(l5) = 2570. 86 nay It hen rft nhidu so vai lc(l5) (xem muc 3 §3.1).

Cac cOng thllc tlnh cho mot h(\ n phuong trlnh n ~n phuc ap, ta chi nhAc rang chung vAn co dang (3.8) (3.10) (3.12) .v ... nhung gia tri cu6i cung clla j 0 (3.9) (3.11) (3.13) v.v hili III n + 1.

8. Sa d6 t6m tAt phtlang phap Gaoxa Xet M n phuong trlnh n ~n

&nXl + &12X2 + + alnXn = bi

a21xl + a22x2 + + &2nXn = b2

Khi ap dung thuong nguoi ta Stl dung phuong phap GaOXd co chon tru t6i dal. Cho nan sau day se trlnh b~y so d6' tom tat phuong phap Gaoxo co chon tru t6i dai.

Qua trinli xuoi :

Vai k l~n IltQt la 1, 2, ... , n - 1 tim r d~

I (k+I) I - { I (k+ l ) I I (k+I) I I (k+I) I}

ark - max a"k , a"+l, k ' ... , ank .

Neu a~rl) = 0 thl dung qua trlnh tinh va thong bao : M suy bien neu a~~-l) ¢ 0 thl d6i cM afj-l) vai ~-I , j = k, ... , n

bfk-I) vCJi b~k-l)

Tfnh

a("-l) a(~-I)

(k) _ (k-l) _ Ik kJ

8iJ - 8iJ (k+I)

akk

i = k + 1, k + 2, , n

j = k + 1, k + 2, , n

Sau qua trlnh xuOi ta d1.1Qc M tam giac tren

a~TI)xl + a~~-I)x2 + .,. + a~~-I)xn = b~n-I)

~(n-l) + + a(n-l)x

~2 x2 .. , 2n n

A(n-I)X = ben-I)

+nn n n

rna ta viet l~i gon hen bang each b6 cac chi s6 trsn thanh :

IUxl + II~2 + + 11n"n = ci

122x2 + + 12n"n = Cz

+ In-In''n = Cn-I lnn"n = Cn

55

:Ji

1·. = a(n-l) . c. = b(n-I)

1J 1J ' 1 1

Do do ta co

Qua trinli nguoc :

Neu Inn = 0 thl dung qua trlnh tlnh va thong bao M uy bien

eu Inn ~ 0 thl tinh xn = cnllnn

xn-I = (cn-I - In-I n xn)/ln-I n-I

9. cno thlch

Phuong phap Gaoxo cung cho phep tinh dinh th 1. an, vesi dinh thuc cA:p 3, ta co thea muc 2 §3.2 :

all al2 al3

~1 a22 ~3 = alla~~a~~ a31 a32 a33

cu th~, thea thi du 0 4 §3.2

2 4 3

3 1 - 2 = 2.(-5) . (-2,9) = 29. 4 11 7

Phuong phap Gaoxo cung cho phep tinh rna tr~n nghich dao, nrng chung ta khOng trlnh b~y' 0 day.

§3.3. PHUONG PHAp L~P DON

1. MO ta phuong phap

Phuong phap Gaoxc thuec loai phuong phap dung, tuc Iii ,u cac phep tlnh so cap lam dung hoan. toan. thl cu6i cung

ta duoc nghieni dung cua M. Nguoi ta con noi no thuoc loai phucng phap true tiep. N goai ra con mot loai phuong phap khac goi Ia ph.uong phap lQP.· c'J day ta : chl noi so v~ phuong phap lQP don.

Xet h~ (3.1) dB. viet (j dang vecto (xem cong thuc 3.4)

Ax = f (3.29)

Ta chuydn M nay v~ mot M tuong duong co dang

x = Bx + g (3.30)

trong do ma tran B suy ttt A con vecto g suy ttt f each nao do, gia sit :

B =

bnl bn2 .1. bnn

Sau do ta xa.y dung cong thuc tinli lQP x(m) = Bx(m-l) + g

. x(O) cho truce

(3.31) (3.32)

trong do :

n

(Bx)j = ~ bjf'j (3.33)

j=l

Phuong phap tlnh x(m) theo (3.31) (3.32) gQi Ia phuong phap ~(j,p don. Ma tr~n B goi Ia ma tran lap.

2. SI,I' hOi tl,l

Dinh. nghia 3.1. Gid su a = (aI' a2' ... , an)T la nghiem. cua M (3.30) (tuc 10, cua h~ (3.29)). Neu

xfm) - aj khi m· - 00, i = 1, 2, ... , n !h£ ta noi phuong phap lqp (3.31) (3.32) hoi tu,

57

Dinb nghla 3.2 - Cho vecto Z = (Zl' Z2' ... , Zn) T

hl mlli dai luong sau

liZ 110 := max{ IZd}

II Z III : = I Zd + I Z21 + ... + I z, I

IIZII2 := (zy + Z~ + .. , + Z~)lf2

goi la mot d" dai me rong cua vecto Z, nguoi ta con goi no IS. chuan cua Z.

Chung co tinh ch,a:t gi6ng nhu d¢ dai thOng thuong cua mot

doan thang, hay tri tuy~t d6i cua met 86 thuc :

Voi p = 0 hay 1 hay 2 ta deu co

1) II z II p ~ 0, II z II p = 0 ~ z = vecto khOng

2) 1I • .l.z II p = IA I II z II p' A la m¢t 86 thuc

3) II u + v II p :E; II u II p + II v II p

H~ qua - Neu phuong phap l(tp (3.31) (3.32) Mi t1,1 khi va chi khi :

IIx(m) -allp - 0 khi m - 00 (3.34)

D6i voi rna tr~n vuOng B = (bij) ta dinh nghla chuan cua na tran B :

n'

liB 110 := max L Ibijl ij = 1

n

IIBlh := max L Ibijl ji= 1

Chuan IIBllp ; p = 0,1, thea man ba tlnh cMt gi6ng ba tlnh :hA:t chuan cua vecto :

1) liB lip ~ 0, liB lip = 0 ~ B la rna tr~n khong,

2) IIkB lip = I k] liB lip, k la met 86 thuc ,

3) IIB+Cllp E; IIBllp+IICllp' C IS. rna tr~n cung c!p voi B.

4) II BZ II p :E; II Blip II Z II p' Z Iii vecto co s6 chidu bang ca:p cua B.

Dinb ll 3.2 - N~u IIBllp < 1

(3.35)

thl phuong phap lap (3.31) (3.32) h~i tu vbi ba:t kl dp xi dliu x(o) nao, d6ng thai sai s6 co danh gia

IIx(m) - allp:E; 1~~!llp IIx(m) - x(~I) lip

( ) II B II ~ (1) (0)

IIx m - allp:E; 1-IIBllp IIx -x lip

(3.36)

(3.37)

trong do :

p = 0 neu II B II 0 < 1 p = 1 n~u II B III < 1

Chang minh : Vi a Ia nghiem cua M (3.29) tuc Ia h~ (3.30) nsn.

a=Ba+g

LA:y (3.31) trit dAng thuc nay v~ vai ve ta duoc : x(m) - a = B(x(m - 1) - a)

Do do :

IIx(m) - allp = IIB(x(m-I) -a)lIp:E; IIBllpllx(m-I) - allp

V~y co :

IIx(m) - a lip :E; IIBllpllx(~I) - a lip (*)

IIx(m-I) - allp :E; IIBllpllx(m-2) - allp

IIX(2) - a lip :E; liB lip IIx(I) - a lip IIx(I) - a lip :E; liB lip IIx(O) - a lip

59

Nhan cac Mt dAng thiic nay v~ voi v~ va gian tioc cac thanh tl'n gi6ng nhau " hai ben ta duoc :

IIx(m) - a lip ~ liB IIpmllx(O) - allp

Cho m _00 thl vi 0 ~ IIBllp < 1 thea gia thiet nen liB II~ -0. ~o do :

II x(m) - a II p - 0 khi m - 00

Do chlnh la (3.34). Vf}.y phuong phap lap (3.31) va (3.32) Mi tu. Bay gib xet cac danh gia sai s6. Ta co :

x(m-l) - a = (x(m-l) - x(m» + (x(m) - a)

Ta suy ra :

IIx(m-l) - allp ~ IIx(m) - x(m-l)lIp + IIx(m) -a lip

Do do ba:t dAng thuc (*) cho :

IIx(m) - allp ~ IIBUp {lIx(m) - x(m-l)lIp + IIx(m) - U lip}

V~y co --"

(1 -liB Up) IIx(m) - a lip ~ liB lip IIx(m) - x(m-l) lip

Vi theo gia thi~t cua dinh H liB Up < 1, nan 1 - UBUp > 0 a suy ra :

IIx(m) - allp ~ 1 ~1~Pllp IIx(m) - x(m-l)lip Do la danh gia (3.36)

Bay gib tu (3.31) ta co

x(m) = Bx(m-l) + g ~'

x(m-l) = Bx(m-2) + g

Tru hai dAng thuc nay v~ vfJi v~ ta duoc : x(m) _ x(m-l) = B(x(m-l) _ x(m-2»

Do do

V~y :

IIx(m) - x(m-l)IIp ~ IIBllp IIx(m-l) - x(m-2)lIp Ta BUY dan ra :

IIx(m) - x(m-l)IIp ~ IIBllpm-1Ilx(1) _ x(O) lip

Thay vao ve trai cua (3.36) ta duoc (3.37).

