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FAR EASTERN UNIVERSITY

INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTURE AND FINE ARTS

ASSIGNMENT NO. 3

FILIPINO
ARCHITECTS
HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 3

EBON ,ALESSA LEE C.


AR07331
LEANDRO LOCSIN

(August 15, 1928 - November 15, 1994)

Leandro V. Locsin was a Filipino architect,


artist, and interior designer, known for his use of
concrete, floating volume and simplistic design in his
various projects. An avid collector, he was fond of
modern painting and Chinese ceramics. He was
proclaimed a National Artist of the Philippines for
Architecture in 1990 by President Corazon C. Aquino.

Leandro V. Locsin was born on Aug 15, 1928 in Silay City, Negros Occidental, and
a grandson of the first governor of the province. He later studied at the De La Salle
Brothers in 1935 before returning to Negros due to the Second World War. He returned
to Manila to study Pre-Law, before shifting to pursue a Bachelor's Degree in Music at
the University of Santo Tomas. Although he was a talented pianist, he later shifted again
to Architecture, just a year before graduating. He was married to Cecilia Yulo, to which
he had two children, one of whom is also an architect.
An art lover, he frequented the Philippine Art Gallery, where he met the curator,
Fernando Zobel de Ayala, who recommended Locsin to the Ossorio family, who was
planning to build a chapel in Negros. Unfortunately, when Frederic Ossorio left for the
United States, the plans for the chapel were canceled. However, in 1955, then
University of the Philippines, Diliman Catholic Chaplain, Fr. John Delaney, S.J.
commissioned Locsin to design a chapel that is open and can easily accommodate 1,000
people. The Church of the Holy Sacrifice is the first round chapel in the Philippines with
the altar in the middle, and the first to have a thin shell concrete dome. The floor of the
church was designed by Arturo Luz, the stations of the cross by Vicente Manansala and
Ang Kiukok, and the cross by Napoleon Abueva, all of whom are now National Artists.
Alfredo L. Juinio served as the building's structural engineer. Today, the church is
recognized as a National Historical Landmark and a Cultural Treasure by the National
Historical Institute and the National Museum respectively.
In his visit to the United States, he met some of his influences, Paul Rudolph and
Eero Saarinen. It was then he realized to use concrete, which was relatively cheap in the
Philippines and easy to form, for his buildings. In 1969, he completed what is to be his
most recognizable work, the Theater of Performing Arts (Now the Tanghalang
Pambansa) of the Cultural Center of the Philippines. The marble façade of the building is
cantilevered 12 meters from the terrace by huge arching columns at the sides of the
building, giving it the impression of floating. A large lagoon in front of the theatre
mirrors the building during daylight, while fountains are illuminated by underwater
lights by nighttime. The building houses four theaters, a museum of ethnographic and
other temporary exhibits, galleries, and a library on Philippine art and culture. In 1974,
Locsin designed the Folk Arts Theater, which is one of the largest single span buildings in
the Philippines with a span of 60 meters. It was completed in only seventy-seven days,
in time for the Miss Universe Pageant. Locsin was also commissioned to build the
Philippine International Convention Center, the country's premiere international
conference building and the seat of the Vice Presidency.
In 1974, he was commissioned to design the Ayala Museum, which housed the
Ayala's art collection. It was known for the juxtaposition of huge blocks to facilitate the
interior of the exhibition. Locsin was a close friend of the Ayalas. Before taking the
board examination, he took his apprenticeship at Ayala and Company (Now the Ayala
Corporation) and was even asked to design the first building in Ayala Avenue, and
several of their residences. When the collection of the Ayala Museum was moved to its
current location, the original was demolished, with Locsin's permission. The current
building was dedicated in 2004, and was designed by the L. V. Locsin and Partners, led
by Leandro Y. Locsin, Jr. Most of Locsin's work has been inside the country, but in 1970,
he designed the Philippine Pavilion of the World Expo in Osaka, Japan. His largest single
work is the Istana Nurul Iman, the official residence of the Sultan of Brunei. Locsin also
designed some of the buildings at the UP Los Baños campus. The Dioscoro Umali Hall,
the main auditorium, is clearly an example of his distinct architecture, with its large
canopy that make it resemble the main theatre of the CCP. Most of his work is
concentrated on the Freedom Park, with the Student Union Building, once damaged by
a fire, the Carillon, the Continuing Education Center and the auditorium. He also
designed UPLB's Main Library, SEARCA Residences, and several structures at the
National Arts Center (housing the Philippine High School for the Arts) situated at Mt.
Makiling, Los Baños, Laguna. In 1992, he received the Fukuoka Asian Culture Prize from
Fukuoka City.
Locsin's last work, ironically, was also a church in Malaybalay, Bukidnon. Leandro
V. Locsin died on Nov 15, 1994 in Makati City. The campus of De La Salle-Canlubang,
built in 2003 on a land donated by his family, was named after him.
WORKS:

