HEAT-TRANSFER EQUIPMENT Table 12.1.

Typical overall coefficients

637

Shell and tube exchangers
Hot fluid

Cold fluid Water Organic solvents Light oils Heavy oils Gases Water Water Water Water Brine Brine Brine Water Organic solvents Light oils Heavy oils Gases Heavy oils Gases Steam Hydrocarbon vapours Water Water Water Water Aqueous solutions Light organics Heavy organics

U (W/m 2 °C) 800-1500 100-300 100-400 50-300 10-50 250-750 350-900 60-300 20-300 150-500 600-1200 15-250 1500-4000 500-1000 300-900 60-450 30-300 50-300 20-200 30-100 30-100 1000-1500 700- 1000 500-700 200-500 1000-1500 900-1200 600-900

Heat exchangers Water Organic solvents Light oils Hea\y oils Gases Cottiers Organic -.ol vents Light oils Heavy oils Gases Organic solvents Water Gases H(tittr\ Steam Steam Steam Steam Steam Dow therm Dow therm Flue gases Flue Condenser*, Aqueous vapours Organic vapours Organics (some non-condensables) Vacuum condensers Vapori \en Steam Steam Steam

Air-cooled exchangers Process fluid Water Light organics Heavy organics Gases, 5-10 bar 10-30 bar Condensing hydrocarbons Immersed coils Coil Natural circulation Steam Steam Steam Water Water Pool Dilute aqueous solutions Light oils Heavy oils Aqueous solutions Light oils 500-1000 200-300 70- 150 200-500 100-150 (continued overleaf) 300-450 300-700 50-150 50-100 100-300 300-600

Figure 12,1.

Overall coefficients (join process side duty to service side and read U from centre scale)

640

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

Estimating fouling factors introduces a considerable uncertainty into exchanger design; the value assumed for the fouling factor can overwhelm the accuracy of the predicted values of the other coefficients. Fouling factors are often wrongly used as factors of safety in exchanger design. Some work on the prediction of fouling factors has been done by HTRI; see Taborek et al. (1972). Fouling is the subject of books by Bott (1990) an Garrett-Price (1985). Typical values for the fouling coefficients and factors for common process and service fluids are given in Table 12.2. These values are for shell and tube exchangers with plain (not finned) tubes. More extensive data on fouling factors are given in the TEMA standards (1988), and by Ludwig (1965).
Table 12.2. Fouling factors (coefficients), typical values Fluid River water Sea water Cooling water (towers) Towns water (soft) Towns water (hard) Steam condensate Steam (oil free) Steam (oil traces) Refrigerated brine Air and industrial gases Flue gases Organic vapours Organic liquids Light hydrocarbons Heavy hydrocarbons Boiling organics Condensing organics Heat transfer fluids Aqueous salt solutions Coefficient (W/m2°C) 3000-12,000 1000-3000 3000-6000 3000-5000 1000-2000 1500-5000 4000- 10,000 2000-5000 3000-5000 5000-10,000 2000-5(300 5000 5000 5000 2000 2500 5000 5000 3000-5000 Factor (resistance) (m2°C/W) 0.0003-0.0001 0.001-0.0003 0.0003-0.00017 0.0003-0.0002 0.001-0.0005 0.00067-0.0002 0.0025-0.000! 0.0005-0.0002 0.0003-0.0002 0.0002-0.000-1 0.0005-0.0002 0.0002 0.0002 0.0002 0.0005 0.0004 0.0002 0.0002 0.0003-0.0002

The selection of the design fouling coefficient will often be an economic decision. The optimum design will be obtained by balancing the extra capital cost of a larger exchanger against the savings in operating cost obtained from the longer operating time between cleaning that the larger area will give. Duplicate exchangers should be considered for severely fouling systems.

12.5. SHELL AND TUBE EXCHANGERS: CONSTRUCTION DETAILS
The shell and tube exchanger is by far the most commonly used type of heat-transfer equipment used in the chemical and allied industries. The advantages of this type are: 1. 2. 3. 4. The configuration gives a large surface area in a small volume. Good mechanical layout: a good shape for pressure operation. Uses well-established fabrication techniques. Can be constructed from a wide range of materials.

Floating head. Inc. Nomenclature for Heat Exchanger Components.2 Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants Figure 10-1A. © 1988. Fig.. Figure 10-1B. Figures 10-1A—G used by permission: Standards of Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association. Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association. (© 1988 by Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association.) . 7th Ed. N—1.2. Inc.