3. Thf dI,J

Xet M

4Xl + 0,24x2 - 0,08x3 = 8

O,09xl + 3x2 - 0,15x3 = 9 0,04xl - 0,08x2 + 4x3 = 20

Gitii. H~ nay co dang (3.29). Ta phai dua no ve dang (3.30) sao cho dieu kien hoi tu (3.35) duoc tho a man. Tit ba phuong trlnh cua M (3.38) ta rut ra

(3.38)

XI = - 0,06x2 + 0,02x3 + 2 x2 = - 0,03xl + 0,05x3 + 3 x3 = - O,OlxI + 0,02xz + 5

V~y co X = Bx + g ver

o

B = -0,03 -0,Q1

-0,06 o

0,02

0,02 0,05 o

2 g = 3 5

D~ ki~m tra dieu kien (3.35) ta tlnh 3

2: Ibljl = 0 + 0,06 + 0,02 = 0,08 j = I

3

2: Ib2jl = 0,03 + 0 + 0,05 = 0,08 j = 1

61

..,

2: Ib3jl = 0,01 + 0,02 + 0 = 0,03 j = 1

Do do IIBllo = max {0,08 ; 0,08 ; 0,03} = 0,08 < 1 V~y theo dinh If 3.2 phuong phap lap dan

x(m) = Bx(m-1) + g

~i tu vai moi x(O) chon truce. Ta chon x(O) = (O,O,O)T. Ket q:a mh ghi thanh bang 3.3

Bdng 3.3

m 0 1 2 3
)«m) 0 2 1.92 1.9094
I
~m) 0 3 3.19 3.1944 !
x<m) 0 5 5,04 5.0446 5.0-t-tH5
~ ;;_ De danh gia sai so ta tinh :

IIx(4) - X(3) 110 = max {lx}4)-xP)j}, i = 1,2,3. = max {0,00017 ; 0,00055 ; 0,00025}

= 0,00055

Ap dung cOng thuc (3.36) vai p = 0 ta thu duoc

(4) 0,08

IIx - a 1I0:E; 1 _ 008' 0,00055 :E; 0,00005

,

V~y co al = 1,90923 ± 0,00005

a2 = 3,19495 ± 0,00005

a3 = 5,04485 ± 0,00005

52

4. So d6 t6m tAt phuong phap I~p don

1) Cho M phuong trlnh tuysn tinh Ax = b.

_"

2) An dinh sai s6 cho phep £, t: > O.

3) Dua M Ax = b v~ M tuong duong

x = Bx + g

Sao cho di~u ki~n (3.35) thoa man.

4) Chon x(o) (tuy y).

5) Tinh

x(m+ 1) = Bx(m) + g m = 0, 1, 2, ...

Cho toi khi

IIx(m) - x(~1) lip < E:

hl dung qua trlnh tlnh.

Ket qua:

x(m) :::: a

Voi sai so :

§3.4. PHV LVC 2

~ MOT ~ DAJ s6 TtJYEN TiNH KHONG 6N DJNH

BAy gib ta nau ml)t hien tuong d~c bi~t dang chu y khi giai 'n dung m¢t h~ phuong trlnh dIP s6 tuyen tinh.

Xet hai h~ cu th~ :

x + 2y

=2

(3.39)

2x + 3,9y = 2

63

x + 2y = 2

2x + 4,1y = 2 Nghism cua M (3.39) la x = Nghiem cua M (3.40) la x =

- 38, y = 20 42. Y = - 20

(3.40)~·

Ta thay rang hai h~ (3.39) va (3.40) chi khac nhau cJ mot M 86 3,9 va 4,1 VCli 14,1 - 3,91 = 0,2, nhung nghiern cua chung khac nhau kha xa :

lx-xl = 142-(-38)1 = 80 I x - y I = 1- 20 - 20 I = 40

Hien tuong "sai mot li di mot dam" nay goi la h ie n tuong kh6ng 6n dinh. trong tlnh toan . Nguoi lam tlnh can ph ai "i~t de d~ phong

BAI T~P

1. Dung phuong phap Gaoxo gild M 2,75x} + 1,78xz + 1,llx3 = 13,62 3,28xI + O,71xz + 1,15x3 = 17,98 1,15xI + 2,70xz + 3,58x3 = 39,72

tinh tCli ba chit 86 Ie thap phan-

2. Dung phuong phap Gauxo giai cac M

a) 3,2xI - 1,5xz + 0,5x3 = 0,90 1,6xI + 2,5xz - 1,Ox3 = 1,55

1,OxI + 4,1xz - 1,5x3 = 2,08

b) 1,5xI - 0,2xz + 0,1x3 = 0,4

- 0,1xI + 1,5xz - 0,1x3 = 0,8

- O,3xI + 0,2x2 - 0,5x3 = 0,2

Cac phep tlnh l§:y den 5 chir 86 Ie tMp phan-

64

3. Giai M sau day bang' phuong phap l$p dan, tlnh l$p ba Mn va cho biet sai s6 :

1,02x) - 0,05x2 - 0,10x3 = 0,795

- O,llx) + 1,03x2 - 0,05x3 = 0,849

- O,llxI - 0,12x2 + 1,04x3 = 1,398

4. GiAi M

24,21xl + 2,42x2 + 3,85x3 = 30,24 2,31xl + 31,49x2 + 1,52x3 = 40,95

3,49xl + 4,85x2 + 28,72x3 = 42,81 bang phuong phap lap dan cho toi khi

IIx(m) - x(m-I)IIo ~ 10-4

va danh gia sai s6

Tra loi

1. Xl = 1,642 ; x2 = - 2,789 ; x3 = 12,672

2. a) XI = 0,5 ; x2 = 1,3 ; x3 = 2,5

b) XI = 0,36540 ; x2 = 0,53053 ; x3 = - 0,40649

3. XI = 0,980 ; x2 :.: 1,004 ; x3 = 1,563

voi sai 86 tuyet d6i nho han 1,1.10- 3 neu chon xa:p xi dliu

x(O) = (0 80 . 0 85 . 1 40) .

) " , ,

4. XI = 0,9444 ; X2 = 1,1743 ; X3 = 1,1775 voi sai 96 thea chuan II. II 0 be han 0,5 . 10-4.

5· PPT

65

Chtrong 4

NOI SUY V A. PHUONG PHAP BINH PHUONG BE NHAT

§4.1. N(n SUY DA rnuc :

DA rmic LAGRANGIO VA DA rmic NIUTO\,

1. Van de nOi suy

Trong thuc te nhisu khi phai phuc h6i mot ham so f· '.1 noi gia tri cua x tren doan a ~ x ~ b rna chi biet 11' ,'!t ,,6 IUU han gia tri cua ham s6 tai mot s6 hiru han cac di~m rbi ac cua doan do. Cac gia tri d6 duoc cung cap qua thuc nghism lay tlnh toan. VfJ_y nriy sinh m(>t van de toan hoc sau :

Tr~n doan a ~ x ~ b cho mot, Ittai cac diem chia (diem uit) xi' i = 0, 1, 2, .. " n :

'a tai cac nut xi cho gia tri cua ham 56 y = f(x) la Yi = [(XI)' = 0, 1, 2, , .. , n vi~t thanh bang 4-1 :

Bdng 4.1

x

Y

Yo

Yt

Yz

Yn

Hay xc1y dung m~t da thuc bfl,c n:

Pn(x) = aoxn + alxn-1 + .. , + Rn-lx + an'

6

-- -

-

Sao cho p,/x) trung uoi f(x) tai cec nut xi. nghla la:

(4.1)

Da thitc Pn(X) IQi hi da th.e noi Suy cu. ham f(x). Ta chon da thdc d~ nQi suy ham f(x) vi da thue la loai ham don gian, luOn co dao ham, va nguyen ham, vi~c tfnh gia tr] cllllg don gian : Ta co

Pn(x) = ( ... (ad' + al)x + a2)"')x + an Do do co so d'tJ Hoocne tinh gia tri Pn(c) :

bo = ao' b1 = boc + al> b2 = b1c + a2' ...

(4.2)

2. SI! duy nhlt eua da th(rc nOi BUY

Dinh. u 4.1 Da thuc n~i suy Pn(X) ella ham s6 f(x) dinb. nghlo. a tren neu co th'i chi co mft ma thoi.

