A COURSE OF INSTRUCTION

ON

CANON AND FUGUE
S.

JADASSOHN.

TRANSLATED INTO ENGLISH
BY

GUSTAV

(TYSON-)

WOLFF,

MUS. DOC. CANTUAK.

SECOND EDITION.

LEIPZIG,

BREITKOPF AND HARTEL.
YORK,
G.

NEW

SCHIRMEB

BUT? STA. HALL.

1904.

Copyright 1887 by G. Schirmer.

Music Librafl

MT
51

PREFACE.
Ihose who desire to profit by this book, ought to have thoroughly mastered all the studies in Harmony, simple and double Counterpoint, and the practice in exercises of more than A student, thus well prepared, will be enabled to four parts. follow this course of teaching of the Canon and Fugue, arranged in progressive order; and commencing with the easiest forms of imitation, to compose more elaborate compositions in the form of
the Fugue.

Although the composers of the present day make use of this contrapuntal form comparatively seldom, we find its employment
mostly in compositions for Organ, or in the choruses of Oratorios and Psalms nevertheless, the study of the Fugue is indispensible
;

to

especially to him who desires to devote himself to the cultivation of free composition. Also to non-composers, the study of Canon and Fugue will

every true

artist,

important masters of the past.

works of Bach. Handel and other One need scarcely remark that the creations of art exist for every one, endowed with feeling; and that also the unpretending amateur will receive a deep and lasting impression, after hearing the Cantatas and Passion-music
afford insight into the classical

of Bach, Handel's Oratorios, or other contrapuntal master-pieces, without being able to understand all the ingenious combinations

This we are far from disputing, but on the other hand, admit, that the appreciation and understanding of a master-piece will very materially heighten the enjoyment of it, and that also the executive artist will be better qualified to inof them.

we must

terpret

a work, the
it.

more he has learned

to

grasp

the

very

innermots nature of

Vi

PREFACE.

of contrapuntal forms, and the work in harmonic writing" will awaken and strengthen the sense ,,pure for polyphonic combinations in the composer. These combinations cannot be dispensed with in larger, more elaborate compositions, such as Sonatas, Symphonies etc. and they impart also an especial

The earnest study

charm
It

to smaller pieces of music.

introductory the canature of the Fugue rests on imitation. This study treats just this part of the preliminary studies of the Fugue with especial care; it contains about 60 examples for all
to

was necessary
as

send

forth

as

nonical work,

the

kinds of canon.

To incorporate

all

these examples within this

book, seemed absolutely necessary; for especial rules for the formation of Imitations in all the intervals, in similar and conIt has been the trary motion, can only be given in general. author's experience of many years standing, that examples, especially worked in all kinds of imitation, answer best for the

Except those examples of the Fugue drawn from the works of the classics, the book analysis, contains a large number of examples for the study of the Fugue. These examples, written for the most part by the Author, for the
direction of the student.

and

its

practical guidance of the student, may be found suitable perhaps for tuition also in wider circles. May they facilitate the instruction
for the

teacher, and the endeavors of the student in this very

difficult disciplin.

Leipzig, October 1887.
S.

Jadassohn.

and Riddle-canon. straight Canon in three. 4. 12. in general. Circle-canon. Chapter IV. other intervals. The Answer The Answer of themes. Chapter VI. Canon and in unison. which finish in the Dominant. rovescio). in straight Canon 3.and four -parts. 13. in the octave. 1 . PART SECOND. Pag. Canon in two parts withCanon in the inversion (al in the sixth. Pag. in contrary motion. . in Canon with free-harmonious accompaniment. 5868. Canon accompanied by another free contrapuntal part. PART FIRST. 14. Cancer or re- trograde canon. 6. movement. Double Canon in and contrary motion. out accompaniment. 5057. 15. four 11. Key. of the theme. Mirror canon (Canon inversus). Pag. More difficult imitations in the third. Pag. 10. Canon for singing. infinite 2. 7789. 2230. Pag. 3050. in the octave.Voices in three. Chapter I. 6977. The Theory of the Canon. Chapter II. The Canon. dif- Pag. Canon accompanied by two or more free contrapuntal parts in ferent intervals and al rovescio. Fugue The Theme of the Fugue. Pag. 9. and more parts. Chapter V. 5.TABLE OF CONTENTS. diminution. in unisons. 8. 7. unison or octave. in enlargement. Canon in contrary motion in Chapter III. 121. Chapter VII.

24. Fugue in five parts. Pag. The Stretta (EngfUhrung). for 33. 27. . 36. formed by enlar- gement of the theme. 39. The Form of The Fugue in two parts. 16. 134142. 142166. Pag. 26. 28. Choral fugue. Stretta. the Fugue. Various constructs of the Fugue. 23. paniment to the vocal fugue. Fugue for singing-Voices The choice of theme in the vocal 30. Double fugue for Orchestra. 19. 25. 121133. 18. Strict fugue in four parts. Chapter 0(1. 38. Pag. (Fuga Conclusion. 100105. Very 35. Triple fugue and Double-fugue. 89100. The conclusion of the themes. Chapter XIII. Pag. Chapter XVI. 21. More independent Figurated orchestral accomaccompaniment. VIII. Pag. Chapter X. 32. 105113. treatment of the words. fugue. eight parts. More elaborate fugue in three parts. 29. Pag. Chapter XIV. Chorus and Orchestra. 20. Chapter XII. Chapter XV. 166178. 37. Free fugue in four parts. Fugue for Double Choruses in The Contra-Fugue. 22.VIII TABLE OF CONTENTS. strict The Fugue in three parts. to swer. al rovescio). the an- Chapter IX. Chapter Pag. elaborate Fugue fugue with four themes. in the The Interludium Fugue. The continuation of the theme as counterpoint 17. Pag. Pag. 34. The strict vocal fugue for four parts with orchestral 31. 114121. 179191.

are not considered Canons from a contrapuntal point of view. BEE rr ^ End. easily recognizable The sooner although the imitation occurs in the second bar. that the imitation be by the alternation of the rhythmical parts in the the imitation occurs. and those in which the imitation. to be formed in such a manner. Canons in which the imitation occurs only after eight or more bars. though effected sooner. 1. Nobody would consider Example 1 as a Canon in the octave. i j J r J I J J- ^r ^^^tjM^ . The leading melody ought different bars. of the Canon. move in exactly the same rhythm. The Canon is a musical composition. in which the melody of one part or voice is imitated by another after the elapse of a certain period of time. in the same or in another interval. as the ear can more easily follow the leading and the imitating parts.PART The study FIRST. Equal motion. the more effective will be the Canon. CHAPTER Canon in I.

imitating one. . intervals in equal rythm. we should get a Canon.-ft 1 we heard only J . while in Ex.CHAPTER 1.

Fifth. and the creative genius . One counts the interval of imitation always in an up- ward above. immaterially. greatest imitating AUGUST ALEXANDER KLENGEL proceeds Canons thus: Canone V. Imitation can be effected from any interval Canons exist in Unison. Third. or below the leading whether the one. t 5. Canone XIII. 3. Imitation in Imitation in the Sixth. the Fourth. Canone VIII. etc. Fourth. etc. .1. his direction. 4. etc. Seventh and the Octave. alia Settima in this manner and marks all con parte libera nel Basso. avails nothing. Canone XII. a 3 parti alia Quinta e Seconda. The part is placed master of Canon. culative cleverness achieves every thing. Sixth. CANON IN EQUAL MOTION. alia Quinta per moto contrario. J etc. in the Second. a 3 parti alia Quarta e Sexta.

are We must however lay found scarcely anywhere. occurs often in one and the same canon. as different notations of one and the same interval. as before. and the denoin this marked below effected in the Fifth and the mination Canon in the lower second. in his marvellous canon cromatico ed enarmonico. is in the c second vokime of KLENGEL'S work alia in manner. seventeenth. allows the parts to enter at first in this manner. and twenty second canon. twenty first. fifteenth. stress on the importance of the system of notation. at the change of parts in the Canon. while in reality it is exactly However such a change. sixth. r The second canon Quarta e Settima. Canone doppio alia /. but in treatises. The canon canonic parts. in the inversion. appears then "al rovescio" that is. KLENGEL. Likewise the third. lower fourth.4 CHAPTER Canone XXI. 1. would only embarrass the student. he would fancy he perceives an imitation in another interval. although the imitation is Second below. Dominante a 4 parti. 7. lower third. Later on. he presents the in the soprano in the following canon "al rovescio" with a free part manner: . or inversion of the the same. The old masters managed in the same way.

CANON IN EQUAL MOTION.1. 9. jfaF W- .

ifc-rr^-J IJL .

The Unaccompanied Canon 2. will become different. shall We after sible which we to proceed solutely is rules.2. which an imitation is effected. If we note down the scale of Cmajor with cannot be relied upon. CANON IN EQVAL MOTION. which in most cases. with an imitation. first in Two parts. in which it can be most easily managed. dissolving dissonances. he fancies to find assistance in a rule. every time. and. definite more difficult intervals. as to show it at those intervals. this procedure would only be embarrassing to the student. in arrange the imitation in such order. the relation of in- gfr 1 1 . he period of time tervals may by between the two parts to one another. in that interval in which he desires to make an imitation. where to find consonances or naturally observation. he would learn then. give with the imitation. such as thirds and sixths. we would have all imperfect consonances. It is imposby which one is able to succeed abto It is of no use to tell the student. (as sometimes done) that he may at first denote the intervals of the major and minop scales. resting on this But as. an imitation in the fifth. after two or six notes. according to the try to form a Canon.

This would cause of the canon is to the beginner unnein a difficulties.g CHAPTER Here follows a canon in the fifth. Sequences of several chromatic notes should be avoided. For instance: 13. as they require strict imitation. A manner : free ending to canon 12 could be composed in the following tf . The preceding canon contains a repetition. -J 1 12. Example 12 could also be noted so. -. End. these kinds of canons It is however not necessary to furnish are termed Infinite Canons. The end formed free man- ner. otherwise the movement could not finish satisfactorily. 1. 2. that the imitating part is placed above the leader. . a canon with a cessary repetition.

fgf. means which the two part-phrase it would be advisable not to extend the canons to too great a length one may however try to conduct the imitation at least through six or seven bars. < s f . at the longest. the eafollow the imitation. . Considering the offers. CANON IN EQUAL MOTION. the appearance of the canon at the inversion will not be altered so much. (in 3 crotchet time) and then after the elapse of a whole bar (in four crotchet time).2. he may proceed to the canon in the fourth. than after two bars. Sr three crotchets. 9 The student may now try to form some canons in the fifth he would do well to compose these little movements in different keys. canons should always be written down doubly. as is the case in double counterpoint. two. After the student has worked three or four such little canons in the fifth. but never later. . and the parts are allowed to cross one another. sier the ear limited The will closer the be able to imitating part joins the leader. and to allow the imitating part to enter first after one.r> . as shown in the succeeding Canon in the fourth. i 14. As the distance between parts often transgresses the compass of an octave.