1. petrochemical. Inc. (© 1988 by Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association. or (b) an impingement baffle but may require a longitudinal shell side baffle (see Figures 10-1F and 10-1G).) Figure 10-1D. chemical.) C—Indicates generally moderate requirements of commercial and general process applications. It is important to recognize that the components in Figures 10-1B—K are associated with the basic terminology regardless of type of unit. B—Specifies design and fabrication for chemical process service. These codes are assembled from Table 10-1 and Figures 10-1A—G. Figures 10-1A—G and Table 10-1 from the Standards of Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association107 give the nomenclature of the basic types of units. the individual vessels must comply with the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. . (© 1988 by Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association. RGP—Recommended Good Practice. An application and selection guide is shown in Table 10-2 and Figures 10-2 and 10-3. Sec- tion VIII. Note the nomenclature type designation code letters immediately below each illustration. Floating head—outside packed. and other industrial plants must specify or select the design/fabrication code designation for their individual application as the standards do not dictate the code designation to use. In accordance with the TEMA Standards. Many chemical plants select the most severe designation of Class R rather than Class B primarily because they prefer a more rugged or husky piece of equipment. Inc.Heat Transfer 3 Figure 10-1C. Note: The petroleum. plus process or petroleum plant location state and area codes. Many exchangers can be designed without all parts. Fixed tubesheet. The ASME Code Stamp is required by the TEMA Standards. includes topics outside the scope of the basic standards. Div. specifically the performance design may not require (a) a floating head and its associated parts.

(© 1988 by Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association.4 Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants Figure 10-1E. Inc. Inc.) Figure 10-1G. Inc. Kettle reboiler. Divided flow—packed tubesheet.) . Removable U-bundle.) Figure 10-1F. (© 1988 by Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association. (© 1988 by Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association.

19. Used by permission: Standards of Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association. 20. 12. 38. 6. 29. Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association. 13. 22. 7. 31. 23. single-tube pass vertical heater or reboiler. 32. Figure 10-1H. 27. 16. 4. 26. 10. 15. * Stationary Head—Channel Stationary Head—Bonnet Stationary Head Flange—Channel or Bonnet Channel Cover Stationary Head Nozzle Stationary Tubesheet Tubes Shell Shell Cover Shell Flange—Stationary Head End Shell Flange—Rear Head End Shell Nozzle Shell Cover Flange Expansion Joint Floating Tubesheet Floating Head Cover Floating Head Cover Flange Floating Head Backing Device Split Shear Ring Slip-on Backing Flange 21.Heat Transfer 5 Table 10-1 Standard TEMA Heat Exchanger Terminology/Nomenclature* 1. 11. 9. Inc. Houston. 24. 28. 25. See Figure 10-1A for Nomenclature Code. Table N-2.. Fixed tubesheet.) . 17. 36. 30. 7th Ed. Floating Head Cover—External Floating Tubesheet Skirt Packing Box Packing Packing Gland Lantern Ring Tierods and Spacers Transverse Baffles or Support Plates Impingement Plate Longitudinal Baffle Pass Partition Vent Connection Drain Connection Instrument Connection Support Saddle Lifting Lug Support Bracket Weir Liquid Level Connection Key to Figures 10-1B—G. 18. 3. 14. 8. Inc. 35. © 1988. 33. All rights reserved. 37. 2. 39. 5. (Used by permission: Engineers & Fabricators. 34..

. Construction details of two-pass expanding shell-side baffle.. etc. Used by permission: Standards of Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association. © 1988.) Nominal Shell Diameter 6—15 16—27 28—33 34—48 49—60 Tie Rod Diameter 3 3 Minimum Number of Tie Rods 4 6 6 8 10 /8 /8 1 /2 1 /2 1 /2 Figure 10-22B. All rights reserved. Assembled two-pass shell baffle for installation in shell of exchanger. Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association. 7. sulfur dioxide. Bul. for hazardous or corrosive materials such as chlorine.to tube- side or vice versa would present a serious problem. (Used by permission: Struthers-Wells Corp. Because they must be aligned true. hydrogen chloride. A–22. not only due to the plate costs. However. 7th Ed. Most exchangers use single plates for tubesheets. This is considerably more expensive for fabrication. . Inc. the machining must be carefully handled.). (Used by permission: Struthers-Wells Corp. Bul. Tubesheets Tubesheets form the end barriers to separate the shellside and tube-side fluids. otherwise assembly of the unit will be troublesome.) Table 10-7 Tie Rod Standards (All Dimensions in In.. Table R 4 71. but also to the extra grooving of these sheets and rolling of the tubes into them.32 Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants Figure 10-22A. where the intermixing due to leakage from shell. the double tubesheet is used as shown in Figure 10-23. A–22.