Chung minh, Gia stl co hai da thdc Pn(x) va qn(x) cung n(\i suy mot ham s6 f(x). Liic do :

Pn(xi) = Yi' qn(xi) = Yi

V~Y hi~u Pn(x) - qn(x) 13. mot da thuc co bac E; n lai tri~t ti~u tai n + 1 gia tr] khac nhau xi' i = 0, 1, ... , n (vi Pn(xi) - qn(xi) = Yi - Yi = 0).

Do do Pn(x) - qn(x) phai dong nhA:t khOng, nghla la Pn(x) == qn(x). Da thuc n~i BUY co th~ xAy dung nhieu each, nhung vi no co tlnh duy nhat, nan tA:t ea cac dang cua no d~u co thl quy v~ nhau duoc.

3. Da th(rc nOi suy Lagrangia (Lag rage)

Sau day ta xi1y dung da thuc n¢i suy theo ki~u Lagrangio.

GQi 'i(x) la :

(x - xo) ... (x - xi - 1)(x - Xi + 1) ... (x - X~

li(X) = __

(xi - xo) ... (xi - xi - I)(Xi Xi + 1) ... (Xi x~

67

Ro rang Ij(x) Is mot da thuc bac n va

{I j = i Ij(xj) = 0 J = i

Ta goi n6 Is da thuc Lagrangio co han. BAy gib xet bi~u thiic

(4.3)

n

Pn(x) = L Yj llx)

j =0

(4.4)

Ta th§:y Pn(x) vira la m¢t da thuc n (vi cac lj(x) dvu I,: lc b~c n) vita thoa man (4.1)

Pn(Xj) = Yj

(vi cac Ij(x) thOa man (4.3». V~y Pn(x) xac dinh th-« met da thuc n{li BUy. Ta goi n6 Is da thuc noi suy L(;.C;~.

4. NOi suy b.c nhit (hay noi suy tuyen tlnh) Voi n = 1 ta c6 bang

Bang 4.2

x

Y

Yo

YI

Da thuc n¢i BUy (4.4) se Is Pl(x) = Yolo(x) + Ylll(x)

(4.5)

x-x x-xo

Do d6 : PI (x) = Yo . I + Y I X _ x

Xo - XI I 0

Da thtic PI (x) Is b4c nluit d6i voi x co dang Ax + B

5. NOi suy b.c hai Vai n = 2 ta co bang

Bang 4.3

x

Y

Yo

Da thirc n~i suy (4.4) se la

P2(x) = yolo(x) + Yl1l(x) + Y212(x) (4.6)

(x - xl)(x - x2)

lo(x) = ------

(xo - xl)(xo - x2)

(x - xo)(x - x2)

Il(x) = ------

(xl - Xo)(Xl - x2)

(x - xo)(X - xl)

12(X) = ------

(X2 - Xo)(X2 - x.)

Da thuc P2(X) Ia mOt da thuc bqc 2 d6i vai x co dang Ax2 + Bx + C

6. rnr dl,l

Cho bang s6 :

Bang 4.4

x

2

3

4

Y

17

27,5

76

210,5

Hay lap da thuc n¢i suy tuong ung.

Gidi : 0 dAy n = 3 nen da thuc nQi suy la mOt da thtlc bac 3. Theo (4.4) ta co :

(x - 2) (x - 3)(x - 4) P3(x) = 17. (1 - 2)(1 - 3)(1 - 4) +

(x -l)(x - 3)(x - 4) +27,5 . (2 -1)(2 -3)(2 -4) +

69

+ 76 (x - 1)(x - 2)(x - 4) + (3 - 1)(3 - 2)(3 - 4)

(x - l)(x - 2) (x - 3)

+ 210,5 . (4 - 1)(4 - 2)(4 - 3)

P3(x) = 8x3 - 29x2 + 41,5x - 3,5.

7. Sai s6 n(li suy va vin df chon nut n(li suy

Dinli li 4.2. Nlu ham. f(x) lien tuc treti [a, b] va c6 trong , b) dao ham lien. tuc din cd.p n + 1 thl sai s6 no: SIJ '. I(X) = f'(x) - Pn(x) co bi~u thuc :

r (x) = t<n+l)(c) H(X) c E [ b] '4 .

n (n + I)!' a, \

mg d6:

I·j

Dinh H nay c6 nghla Ill. neu tal met gia tr] xac dinh x E [a, b]

• thay f(x) hOi Po(x) cho don gian thl ta pham met sai s6 tinh ang (4.7)

Chu thlch, Nhu v~y sai s6 nl)i BUY rn(x) phu thuec da thuc :x) tuc Ill. phu thuoc su phan b6 cua cac nut xi tren doa n

Hinh 4-1

LXO' Xn]. Trong truong hop cac nut each deu (hinh 4-1 VCh n = 4) ta thay In(x) I, nho khi x a khoang giiia cua xo' xn ltJn dan khi x ra gan hai mut va cang Ibn khi x vot ra ngoai khoang do. Ta tl,! hoi lieu co the chon cac nut xi' kheng each d~u sao cho In(x) I "be nhat" duoc khong ? CAu tra lbi la kMng dinh, cu the 180 voi a = - 1, b = 1 thi cac nut "t6i uu" do 180 :

2i + 1 x xi = cos n + 1 2"

(4.9)

i = 0, 1, ... , n

Do la cac nghiem cua da thuc 'I'rebusep. 1

Tn + 1 (x) = - cos [(n + l)arcosx) 2n

Luc do ta co n(x) = T n+ 1 (x) va 1 In(x)1 = ITn+l(x)1 ~ - , 2n

Cac nut (4.9) thua a khoang gitra dean [- 1, 1] va mau dan a gan hai mut - 1, + 1 (hnh 4-2).

Khi a '# - 1 hoac b '# 1 ta dung phep d6i bien

(2x + a - b)

t = ...!..----~

(b -a)

de dua khoang a E:: x ~ b v~ khoang - 1 ~ t II!;; 1 r6i chon cac nut tj theo (4.9).

-I .r ...

Hlnh 4-2

71

8. Da th(rc N,iutan

BAy gib ta xet mot each khac M xay dung da thuc nei suy : ch cua Niuton. Truce het ta dua vao khai niem ti hieu,

Gia sa ham y = y(x) eo gili tr] la bang 4-1 d muc 1.

hieu cap met cua y tai xi' Xj la :

(Yi - Yj)

y[xi, Xj] = ( _ )

Xi Xj

'I'i hieu cap hai cua y tai Xi' Xj' Xk la : (y[xi ' Xj] - Y[Xj , xk1)

Y[Xj , Xj , xk] = ( )

Xi -xk

Voi y(x) = P n(X) la m<')t da thuc b~c n thl ti hieu cap :,,' ix, Xo la :

met da thiic bac n - 1, tl hieu cap hai tai x, xo' xi la:

(P n(X' xo1 - P n[X", Xl])

Pn[x, XO' Xl] = (x -Xl)

mot da thuc bac n - 2, ... va toi ti hieu cap n + 1 thi .

Tit dinh nghla cua cac ti hieu ta suy ra

P n(x) = P n(x.o) + (x - xo)P n[x,xo]

P n[x, xo1 = P n[xo, xd + (x - xI)P n[x, xc' xl]

Vi P n[x, Xo. . .. , xn] = 0, tit d6 ta c6 P n(x) = P n(xo) + (x - xo)P n[Xo, Xl] +

+ (X - Xo>(X - XI)P n[Xo, Xl' X2] + ... + (X - xo> ... ( X - Xn-I)P n[Xo, ... , Xn]

(4.10)

N~u P n(X) = Pn(X} la da thuc noi suy cua ham y = f'(x) thl :

P n(Xi) = Pn(Xi) = f(Xi) = Yj, i = 0, 1, ... n.

Do d6 cac tl hieu tit ca:p mot d~n cap n cua P n va cua Y a 4.10) lA trung nhau. VI v(iy thay cho (4.10) ta c6 :

Pn(x) = Yo + (x - Xo)Y[Xo, Xl] + (X - Xo)(X - Xl) '[Xo' Xl' X2] + .. , + (X - Xo>(X - Xl)'"

(4.11)

Da thuc nay goi la da thuc Niuton ti'n xu6.t phat tit nut Xo ua ham y = f(x).

Da thirc sau day IA da thuc Niuton. lui xutit pha» tit nut XII ua ham y = f(x) :

P n(x) = Y n + (x - xn)y[xn, xn--l] +

+ (x - xn)(x - xn--l)y[xn, xn-l' xn-2] + ... +

+ (x - xn)(x - xn-l) ... (x - xl)y[xm ... , xol

(4.12)

Chu y rang, thea dinh nghia, cac ti hi~u c6 tlnh d6i xung yjx., Xj] = Y[Xj~. x)

ylx., Xj' xk] = y[xk' Xj' Xi]

V.v ...