Jma VE . =* m ' Jma I m Either parts NB. 2. M . may also be in: verted a double octave. g^EE 15. PS jfcHjfEnd.. for instance & If r-a- -r- ^=tf etc.10 CHAPTER 1. ^fcfe in the following one had formed the "reprise" manner.

and with the employment of the sequence given in Nr. that the harmonious progression remains the same as in example 15. 11 slight alteration is easily effected.M f^ =^ . although the melodious formation shows material alterations. it contains the same canon Nr. . 14 with a few alterations. Another variation of the sequence Nr. 15 can be given: 17 a.2. taking care however. CANON IN EQUAL MOTION. We illustrate this in the following example. 15.

However it is better to avoid chromatic progressions and their free. Jrna fofr OT^. as in example lib. inconsequent imitations.^ * .12 CHAPTER 1. in like In such a case the notes B7-B. could be imitated with E. and manner G-G$ with C%. 2. 175.

The following example shows an imitation in the second.2. 13 dt ] . CANON IN EQUAL MOTION.

14 CHAPTER With few and unessential I. ^ . 21. alterations this canon could be given in three crotchet time.

CANON IN EQUAL MOTION.

.15

~P
:=j:

End.

More difficult than the imitation in the fifth, fourth, and second show itself the imitation in the seventh. In this case the commencement of the imitation in the minor seventh will be found much easier and more natural, than that in the major seventh. The following example has been worked in such manner, that the imitation commences (Nr. 23) in the minor seventh, and (Nr. 24) in the major.
will
to

In the course of the canon however, both kinds of imitation will have be used, as otherwise the two parts would encounter each other
in

keys devoid of

all relationship.

"

rrvr"

r

r

i*

m

16

,

CHAPTER

7.

3.

We

will alter the

key

to

commence the

imitation

in

the

seventh, and reproduce the canon in

B minor

major

24,

Jma

AJ'fi

3.

CANON IN EQUAL MOTION.

17

after the elapse of, say,
first

bars,

to point

of melody), can form the beginning of a canon in the third, for instance in the
ation

two bars. Care also must be taken, in the out at once through the leading part, (by the formthe possibility of using different harmonies. One

following way:

25.

<=$
etc.

After

all,

the canon in the sixth, will be

more

easily

managed,
imitation

than that in the third.
in the sixth.

The succeeding example shows an

SEE
26.

IffiT

^

u ^.

I ma volta

fcrST-C

nrz:

Jadassohn, Canon and

Fugue.

CHAPTFR
The
student will find the

J.

3.

formation

of canon
it

in

the

third

the

easier, the

more he has practised working

in the sixth.

We

add

One will see that a frequent an example of imitation in the third. of harmony and modulatory evasions are absolutely necessary change in this kind of Canon.

27.

tm
gE8g^=rf2 w&
Jma

feE!E

m
The
imitation in

m
always to be a

the

octave or in unison

.

has

Each note of the leading part has to be imiperfectly strict one. tated by the other part in the perfect octave, or perfect unison. Through to return back again after modulations, this a great difficulty arrises
;

into the original key. If the canon has to be formed without any free accompanying parts, it would be advisable to avoid all evasions

as well as chromatic progressions, and not to work the canon too elaborately, as the imitating part is obliged to repeat It would be exactly, what the leading part has given just before. quite different, if one or two free contrapuntal parts be added to the canon in the octave or a free harmonious accompaniment be
into foreign keys,
,

written to

it.

In

this

case

the

field

for

combinations

is

greatly

enlarged, and modulatory evasions much more easily effected, by the help of the accompanying parts. Example 28 shows a Canon in the octave in two parts.

3.o_ tfrr r-r- . &' m =33 . CANON IN EQUAL MOTION. 28.

At present. climax) we treated here. as to suit the first five notes of the enlarged imitation. we shall have to return more minutely to this subject. kinds of imitation preliminary studies for (stretta. as to form a suitable counterpoint to the diminished notes of the imitating part. to show this imitation of enlargement the following example. as the former will Later on in the instruction sometimes produce a very good effect. the lower part is set at liberty already at the second crotthe third bar. than in that of the It is also not very difficult to treat. 3. The imiin the diminution is less often employed.20 CHAPTER As all I. this sort of imitation is not difficult to produce. will have to serve as the Fugue. as shown in the succeeding example. the en- largement and diminution of imitation. One need only manage the leading part in such a manner. and to place after that As chet in tation a free counterpoint to the other notes of the enlargement. One need only enlargement. half of the leading part so. on the fugue. manage the second . respectively for its "Engftihrung" may not leave out of consideration. in 3= 30. it will suffice. in double as long notes. especially.

3! CANON [ IN EQUAL MOTION. (" F ~=t r~ . 21 /U'V 31.

/L h C T .2 '-< . Contrary motion. CHAPTER Canon in II.22 CHAPTER 11.

the seventh JE. E . the weak parts. 'and the fourth by the sixth. that the dominant C by the dominant. the second by the tonic. and the dissonant ones on elucidate this in Nr. we will find.4. as fixing the harmony. Vu-b 3 A. on an accentuated part see. CANON IN CONTRARY MOTION. the sixth D is answered by the fourth JB7. If is we scrutinise this imitation. Perhaps it would be advisable for the beginner to write down a scale in contrary motion. We try to J. how he can the after of the bar. 3 7 a. by which he will imitated best manage his leading part in order to obtain the consonant elapse of a desired period of imitations intervals of the scale. by the third A. the third by the seventh. 36. and accordingly. the tonic by the second.

only a simple tie. 4. 38a. have to be adhered to as to perfect intervals. A Canon worked in this manner allows of a double representation. In canon for two parts. in order to preserve the unity of the key. to preserve the unity of the key. (bar three to second A C (in the Example 35 shows the minor third bar) imitated by the .24 CHAPTER II. if we held the canon. as the leading one. For this reason the imitation in contrary motion must not be quite strict in unison and in the octave. fourths. third A the E cases. if one wishes to avoid For the same reason in Example 48 the diminished fifth has to be imitated by the perfect one. done. In both cases this had to be will modulation. unison and the octave in similar motion. changed keys. We against a looking glass and read it with exnote the mirror-image of example 35. "image" We turned wrong side up. perfectly strictly. in most major E F (from the second G. would become in the other. or by putting the would receive thus the originally first part as imitating one. fifths and unisons can only appear in passing. Thus. S to . Especial care has to be bestowed on all kinds as the suspension in the leading part of suspensions. to second the minor four) in the second part eighth bar) imitated in the second part by the C (in the ninth bar). of a canon. the rules demonstrated in two part-writing. We can notate it as Canon inversus (Mirror-Canon) in placing the originally imitating second part. Only the prime and octave major third have always to be answered by perfect intervals in contrary motion. Perfect octaves. which we would see. __ although there are some exceptions. Again the perfect fourth and fifth will have to be imitated. in the minor key J J the perfect fourth have to be answered by the diminished. Seconds and sevenths have to be treated as passing notes.

5.

CANON IN CONTRARY MOTION.
One notated such a canon with double keys,
as

25

shown

in ex-

ample 385.

384.

In this

If there were signs of transposition required in the middle of the canon, one marked them above or below the individual note. As different signs of transpositions were required with changed

both ways. versed key.

way, it was intimated, that the canon could be read in Sometimes one had to mark another key behind the re-

key, at the Mirror-Canon, one would sometimes find a $ and and under, or above the same note at the same time.*)

t)

or b

5. All that has been said, concerning the imitation in contrary motion, finds appliance at the imitation in unison or octave, as well, as for those in any other intervals. But also here, we must remark

that if the
to

canon be written in a minor key, the perfect fourth has for instance be imitated often by a diminished one
:

;

#rn
39.

\

26

CHAPTER
The
reverse of
this,

1J.

5.

viz:

This one, can also occur. when we write out example 39 as canon inversus.
imitated

by a perfect

that a leap of a diminished fourth is will be the case,

@5
40.

^

4

5.

CANON IN CONTRARY MOTION.

27

OCIZJg^^p^
42.

J^=.|J4_p_

b=g

r~r=:

|^EEE^^^Ezir^^
will represent itself as

*^
This
little

^t^
movement
Canon
in versus thus:

vn7

_
1

43.

i

28

CHAPTER

II.

5.

,

"

'.?

!

ESSEESE

T*t_

imitation in the sixth would offer but little difficulty. A example may serve the student as a guidance. It can also be used as canon inversus, as well as the succeeding examples; the

The

short

student

may

write out the

mirror-reflections for his information.

46.
-

i^ v i
r\
i

i

m

47 and 48. CANON IN CONTRARY MOTION. Alia Settima. 29 The difficult . f " " . but hardest of that in the fifth. We in the seventh and fourth under Nr.5.^*j ~N . _ ^l~\-r=$=T I . Alia Quarta. 48. imitation in the seventh and fourth will prove all. much more have already give further an imitation We 47. given an example for the last interval. EE= =t ^-r* m*.

partly passing) With one. as well as in contrary motion. But he should form several imitative movements in every interval. and it is possible to compose a piece of music. 6. which. one hitherto avoided. and those accompanied by free-parts. in the strict form of the canon. octave. The of imitations. of all imperfect consonances. trary The student must guard himself against artificiality. CHAPTEK HI. will be able to fill. so that It would do perfectly well. It evident. if he imitated a few bars and added after that. or still better with two free-parts. to invent a great congenial piece of music. according to the ability and the inventive power of the individual. accompanied by free-parts. from the narrow chains of two-part style. however. 6. Only in poly-part imitations.30 CHAPTER 111. all dissonances those. fifth and fourth. one will be enabled. which are not only subject to the necessity of conmovement. Nevertheless the way to free creative work and all . and to soften Dissonances in case they meet in the imitating parts. may become a congenial and effective composition. a free ending. but also to the strict laws of pure harmonic writing. time. that one would not extend these little movements to too a length. in similar After the student has practised the imitations in two parts. he student has to practise industriously all these various kinds is. he will be able to make use in the imitating parts. Herewith the opportunity is greatly enlarged for combinations in the Canon. Canon accompanied by Free-parts. the perfect Consonance -intervals of the prime. is alsp the imitation should enter at different periods of time. which had to be (partly prepared. he will not find it very Liberated difficult to compose a canon. not obliged to work his canons. he should look upon these studies as a necessary course of preparation for the Fugue. harmonically. and denote these in different species of they repeat.

in the intervals of the fifth. try to make clear to the student . after that. imitated in the fourth Andante. to give and to place a free We practical will now . in similar motion. to form a free. he will very soon throw aside this contrapuntal part. is 49.CANON ACCOMPANIED BY FREE-PARTS. the space within the of a treatise Example 49 shows a melodious sequel in the soprano. For the commencement the student may invent the imitating regardless of the part. 31 It is the purwill remain. J . in the canon. which by the alto. only imitations of the simplest kind. first fourth. pose of this work to show the way and we will endeavour to try to elucidate to the student the most suitable manner for attaining it. rrrr To this m a contrapuntal rr rrn 'II we add third part as bass in the fol- lowing manner. and second. The most natural way would parts. our method by as to is examples which however as we cannot carry limit as far musical composition. and. part be. as bass or tenor. a long and irksome one. Andante. Let him choose at . and feel himself capable of inventing a formal procedure merely movement in three parts. too restricted. the canon to the two upper under them. two-part style. after the elapse of one bar. (SOEE 50. from the beginning. Later on.