Channel (end-box or header) 8. Figure 12. Tube bundle 20.2. Impingement baffle 13. Shell cover 3. Baffle spacers and tie rods Exchanger types The principal types of shell and tube exchanger are shown in Figures 12.3 to 12. The ends of the tubes are fitted into tube sheets.). the numbers refer to the features shown in Figures 12. Nomenclature Part number 1. Tube 19. Expansion bellows 27. Figure 12. Floating-head gland ring 23. Branch (nozzle) 10. Weir 17. Channel cover 9. which separate the shell-side and tube-side fluids. Shell 2. Test connection 26. Floating-head gland (packed gland) 22. Baffles are provided in the shell to direct the fluid flow and support the tubes. Essentially. Support bracket 15. The standard nomenclature used for shell and tube exchangers is given below.8. Split ring 18. Drain connection 25. Fixed-tube sheet (tube plate) 7.1. Diagrams of other types and full details of their construction can be found in the heatexchanger standards (see Section 12. The assembly of baffles and tubes is held together by support rods and spacers. Tie rod and spacer 11. Longitudinal baffle 14. Well-established design procedures. 6.3 to 12. Clamp ring 6. Easily cleaned. Floating-head cover 4. Pass partition 21.8. Vent connection 24.2. Floating-tube plate 5.HEAT-TRANSFER EQUIPMENT 641 5.5. Lifting ring . Floating-head support 16. a shell and tube exchanger consists of a bundle of tubes enclosed in a cylindrical shell. Cross baffle or tube-support plate 12.

Figure 12. for exchangers of 1 m diameter. weakening the tube. For condensers and vaporisers. to 8. to act as support plates. not only due to the cost of welding. The tube holes are normally grooved. the tube must be expanded sufficiently to ensure a sound leaf-proof joint. The minimum spacings to be used for support plates are given in the standards. 12. Figure 12.16c.16a. The baffles and support plate are held together with tie rods and spacers. The joint between the tubes and tube sheet is normally made by expanding the tube by rolling with special tools.8.5. Figure 12. When it is essential to guarantee a leak-proof joint the tubes can be welded to the sheet. Design formulae for calculating tube sheet thicknesses are also given in the TEMA standards. with the space between the sheets vented. The recommended number for a particular diameter can be found in the standards. and where it is essential for safety or process reasons to prevent any possibility of intermixing due to leakage at the tube sheet joint. and will range from 4. Support plates and tie rods Where segmental baffles are used some will be fabricated with closer tolerances. 16 mm diameter rods. The number of rods required will depend on the shell diameter.652 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING 12. 12. Tube rolling is a skilled task.15. Tube sheets (plates) In operation the tube sheets are subjected to the differential pressure between shell and tube sides.5. for exchangers under 380 mm diameter. where baffles are not needed for heat-transfer purposes. (0. . but also because a wider tube spacing will be needed.4 mm). Tube rolling The tube sheet forms the barrier between the shell and tube fluids.15. This will add to the cost of the exchanger. Figure 12.16&.7. a few will be installed to support the tubes. Figure 12.5 mm rods. ^ in. double tube-sheets can be used. The spacing ranges from around 1 m for 16 mm tubes to 2 m for 25 mm tubes. but not overthinned. to lock the tubes more firmly in position and to prevent the joint from being loosened by the differential expansion of the shell and tubes. The design of tube sheets as pressure-vessel components is covered by BS 5500 and is discussed in Chapter 13.

Tube/tube sheet joints To allow sufficient thickness to seal the tubes the tube sheet thickness should not be less than the tube outside diameter. Recommended minimum plate thicknesses are given in the standards. to reduce the inlet velocities. For vapours and gases.16. It is important to avoid flow restrictions at the inlet and outlet nozzles to prevent excessive pressure drop and flowinduced vibration of the tubes. 12. and this should be allowed for when calculating the area available for heat transfer. As well as omitting some tube rows (see Section 12. to increase the flow area. As a first approximation the length of the tubes can be reduced by 25 mm for each tube sheet.5.9. up to about 25 mm diameter. The thickness of the tube sheet will reduce the effective length of the tube slightly. The extended Figure 12. the nozzle may be flared.4). where the inlet velocities will be high.17a and b. Shell and header nozzles (branches) Standard pipe sizes will be used for the inlet and outlet nozzles. or special designs used. Inlet nozzle designs .17. the baffle spacing is usually increased in the nozzle zone.HEAT-TRANSFER EQUIPMENT 65x3 Figure 12.5. Figure 12.