Chu thlch, Da thuc Niuton (4.11) trung vC1i da thuc .agrangic, nhung b6 tri each khac. Theo each cua Niuton khi

73

... - I

,Mm m~t nut xn+ I vao htbi n{li suy ta chi phlli them vao Pn(x) net s6 hang

Pn+ 1 (x) = Pn(X) +

rna khOng phai xay dung lai tat ca cac da thiic co sa nhu each lam cua Lagrange,

9. Tntang hc;1P cac nut c6ch deu Gill su cac nut xi each d~u

Xi = Xo + ih, i = 0, 1, .. " n,

a) Trubc h~t ta dua vao khai niem sai pban. tien Sai phan. tUn cap mot tai i :

!J.Yi = Yi+ I - Yi

Sai pban. tien cap hai ~i i :

!J.2Yi = !J.(!J.Yi) = Yi+2 - 2Yi+1 + Yi

Sai ph4n tUn c6p n tai la ~ = !J.(!J.n-Iyi)

-,

Khi d6 ta c6 :

!J.Yo y[xo' XI] = h

t:.2yo Y[Xo' Xl' X2] = -2- 2h

Y[Xo ... " xrJ

!J. "Yo

=-'--

(n! h")

74

BAy gib d$t x = Xo + ht trong da thtic Niuton ti~n (4:11) ta dU(1t. t(t-l) 2

Pn(X) I = Yo + Myo + 2' Il. Yo + ...

x = X" +ht .

t(t - 1) ... ( t - n + 1) n.,

+ , Il.Yo

n •

(4.13)

goi La da thuc Niutan tien xutit phat tu Xo trong truong hap nut cacti deu,

V oi n = 1 ta co :

(4.14)

Vl1i n = 2 ta co

t(t -1) L

P2(x) I _ = Yo +Myo + 2t Il. Yo

x - Xo + hi

(4.15)

b) MQt each tuong tu, voi khai niam sai pban lui tai i :

VYj = Yj - Yj-l

V2Yi = V(VYi) = Yi - 2Yi-l + Yi-2

VnYi = V(Vn-1Yi)

ta co da thuc noi suy Niuton. lui xutit phat tu xn trong truong Itqp nut cacb. d~u :

t(t + 1) 2

pn(x) I = Yn + t VYn + 2' V Yn + ...

x=~+~ .

t(t + 1) ... (t + n - 1) Vn..

+ , + Yn

n.

(4.16)

10. Thf d\l

Cho met s6 gia trj ella ham sin x

Bdng 4.5

x 0,1 0,2 0,3 0.4
sin x 0,09983 0,19867 0,29552 0,38942 HAy tinh gcin dung sin (0,14) va sin (0,46)

75

Giiii, Dua VIlO bang cac gia tr] da cho cua sinx, ta thay ham sinx bang mot da thuc n(ii suy. VI cac nut Xi CJ day each d~u voi h = 0,1, nen ta se ap dung da thuc Niutcn. Truce h€t ta l~p bang cac sai phan :

Bdng 4.6

I sin x fly , fl3y
X fl-y
0 0,1 0.09983
_-- 9884
1 0,2 0,19867 --_-- -199
9685 - -96
2 0,3 0.29552 -295 -_
9390 -
3 0,4 O,3~942 -
_-=zo_
- -
i x sin x Vy V~ v\
-~ a) Tinh : sin(0,14). VI 0,1 < 0,14 < 0,2 nen ta dung .: i ..uc Niuton tien (4.13) xuat phat tit Xo = 0,1 vci h = 0,1 dua vao cac sai phan ti€n di xu6ng a bang 4 - 6 (gach dudi m¢t gach)

p(x) I _ = 0,09983 + t.O,09884 +

x-O.l+O.lt

+ t(t2~ 1) .0,00199 + (t(t - !)? - 2) .0,00091;

Ung vdi x = 0,14 ta co 0,14 = 0,1 + O,lt, ta suy ra t Thay t = 0,4 vao v€ phai a tran ta tlnh duoc:

sin(0,14) :::::: p(0,1 + 0,1.0,4) = 0,13954336

Sai s6 tlnh thea cong thuc (4.7). 0 day n = 3, ta co

'.

ISinn+1(x) I = Isin(4)(x) I = [sin x] :e; 1

.n(x) = (x - 0,1)(x - 0,2)(x - 0,3)(x - 0,4) 1.n(0,14)1 = 1(0,14 - 1)(0,14 - 0,2)(0,14 - 0,3) x

x (0,14 - 0,4) I :e; 10-4

76

V~y (4.7) cho :

-4

Isin(0,14) - 0,139543361 ~ 1~! ~ 4,2.10-6

Ta thay rang s6 0,13954336 co nhieu chu s6 dang nghi, ta IUY tron no den 5 chir s6 Ie thap phan

sin(0,14) = 0,13954 ± 10-5

b) Tlnh : sin(0,46). vi 0,46 > 0,4 va 0 gan 0,4 nen ta dung ta thuc Niuton lui (4.16) xuat phat tu x3 = 0,4 dua vao cac ai phan lui di l~n (gach duci hai gach 0 bang 4-6)

P(x) I x = 0,4 + 0,11 = 0,38942 + t.0,09390 +

t(t + 1) t(t + 1)(t + 2)

+ 2 ! . 0,00295 - 3 ! . 0,00096

Ung voi x = 0,46 ta co 0,46 = 0,4 + O,lt ta suy ra t = 0,6. 'hay t = 0,6 vao ve trai 0 trsn ta tlnh duoc :

sin(0,46) z p(O,4 + 0,1.0,6) = 0,4439446

Sai s6 tlnh theo cong thuc (4.7) nhu 0 tren 1 sin(0,46) - 0,44394461 ~ 3,8.10- 5

Ta quy tron s6 0,4439446 den 5 chir s6 Ie thap phan sin(0,46) = 0,44394 ± 5.10-5

Chit. thlcb : Ta nhan thay rang sai s6 khi tlnh sin(0,46) gap Ian sai s6 khi tinh sin(0,14). Li do la 0,46 a ngoai khoang >,1 ; 0,4) con 0,14 0 trong khoang do, cho nan khi tlnh sin >,46) ta phai "ngoai suy" con khi tlnh sin(0,14) ta chi "n.,i suy". a co th~ xem lai muc 7, hlnh 4-1 thay rang sai s6 ngoai suy ;uy~t d6i) Ion vot rat nhanh.

77

.~t

§4.2. PHlJONG PHAP BINH PHlJONG BE NHAT

1. Ma d'u

Gia sit co hai dai IUQng (vat li, hoa hoc, kl thuat.v.) x va y

co li~n M phu thuoc nhau theo mot dang da bilt nhu:

1. Y = a + bx

2. Y = a + bx + ex2

3. y = a + bcosx + csinx

4. y = aebx

5. y = axb

nhung chua bilt cdc gia tri cu thl cua cac thani 86 a, b, c. Mu6n xac dinh chung nguoi ta tim each co duoc - bang thl

.~ nghiem, do dac v.v ... , mot s6 cap gia tri tuong ung 'XI' .')'

i = 1, 2, .'" n

Bdng 4.7

x

y

y,

r6i ap dung phuong phap blnh phucng be nh~t de xac dinh cac tham 86

2. Truong hep Y = a + bx y = a + bx.

Gia sit y phu thuoc x dang y = a -I- bx khi dd

Yi - a - bx, = £i' i = 1, 2, .'" n Iii cac sai 56 tai xi' do dd :

S = L(Yi - a - bx/

la tlSng cac blnh phirong cua cac sai s6 , phu thu~ a va b, con xi' Yj dA biet,

(4.17)

8

Muc dlcli cua phuong pluip binb. phuong be nluit la xac dinh: t va b sao cho S be nhtit, Nhu v~y a va b 180 nghiem cua M ahuong trlnh

as = 0 vS = 0 (4.18)

Va ' vb

Ilc 18. :

na + bLxj = LYi

aLx, + b" x~ = "x.y.

I L.J I L.JII

(4.19)

Tu bang 4-7 ta tlnh ra cac t6ng LXi' LYi' 2: xr, LXiYi' thay 8.0 h(i (4.19) r6i gia] h(i do ta duoc a va b.

3. Thi dl,l
Cho biet sl1 ph\l thuoc giua hai dai IU<;Jng X va Y co d:;tng
= a + bx va cho bang s6 li(iu
Bang 4.8
x -1,1 2.1 3.2 4.4 5.2
Y 0,78 7.3 9.2 11.9 13.3 Hay xac djnh a va b bang phuong phap blnh phuong be nhat. Gitii. Trl1CJc het ta I~p bang s6 :

Bang 4.9

Xi Yi , Xi Yi
X~
I
- 1,1 0,78 1.21 - 0,858
2,1 7,3 4,41 15,33
n = 5 3,2 9,2 10.24 29,44
4,4 11,9 19,36 52,36
5,2 13,3 27,04 69,16
L 13,8 42,48 62,26 165,43 79

Sau do M phuong trlnh (4.19) vi€t:

5a + 13,8b

= 42,48

13,8a + 62,26b = 165,432

Giai h~ nay ta duoc :

a = 2,9939036 :::::: 3 ; b = 1,9935131 :::::: 2 V~y co quan M :

Y = 3 + 2x

(4.20)

BAy gib ta thu tlnh cac gia tri moi cua y tai cac x. then (4.20) va so sanh chung vai cac gia tr] Yj da cho boi bang 4-8 (xem bang 4-10).