J2 CHAPTER III. . % 6.

CANON ACCOMPANIED BY FREE PARTS.6. 33 QC5- .

CHAPTER III. 6. .

Allegro moderate. * ffr) J l-J-fcj . 35 54.7. CANON ACCOMPANIED BY FREE PARTS.

this work would soprano not be difficult. are free parts. Andante. which is concipated for the addition of two free parts. of the more mechanical procedure. give when the free parts also imitate one or the . perhaps place the canon in and bass. m . forming two free middle parts. tenor and bass. and such imitations attract his attention. not knowing of any better) he will soon learn to compose the movement altogether from the beginning. imitatively. We In such Canons the most suitable would be. in the alto and bass. but the effect would be injured by the long distance of the imitating parts from each other. beginner. would be quite unpractical. no doubt be the case to the uninian especial charm to the movement. mentioned above. In working. first attempts to parts. or soprano and tenor. first. two lower parts and to form a free soprano and alto. To allot to the canon the other. so that in the one case the two lower parts. will imitating parts. if he composing possesses sufficient power of imagination and invention.36 to CHAPTER become troublesome. the two canon-parts and.other motive. Example 55 shows the commencement of a canon for soprano and tenor. at present we intend to demonstrate to the student the method of working. soprano and alto. One might. the beginner would have to aim principally at the He may then avail himself in his imitating parts in the first line. then adding the two free After the beginner has acquired some practise in this way (which we recommended only. show this in an example a little further on. 55. The ear of the listener will be deceived by so doing and he fancies he hears a canon of many as will tiated will . this can be done in a free manner and need not be strictly canonical. perhaps at the commencement of the canon. to form the two upper parts. because in most cases the free parts would entirely cover the imitating ones. It III.

on the contrary. it will serve to bring out the imitation in the tenor all the clearer. ninth and tenth bar. partly by the canonic. so as not to That the middle parts are allowed to cross in as the eighth. does not matter. will come almost We will conceive cover up the canon. the movement during the little kept up. the free parts enter after the composition canonic parts. partly by the free parts. simply as possible. . free alto and bass for this little it movement. Andante.CANON ACCOMPANIED BY FREE PARTS. 37 The by itself. End. In order to mark duly the commencement is of the imitation. nay.

7. but they can also remain. 56ft. the imitating parts If. \ r r TTtTf . whilst the latter takes the lead. bar 13 th . in such a manner. Andante. canonic movement. then this kind of Canon is called "Canone The free parts are then added (canon in the reverse). as they had been placed originally. at a repetition. in a more elaborated exchange places one with the other.38 CHAPTER III. that the original leading part becomes an imitating one. We will make use of example 56 a (with a few unessential alterations) and show the canon "al rovescio" from al rovescio" afresh in a suitable manner.

would be heard even more predominantly.CANON ACCOMPANIED BY FREE PARTS. and allow the free parts to enter. non-parts. so as to imitate also the beginning motive of the Ca- We |g^EEE=F=fr^^S=^ r r r f :? ^^ . . give such an instance. * it = If the 3 canon lies J _ F it in the two upper parts. Andante.

^ m IP^F^ ^ ^=fa-*- m* -f^- 0- * . as well for the imitating parts. Viola and Violoncello. as well as for canonical combinations. FFR 58. piano. Example 58 could be executed by two Violins. but by one (organ.40 CHAPTER III. :p- 3=a JEE* If the movement has not or more instruments gain still more the free ones. and could greatly enlarge the to be produced by voices. 7. or stringed instruments) we would scope. Andante serioso.

7- CANON ACCOMPANIED BY FREE PARTS. 41 .

ten for Piano between soprano and tenor. 56. rn AFTER in. Andante. 7.42 tation is in the octave. 4 mf dolce ^-&' 59. The canon writ[or Organ) will be found as prelude VIII in the Authors "Preludes and Fugues" op. Vol: 3. ?zm f .

ron espr. /" ma dolce ffip^ '&& . 43 tt=f cresc. 1 con espr. ~~"1 rom here the imitating parts repeat with alteration of the free ones.7- CANON ACCOMPANIED BY FREE PARTS. = cresc.

44 CHAPTER III. 8 7 J_ m ^ e e E g S3? S ^^^ gf SS if^^ .

we reproduce the first bars of the Adagietto from the Authors "Serenade in four canons for Orchestra" op. at the same time furnishing weaker or less instruments for the free parts. 42 (Leipzic. that the canon is not hidden altogether by the This kind of canon would be most suitable for instrufree parts. i^* *-! ^ canon more than two free parts. This. rail. F. allowing them also to accompany softer. or else simultaneously to several instruments.) mental music. Bureau de The first Violoncellos have the imitation musique de C. Peters. and form and more parts. the first the Violoncellos at first. order to make Horn assists the entry of the Cantilene of .7. CANON ACCOMPANIED BY FREE-PARTS. must be done in such a manner. the imitation more prominent. To demonstrate such an example. 45 -pa- $= dimin. to the the One can add movement for five In this case one could give the imitation either to an instrument. which would be most prominent by its volume of sound. In of the melody of the first Violins. however.

Ilorus in 0. Violoncello I. m Violin I. M espr. i . ^E^ Clarinets in A. CHAPTER 111. 60.46 Adagietto. Oboe. jma Solo. Solo. ^ PP Viola. Violoncello II and Contrabasso. Violin H.

47 H* . CANON ACCOMPANIED BY FREE PARTS.7.

s*-- h * ** . 7- cantabile.48 CHAPTER 111.

to detect and follow the canon in contrary. the imitation executed by the extreme parts. imitation to the extreme voices and add one or two free parts. 49 The canon parts. Here is a short example. be much more difficult for the hearer. Jadtssohn. will be easily detected and followed. 61. the canon will easily become lost to the ear Nevertheless such exercises are necessary. than in similar motion. One may allot the minary studies for the "Stretta" of the Fugue.7- CANON ACCOMPANIED BY FREE PARTS. as preliof the listener. Canon and Fugue. In covering the imitation by one or more free parts. . but It will in contrary motion may also be accompanied by free such a movement could scarcely be extended quite so far.

fugue by As a proof we reproduce a Stretta from the e-minor BACH (Wohltemperirtes Clavier volume II. and in the tenor in contrary motion. In practical use. which could not be permitted to in the canon. Should more than two parts take share in the canon.) The alto theme is retained in the soprano in its original form. liberties are allowed in the Stretta of the Fugue. v\> 7 ~i~' accor ding to the first answer. the from above downwards. 8. IV. inasmuch. But.50 CHAPTER IV. also in other respects. difficulties in . as the answer to the theme has not second part of this work) (as will be demonstrated in the be strictly canonical at all. in the Fugue. is answered by a leap of a sixth from below upwards. the imitation need not be effected with canonical strictness. that only few have succeeded in composing in this severe form an elaborate and truly conIn the meanwhile old masters. 11. CHAPTER Canon 8. in 62. in three and four parts. The commencement of the imitation in contrary motion had to be formed with a second leap of the the theme. the working it grow so considerably. Nr. in the notes twice as long. One will perceive that at the imitation fifth in in contrary motion. The reason for this circumstance will be elucidated hereafter. as well as genial piece of music.

in let it canonical artificialities. Generally speaking we would feel inclined to call the canon in or more parts rather a musical artifice than a work of art. Also other contemporaries. but he need not place a "reprise" in his work. It would perfectly suffice. if the student furnished a few specimens of these imitations. and become more this very puzzling task. it would nevertheless answer the abide by it and advance to the study of the Fugue. that a true master will be enabled to exthoughts even in the most severe of all forms of KHEINBERGEE has also composed a most exquisitely beautiful and gentle canon in four parts. to the words "Der selbst Du mit rangst" (op. & Hjirtel. proof. Nr.) This canon is really a marvellous and furnishes the press important musical art. 7. and the highest contrapuntal vir- dem Tode overpowering tuosity. Mayence). Schott. Nr. CARL REINECKE'S Canon. CANON IN THREE AND FOUR PARTS. Chorus and Orchestra" (op. have succeeded in composing a number of excellent pieces of music in this severe style. 100. and to explain. purpose We warn the student. is also of effect. rich imagination. Leipzic. elucidate. they have remained but isolated occurances. and his faculties practise also for contrapuntal combination. As the most extensive and most important master-piece in this "genre" we mention again the "Canone cromatico Breitkopf ed enarmonico" from AUGUST (part II. we have to mention. give here a short example of an imitation of three parts in The pupil may also try to construct a the fifth and the second. ungrateful. Berlin). Ries & Erler. on the words "quam olim Abrahae" in his excellent "Requiem for Soli. Still. But we strongly advise not to remain unfruitful work. For the sake of completeness. Should these essays result short phrases. to too long with these exercises. who possess great inventive power. We canon in three parts in any intervals he pleases to choose. 51 composers of modern times have succeeded in furnishing us with many excellent works of this most difficult kind of composition. this kind of difficulties. 60. 4* . as this would again augment his difficulties. dry. calculation little A mere has scope to combat so many imagination.8. against occupying himself too much with these only . ALEXANDER KLENGEL'S Canons and Fugues XVII. as we do not lay much stress upon this branch of canonic study. that there remains but will for Nevertheless the student have will fitted be sharpened by less and canon. which we do not desire the student to cultivate in the course of our practical instruction. and he should not practise all these kinds of Canon which we are still going to mention. composition. 4 3. for less difficult. a good many things.

2IEE m a 0-ft 1 1 :=i?: .52 CHAPTER IV.

is Thus. even note. from example 63 bar 8. all consequences have to be carefully from every bar. entering after the elapse of a short time. (alto) (soprano) The (tenor). at the seventh bar. 53 9. 64. a sort of Arithmetic. in the eighth the other parts. !E?-* -T-J--= == f-F=|i If the canon has to be formed by four parts. one has to remember that in every bar of the leading part. This certainly. fifth. whose theme (beginning in the bass) seems to musical We end bar. calculated. third.CANON IN THREE AND FOUR PARTS. imitation in and its a reprise of the canon. and the sixth. 10. considered. continuation of the bass. which need not be practised by the pupil. it can be imitated at certain intervals in the second. which appears almost like the stretta of a fugue. !=^==ETE^EEEE JJ=mrr=b=g 1- :fa=J =rt E3 and fourth bar. nay part. place here an example before the reader. . purposes to make possible The imitation takes place in the second. of the leading the most difficult canonical work.