19.8125 pitch. on 23. 30° angle.APPENDIX J 1017 (a) Typical tube layout for a fixed tubesheet exchanger 740 i/Dia. single pass.05 o/Dia. 780-tubes. shell. .

19. on 25. 45° angle.1018 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (b) Typical tube layout for a U-tube exchanger 740 i/Dia.05 o/Dia. 246 U-tubes.4 pitch. . 2-pass. shell.

APPENDIX J 1019 (c) Typical tube layout for a split backing ring floating-head exchanger. shell.05 o/Dia. * Denotes 13 Dia. 19. 30° angle. 580 tubes.4 pitch. sealing bars. 6-pass. 740 i/Dia. on 25. .

(°-8 mm) +0. (1. Shell diameter. --j^ in. (152 to 635 mm) 27 to 42 in.|g in. Types of baffle used in shell and tube heat exchangers. (1. (3.8 mm) Tolerance + 4 i«. Ds Pipe shells 6 to 25 in. (152 to 635 mm) Plate shells 6 to 25 in.j% in.6 mm) .HEAT-TRANSFER EQUIPMENT 651 Figure 12.(0-8 mm) +0. (686 to 1067 mm) Baffles for condensers Typical baffle clearances and tolerances Baffle diameter Ds. Table 12. -jz in. (a) Segmental (b) Segraental and strip (c) Disc and doughnut (d) Orifice Figure 12.6 mm) Ds. (4.14.2 mm) Ds.13.1 in.5.

If the arrangement shown in Figure 12. typical values. The clearance needed will depend on the shell diameter. without excessive drop. A close baffle spacing will give higher heat transfer coefficients but at the expense of higher pressure drop.131?. The optimum spacing will usually be between 0.5. Figure 12. other types are shown in Figures 12.13a were used with a horizontal condenser the baffles would restrict the condensate flow. giving good heat-transfer rates. Only the design of exchangers using single segmental baffles will be considered in this chapter. There will be some leakage of fluid round the baffle as a clearance must be allowed for assembly. This problem can be overcome either by rotating the baffle arrangement through 90°. The maximum design clearance will normally be ^ in. The baffle spacings used range from 0. c and d. a baffle cut of 20 to 25 per cent will be the optimum.0 shell diameters. (0.3 to 0.12. (a) One-pass shell (E shell) (b) Split flow (G shell) (c) Divided flow (J shell) (d) Two-pass shell with longitudinal baffle (F shell) (e) Double split flow (H shell) single segmental baffle shown in Figure 12.2 to 1.8 mm). are given in Table 12. Baffle cuts from 15 to 45 per cent are used. The minimum thickness to be used for baffles and support plates are given in the standards.5 times the shell diameter.13«. The terra "baffle cut" is used to specify the dimensions of a segmental baffle. The baffle cut is the height of the segment removed to form the baffle. . Another leakage path occurs through the clearance between the tube holes in the baffle and the tubes. expressed as a percentage of the baffle disc diameter. Shell types (pass arrangements).650 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Figure 12. Generally. and tolerances. or by trimming the base of the baffle.14.

.8125 pitch.APPENDIX J 1017 (a) Typical tube layout for a fixed tubesheet exchanger 740 i/Dia. 19. 30° angle. on 23. shell. 780-tubes.05 o/Dia. single pass.

shell.4 pitch. 246 U-tubes. . 2-pass.1018 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (b) Typical tube layout for a U-tube exchanger 740 i/Dia. 45° angle. 19.05 o/Dia. on 25.

05 o/Dia. 30° angle. sealing bars. 580 tubes. . shell. * Denotes 13 Dia. 19. 6-pass.4 pitch.APPENDIX J 1019 (c) Typical tube layout for a split backing ring floating-head exchanger. on 25. 740 i/Dia.