Bung 4.10

r-t- .-.
x -1.1 2,1 3.2 4.4 -
_-- .-----~
y eii 0.78 7.3 9.2 11.9 13,3
Y mdi 0.8 7,2 9,4 11.8 13.4 Nhu v~y quan M (4.20) dp xl kha t6t bang s6 li~u 4.8.

4. Cae d,ng quan h. khae

Cac dang phu thuec 2, 3 nsu (j muc 1 la nhii'ng quan h~ tuyen. tinh d6i vai cac tham s6 a, b, e nan cung co the giai quy€t mot each tuong t\1. Chang han, n~u :

y = a + bx + ex2

thl a, b, e la nghiem cua M :

= 2:Yi

a 2: xi + b 2: xt + c 2:x; = 2: xiYi a 2:xr + b 2:x; + c 2:x~ = L xt Yi

80

_ --~ 0--- ~ .... :J <.;U ui;lng '* nay 0 ta phai

)i~n d6i doi chut vl do la nhirng quan M phi tuyen d6i vbi cac .ham s6 a va b.

Gill sa

y = ae°x' a > 0-

Lay legarit thap phan hai v~ ta duoc

logy = loga + bxloge

D~t logy = Y, loga = A, bloge = B, x = X

'1 co : Y = A + BX

Day la quan M dang y = a + bx.

Tu hang s6 li~u v~ x, y ta suy ra bang s6 li~u v~ X, Y vdi hti y :

X = x,

Y = logy

Sau do ap dung each lam a muc 2 ta thu dUQc A, B r6i tu

o suy a va b. Bay gib gill sa :

y = ax", a > 0, x > 0

LA:y logarit hai v~ ta duoc : logy = loga + blogx

D~t logy = Y. Ioga = A. b = B, logx = X

! co :

Y = A + BX

D6 la quan M dang y = a + bx.

Ta lai lam nhu a muc 2.

5. Sa do t6m tAt phU'ang ph'p blnh phU'ang be nh«t

o dAy chi trlnh bay hai trubng hop : Khi cho bi~t gifta x va co li~n M:

- PPT

81

Y = a + bx va khi cho biet giua " va Y c6 li~n M y = aeb:<.

Cac truong hop khac ban doc tl,t lam

a) Truong hQP cho biet g!ua x va Y c6 lien he y = a + bx va bang 86:

x

X2 '"

---4------------------------- ----

Y

Y2'"

Yn

Sa d6 tom tAt cua phuong phap nhu sau 1) 'I'Inh cac t6ng:

Lxi' LYi' 2: xf ' 2: xiYi 2) Gilti M:

na + bLxi = Lyi

aLxi + b L xf = LxiYi d~ tim ra a va b.

3) Ket luan:

Y = a + bx

vlJi a, b tinh ra cu the C1 2).

b) Truong hQP cho biet gitra x va Y c6 lien h~;

y = aebx, a > 0 va bang 86 t~n.

Sa d6 t6m tAt cua phuong phap nhu sau 1) LA:y logarit hai ve cua Y = aebx

logy = loga + xbloge

y = logy, X = x

A = loga, B = bloge t.a dt1n li~n M gif1a X va Y

Y = A + BX

'2

2) Chuy~n bi.ng s6 gifta x va y thanh bang s6' 'gila X va Y

Y YI = logy, Y2 = logy2

Yn = 10gYn

3) 'I'[nh cac t6ng;

Lxi' LYi, L Xf , LxjYj

4) Giai M:

nA + BLxi = LYj

,,~v + B" X~ = Lxy d4 tim ra A va B

~ L.J I 11

5) Tfnh:

a = eA, b = B/loge

6) K~t luan :

y = a.ebx

vbi a va b tfnh ra C\1 th4 0 5).

BAI T~P

1. Cho ham s6 y = 2x vbi cac gia tri tai x = 3,50 i 3,55 ; 3,60 ; 3,65 i 3,70 tu~n t\! la 33,115 ; 34,813 ; 36,598 i 38,475 i 40,477. HAy l~p da thuc nQi suy Niuton ti~n xu4t phat tit nut 3,50.

2. 'I'Ich phan sac xu4t:

83

hong' dnh dUQc blngnguy~n ham. NguCJi ta da tinh gan aung 6 tai x = 1,0, 1,1 ; 1,2 ; 1,3 ; 1,4 ; 1,5 ; 1,6 ; 1,7 ; 1,8 ,9 ; 2,0 dugc cac gia trj dp xl tuan tlj la 0,8427 ; 0,8802 ,9103 ; 0,9340 ; 0,9523 ; 0,9661 ; 0,9763 ; 0,9838 ; 0,9891 ',9928 ; 0,9953 j

Hay tfnh <1>(1,43).

3. Cho ham 86 y = eX tai x = 0,65 (0,1) 1,15 tuan tu la ,91554 j 2,11700 ; 2,33965 j 2;58571 j 2,85765 j 3,15819. Hay Inh In2.

4. Biet fang dai luong y la mot tam thiic bac hai ella x va ~i x = 0,78 j 1,56 j 2,34 j 3,12 j 3,81 cac gia tri ella y t ua n lj la 2,5 j 1,20 j 1,12 j 2,25 j 4,28. Hay lap cOng thuc y bieu lilin qua x.

Tra loi

1. P3(x) I x =: 3.50 + 0.051 = 33,115 + 1,698t +

+ 0,0435 t (t - 1) + 0,00083t(t - l)(t - 2)·

2. <1> (1,43) ~ 0,95686.

3. In2 ::= 0,693148.

4. y = 5,045 - 4,043x + 1,009x2•

--

_ __ __ ~ .-... ~'~ _ .... _._ __ ... J

! 1-. ~

..

Clurong 5

TiNH GAN DUNG D~O HAM

" " ,

VA TICH PHAN XAC DINH

§5.1 TINH GAN DUNG DA.O HAM

1. Ap dl,mg da thue nQi suy

D~ tlnh gan dung dao ham cua ham f(x) tai x tuc la f" (x) ta co th~ thay ham f(x) bang da thuc n¢i suy p'(x) r6i tinh dao ham cua da thuc n¢i suy : p'(x), la:y p'(x) lam gia tr] g4n dung cua f'(x).

Thi du. : Xet ham s6 cho boi bang 4-4 0 muc 6 §4.1. Ta dA tim ra da thuc n¢i suy cua no la :

P3(x) = ax3 - 29x2 + 41,5x - 3,5

V~y f'(x) :::::: P'3(x) = 24x2 - 58x + 41,5.

2. Ap dl,mg eOng th(rc T.ylo

Theo cong thuc Taylo (xem cOng thllc 2-30), ta co :

h2

f(x·+ h) = f(x) + hr(x) + iT r'(c)

c = x + 6h, 0 < 6 < 1.

Khi I h I be thi s6 hang cu6i 0 ve phai ra:t be, ta co th~ b6 qua va co

f(x + h) - f(x) :::::: hr(x)

V ' f'(x) f(x + h) - f(x)

~y co: (x ~ h

(5.1) (5.2)

85

Thi du : Xet ham sinx cho hOi bang 4.5 a muc 10 §4.1. Ap mg cOng thuc (5.2) ta co tai x = 0,2

(si )' I =:: 0,29552 - 0,19867 = 0 09685

smx x = 0,2 0 1 '

,

§S.2. TiNH GAN DUNG rtcn PHAN XAC DINH

1. Me; dau

Xet tich phan xac dinh : h

I = J f(x)dx

a

Neu f(x) lien tuc tr~n [a, b] va co nguyen ham lit Flx' : ~, i mg thuc Niuton - Lepnit cho :

b

J f(x)dx = F(b) - F(a)

a

Nhung neu khOng tim du<}c nguyen ham cua f(x) a dang so [p thl tlch phan I phai tinh g4n dung. Sau dAy ta se trlnh ~y hai eOng thiic tfnh g4n dung tlch ph An I dua tr~n tu tuong lay ham f(x) bang mot da thuc n¢i suy.