54 CHAPTER IV. . *g== ! H! 1 .

66. r isas r . it would suffice. 55 tation. if after the elapse of several bars of imithe parts be conducted to the end. a reprise.9. CANON IN T-HREE AND FOUR PARTS.

68. the clef. The latter consists of a canon in four parts. viz: This will show a canon. . < also be written down as canon inversus. in which each part has to produce This little movement could to We have now 'in the same notes or bass. to We show an example this most difficult species. mention the trick of the Clef-Canon. All these CHAPTER canonical of this tricks IV. 67. soprano. alto. appropriate to it. simply give an idea of kind of Canon. 9. Here follows a short example. tenor fourth and fifth.56 motion. respectively in the second. the student need not practise. Andante.

does not deserve the name of a musical composition. was one is 70 It may also Riddle-canon. within the compass of a few bars from dominant to dominant. composition modulating incessantly. .CANON IN THREE AND FOUR PARTS. before an imitation has yet commenced the first imitation in the fifth. used to be a clef-canon. occur. commences in the key of the dominant. naturally. Should another circle of modulations be chosen for instance a modulation of the theme into can scarcely A the sub dominant. In conclusion we have to take notice of the u Circle-Canon. contained in the HAUPTMANN. 57 One used to write these artifices on one stave. It was left to the acuteness of the reader to guess the beginin this manner. if ning of the individual parts. is into the key of the dominant of its dominant. But we continued through all the keys of the circle of cannot find any attraction in these experiments and call it musical. Thus the canon fifths. (caSuch a canon has to be connone circolare or canon per tonos). that one can find a double solution to a Thus. first structed in the following manner: The leading part modulates into the key of the dominant. Example noted in that way. to be called a Riddle-canon. the solution A If Canon marked this happened But it became a more difficult matter. had to guess the distance and intervals of imitation. . the Author has found a double solution of the two canons.Album. or into the third above or below. easy. placing all the four clefs and signatures in the following manner. and turns. the matter be- comes still more unnatural and unmusical.

If the be in three parts. with the same melody. The Poly-part Vocal-Canon in unison or in the octave and the Canon with Free-accompaniment. Such canons are not regarded exactly as scientific canons by the contrapuntal school. CHAPTER V. for The form singing voices. 10.. 71. and the executants hear themselves as upper. will have to The method of this work is We commence a melody. more voices.and then again as lower-voices. continue in the same manner and add further a third con- trapuntal part for these seven bars -%-$-$ 3- .then as middle . the piece need only be worked for four or subject to the rules of triple counterpoint in the octave. in 10. Other parts commence after fixed periods of time easily retained. canon is meant it to They are invented easily enough. be worked in quadruple counterpoint.58 CHAPTER V. . of canon most popular. and any beginner is taught part-singing by the simplest manner. The melody of the whole is taught and it. is the poly-part canon Every child learns this kind of canon in the singing-lessons at school. */ H ~ l ~~i "^ voice to the first After the elapse of this period seven bars. we counterpoint a second We 73. very simple.

59 E & !! The effect of this Allegretto. canon can be seen from example 75. < . THE POLY-PART VOCAL-CANON JN UNISON etc. _ ^^ m _ 75.10.

in order that the bars 8 15 should not sound empty. 10. when sung in two parts. __ =E j J t=^43l*^=g3E^& i mz m One will notice that certain considerations had to be observed in the preceding example. In this kind of canon however.CO brU CHAPTER V. one need not subject oneself so very strictly . at the beginning of the movement.

In a similar manner. THE POLY-PART VOCAL-CANON IN VNISON etc. . as such little movements do not pretend to have any real contrapuntal value. we can construct a movement for four parts.io. to all the rules of the If the voices have to follow in we form the melody one upon the other after every two bars. fm" j \ m 76. 61 two-part phrase. for instance: Allegro. such a manner. that always two following bars give the counterpoint to the preceding ones.

CHAPTER V. *== :=--=Ej let us sing a merry song in Ca let us sing a merry song in =t let us sing a merry 1let us sing a let us 4=i m 1- 5 i 2r- ~f .62 79. && let us sing a merry song in Ca - non . Allegro. 10.

THE POLY-PART VOCAL-CANON IN UNISON etc. 63 IS T^ .10.

% 10.64 CHAPTER V. -a(Mf K S P- .

THE POLY-PART VOCAL CANON IN UNISON ' etc.10. 65 """ I 1* .

A canon with free-harmonic accompaniment. and serious in this sphere. by the worth of . Just most modern time has produced so much that is beautiful. A surprisingly large number of canonic works. 11. four or six quavers soprano. Choruses. graceful. Choruses for male a female voices. especially since MENDELSSOHN. always after two. Duos for Violin and Piano. These are not accompanied free contrapuntal parts. The artistic value however of such pieces. the more voices take part and the closer the imitating voices follow one another. to compose very graceful canons of this species. for after the One will see that it would be easy to write canons in this way. 79 into the Album of a friend as a joke. but by although this does not exclude the accompaniment.. as the effect of all the 12 voices would consist only of these two harmonies too The pupil must not occupy himself much with small movement of these musical playthings. not only with connaisseurs on account of their artistic form. The other parts that of the third chorus would have to commence. soprano. and six parts. Two-part songs with piano-accompaniment.66 CHAPTER One could V. tenor and bass. have been published and found approbation. grand. would be lessened in the same degree. but also with musicians and amateurs. if we mentioned even a small part of such works or the names of their authors. One could write a canon like the one Nr. 11. The Canon with free-harmonic accompaniment. one would be able entrance of the voices does not occur too closely one upon the other. Suites and Serenades for orchestra. Four-hand piano works etc. alto. and have it executed by three soprano of the first Chorus commences after two bars. amongst these Symphonic ones. four. Characteristic pieces for piano. and this still possess a rich canonic much more so ROBERT SCHUMANN has cultivated kind of canon. write this canon also in unisons and octaves for mixed voices. and after two more bars. the soprano of the second enters. in the canon. by chords humoristic. . any number of voices. sometimes taking a contrapuntal style. Nearly all important composers of the present age have created something in this sphere. first The begin in each bar. constitutes a or perhaps only at times piece of music. sometimes more parts are formed in a canon. that we literature. in which two. but it would not be of any musical significance. but it would lead us too far. he might perhaps form one If the this species for three.

11.

THE POLY-PART VOCAL CANON IN UNISON
contents.

etc.

67

their

belong to secular music,

The very circumstance that most of these works and that we find contained in them thouroughly
contents,

modern musical

proves

satisfactorily,

that the

canon,

the

most severe, constrained, and most inflexible of all contrapuntal forms, shows itself perfectly adapted for the expression of sentiment, provided the author reigns over it supremely, and be able to use it freely and without coersion. MORITZ HAUPTMANN in his preface to the canons and fugues of KLENGEL, calls the polyphonic-contrapuntal style "a language formed

by

itself for

We

can interpret

the characteristic expression of musical thought". this utterance as meaning that this style

is

a language for kself, forming the expression of individual musical The reciprocity of substance and form is the same here, thoughts.

and language. The canons of the present day The constrainedness of us not only by their artistic form. delight the severe form may act upon the imagination even impulsively. Let
as that of interlect

no one imagine that the inventive power of the composer be lamed by the coersion of the canon*). As these species of canon belongs into the dominion of treatise on composition, we must withdraw all further remarks on this subject. We will however give a small instance of a canon with freeaccompaniment; it is the commencement of the third canon from the author's Serenata in eight canons for piano op. 35. (Breitkopf and One should however not progress to the compoHartel, Leipzig). sition of such pieces, until one has attained sufficient knowledge by the study of Canon and Fugue. For our immediate purpose it would suffice, if the student had worked conscienciously those canonic exercises, allotted to him within this book; he may after that progress
in

good

spirit to

the instructions for the Fugue.

Scherzo.
Allegro giocoso.
ten.

g=j=fr-H&^
80.
73

3S
ten.

prazzoso.

*) "We have already demonstrated this some time ago, in a paper, in Nr. 18, annual course XII of the "Musikalisches Wochenblatt".

published

5*

68

CHAPTER

V.

H.

&;

ten.

ten.

:

j

j

^i

r-i

With

this

we conclude

the instructions on

the Canon.

The

so-

called free imitations, viz: those which are not carried out with canonic strictness as to equal distance and equal interval, but those, which imitate at pleasure a motive in free intervals, the student will

be able

to

industriously;

form easily, after having practised the strict imitations he would also know, where to place them suitably

with ability and cleverness in suitable places. The student has been made acquainted with these in the treatise on Counterpoint 16, and in this part of th,e volume, in the "free parts", examples 57 and 58;
this will

be

still

further explained in the study of the Fugue.

PART SECOND.
Instructions on the Fugue.

CHAPTER
12.

VI.

The fugue

is

a

musical movement formed of sometimes

two, mostly three, four or

more

theme is produced the same subject a

at first

parts, in which the principal subject or one part alone. A second part brings by

fifth higher or a fourth lower, the third again in the octave of the tonic, a fourth repeats the theme in the octave of the fifth of the fundamental note. If there be more than four parts

engaged, their entrance follows in just the same order, so that the subject be brought first by one part in the tonic and then by the
following in the
fifth.

principal theme in the fugue is called the leader, (dux) the repetition of it in the dominant the response (comes). After the first part has presented the principal theme, it con-

The

while the second part produces the answer in the dominant, to the theme, which is called contra-subor also contra-theme. If this counterpoint be repeated regularly ject, the fugue is by one part although with unessential alterations
tinues,

by bringing a counterpoint

called a strict

one.

If the

entries of the subject, or if fugue is called a free one.
If

it

counterpoint changes with the different be sometimes or always different, the

one give the counterpoint of the principal subject the importof a real contra-subject, and introduce both themes at the beginning, one calls such a fugue, constructed on two themes, a
ance

Double-Fugue. The second theme must however preserve its indepeiidance and be repeated with the first one, so that one theme serves the other as counterpoint. Other contrapuntal parts may be employed In a well Developed Double -fugue only one freely in conjunction. principal theme is at first worked out; after that appears -- best after a half-cadence the second theme, which is now in its turn

70
treated,

CHAPTER
either alone at
first,

VI.