3. saving the cost of the exchanger shell. particularly its viscosity and propensity to fouling. Thermosyphon. The liquid circulation through the exchanger is maintained by the difference in density between the two-phase mixture of vapour and liquid in the exchanger and the single-phase liquid in the base of the column. Kettle type. 2. a disengagement vessel will be needed if this type is used as a vaporiser.726 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Three principal types of reboiler are used: 1. . and the vapour formed is separated in the base of the column. particularly the headroom available. Forced circulation. more correctly. The equipment layout. The operating pressure: vacuum or pressure. Choice of type The choice of the best type of reboiler or vaporiser for a given duty will depend on the following factors: 1. canned-rotor type pumps can be specified to avoid the possibility of leakage. Forced-circulation reboiler 2.50. When used as a vaporiser a disengagement vessel will have to be provided. Figure 12. Figure 12. Figure 12.51: vertical exchangers with vaporisation in the tubes. 3. there is no circulation of liquid through the exchanger. The circulation rate is predictable and high velocities can be used. They are also suitable for low vacuum operations.53. natural circulation. The major disadvantage of this type is that a pump is required and the pumping cost will be high. As with the forced-circulation type. called a submerged bundle reboiler. Figure 12. Forced-circulation reboilers are especially suitable for handling viscous and heavily fouling process fluids. In some applications it is possible to accommodate the bundle in the base of the column. This type is also. There is also the danger that leakage of hot fluid will occur at the pump seal. The nature of the process fluid. Figure 12. or horizontal exchangers with vaporisation in the shell.50: in which the fluid is pumped through the exchanger. see Chantry and Church (1958). and for low rates of vaporisation.52: in which boiling takes place on tubes immersed in a pool of liquid.

51.52. Horizontal thermosyphon reboiler Figure 12.HEAT-TRANSFER EQUIPMENT 727 Figure 12. Internal reboiler . Kettle reboiler Figure 12.53.

and the tube outside diameters are the same as those for standard plain tubes. Low fin tubes Tubes with low transverse fins. The Reynolds number is evaluated for the bare tube (i. see also Webber (1960). Design data should be obtained from the tube manufacturers for the particular type of tube to be used. about 1 mm high. tf• = fin thickness. the correlation given by Briggs and Young (1963) can be used to make an approximate estimate of the fin coefficient. Chapter 9. — outside area of the bare tube.HEAT-TRANSFER EQUIPMENT 765 hd f A() Af Ef — fouling coefficient based on the fin area. assuming that no fins exist).15. Figure 12. can be used with advantage as replacements for plain tubes in many applications. Kern and Kraus (1972) give full details of the use of finned tubes in process heat exchangers design and design methods. The fins are formed by rolling. = fin area. 12. Double-pipe exchanger (constructed for weld fittings) . 1^ = fin height. and are useful where only a small heat-transfer area is required. It is not possible to give a general correlation for the coefficient hf covering all types of fin and fin dimensions.67.67. with plain transverse fins. Several units can be connected in series to extend their capacity. Wolverine (1959). For banks of tubes in cross flow. These can be made up from standard fittings. DOUBLE-PIPE HEAT EXCHANGERS One of the simplest and cheapest types of heat exchanger is the concentric pipe arrangement shown in Figure 12.e. Details are given in the manufacturer's data books. = fin effectiveness. where /?/• = fin pitch. Some information is given in Volume 1.

69a.70. for example. Air-cooled exchangers 12. Figure 12. 4. giving outlet temperatures of 80Q-900°C. Steam boilers. Heat transfer to the tubes on the furnace walls is predominantly by radiation. see Bergman (1979a). lined with refractory bricks. depending on the application.Typical layouts are shown in Figure 12. The basic construction consists of a rectangular or cylindrical steel chamber. Reformers for hydrogen production. 5. Direct-fired reactors.1. Tubes are arranged around the wall. In modern designs this radiant section is surmounted by a smaller section in which the combustion .HEAT-TRANSFER EQUIPMENT 767 3. the pyrolysis of dichloroethane to form vinyl chloride.68. in either horizontal or vertical banks. b and c. The fluid to be heated flows through the tubes. A more detailed diagram of a pyrolysis furnace is given in Figure 12. Basic construction Many different designs and layouts are used.17.