2. COng th(rc hinh thang

Ta chi a [a, b] thanh n doan eon bAng nhau hOi cac diem hia xi :

a = Xo < xl < ... < xrt-l < xn = b

Xi = a + ih,

h = (b -a)

n

i = 0, 1, 2, ... , n

.... ' _,,_,....J

Ta cO :

b ~ ~ ~

f fdx = f fdx + f fdx + ... + f fdx

(5.3)

a

D~ tlnh m6i tlch phan 0 ve phai ta thay ham f(x) bang mot da thuc n¢i suy bac nhat PI(X), (xern cac cong thuc 4.5 va 4.1;). Voi tlch phan thu nhat ta eo

XI XI

f f(x)dx ~ J PI(x)dx

D6i bien x = Xo + ht thl dx = hdt, ung Xo la t = 0, ung

xI 1a t = 1, nen eo :

XI I t2

J pt<x)dx = h J (yo + tAyo)dt = h (Yot + '2 Ayo) I:: ~

Xo 0

XI Yo +Yl

V~y eo : J f(x)dx z h 2

~

V~ m$t hlnh hoc di~u do eo nghla 1a : thay dien tich hlnh thang cong xoMuMlxl boi dien tich hlnh thang thuong xoMoMlx} (hlnh 5-1).

j I )(0

+~-~

ffinh 5-1

R7

D6i voi tich phan thtl i + 1 ta co

~+1 Yi +Yi +,

I f(x)dx ~ h --2 -

~

V~y cong thuc (5-3) cho :

b h

f f(x)dx = 2" [(Yo + y,) + (Yl + Y2) + ... + (Yn-I + Yn)]

a

ghla III :

b

I = I f(x)dx ~ IT voi

a

(5\

(b -a)

h = -'------'-

n

Ceng thuc nay goi III cong tnac hinn thang 3. Danh gia sai s6

Nguoi ta chung minh duqc

M ,., 1

II - ITI ~ 12h"(b -a),

M = max lf '(x) ], a ~ x ~ b

(5.5)

4. Thi du

HAy tlnh gan dung :

I

I=I~

1 +x2 o

(5.6)

, .---

Gitii, Ta dA bi~t gia tr] dung cua tich phAn nay III It/4. Do n€u bi€t 86 It thl co :

I = 0,78539816 ...

BAy gib ta tlnh g~n dung I bang eOng thuc hlnh thang r6i so sanh k~t qua.

Chia doan (0, 1] thanh n = 10 doan con bang nhau, h = 0,1 ; ta tinh ra bang 5.1

Bdng 5.1

x rex) = 1/( 1 + x~)
0.0 1.0000000 = Yo
0,1 0,9900990 = Yt
0.2 0.9615385 = Y~
0,3 0.9174312 = Y3
0.4 0.8620690 = Y4
0.5 0,8000000 = Y5
0.6 0.7352941 = Yt>
0,7 0.6711409 = Y7
0,8 0,6097561 = Ys
0.9 0,5524862 = Y9
1.0 0.5000000 = YIO Ap dung cong thuc hlnh thang (5.4) ta duoc I ::::: 0,7849815 vCli sai s6 tuong d6i 0,054%.

5. Sa d6 t6m tAt cOng thuc hlnh thang Phuong an 1 : Cho trttCle s6 khoang chia n b

1) Xet tlch 'phan I = I f(x)dx;

a

2) An dinh s6 khoang chi a nj

3) Chia (a, b] thanh n phan bang nhau:

Tlnh:

b -a h = --j n

Xi = a + ih, i = 0, 1, ... , n-, Yi = f(xi)' i = 0, 1, ... , n.

89

4) Ttnh:

[Yo+Yn ]

IT = h 2 + Yt + ... + Yn-I

5) K~t qua:

I :::::: IT

vbi sai s6 tlnh hOi (5.5) Phuong an 2 : cho truce sai s6 b

1) Xet tich phan I = f f(x)dx

a

..,

2) An dinh sai 86 cho phep E

3) Dung eOng thue (5.5) d~ X8e dinh s6 khoang chia n sao

10 sai s6 be thua sai s6 eho phep,

4) Tinh nhu 3) cua phuong an 1

5) Tinh IT nhu 4) C1 phuong an 1

6) K€t qua:

I == IT

Cri sai s6 II - ITI < E

6. COng thUc Simxan (Simpson)

Ta ehia [a, b] thanh 2n doan con bAng nhau boi cac di~m hia Xi :

a = Xo < xI x2 < ... < x2n = b

(b -a)

Xi = a + ih, h = 2n' i = 0, 1, ... , 2n

Gilt sit Yi = f'(x.), Ta co :

b ~ ~ x~

f f(x)dx = f fdx + f fdx + ... + f fdx (57)

a

X~n - 2

o

; --

-

D~ tinh moi tich phan " v~ phai ta thay f(x), bang da thuc n(li suy bac hai Pz(x), xem cOng thirc (4.6) va (4.15). Voi tlch phan thu nhat ta co :

x, x ..

j f(x)dx :::: j P2(x)dx

D6i bi~n x = Xo + ht thl dx = hdt, ung XO III t = 0, ung x2 III t = 2. Do do :

f P2{x)dx = h} (Yo + t~yo + l(t; 1) ~2yo)dt

Xl) 0

. t2 1 t3 t2 I = 2

= h [ Yot + 2 L\yo + 2" ( 3" - 2) L\2yo] L = 0

= h[ 2yo +2L\yo + ~ (~_~)~2yo]

h

= 3" (Yo +4Yl +y~.

V~y co

D6i voi cac tich phan sau ta cling co met each tuong tv

X!i +! h

I = 3" (Y2i + 4Y2i + 1 + Y2i + 2)

x,·

_.

Ceng lai, cOng thuc (5.7) cho :

b h .

I f(x)dx:::: 3" [(Yo + 4Yl + Y2) + (Y2 + 4Y3 + Y4) + ...

a

91

b

V~y co I = f f(x)dx ;::: Is voi

a

h = --,--(b~-_a...;_) 2n

(5.8)

Cong thuc nay goi lit cong thuc Simxon,

7. Danh gia sai so

Nguoi ta chung minh ducc

(5.9)

8. Th( d ....

Xet tich phan (5.6) a muc 4. Voi bang 5-1 dA tlnh, a do ta

o th~ lip dung cong thuc Simxon vi 10 = 2.5. Ta dUQc

I ;::: 0,78539815 voi sai 86 nrong d6i 0,000002 %

D6i chieu voi k6t qua eho hOi cOng thue hlnh thang ta thay •• n qua nay chinh xac hon nhieu .

9. Sa d6 t6m tit eOng thUe Slmxan Phuong an 1 : eho tru(Je 86 khoang chia 2n

b

1) Xet tich phan I = f f(x)dx

a

2) An dinh 86 khoang chia 2n

3) Chia [a, b] thanh 2n ph4n bAng nhau.

Tfnh:

b -a h =

2n

Xi = a + ih, i = 0, 1, ... , 2n Yi = f(x.), i = 0, 1, ... , 2n 4) 'I'Inh.

h

Is = "3 [(Yo + Y2n) + 4(Y2 + ... + Y2rt-l) +

+ 2(Y2 + .. , + Y2n-2)

5) Ket qua:

I :::: Is

Voi sai s6 tlnh hOi cong thuc (5.9) Phuong an 2 :. eho truce sai s6

b

1) Xet tich phan I = f f(x)dx

a

2) An dinh sai 86 cho phep E

3) Dung eOng thiic (5.9) d~ xac dinh s6 khoang chia 2n sao

cho sai 86 be thua sai s6 eho phep

4) LAm nhu a 3) cua phuong an 1

5) Tfnh Is nhu CI 4) cua phuong an 1

6) Ket qua:

I == Is vCJi.sai s6 I I - Is I < E.

BA. T~P

1. Cho ham s6 Y = logx vdi s6 cac gia tr] tai X = 50 ; 55 ; 60 ; 65 tuan tv la 1,6990 ; 1,7404 ; 1,7782 ; 1,8129. Hay tlnh dao ham cua y tai x = 50 va so sanh vdi ket qua tinh true tiep.

93

2. Cho tich phan. 1

I=I~

1 +x

o

Hay chia doan (0, 1] thanh n = 10 doan con bang nhau r6i nh ga:n dung I va eho danh gia sai s6 bang :

a) Cong thl.lc hlnh thang ; b) bang eOng thuc Simxon. 3. Cho tich phan :

I .

I = I smx dx x

o

1) Hoi phai chia doan (0,1] thanh mA:y (n = ?) doan con It\ng nhau d~ khi tlnh I bang ceng thuc hlnh thang bao dam tu~c sai s6 (tuy~t d6D < 3.10-4.

2) Voi n A:y khi tlnh thea ceng thuc Simxon thl sai s6 la sao nhieu ?

3) Hay tinh I voi n da chon a tren bang cong thuc hinh hang va eOng thuc Simxon d€n 6 chit 56 Ie tM,p phan.

Tra k7i

1. Dung nl)i suy : y'(50) = 0,0087

,. 0,43429 I'

Tinh true tl€p : y'(50) = x . =

)(=50

0,0087

2. I = 0,69315 ± 0,00002

3. n ~ 10

Voi n = 10 thl sai s6 < 1,2.10-7

Theo cong thuc hlnh thang : I = 0,9458

Theo cOng th(ic Simxon ta co : I = 0,946082.