% 12.

and

later

on with the

first

theme

in

combination, or it is brought at once after its first appearance, together with the first theme. Such themes are generally constructed in such a manner, that they do not begin exactly at the same time one
;

hears then

easily the different beginnings. be also different in rhythmical structure.

more

The themes should

If the

also write fugues with three, even with four themes. be a larger and more elaborate movement, one finds fugue sometimes within it, freely worked parts; also the end of the move-

One can

ment
non;

is

free.

itself, from the strict form of the cabased essentially on free imitation, and offers, through this medium, a much wider field, than the canon. One can perceive, that the fugue became the stepping stone from the old music to the new out of the former all kinds of modern forms have developed.
it

The fugue has eleveloped
is

;

It is

superfluous to state, that the

study of the fugue

is

absolutely

necessary to every composer.
of the past and present have

fact that all prominent occupied themselves in the

The

composers most thorserious

ough

manner

on

this
is

field,

proves

satisfactorily,

that

the

study of the fugue
to those,

who

Even indispensable to every musical author. have not the intention, ever to compose a work in the

form of a fugue, thorough study in this sphere will render an excellent medium for educating and developing the power of imagination. Every follower of art will learn here the sure mastery of the matter, every one will be enabled by the perfect and sovereign government over the style of the fugue to the composition of freer creations. The study of the fugue will be an excellent medium of education to
every one.

Every fugue contains, besides the theme, the answer and the counterpoint or contra-subject to the theme and answer, a number of interludes, the latter of which are mostly founded on a motive of the theme or the counterpoint. These interludes serve for the connection of the principal groups of thematic entries. After there have been at
least two, but generally

several of such principal groups of themes and answers, the (Engfuhrung) "Stretta" will follow; although there are fugues, in which the stretta takes place immediately after the Such fugues have first principal group of entrances has occured.
often
Cl.

several strettas.

tions

part I). of the

The

stretta is

(See fugue in Z)$-minor Nr. VIII, Wohltemp. as already mentioned in the instruc-

canon

more or

less strict

canonic style.

a compressed sequel of thematic entries, in But one finds also many and very

complicated, and largely planned fugues, in which no real stretta is used, as sometimes the theme of the fugue is not adapted for such

as many-part movements are generally worked more or less in a contrapuntal manner.13. there exist even would not bear a contrapuntal of a Not every musical subject will be suitable for the form many and very beautiful ones. An organ-point cannot take place in a two-part and in the three-part one only. as bass. But the theme. The Organ. Clavier part II. Often one makes use only of the rhythm from a motive of the subject. this term as terminus technicus. and the stretta will. INSTRUCTIONS ON THE FVGVE. however one or more strettas will render an especial interest and charm to the fugue. or only of a motive. we shall also employ . the principal subject. 71 compressed representation in canonical manner. The stretta therefore cannot be considered as an absolutely necessary part of the fugue. and one *) original has identified the expression "polyphon" with "contrapuntal". without containing any contrapuntal combinations at all. and latter should be constructed. although be of very good effect. In the to first line. Let us observe then the essential parts of a fugue more closely. but could not bear several of them continually as equally authorised. we have in to direct explain the manner which the our attention to the theme. as a movement may be written in four. The lies in the nature of our modern themes. which. But. Rarely occurring exceptions as for instance the sequence for two parts over the bass-note F. afford a climax in the development of the theme. Fugue XI. principally towards the close of the fugue. five or more parts. bar 93.or Pedal-point is even less necessary than the stretta. in spite of the lying basa. same work fugue XVIII. if a fourth part be added for fugue its use will more part-movements. or the sequence over the note Z>$. / fugue. We reason for this freely The expression "polyphon" (many parts) does not quite coincide with its meaning. not the character of an organ-point. being the most important and melodious sequel of the fugue. in the fugue for three parts. . moving and unhampered on an harmonious basis. the organ-point. would allow now and then of another melody along with it. taken from the theme. in order to allow the fugue to be properly developed. have. which or as it is often called a poly- have to make a difference between a conphonic treatment*). especially in four or It is found in most cases on the dominant or on the tonic towards the end of the fugue but it can also occur in the middle of it. 94. Wohltemp. 13. The Theme of the Fugue. bar 61 65. trapuntal development of a whole theme. In most cases in modern music only a motive of the theme will be employed for contrapuntal compilation.

modern theme carries. now as upper. they contain sequences. the theme). (although being the principal subject. seven bars. theme for a fugue are then the following. with it simul- taneously will present itself. are not simply harmonious accompaniment to (which By nature.essential parts. rT) .) and then as lower part. where we find with BACH longer spun-out themes. free space for their development. and now as middle. VI. the utmost. the its predominating laws of periodical This again conditions a for certain expansion of musical thought. tion A really good and beautiful theme of a modern composi- would be mostly too long The essential conditions of a suitable use as the subject of a fugue. and follow it up in its entirety. A plicated can take theme for a fugue should be short. the construction. within itself. even in comcombinations. It has to define well. say 2 or 3. allow other parts. to suffer other it melodious -. which make them easily comprehensible and soon retained in ones memory. 13. in order that the hearer it in easily. its musical contents in In comparatively small space. such cases.72 will CHAPTER have .

harmonious accompaniment. In these cases the harmony is clear and In the above noted theme of the Organ-fugue easily recognizable. We find in fugues by HANDEL. or six-bared periods. in the Fm. C: V7 fSB . contain harmonious figures. are not suitable for the fugues. although that the principal subject is brought simply harmonically. after the contrapuntal development. which it brings fortk way a theme of a fugue will it is but seldom represented by a simple. As each melody possesses almost as its own inmate.) contain such. How much we to the teaching of others. INSTRUCTIONS ON THE FUGUE. as the coercion of regularity hinders the its 73 for- or four-.13. contained within the theme. three- mation of free development of several parts. the bass in the succeeding example. is doubtlessly to be considered as the harmony. in the same own harmony. against the end of the fugue. in A-minor by BACH. Still also this case occurs. self -under- stood in the other parts give such a manner that the soprano contains the theme and nothing but a subordinated harmonious accomare in the right with our argument in contradiction can be easily proved by those themes which paniment. Suite etc. (see fugues from Israel in Egypt.

CHAPTER VI. 13. * f^-> n h i r i 1 ^ 1 I 1 -1 86.74 Lorpo. . 85.

I. commencing with one of these mentioned intervals would clearly prove the unnaturalness of such a Nearly all themes finish on the tonic ^. One should therefore not begin a theme on a second. 75 88. or by the chord of the tonic. as the natural harmony of the end of the theme proves. These two themes are the only exceptions. . A 90. as anything but fifth of the key of . In rare cases. which we expect are in everybody's possession. Glav. . JhicAf~ftw* the preceeding*ta7Khce or hali^caaence. In most cases we shall those above mentioned masterworks of fu- Should the gues. 18 organ fugues by BACH (year XV of the BACH-editiou) and in the six well-known Piano-fugues by HAUDEL. which do not as examples commence on the make use tonic of. beginning. third. we may accompany the by the chord of the dominant. in 48 fugues of the Wohlt.ox .' an ending would )e found also on the fifth for instance. We cannot imagine this last A. student take the trouble to look into the fugues of other celebrated masters. sixth. Wohltemp.13. Cl. or seventh. he would be all the more convinced of the truth of our remarks. Th. The answer of a subject. Fuga VI. INSTRUCTIONS ON THE FUGUE. or dominant.D-minor.

the theme of a fugue. which infuse to both thoughts a character of imploring fervor. As the melody of such a theme cannot be carried out so freely and unconstrainedly. Directions or rules are almost impos- we can only draw attention to the means. and themes 85 and 86 contain also striking leaps of inter. as a melody in modern music. difficult task. in answer to the theme. He would however find after a close investigation. having to acknowledge other equally authorised parts.76 CHAPTER VI. 91. the invention of a characteristic and significant theme for a Fugue will a very ventive sible.the easier it would be recognizable in all the . This can be effected either vals. by striking leaps of interor by the conjunction of both these means. fire. The vals. which the part continues. a pronounced leap of a sixth from both conjoined give to the theme impetus.. because of the finishing of the theme being closely connected with the counterpoint. which the solution depends entirely. The beginner would feel inclined to search for the end of the theme perhaps on the second crotchet F or the third D of the second bar. 13. the striking feature of below upwards dignity. that the theme does not imitate more than the above noted little phrase. besides its rhythm. by sharply defined rhythm. Naturally the end of the theme would fall on an accentuated part of the bar. by which a Fuguetheme can be made interesting and characteristic. The theme of a Fugue should be characteristic. . be really on in- power and ingenuity. Sometimes the end of the theme will be left doubtful to the student. on the contrary. we will find. The more characteristic a theme is be it by its rhythm or by its cantilene. If we observe the theme in example 92.

CHAPTER The answer 14. let us try to demonstrate. diverse amongst theorists. another key. here this paper. and also the the Fugue) piano-fugues by HANDEL. and completed for the purpose of this treatise. 24 in -B-minor. revised. 10 and Nr. As it must be of great importance practical instruction in counterpoint. THE ANSWER OF THE THEME IN THE FUGUE. at We give the from the Fugue by HANDEL. is the in most most frequent. as an illustration the theme in ^4-minor 77 parts. to clear up this point as as possible. Fugue Nr. 18 Although it seems to be natural that a theme of a fugue. of the VII*). and which. LUBENAU" In the "Musikalisches WochenWe reproduce blatt". th amongst the 24 fugues of the first volume of the "Wohlwhich modulate into the key of in of the 7 th fugue J^-minor. which. (even in the middle ones) and in all complications. end of this chapter. views for still exist Concerning the answer of the theme in the Fugue. the G^-minor in J?7-major. starting from the fundamental note.14. Thus we find temperirte Clavier" only four themes. in theme the Fugue-. within this compass. the dominant of matter *) The contents of this chapter have been published for the most part at some former time. by what principles BACH much and HANDEL have answered their themes. Scrutinising then the themes of those Fugues. cannot have a very large compass. Those. Nr. we perceive. that do not leave their principal key. 2 and 3) in a paper by the author. we meet in the "Wohltemperirte Clavier" only with two themes. (annual XIII. do not touch the fifth of the scale. no whether it be intended for voices or instruments. under the Pseudonym "L. that modulate into The first kind cases that of the dominant. do not transgress the compass of a fourth. . We will choose for this purpose the "Wohltemperirte Clavier" the "Kunst der Fugue" (Art of and the large organ -fugues by BACH. and those. These are the themes the dominant. aided by the help of the most celebrated works on the fugue. that we can divide them into two kinds. 1. the two-part one Nr.