The burners are positioned at base or sides of radiant section. Plain tubes are used in the bottom rows of the convection section to act as a heat shield from the hot gases in the radiant section. suitable for the preliminary design of fired heaters. Manual calculation methods. (a) Vertical-cylindrical. with fins or pins. such as HTFS and HTRI. helical coil (<•:) Verticalcylindrical with convection section gases flow over banks of tubes and transfer heat by convection. a material that resists creep must be used.69. stainless steel and special alloy steels for elevated temperatures. Fired heaters. . Wimpress (1978) and Evans (1980). are used in the convection section to improve the heat transfer from the combustion gases. Design Computer programs for the design of fired heaters are available from commerical organisations.2. Typical tube velocities will be from 1 to 2 m/s for heaters. The tube size and number of passes used depending on the application and the process-fluid flow-rate. Heat transfer in the shield section will be by both radiation and convection.17. The combustion air may be preheated in tubes in the convection section. 12. with lower rates used for reactors. Carbon steel is used for low temperature duties.1. Gaseous and liquid fuels are used. Extended surface tubes. For high temperatures. are given by Kern (1950). see Section 12.768 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Figure 12. all radiant (b) Vertical-cylindrical. A brief review of the factors to be considered is given in the following sections. The tube sizes used will normally be between 75 and 150 mm diameter.

W Acp = the "cold-plane" area of the tubes = number of tubes x the exposed length x tube pitch . and 25% for liquid fuels. (Foster Wheeler) Multi-zoned pyrolysis furnace 12.67 x 10~8 Wm~2 K~4 T = temperature of the surface. Chapter 9. where qr — radiant heat flux. W/m2 o = Stephen-Boltzman constant. For the exchange of heat between the combustion gases and the hot tubes the equation can be written as: where Qr — radiant heat transfer rate. The gas temperature will depend on the fuel used and the amount of excess air. Radiant heat transfer from a surface is governed by the Stephan-Boltzman equation.HEAT-TRANSFER EQUIPMENT 769 Figure 12.17. 5.70. Heat transfer Radiant section Between 50 to 70 per cent of the total heat is transferred in the radiant section. see Volume 1. For gaseous fuels around 20% excess air is normally used.3. K.

are also used to promote heat transfer in vessels. Single or multiple turn coils are used. Small coils can be self supporting. D x JV.2. The coil pitch is usually around twice the pipe diameter.73. and the characteristic dimension is the agitator diameter. Section 10. The diameter of the pipe used for the coil is typically equal to A/30. . The various types of agitator used for mixing and blending described in Chapter 10. The fluid velocity is replaced by a function of the agitator diameter and rotational speed. ESDU 78031. see also Volume 1. 12.11.3. The correlations used to estimate the heat transfer coefficient to the vessel wall. Chapter 7.18. Coll heat transfer and pressure drop The heat transfer coefficient at the inside wall and pressure drop through the coil can be estimated using the correlations for flow through pipes.10. Internal coils application and the area required. Chapters 3 and 9. but for large coils some form of supporting structure will be necessary. Correlations for forced convection in coiled pipes are also given in the Engineering Sciences Data Unit manual. as when maintaining the temperature of liquids in storage vessels. have the same form as those used for forced convection in conduits. or to the surface of coils.HEAT-TRANSFER EQUIPMENT 775 Figure 12. Agitated vessels Unless only small rates of heat transfer are required.8 and Volume 1. equation 12. where Dv is the vessel diameter. see Section 12. some form of agitation will be needed.

Standard pipe sizes are used. Jacketed vessels. ranging from 60 to 120 mm outside diameter. Jacketed vessel Figure 12.72. .71. (a) Spirally baffled jacket (b) Dimple jacket (c) Half-pipe jacket (d) Agitation nozzle The pitch of the coils and the area covered can be selected to provide the heat transfer area required. The half-pipe construction makes a strong jacket capable of withstanding pressure better than the conventional jacket design.HEAT-TRANSFER EQUIPMENT 773 Figure 12.