Main Building (Tanghalang Pambansa) of the Church of the Holy Sacrifice, UP Diliman. The
Cultural Center of the Philippines, one of first building designed by Locsin to be
Locsin's most recognizable works. constructed. Built by Alfredo L. Juinio and
fellow UP professors, it is the first circular
church and the first thin-shell concrete dome
in the Philippines

Manila Hotel

University of the Philippines – Los Baños


JUAN ARELLANO

(April 25, 1888 -1967)

Juan Marcos de Guzmán Arellano was a Filipino architect, best known for
Manila's Metropolitan Theater (1935), Executive House (1926) (now houses the National
Museum of the Philippines), the Manila Post Office Building (1926), the Cebu Provincial
Capitol (1937), and the Jones Bridge.
Juan Arellano was born on April 25, 1888 in Manila, the Philippines. He attended
the Ateneo Municipal and graduated in 1908. His first passion was painting and he
trained under Lorenzo Guerrero, Toribio Antillon, and Fabian de la Rosa. [1] He,
however, pursued architecture and was sent to the United States as one of the first
pensionados in architecture, after Carlos Barreto, who was sent to the Drexel Institute in
1908, Antonio Toledo, who went to Ohio State, and Tomas Mapua, who went to Cornell.
Arellano went to the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts in 1911 and subssequently
transferred to Drexel to finish his bachelor's degree in Architecture. He was trained in
the Beaux Arts and subsequently went to work for George B. Post & Sons in New York
City, where he worked for Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr.[2]
He then went back to the Philippines to begin a practice with his brother,
Arcadio. He later joined the Bureau of Public Works just as the last American architects,
George Fenhagen and Ralph H. Doane, were leaving. He and Tomas Mapua were then
named as supervising architects. In 1927, he took a study leave and went to the United
States where he was greatly influenced by Art Deco architecture.
In 1930, he returned to Manila and designed the Manila Metropolitan Theater,
which was then considered controversially moderne. He also continued to act as a
consulting architect for the Bureau of Public Works where he oversaw the production of
the Manila's first zoning plan. In 1940, he and Harry Frost created a design for Quezon
City, which was to become the new capital of the Philippines.
It was during that time that he also designed the building that would house the
United States High Commission to the Philippines, later the Embassy of the United
States in Manila. He designed a demesne along the edge of Manila Bay, which featured
a revival-style mansion that took advantage of the seaside vista.[4] The Americans
instead opted for a federal-style building that ended up overpriced and uncomfortable.
During World War II, the Executive House and Jones Bridge were totally destroyed and
the Post Office Building was severely damaged. While these structures were all
reconstructed, his original designs were not followed and were considered poor
eplications.
Arellano retired in 1956 and went back to painting. In 1960, he exhibited his work at the
Manila YMCA.

WORKS:

Jones Bridge, Manila

Manila Post Office Building (1926). The post office


building was built in neoclassical architecture in
1926. It was severely damaged in World War II,
and rebuilt in 1946 preserving most of its original
design. Located in the Intramuros district of the
city, at the bank of the Pasig River.

Cebu Provincial Capitol. The seat of the


Provincial government is of pre-war vintage
and has the undulating mountains of Cebu for
its background. Majestic and imposing, its high
dome can be seen along Osmeña Boulevard. A
replica of the United States’ White House. One
of the many beautiful capitol buildings in the
country, constructed in 1937 under the
administration of Governor Sotero Cabahug.
FRANCISCO MAÑOSA