11. 1. 13. or as an unessential one on the -. we mention all those themes of the "Wohltemperirte Clavier" which commence with the fifth. alterations of single notes of the theme. Here we arrive at the disputed ground. of the dominant. beginning with a fifth. 12.always by the fourth arsis. These are the fugues Nr. Nr. 6 in the first volume gives it as finalnote. makes a very frequent exception to the above two stipulated principal rules for the answer of the theme. of the fugue in . 16. This is. 9 in the second volume. as that of the Also in the course of the strict fugue we find. 2. or a fourth lower. called Fugatos. 4 in the first volume) and the one for four parts in . as also in the answer of it. key of the dominant) are responded of this. it immaterially. the fifth of the scale. such a manner that each note consequent part a in the fifth of the theme is responded if to by the key higher. . be it be it. 17. that is it. it is the answer of the fifth in the theme. We add further the themes of the large Organ-fugues by BACH. this concerns only the strict fugue. and that the answer.D-minor Nr. and their answers: As a proof . 7. 2/ A leading note must always correspond with a leading note. especially in more complicated strettas. 3. especially when of the finishing : ^fundamental key. that this theme is not imitated quite answered in another interval. 14. One note however. We speak here only of the first answer of the theme in the fugue. whether it appears as aii essential note on the thesis. in the fifth. cases . still turns towards it. 16. in If this note att be the first note of the theme. that this does not finish in the to regularly. 14.S-major These themes form their answer in (Nr. 15. the following principal rules are availiable IV Each note theme is answered in the dominant a fifth \ higher. In fugated movements. 21 and 24 of nd I st volume. fifth. These are the themes of the fugue in C^-minor for 5 parts (Nr. 20 and 24 of II volume. the key. such as are found in instrumental pieces and in polyphonic Choruses by BACH and HANDEL. 12. we meet with exceptions Of course to this rule often strictly. not beginning All the other themes in the "Wohltemperirte Clavier" have more extended compass and come in contact with the fifth even the theme . (the octave of the fundamental note) and never by the fifth while all other notes of the theme (granted must be answered.78 CHAPTER VII. first For the in the answer of a normal theme. enough.

by 103. 102. by 105 ^^k"~~ ^-r^= i y~ - etc. by 109. j- JmP rrt-"f J " etc. j . p-^j In the same manner he answers the theme of the second fugue : 108. the contrapunctus inversus etc.14. r ' .1 I =^ etc. etc. 79 is answered: 95. In like etc. by 101. is answered by 9y 3 ' 2 p etc. manner HANDEL proceeds in his piano-fugues. answered: 97. the first note of the theme is shortened at this answer one crotchet. etc. THE ANSWER OF THE THEME IN THE FUGUE. the theme (contrapunctus 14 etc. 104. which first theme : 106. I etc. 107. -*- answered : 99 tfreft 2: 100.

etc.CHAPTER VII. (the octave of the fundamental note. contrapunctus 1 1 from the "Kunst der Fuge".=f= E] etc. the note. and see. 3) (if the theme commences with a fifth. or which is the same. three notes : Here the 116. 8. which dominant as second Clavier" the themes Nr. g^^-4. final-fugue from the "Kunst der Fuge". E in the fifth fugue etc. 12 and 13 and all note. we state as the only exception from the above mentioned works. bringing forth in the a fourth principal rule. 3. 14. thus: 4) If the Dominant appears tonic in a theme. that a great number of Less numerous is the themes of fugues commence with a fifth.) has to be answered invariably in all cases all other notes. as the octave of the fundamental In the face of these numerous examples. In we these cases the theme remains stationary in the principal key. 1. to which we could add a gjeat many more from the works of the classical masters. 4. ^fourth. likewise in the sixth fugue. 2. in Consequently we consider ourselves justified. regularly a fifth higher in /on case the theme remains in the principal key.) the contrary. 17 and 22 of the I st Vol. first |~~" J J are answered by 117. We 21 of the the Ud Vol. that the first fifth is answered not only by the fifth of the fifth. (but only this with the Jfirst one. etc. 114. which remains as an essential note soon after the latter this first fifth . the mention here from the 'Wohltemperirte of the fugues Nr. by 113. cannot suppress here the remark. the Contrapunctus 1. a third one of this purport. must be answered. We number of such themes. by 111. but similarly by the fourth. immediately upon the tonic. 2. bring. etc. a fourth lower. H2. 11 and 8. 7. this fifth. 7. 3. We consider therefore ourselves justified in adding to the two above mentioned principal rules. fo> - etc. by 115.

tne octave of the fundamental note in the theme. theme. XXI "Wohltemp. In this theme. this Clav. if writers chose nearly always the tonic note. are responded to by F. Clav. evidently for the purpose of leading the answer of which has modulated into the dominant by the response in the sub-dominant. for instance : tonic note F is afterwards note answered by the tonic note B. II of the "Wohltemp. the answer this is 119. *) We Nr. not only the first." vol. in order note has always to be answered by a leading note. vol. back again into the fundamental key. Jadassohn. that old altered F by B also easily explained.14. 1) is easily explained by the character of an ornament **. I. generally . The answer of the first and second fifth in the C-major fugue ("Wohltemp. the fourth: 118. but also the second fifth of the answer This occurs also has been responded to by the octave of the fundamental note. and Fugue. find in the first three notes of the fifth." Vol. Canon 6 . because in the theme the second a principal tone. II. as well as in the answer. has to be 81 mental note answered by the fourth. the octave of the fundaall other fifths however by the fifth of the fifth*) . 7. the at the beginning of the theme is and answers one considers. but them. fundamental and closely after. next . avoid bringing an entirely foreign 3L- ^ jtfym * into the preceding C-major and the succeeding G-major. first fifth B? is answered here. instead of the chromatically This to one . . to establish the key in the theme. only that a leading This must be done. THE ANSWER OF THE THEME IN THE FUGUE. in the the theme there. BACH answers the mordent (written) W=^ 6 is '/^ - by a similar figure . The to it. The answer occurs. with E'?.speaking." will demonstrate to us how strictly BACH observes the rule. by the rules of the Canon. as well as the fourth A?. as an isolated exception to this rule the fugue in fil'-major Clav. The theme Here we note. Nr. mention. although it does not modulate into the dominant. That BACH writes F. all other notes J&. and just for this reason F had to be answered by B. which the beginning notes carry with 24th fugue. the of the EV fugue (Nr.

in the above mentioned works of BACH and HANDEL an evasion into the key of the sub-dominant. 3). A comparatively small number of themes modulate into the dominant. and in a fugue in many-parts. the answer given in such a manner.82 CHAPTER The answer of the first it. and all other later classical masfinish in the keep to the principle. of bringing the first entrances of the theme and their responses. 15. as the re- sponse would otherwise dominant of the dominant. But in general BACH and HANDEL. As an espe- example for this. in its response. So far. by which a leading note has to be answered by a leading later on. On this account. and . even in more than four-part fugues the first entrances of all parts ters without any distant modulations. we have only occupied ourselves with themes which remained in the principal key. an exception to the rule. The entry of the second part with the notes must be considered the ment of the theme: intrinsically musical response to the commence 122. as closely as possible in the different parts." vol. in some isolated cases we find. that this answer leads back into the fundamental key. fifth. This is the case in the Contrapunctus 10 in the '"Kunst der Fuge" which contains. Clav. VII. we find in nearly all cases. We shall scrutinize this theme and its response the theme finishes in another key. 120. often gives to the second entrance of cially striking its responding character. note. a lengthy interludium would be required. to It does not at all lie in the character of the fugue make use of very distant modulations. Nr. occurring in the theme. 15. II. we cite the beginning of the Fugue ("Wohltemp. to enable a third part to commence again in the fundamental key. not all the notes When of the theme can be answered in the interval of a fifth. < etc. They avoid lengthy interludes at the commencement and bring.

He substitutes the leading note (from the key of . 83 the observation of even the most extensive. melodious progressions of the parts. . Much less Z$-minor. 18. and most important fugues of all masters. Clav. (Nr. to answer its second half in the fourth where it turns. I.Z?. 7 -major) for the leading note (the key of . "Wohltemp.") In this highly interesting F. In the (r^-minor Fugue. "Wohltemp. and produce just for this reason. that minant.B^-major). the original characteristic. as injuring the melodious-polyphonic character the Fugue by harmonious -modulatory artificialness. Clav. and from there all other notes By means of this circumstance. theme pose is loses least of its nevertheless the purin nor. 24. The first fugue of this the seventh in -E^major. that they avoid touching upon of too foreign keys. I of the G- theme. will demonstrate to us clearly. Wherever especial harmonious complications are made use of. The finish in the dokind in the "Wohltemp. they are the natural result of the independent. BACH D A by means of which he leads the answer back to the fundamental key. vol. THE ANSWER OF THE THEME IN THE FUGUE. is obtained.15. takes advantage of the "caesur" in the theme. because the second note of the theme happens to be The theme modulates from G^-minor i. in the J5-minor fugue is the answer. with the exception of the first note. not only the first fifth wered by B. viz: that the response. the answer leads to in the sub-dominant. in the sub-dominant. (Nr. Let us observe now closely those themes. Clav. which commences ^-mi- 125.") BACH answers the whole theme. striking minor back again. led back again to 2?-minor.o already the leading note." is theme in question runs: tr 123. vol. (commencing the theme) is ansfifth. towards l^-major. S: The answer 124. a good effect. by means of the leading note A. but also the second are answered in the sub-dominant.

an harmonious . 126. The theme of the . but the whole answer leads from 2?-minor to F$.84 CHAPTER VII.minor. Clav. by a fifth. Here. that the note D of the theme. Only in the last moment BACH substitutes the deceptive cadence on the dominant of 2?-minor. tified as it Only the fngue in two parts can be considered jusonly for instrumental music.") has an exceptional response. 10. It stands to reason that more parts are far more suitable to the polyphonic character of the fugue. BACH succeeds in weaving were. into the melodious character of the theme. than These two parts only.E-minor fugue in two parts (Nr. irregularities of the answer are easily explained by the fugue being written in two parts. vol. instead of the finish in J^jf-minor. I. 15. not the third note of the theme is answered only the first fifth. of the "Wohltemp. There. by which means the answer is altered so. coralso responds with the A of the response.

believe. by 133. THE ANSWER OF THE THEME IN THE FUGUE. tional case offers the contrapunctus 10 from the "Kunst der Fuge". etc. depth to the merely as har- mony. : 129. ^-minor. by 135. . but as an harmonious-filFor this reason the answer viz ling out one. 132. = end of the theme of the The irregularity in the answer at the . by 131. cannot be considered as a principal note. without taking regard to the melodious sequel still of the is form the triad in this case. that the core of the theme mentioned above. He answers the theme One cannot characteristic Nor: etc. because BACH proceeds in other cases without regard to the melodic of the theme. More striking notes. as might be. Therefore it follows. consists of the notes: We 127. we are justified in considering. All other notes of the theme must be considered it filling out notes. which the answer of 134. that the first fifth in the theme 128. 85 basis as without such means. . etc. in order to give. justly reply that this answer is given in order that the of the theme should not be altered. the two-part phrase would turn out to be too poor.E-minor fugue explains itself easily through the endeavor not to deAnother excepviate too far from the fundamental key.15.