_ .. 10 __ .. • ;-. __

.i

.... ,.,.---_ .. ,

Chuong 6

, '", ".,

TINH GAN DUNG NGHIt;M CUA .

, , 1\ ,.., ,

BAI TOAN COSI DOl VOl

PHUONG TRINH VI PHAN THUONG

§6.1. PHAT BrEu BAI TOAN

1. Nh~n xet rna diu

Xet chang han phuong trlnh vi phan thuong cap m¢t

y' = 2x + 1

(6.1)

Ro rang nghiem Mng quat ella no Ia y = x2 + x + C

(6.2)

phu thuec m¢t hAng s6 tuy y C, m6i gia tr] cu tM' ella C cho mot nghiem cu th~. D~ co mot nghiem xac djnh (phan anh met tlnh hu6ng cu th~) ta phai xac dinh duoc gia tri tuong ung cua c. Mu6n th~ ngoai phuong trinh (6.1) ta phai them m¢t dHlu ki~n phu, chang han

y(l) = 2

(6.3)

Ham s6 (6.2) phai thea man di~u kien (6.3) ta BUY ra 2=12+1+C

do do C = o. V~y ham 86 y(x) vira thoa man phuong trlnh (6.1) vua thea man di~u ki~n (6.3) Ia y = x2 + x.

95

Di~u ki~n (6.3) goi la dieu kien vOSI \IlHy Ul"'U no.y •• __ • _

I) cua bai toan va bai to an (6.1) (6.3) tuc la bai toan tim n s6 y(x) vira thoa man phucng trlnh vi phan (6.1) vira thea .n di~u kien (6.3) goi la bai toan Cosi (hay bai toan tri ban u) d6i vdi phuong trlnh vi phan (6.1)

2. Phat bi'u bai toan Cosi doi vai mOt phuang trinh vi IAn c'p m~t

Cho khoang [xo' XJ. Tim ham s6 y = y(x) xac dinli tren. 0' XJ ui: thoa man

y' = f'(x, y), Xo IE; x IE; X

(6.4) (6.5)

ong d6 f(x, y) la mot ham 86 da biet cua hai d6i 86 x, y. con. la mot 86 thuc cho truck Di~u kien (6.5) goi 130 dieu k ieri ~8i hay di~u ki~n tri ban dl1u.

Thf du 1 Bai toan (6.1) (6.3)

Thf du 2 Bai toan

, 2x

y = y -y

+

(6.6)

y(O) = 1

(6.7)

3. V4n d' tfnh g'n dung nghifm

Vi~c tim nghiem cua bai toan Cesi thuong rl1t phuc tap, hong phAi hie nao cung don gian nhu thi du a muc 1. :ho nan ngttbi ta phai nghlen ciiu cac phuong phap tinh An dung. Sau dAy ta se trlnh bay mot s6 phuong phap uoi gia 'tilt la :

"Bai toan dq,t ra c6 nghiem duy nluit va nghiem d6 du tran,

ghla la n6 c6 dao ham dln cap du cao" (6.8)

6

§6.2. PHlJONG PHA.P CHubI TAYLO

1. Me. ta phLtang ph8p

- Xet bai toan Cosi (6.4) (6,5) viet lai la

y' = f(x, y),

(6.9) (6.10)

Ta tim nghism ytx) khai trien thanh chuoi Taylo tai x = Xo Kern chuoi Tylo a sach giao khoa ve giai tich) :

y'(xo) y"(xJ 2

y (x) = y(xo) + -1-!- (x - xo) + ~ (x - xo) + ...

y<k) (xo) k

+ k ! (x - xo) + ...

Bay gio ta tinh cac dao ham y(k)(xo) cua y tai xO' Theo (6.10) .1 co y(xo) = rz. Sau do theo (6.9) :

(6.11)

(6.12)

Mu6n tinh cac dao ham tiep thea ta phai lay dao ham lien ep (6.9). Vci y" ta co :

y" = (y')' = (f(x), y(x»'

of Of ,

= ox (x , y(x» + oy (x, y(x» . y (x) (6.13)

Thay x = Xo vao (6.13) va chu y den (6.12) va (6.10) ta tQc :

"() or er r

y Xo = ax (xo' '1.) + ay (xo' '1.). (xo' '1.)

M¢t each tuong t\C, de tlnh y"'(xo) truck het ta phai l(y dao rm (6.13), sau d6 thay x = xo' Va Cll thf tifp tuc,

- PPT

97

V~ nguyen tac, neu f co dao ham rieng cAp ba.t Kl trn co th~ tfnh duoc t~t ca cac dao ham yCk)(xo) va do do ta xay dung duoc chudi (6.11).

Voi x kha gan xo' tile la Ix - Xo I du be nguoi ta chung minh duoc rang ehu6i (6.11) hOi til- ve nghieni eua biii loan IG.9) (6.10). Luc d6 tong eua n s6 liang dau eua (6.11) We 1<'1 tong rieng thu n, Sn(x) cua chudi (6.11), la nghieni xtip xi eua bai toan. (6.9) (6.10), mtic de? chinh xac phu thuoc n, no cang cao neu n cang Ian

2. rnr du Xet bai toan

, y

y = x +y

(6.1.11

y(1) = 2

Gitii : Ta tim nghiem co dang chu6i Taylo (6.11). Theo (6.15) ta co Xo = 1, y(xo) = y(1) = 2.

Ta suy ra :

,22 y(1) = --=- 1 +2 3

Sau do I~y dao ham (6.14)

y" = (_y_)' = (x + y)y' - y(x + y)' = xy' - y

x + y (x + y/ (x + y)2-

Ta suy ra :

1 . (2/3) - 2 - 4

y"(1) = . =-

(1 +2l 27

M~t each tuong tv ta tfnh duoc s" (1) k~t qua do vao (6.11) ta duoc.

4

= 27 V.v ... Thay cac

98

.-

.-~-

2 222 3

y'(x) = 2 + 3 (x - 1) - 27 (x - 1) + 81 (x - 1) + ...

BAy gio ta co tM' dung eOng thuc nay d~ tlnh gan dung ytx) tai x = 1,1 chang han, vi 11,1 - 11 = 0,1 be nan ta bO qua cac s6 hang.; C1 eu6i va thu duoc :

2 2 2 2 3

y(l,l) ::= 2 + 3.0,1 - 27 (0,1) + 81 . (0,1) ::= 2,06584

§6.3. PHUONG PHAP OLE

1. Ma dau

Phuong phap ehu6i Taylo thuec loai phuong pluip gidi tich tuc la tim nghiem duci dang ml)t ehu6i. Con phuong phap Ole thuoc loai phuong phap 86 tue Iii tim nghiem dudi dang bang s6.

T'ruoc het ta ehia doan [Xo, Xl thanh n doan nho bang nhau boi cac di~m Xi ~

Xi = Xo + ih, i = 0, 1, ... , n

(6.16)

(X -x)

h = 0

n

(6.17)

Ta goi t~p cac di~m {xi} Iii mOt luoi sai pluin. tren [xo, X], ~Qi cac diem xi la cac nut cua lubi vii goi h Iii buoc di cua ,ubi. 0 day h = eonst nen ta co met luoi deu

Gia sit y(x) la nghiem dung cua bai toan (6.9) (6.10). Muc iich cua phuong pluip Ole la tim each. tinh glin dung gia tri ~ua y(x) chi tai cdc nut Xi ma thoi, chu kh6ng pluii tai moi r E [xo' X]. VI Xi 18. nut cua met lubi sai ph An nen phuong ihap Ole cung goi Iii phuong phap sai phan,

2. XAy dl,tng cOng thuc tfnh

GQi y(x) Iii nghiem cua bai toan (6.9) (6.10) Y(Xj} 1ii giA tri cua y(Xj) tai x = xi

99

-. ..- 6"-' "4+ 6-44 ,-&U446 .... uu. J \Ai' .lug, ... a. I.UUV.u "'lollU. tJi:lU Ul1'y "a.

xAy dung ceng thuc tinh Uj.

GiA sit dA bi~t Uj tai nut Xj va mu6n tlnh Uj+l tai nut xi+l' Ta khai tri~n Taylo ham y (x) tai Xj (xem cong thiic (2 - 30» va

Cj = xi + e(x - x.), 0 < e < 1

Thay x = Xi+ 1 = Xi + h, y'(Xj) = f(Xi' y(Xj» (theo 6.9) vao dlmg thuc tr~n ta duoc :

y(Xi+ 1) = y(Xj) + hf(x], y(Xj» + ~ y" (Cj)

\6.18)

Khi h be, s6 hang' cu6i a v~ phai co the xem la bc5, k hon g dang k~, ta bO qua, sau do thay y(Xj) bang Uj ta duoc cong thuc.