63. so a plate heat exchanger could be considered for this duty. The units cannot be mechanically cleaned. see Figure 12. The brazed aluminium construction is limited to pressures up to around 60 bar and temperatures up to 150°C. The plates are fabricated in a variety of materials.12. where large heat transfer surface areas are needed. such as air separation plants. 12. or service stream. Welded plate Welded plate heat exchangers use plates similar to those in gasketed plate exchangers but the plate edges are sealed by welding. They are usually constructed of aluminium and joined and sealed by brazing.3. This increases the pressure and temperature rating to up to 80 bar and temperatures in excess of 500°C. which form the fins.78 bar Could increase the port diameter to reduce the pressure drop.HEAT-TRANSFER EQUIPMENT 761 Total pressure drop = 26. An obvious disadvantage is that the exchangers cannot be dismantled for cleaning.12. The Figure 12.2. They are now finding wider applications in the chemical processes industry. compact. They retain the advantages of plate heat exchangers (compact size and good rates of heat transfer) whilst giving security against leakage.546 N/m 2 . where large surface area.999 = 77. The trial design should be satisfactory. Their compact size and low weight have lead to some use in off-shore applications.547 -f 50. A combination of gasketed and welded plate construction is also used. The main application of plate-fin exchangers has been in the cryogenics industries. 12. Piate-fin Plate-fin exchangers consist essentially of plates separated by corrugated sheets. They are made up in a block and are often referred to as matrix exchangers. their use is restricted to specialised applications where fouling is not a problem. Plate-fin exchanger . so their use is restricted to clean process and service steams. An aggressive process fluid flowing between welded plates and a benign process stream. 0. So.63. exchangers are required. between gasketed plates.

the pressure drop over a spiral heat exchanger will usually be lower than that for the equivalent shell-and-tube exchanger. The gap between the sheets varies between 4 to 20 mm. spiral heat exchangers can be used for very dirty process fluids and slurries.4. They can be fabricated in any material that can be cold-worked and welded. For a given duty. The design of spiral heat exchangers is discussed by Minton (1970) . see Section 12. using the hydraulic mean diameter as the characteristic dimension. for a shell-and-tube exchanger would be too low. The maximum operating pressure is limited to 20 bar and the temperature to 400°C. see Figure 12.6. Spiral heat exchanger Spiral heat exchangers are compact units: a unit with around 250 m2 area occupying a volume of approximately 10 m3. The correlations for flow in conduits can be used to estimate the heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop in the channels. The fluids flow through the channels formed between the plates. Figure 12. between 150 to 1800 mm wide. and their use in cryogenic service by Lowe (1987).64.762 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING construction and design of plate-fin exchangers and their applications are discussed by Saunders (1988) and Burley (1991). formed into a pair of concentric spiral channels. The exchanger is made up from long sheets. Spiral heat exchangers A spiral heat exchanger can be considered as a plate heat exchanger in which the plates are formed into a spiral. Inlet and outlet nozzels are fitted to the case and connect to the channels.12.64. Because they are easily cleaned and the turbulence in the channels is high. Spiral heat exchangers give true counter-current flow and can be used where the temperature correction factor F. 12. depending on the size of the exchanger and the application. The channels are closed by gasketed end-plates bolted to an outer case.

defined in Volume 1 Chapter 3.Figure 12. Tube-side friction factors Note: The friction factor j f is the same as the friction factor for pipes 0{= (R/pu2)). .24.

Shell-side leakage and by-pass paths Stream A is the tube-to-baffle leakage stream. which reduces the effective heattransfer area. Stream C can be considerably reduced by using sealing strips. Stream C is the bundle-to-shell bypass stream. The fluid flowing in the clearance area between the outer tubes in the bundle (bundle diameter) and the shell. Stream B is the actual cross-flow stream. The fluid flowing through the clearance between the edge of a baffle and the shell wall. Idealised main stream flow Figure 12. Stream F is the pass-partition stream. horizontal strips that block . Stream E is the baffle-to-shell leakage stream.HEAT-TRANSFER EQUIPMENT 669 Figure 12. where the clearance between the shell and bundle is of necessity large. There is no stream D. Note. Stream C is the main bypass stream and will be particularly significant in pull-through bundle exchangers. The fluid flowing through the gap in the tube arrangement due to the pass partition plates. The fluid in streams C. Where the gap is vertical it will provide a low-pressure drop path for fluid flow.26. The fluid flowing through the clearance between the tube outside diameter and the tube hole in the baffle. E and F bypasses the tubes.25.

segmentul baffles .29. Shell-side heat-transfer factors.Figure 12.

segmental baffles .30. Shell-side friction factors.Figure 12.

They are reproduced here by permission of the Open University. An algorithm for the design of shell-and-tube exchangers is shown in Figure A. . Figure A.2 and Figure A were developed by the author for the Open University Course T333 Principles and Applications of Heat Transfer. Design procedure for shell-and-tube heat exchangers Example 12. The procedure set out in this figure will be followed in the solution.680 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Solution The solution to this example illustrates the iterative nature of heat exchanger design calculations.

Tube-side heat-transfer factor .Figure 12.23.

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