the 7 leading note F$ in the fourth bar. a different one. as an essential. in the fifth as well. the fifth does not appear at the beginning of the theme. Clav. on the like all contrary. 9. 1. melodious note. like all other intervals. enters in the course of the other notes. 5. I. the the third bar of the theme has been answered by E. the exceptional response to the theme is explained by the turn which the latter takes into the sub-dominant. 6. result is that the answer of the fifth will be in accordance to its significance." and others. If. with the exception of the sixth note. 136 A The whole theme in the fourth. by J5 in the seventh bar. theme. as much as possible. If the in theme remains the in the dominant. There. however. 15.D-minor.86 CHAPTER VII. as soon as possible into the original key. answered B? in For the purpose of a speedy return to . The essential importance. but. occurring the theme as principal. this note answers. of leading back the answer. 10. vol. Only when the theme leaves the fundamental key the commencement of fundamental key an exceptional response will be justified indeed for the purpose. easily But from the above examples it will be how the answer can be formed in individual cases. but ing removed unnecessarily far . learned. is always answered by the octave of the fundamental note. is. we believe. the themes of the fugues Nr. After having elucidated and explained these few exceptions in the answer of the first fifth in the theme of the fugue. becomfrom the fundamental key. theme characterising note. we can formulate the rule in this way. it is answered Thus we see in the "Wohltemp. Therefore the fundamental principle is: Avoid in the answer of the theme. 15 and 20. in which the and is not of fifth does not appear at the beginning of the theme. 14.

. 102. 113. quite regularly. 112. 98. fifth of the key. 106. return back again. 96 and 97. 3) first Such themes. 108. 100. The first exercises of the student will now consist in forming various themes and their answers. THE ANSWER OF THE THEME IN THE FUGUE. which do not bring the interval in the first as an essentially but only in the course of the theme and consequently answer them. it first note of the theme may appear shortened. will be seen from examples 94 and 95 that the answer can commence upon another part of the bar than that. 105. 114 and 115 and also from the fugues of the Wohltemp. Clavier. formed entirely in the dominant The 2) leading note B in the theme has to be answered by F$. 1) Such. 110.15. One may invent at present themes 36. chapter VI. An answer in contrary motion has been shown in examples 102 and 103. 104. 97. the other notes the dominant. 103. fifth Such themes. Theme. ample 92. 95. We shall return to this subject at the explanation of the fugue in contrary motion. 107. when the theme has left 87 to try. for instance: im is The answer 138. which do not contain the 137. that do not modulate. 96. 101. (See excharacteristic notes. which commence with the with the octave of the fifth of the theme. '- 13). "fuga al rovescio". as has been demonstrated in examples 94. in fifth. Here follows example 139. on the contrary. the tonic. or "fuga per moto contrario" At present we may dismiss this kind of answer. Answer. on which the theme began. and answer this fundamental note. at the beginning of this chapter. 111. how the It has been shown already in examples In the same way. 139. 99. 109. however.

88 Here example 140. -0 &n CHAPTER VII. Theme. """^ ^^^ '^ ^-' . 15.

We much advise the student to modulations in the theme. at the invention of such could possibly embarrass him. 89 the returns. that the contrapuntal accompaniment should contrast rhythmically and metrically to the answer. construct his themes. is imitated in the answer by the modulation into the dominant of <?-minor (^4-major). Here the modulatory turn into the dominant (Z)-major) in the second bar of the theme. 143. CONTINUATION OF THE THEME AS A COUNTERPOINT after that. or during the entry of the answering part But should be the characteristic of every well-worked counterFurther than this. presumably for this reason. his first own fugue-themes. to CHAPTER VIII. the contrast should not go. suffice. on the contrary. in a short.16. Theme. 16. into the original key to find its conclusion. as as possible. just as the modulation into J^-major is responded to. ment to the answer. etc. The accompanipoint. cannot have an essentially different character to this . simple. Continuation of the theme as a Counterpoint for the answer. modulatory turn into the dominant. and concise manner. is imitated exactly by the dominant in the key of its dominant. Formerly one used to call the progression of the : theme after the Counter-harmony or Counter-subject. contained in the theme. to compose useful themes and It would perfectly answer these correctly. the answer The beginner should try to essays "interesting" themes. by the answer avoid of in -F-major. as the following example from the G -minor organ-fugue by BACH distinctly f manifests. let him however guard against the mania of inventing at these.

GefShrte) and leader. that were contained in the theme it has grown. re-appearing. and instead of speaking of counter. can be proved by intended to become oppositional many fugues of the great masters. standing. will occur. the counterpoint will have to be fugue florid. By so doing. which the counterpoint imitates figures. out of the theme and must be considered its natural continuation. its rhythmical figuration. as to be suitable for accompanying contrapuntally in the answer. and bring sustained notes against the florid ones of But all this shows far more the uniform coherence of theme the theme and counterpoint. . as in every counterpoint. the counterpoint will have to be composed in a sustained character. the continuation. of the theme. as it were. is. principal part of the theme. Only the general contrast of the counterpoint to the cantus firmus. not an exterior however an Therefore we shall relinquish the expression or movement". . on the contrary. as its natural This continuation has to be formed in such a manner. Clavier" will clearly demonstrate this. taken from the "Wohltemp. "leader" (dux or Ftlhrer) or "companion". the theme formed of florid passages. will have in our case the theme of the to be regarded. the counterpoint would have to imitate. as to rhythm and meter.90 that CHAPIER V11L 16. If the theme contains long notes and rhythmical figures. as it were to the theme. difference. the same as we have hitherto avoided "counter-subject the expressions. (comes or oppositional contrast. 144. during the long notes of the theme.subject to the companion we shall call it: counterpoint to the answer and the theme. Some examples. little How to the in this counterpoint is theme. against the counterpoint. than a contrasting centra-movement of the theme . If the cantus firmus consists of sustained notes.

by the coun terpoint for the answer of the theme. 145. m etc. contained is in the theme. easily recognizable. CONTINUATION OF THE THEME AS A COUNTERPOINT etc.16. . 91 rart i. ihe counterpoint ~^~ from the thematic motive snows the imitation in contrary movement ?-^ ^ **^ U H and ' similarly the last quavers of the counterpoint contain the imitation in contrary motion of the beginning of the theme ^j 146. The imitation of motives. jj a-Bq: etc. = jg==f Clearer still than the preceding example.

characterising the theme. . 16. ^=to Here.92 CHAPTER VIII. the essential part of the counterpoint is formed from the motive of the theme 147. -^H-f- ye S The leaps in fourths. ^ ? ^ 148. The motive of the theme is spun out in the second bar of the counterpoint. :t* etc. evidently. have been continued in the counterpoint. fc=j r etc.

93 149. CONTINUATION OF THE THEME AS A COUNTERPOINT etc. gjgjS: .17.

another has to continue it. just as the theme remains mostly the case at the principal groups of the en- of the theme and answer. so far conducted at the entry of the theme in the bass. the parts alteration written for piano and compass of the latter. Let us regard for this the fugue in four parts in F-minor (Nr. < by the tenor After that. the tenor gives the now second counterpoint to these two parts. Sometimes the two two free parts. The fugue being may transgress the the first The trifling in notes of the counterpoint is easily explained by the necessarily different intervals of theme and answer at the beginning of the theme. not for voices. BACH forms of the alto thus: Answer. we often find two counterpoints in two parts. 152. the same. tries This is it remains the same. . until strettas of the the Fugue for three or four parts.) The theme presents itself in the tenor in these three bars. Vol. the alto overtakes the counterpoint.CHAPTER at least in one paij. Clav. whilst the other part takes up that of the former. we may add in a If the counterpoint theme prevent remains the same In the strict contrapuntal parts exchange their roles from similar motives in the middle of the phrase. XII Wohltemp. IT. I. one or fugue for four parts. entry of the counterpoint. returning regularly with the theme. in one part. Theme. One part continues the counterpoint commenced by another. V11I. The carrying out of this requires sometimes an interruption of the counterpoint in one part. As this theme offers no rhythmical figures for imitation in the the latter quite independently at the entry counterpoint.

Exactly in this manner. CONTINUATION OF THE THEME AS A COUNTERPOINT Counterpoint I. (with little alteration) the same counterpoint to the theme and the answer. 153. etc. nine bars of the fugue the tenor renders the marked as follows: 154. rfr . we find through the whole fugue. Theme. 95 Counterpoint II.17. .*i -k- 1=1 *-*- * ^ of these nine Example 153 shows the contrapuntal employment bars amongst the different parts. -!?: * the first 3 se- In quel. I*.

I'FM^ -^ Alto and tenor bring alternately the counterpoint part. minor ninth in the first counterpoint The will characteristic step of the be perceived by the ear as a minor second in consequence of the crossing of the parts. ? ty *~ Counterpoint III. as well as the change of the two counterpoints in the upper parts. 17= r?=&}=&= Counterpoint I 3 Counterpoint III. m 155. VIII. II. . and brings the theme in the dominant.96 CHAPTER Theme. of the two counterpoints with the unessential alteration at the beginning of the second counterpoint in the soprano. 17. in the middle of the first bar. scarcely needs an explanation. in II. and a free The tenor begins the second group of the exposition of the theme The employment bar 19. Counterpoint II. Counterp.

not only the the other parts. 156. but also terpoint III.f In bar 27 of this fugue. . in example we perceive at the entry of the theme two mentioned counterpoints re-appearing IB the fourth part. which we marked as 155. I m Jadassolin. CONTINUATION OF THE THEME AS A COUNTERPOINT etc. 157. in the bass.17. m J J- "Ipff-f . Canon and Pngne.

fugues by BACH.98 CHAPTER V21I. different If. and other great masters the same kind of employment of the counterpoint in the strict fugue. I. Older theorists. Counterpoint H :d:: . the fugue is called a free one. bar 40 in the tenor. amongst those the highly celebrated MOKITZ HAUPTMANN. It is true. We show this in the following very simple example. on the other hand. the counterpoint alters at the in other entries of the theme and answer. answer as double. would not recognize this kind of fugue. and also in a fugue of contrapuntal movement. Counterpoint I. Theme. IT. HANDEL. and bar 53 in the bass. it After this analytical explanation of the beginning of the fugue. Nr. =3= Hi j^^iF^^S^ II. bar 47 cannot be the One would find also in soprano. vol. The next task of the student will consist now. if it become sometimes changed or different each time.) shows consequently the same counterpoint to the theme in all entries. X. to analyse for himself the remaining entries of the theme. strives against the nature of the fugue. Clav. to counterpoint with the theme or his own its several parts. difficult to the student. as triple in composing a which can be used in connection themes. bar 34 in the alto. Even the -E-minor fugue in two parts (Wohltemp. a counterpoint confind stantly changing. and we few instances of this kind with the old masters. MOZART.