(6.19)

Cong' thuc nay cho phep tlnh Uj+l khi dA bi~t Uj. Dieu kien Cosi (6.10), y(xo) = rz, goi y ta d~t

I G ~~ I))

BAy gib dung (6.19) cho i :c: 0 ta tinh ra u1, sau do cho = 1 ta tinh ra u2' v.v ... , cu6i cung ta tfnh ra tttt ca cac Uj' = 1, 2, ... , n.

Phuong phap tinli Uj theo cdc cong thuc (6.19) (6.20) goi Jo. phuong phap Ole.

Ta thay rang, voi phuong phap Ole vi~c tinh ra Uj+ 1 khi da biet Uj rat don gian, khOng phai giai mOt phuong trlnh nao du

ham f(x, y) la tuyen tinh hay phi tuy~n d6i . Vbi,.i do ta

noi phuong phap Ole Ie. phuong piuip . . ~ ~

. t_ ...

:-."t'£-

100

3. SI! hOi tl,l va sai s6

Ta goi ej = Uj - Y(Xj) la sai 56 cua phuong phap Ole t~i xi.

Dinli nghla 6.1. Neu tqi xi xac dinh, ei - 0 khi h - 0 tuc !o, Uj -+ Y(Xj) khi h -+ 0 thl. ta noi phuong phap Ole h~i tu.

(6.21)

Khi phucng phap Ole hQi tu thi t~i XjUj se du gan Y(Xj) ntu l drl be, nsn ui 10, gia tri gan dung cua Y(Xj).

D~ xet su h¢i tu do ta eo dinh If 6.1 a dubi. Dinh u 6.1. Gid sit:

I :1 ~L

ly"l ~ K

(6.22)

(6.23)

.rong do L, K 10, nhitng hling so. Khi do phuong phap Ole h~i .11- ua sai so ej = Uj - Y(Xj) co danh gia:

(6.24)

Nhu v$y, sai 86 ei tai xi phu thuOc ca sai 56 ban d4u eo. Chung minh, Uy (6.19) trtt (6.18) v~ vt1i v~ ta dllqc

Ap dung cOng thuc Lagrangic (xem cOng thuc 2.18) vao hieu .rong d~u ngo~c vuong:

f(xi' ui)-:- f(xj' y(xi» = : (xi' Yj(Uj - Y(Xj»)) Yi = Y(Xj) + (J(Ui - y(x), 0 < (J < I

101

,i lay tri tuy~t d6i cua hai v~ ta thu duoc.

Of h2

lei+d ~ led + h I ay lied + 2"ly"l.

Ti1 do vci gia thiet (6.22) (6.23) ta suy ra:

I ei+ 11 ~ (1 + Ah) I ei I + B A = L, B = (K/2)h2

(6.25) (6.26)

Bat dang thiic nay dung voi moi i, no cho quan M giira ei ITa ei+ I' Do do ta co the' suy ra danh gia cua led nho b6 de sau :

B6 de 6.1. Gid. Stl ei La nhicng dai luang phu thuoc i va thoa rnan (6.25) trong do A oa B la cdc liang s6 kh6ng phu thu6c i. The thl. co:

(6.27)

(6.28)

Ta se chung minh b6 de 6.1 sau. BAy gib ap dung b6 d~ nay vao (6.25) (6.26) ta duoc ngay danh gia (6.24).

d day : eo = Uo - y(xo) = rz - rz = 0

V~y (6.24) cho

(629)

Do do ei = ui - y(xi) - 0 khi h - o. Va dinh ll 6.1 chung minh xong

Chung minh. b6 de 6.1. Bat dAng thuc (6.25) dung vdi i, ta suy ra:

led ~ (1 + Ah) lei-II

lei-d E; (1 + Ah) lei-21 lei-21 ~ (1 + Ah)lei-31

r •• ' ' .:'.

102

& ~ - .~,. - - -- - - - --- -----

Nhan b~t dAng thuc thu nhat vdi (1 + Ah), hilt dAng thuc thu hai vci (1 + Ah)2, v.v ... , b~t dAng thuc cu6i cung voi (1 + Ah)i-l, roi cong lai ta duoc :

led ~ (1 + Ah)ileol + B[1 + (1 + Ah) + (1 + Ah)2 + .,. + + (1 + Ah)i-l]

Trong dau ngoac vuong Ia mOt clip s6 nhan cong boi (1 + Ah), nan co :

i (1 +Ah)i -1

led ~ (1+Ah)leol +B(1+Ah)-1

(6.30)

Vi (1 + Ah) ~ eAh nan (1 + Ah)i ~ eAih, nhung ih = Xi - xo' do do :

(1 + Ah)i ~ eA("i - x.,) = M.

Tai Xj xac dinh, v€ phai nay la met hang s6. V~y tu (6.30) ta suy ra k€t luan cua M de.

4. Quy uoc yUh O(hk)

Chung ta rlit hay gap nhirng dai luong ¥,(h) phu thuec h va - 0 khi h - O. Neu ton. tai mot hang s6 duong Mj kh6ng phu thuoc h sao cho

I¥,(h) I ~ Mlhk ; k > 0 (6.31)

thl. ta vilt ¥,(h) = O(hk) (6.32)

Ta cling noi ¥,(h) la m¢t vO cung be co co O(hk).

Ap dung quy uoc do ta co th~ vi€t sai s6 ei cua phuong phap Ole (xem 6.29) nhu sau:

ej = ui - y(xi) = O(h)

5. Thi dl,l

Xet bai toan cu th~:

, 2x

y = y-y

y(O) = 1

o < x ~ 1

(6.33) (6.34)

103

• 2x o dAy f(x, y) = y - - y

Xo =O;X=l;1[=l

Bai toan nay co nghiem dung tfnh d1iQc 18 y = V 2x + 1 Xet luoi:

xi = ih; h = lin Cac cong thuc tinh se la:

Uo = 1

Ket qua tfnh vdi n = 10 ghi thanh bang 6.1.

Bdng 6.1

I Xi Ngbttm gao Uj Ngbi~m duog Y(Xj)
0 0,0 I, I.
1 0,1 1,1 I.O'J5445
2 0,2 1,191818 l.lS3216
3 0.3 l.277438 1.2M911
4 0.4 1,358213 1.3-l1641
5 0.5 1.435133 lAI-l21-l
6 0.6 1.508966 1.483240
7 0,7 1,580338 1.549193
8 0,8 1.649783 1,612452
9 0,9 1,717779 1.673320
10 1,0 1,784771 l.732051 6. MOt each danh gia sai so thi~t tht!c

Cong thuc (6.24) cho met each danh gia sai 86 nhung l~i hOng qua nhfing dai luong L, K chi biet la t6n tai ma khOng li~t ducc gia tri C\1 tM, n~n danh gta do khOng thiet thuc, BAy pb ta xet m~t each danh gia sai s6 thiet thuc hen. Theo (6.29) :hi sai s6 co cCJ O(h). Nguci ta chung minh duoc mot cOng thdc lA.u sl1c hen : Vai nhirng gia thiet nhat dinh. Chang han khi

04

-

-

.... _-

f(x,y) khd vi lien. tuc va y(x) co dao ham din cop ba bi chan. thi. ton. tai m<>t ham 86 lien. tuc w(x) kh6ng phu thuoc h sao cho

Uj - Y(Xj) = hw«xj) + O(h2) (6.35)

COng thdc nay gQi la cong tluic triln khai tieni e(j,n eua sai s6 cua phuong phap Ole.

BAy giCJ giA s~ cung mOt bai toan ta tlnh theo phuong phap Ole hai I'n, I'n thd nha:t vCJi bucc di h ta dugc gia tri gan 'dung ~i Xj lit u(Xj ; h), (ta vi~t th~ cho rO s,! phu thuec vito h, truCJc dAy ta chi viet dan gian lit Uj, I'n thd hai vCJi buoc di

~ ta dugc gia tri g'n dung cling ~i Xj lit u(Xj ; ~ ). Theo cOng thirc (6.35) ta co :

U(Xj jh) - Y(Xj) = hw(xj) + 0(h2)

h h

U (Xj; 2) - Y(Xj) = 2 w(Xj) + 0(h2)

BAng phep trit hai dAng thuc ta dugc:

h (h) 2

2 w(Xj) = u(Xj ; h) - U Xj j 2 + O(h )

Do do (6.37) cho:

U (Xj ;~) - Y(Xj) = u(Xj ; h) - U ( Xj ;~) + 0(h2)

VI s6 hang O(h2) qua be so VCJi h khi h be nan ta bO qua va thu dugc M thuc (gan dung) :

(6.36)

(6.37)

(6.38)

h

V4y nlu xem U (Xi; 2) La gin tri gan dung eua y(Xj), thl

co danh gili sai s6 (6.28)

Ta th~ lip dung k~t qua do vao bai toan (6.33) (6.34).

Ket qua tlnh vCJi h = 0,1 tai met 86 nut ghi thanh bang 6.2

105

,.,

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