Francisco "Bobby" Mañosa is an influential architect noted for his use of native
materials like bamboo and nipa in contemporary architectural designs. Noted for his
passion to put art elements that can speak of the Filipino idealism, culture, and
tradition, he was conferred National Artist award by President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo
in 2009.
Architect Mañosa is a graduate of University of Santo Tomas. He is a member of the
National Commission on Culture and Arts, a trustee of the Katutubong Filipino
Foundation, and a Fellow of the United Architects of the Philippines.
As the founder of Francisco Mañosa & Partners, Architect Mañosa sets the
philosophy and direction of the firm. Having been described as "The most outspoken
champion of Indigenous Filipino Architecture" (Mimar, 28, June, 1998), Mr. Mañosa has
championed the cause of "Philippine Architecture for Filipinos," bringing local
architecture to new heights, both nationally and internationally.
In his practice, he explores the use of indigenous materials infused with current
technological trends to being a new dimension to design. He experiments with
traditional forms and transforms them to meet both functional and aesthetic
requirements of the project. As a professional, the Philippine Regulatory Commission
has singled out Bobby for his adherence to the professions code of ethics and his
contributions to architecture in the Philippines
He has worked on the Tahanang Pilipino at the CCP Complex, the Shrine of Our
Lady of Peace at the corner of EDSA and Ortigas Avenue, the Mary Immaculate Parish
Church in Las Piñas City, the restoration of the historic Las Piñas Church, the stations of
the Metrorail Transit System or Light Rail Transit in Manila, the development of the
Quezon Memorial Circle in Quezon City; and the development, restoration, and
landscaping of Corregidor Island. He was a 2004 Gawad CCP Para sa Sining awardee.
Bobby was cited by Asia Week Magazine as one of the seven visionary architects in Asia,
an important testament to his growing international reputation as manifested by
projects in Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore, Saudi Arabia, Spain, Australia, and the
U.S.A.
Aside from managing his firm, he is also active in the lecture circuit. He has
delivered numerous lectures and papers in the top universities in the Philippines,
Singapore, Thailand, and Malaysia.
WORKS:

Aquino Center, Tarlac Pearl Farm Resort, Davao

San Miguel Building, Mandaluyong, built in


1976. The last project of the firm “Mañosa
Mactan Shangri-la Hotel and Resort
Brothers”, Manuel, Jose and Francisco
(Bobby)
JUAN NAKPIL

Juan F. Nakpil, architect, teacher and civic leader, is a pioneer and innovator in
Philippine architecture.
In essence, Nakpil's greatest contribution is his belief that there is such a thing as
Philippine Architecture, espousing architecture reflective of Philippine traditions and
culture. It is also largely due to his zealous representation and efforts that private
Filipino architects and engineers, by law, are now able to participate in the design and
execution of government projects.
He has integrated strength, function, and beauty in the buildings that are the country's
heritage today. He designed the 1937 International Eucharistic Congress altar and
rebuilt and enlarged the Quiapo Church in 1930 adding a dome and a second belfry to
the original design. Among others, Nakpil's major works are the Geronimo de los Reyes
Building, Magsaysay Building, Rizal Theater, Capitol Theater, Captain Pepe Building,
Manila Jockey Club, Rufino Building, Philippine Village Hotel, University of the
Philippines Administration and University Library, the reconstructed Rizal house in
Calamba, Laguna.

WORKS:

Rizal Shrine in Calamba, Laguna Philippine Village Hotel

University of the Philippines – Diliman


Administration Building
ANTONIO TOLEDO

Museum of the Filipino People (Finance Building) – Manila

The Finance building is an architectural monument designed by Antonio Toledo in the


classical style, which was in vogue for government building in the late 1930s. The
building designed with interiors of generous ceiling height around a spacious central
court. Corinthian colonnades and neoclassic details are consistently found throughout
the interiors. The central court allows the flow of air within the building. Even without
the aid of air conditioners, the temperature in the building is pleasant.
The building was originally constructed for the Department of Finance a mirror-image
building, originally intended for the Department of Agriculture, now houses the
Department of Tourism. The two buildings face a rotunda in the Rizal Park known as the
Agrifina Circle. This ensemble of neoclassic-inspired buildings is composed of the few
structures that survived the ravages of WWII in Manila. The Finance building was
renovated in the late 1990s and established as the Museum of the Filipino People.

Museo ng San Pablo

Museo ng San Pablo is a community museum at the old capitol building in San Pablo
City, Laguna. A development plan was formulated which undertakes, execute and
implement the restoration, rehabilitation, and adaptive re-use of the historic Municipal
Hall’s 3rd & 4th floors as a Museum that will showcase the history and people of San
Pablo City.

Adaptive Re-use of the Municipal Hall

From the town hall with roof tiles made of bricks


which was completed in 1809 -1810, located at
the town plaza, the municipal hall was relocated
to its present site near Sampaloc Lake.

The land was bought in 1937 by Municipal President Inocencio Barleta as future site of
the town hall. The building, designed by Architect Antonio Toledo of the Bureau of
Public Works’ Division of Architecture, was constructed in 1940 during the incumbency
of Municipal President Cristeto Brion. It was inaugurated by President Manuel L.
Quezon.

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