17. 99 159. m t t- . CONTINUATION OF THE THEME AS A COUNTERPOINT etc.

vol. Compare with the fugues Nr. CHAPTER 18. with CHAPTER may IX. Wohltemp. connection between expositions the theme. -I V I vi vii- C: V . 161. This will occur in the answer of such themes which begin with the fifth. The term Interludium means one its or more bars which are inserted between the end of a theme. and only in the course of the answer. and Nr. would be best adapted We give here the first theme. that the key of the dominant. But also other themes give sometimes the beginning of the answer in the dominant in the key of the tonic. *) We have again expressly to remark. A short characteristic theme from the theme or its counterpoint.100 parts. The key of the tonic still predominates sometimes in the first and second bars of the answer of the theme in the dominant. answer. Clav. analysed in of interlude from the -F-minor the fugue. need not always appear simultaneously with the entry of the answer of the latter. or pose of preparing the re-appearauce of the Interludes should be short in small fugues. 17. II. 11. Later on he of the theme. for instance fugue 11. two counterpoints. The Interludium. worked try to sketch out theme. take its material from either of them. for the purentering theme or the answer. it forms the contained in the examples 153 and 155. Clav. 1. upon the preceding theme. II. part I. Wohltemp. answer and return in triple counterpoint. and. it modulates in to the dominant. IX. as example 159*). treated in a free imitative for introducing the re-entry of the manner. 18. vol. or its counterpoint.

to make the re-entry of the theme appear all the more powerful and effective. and a fourth the answer. it will then not appear as an external means of connection.18. Wohltemp. to the principle. We shall see. Clar. and finishes by a cadence. to prepare and introduce the second principal group of exposition of theme and answer. XXIV. between the pTtedp^t^roirpg' of propose make the Interludes enfrlegT anXliherefbre we short and simple in our succeeding tUeftftfie and answer. Although such lengthy Interludes take their justified position in broadly conceived fugues for organ or orchestra. THE INTERLUDIUM. vol. Only more lengthy and complicated fugues allow the employment of Interludes of an independant nature. imitatory manner. later on. and theme and answer by two parts indiviand the first principal group of the entry of parts. an Interfirst entry of theme ludium cannot take place. we must nevertheless adhere general.S-minor fugue (Nr. (at the order of modulation of the Interludium. by After having pro- duced theme. and serve. leads mostly into first. in fugues in the minor-key also into the parallel-major. and not interIt would transgress the limits of this rupt the flow of the Fugue. But if a third part reproduces the theme. in these cases. a few chords. we refer in . of motives of the counterpoint. often even only by a single one. and theme in the fugue for three parts. in the fugue for four parts. only to as connecting links between of looking upon them in theme and answer or .) These offer. answer. resting places to the ear. been achieved. best however. the Interludes required should also be kept exercises. They could be composed. 101 This interlude is formed by imitations from the first motive of the counterpoint. I. treatise. in a free. as for instance. by a halfthat this cadence. Between the as short as possible. as all other interludes of this fugue make use. as it might be. is it well connected by an imitative turning. the regularly returning sequences in the . as all other larger Interludes in more complicated fugties. has thus dually. Has the Interlude been derived from a motive of the theme or its counterpoint. more developed fugue) the key of the dominant. a more detailed Interludium may follow. to enumerate here a number of Interludes .

. that after theme and answer. anticipate to . and a short Interlude takes us into the key of the dominant. which we be in everyone's possession. fc^ 162.102 this CHAPTER case also to IX. the theme is reproduced again. i^ f r C/ Interlude. 18. i etc. The task of the student is now. the "Wohltemperirte Clavier" by BACH. to form the beginning of a fugue in three parts this must be managed so. Allegro.

may be already emwhich would prepare the parts.. In the fugue for four parts an Interlude be given without an ployed after the entry of the three entry of the fourth part. the Interludium follows for the modulation. into the key of the dominant. as in example 162.18. m . Although we 103 find frequently enough a short Interlude. Both Interludes have to gather their material from the terpoint. After the fourth part has given the answer theme or the coun- 163. that the first three entries of the parts Interlude in concise form. into the parallel major key. or in minor. Lento. in the of the best masters as connection for the entry of the theme fugues in the third part. we will observe in the first exe: cises of the stu- dent. t~ff~T~ '^ =F==^ ' 1 f-tt-f -fc^~ 1 . THE INTERLUDIUM. of the theme.

104

CHAPTER

IX.

18.

Interlude I turning to

tr

"

the Dominant.

5=d=i

r
ntt
TSJr-

i
-I

^
i?

"*"

?=N^
fet

ti^y*^^

r

-r r

i

g
kU
r
i

^
i

Interlude II with the modulation into key of the Dominant.

.^

i

i

r*^

_
.

f
4*i
:t

3^^-fe
ete.

19.

THE STRETTA, (CLIMAX) (ENGFUHRUNG).
But that
also the first four entries of the parts

105
be effected

may

without an Interlude can be seen from the fugues of the "Wohltemp. short Interlude Clav. vol. I, Nr. 1 in C. and XVIII in G^-minor.

A

two entries may prepare the entries of the third and fourth parts, which follow closely upon one another, without an Interlude. Observe the Interlude in one bar in the Cr-minor fugue, bar 4. (Nr. XVI, Wohltemp. Clav. vol. I, and the following bars 5, 6 and 7). Definite rules cannot be given for this. The student will
after the first

soon learn by the study of good masters, that notwithstanding
varieties,

many

regard the Interlude as something of will be adhered to always. One may bring few secondary importance, and short ones, simply for the purpose, of connecting the expositions
the
principle viz
:

to

of the theme in a natural and flowing manner.

CHAPTER
The

X.

Stretta, (climax) (Engfuhrung).

19. Under the term Stretta is meant, the introduction of theme, and answer following each other in a shorter space of time in two or more parts, in such a manner, as to allow a second part
to
first has performed the greater part parts take a share in the Stretta, the closer should follow the entries of theme and answer, or theme and theme, or

bring

the answer, before the

of the theme.

The more

answer and answer, and the more interesting and effective will be the The strict coercion as in the canon however does not govern Just because theme and answer must not be imitated this procedure. in many cases by canonical strictness, the imitation cannot be quite an exact one. But also in other directions, licenses are allowed in several ways. Thus, not the whole theme, or the complete answer, need be produced in all the parts concerned in the exposition of the It will suffice, if the most prominent first notes of the theme Stretta. or answer be produced in a part; this part can be given free, provided another part enters with the theme or answer into the Stretta. It is also allowable, to alter, in the course of the theme, some intervals of it; this can be done on account of the modulation, or to
Stretta.

enable other parts to take a share in the Stretta. One should however try to produce the theme as faithfully as possible in the extreme
parts, as it would predominate there more. Stretta there exist only few shaped strictly and regularly, should appear only after several expositions of theme and answer,

A

,

106

CHAPTER

X.

19.

it,

All the parts should take a share in towards the end of the fugue. and in the same order, as they have produced the theme and anOne of the very few, quite regularly formed Strettas may follow swer. here. It is the one from the fugue in 1^-minor in five parts, (Nr. XXII Wohltemp. Cl. Vol. I.) The theme of the Fugue runs as follows:

164. In the Stretta the theme or

etc.

its

answer appears every time with

the second note of the preceding part.

19.

THE STRETTA, (CLIMAX) (ENGFtJHRVNG).

The student may now try to invent such a little movement; him choose a very simple theme of a few notes for this purpose. That would give him the possibility of a concise and nevertheless true entry of theme and answer. We demonstrate this in the followlet

ing,

very simple example.
Theme.

166.

fc$^

The Stretta commences with the answer; its last note had to be raised chromatically, to make possible the entry of the other parts. Soprano, alto, tenor and bass I and II follow closely one upon the
other.

"
jfp.

fr

167.

108 CJIAPTFB X. 3 168. 19. On can shape the Stretta in manifold different ways. The succeed- ing example shows the Stretta of the theme in three parts in the octave. Clav. I. m * m * . Vol. ff ff?\v *f U. Wohltemp. These are bars 28 and 29 from the fugue XVI in Cr-minor.

(CLIMAX) (ENGFUHRVNG). I 109 *|5ijz:r=p^p FVFFH-FR __x*_ -rJ-s-*-J 'i 7* rd-* i ff^/r fe l/k T * *~ .20. THE STRETTA.

110 n ti DM ii "p" i" .

Ill ttfc 3 172. THE STRETTA. :fc* gpftft . (CLIMAX) (ENGFUHRVNG).20.

by trying to bring theme and the other parts in contrary motion.112 CHAPTER X. for instance : Theme. on which four parts participate. 174. --^=r- *=F5t JL"$ $ U^_ . 20. This Stretta can he continued. one may try a Stretta. m 175. Later on.

one or the other kind of Stretta with nearly every fugue -theme. or even on tonic and dominant simultaneously always however If the organat a place rhythmically and metrically well defined. But many magnificent fugues that a fugue of BACH and other masters prove sufficiently. I etc. every really good Fugue-theme will be constructed so as to allow. THE STRETTA. (CLIMAX) (ENGF&HRUNG).or Pedal-point. who has practised and sharpened his insight for contrapuntal-imitatory combinations by serious study in Canon. 113 I . commencement of the composition of a fugue. from treating a good and characteristic fugue-theme. in been made acquainted with a Stretta in three example 62 of this work. and the bass of the organ-point does not remain until the completion of the composition. not suitable for a Stretta. Canon and Fngne. will it in a Stretta. without an elaborate be also less justified. . as an adornement for a fugue. It can enter on the dominant or on the tonic. an Organ. one must not conclude it abruptly. only in fugues of four or five part*. would be able to form with ease. the Stretta is nevertheless by no means an absolutely necessary requirement of it. Generally speaking. We have mentioned this before and repeat it here. as we have previously remarked. in which the imitation has has been effected by enlargement and diminution. in one way or anbefore the other. 58). The parts. One should also take care. to construct the theme. even if this should prove by accident. should not be prevented. The student. or several Strettas serve pleasure. the latter is to be employed mostly. point appears towards the end of the fugue. having the choice of any kind of imitation in any interval at his So much however as a Stretta. pupil 7. (See Manual of Harmony A Fugue needs even Jadassolin. so as to suit the requirements of a Stretta. in order that the student in his succeeding exercises. the employment of Stretta.20.

a March. CHAPTER The Form XI. In shorter Fugues one should observe the same order of modulation. A~Hiird part reproduces the theme again in the fundamental key. to insert elaborate free interludes into more lengthy and more developed Fugues. of the Fugue. so to run the risk of fatiguing the listener. After having enumerated the constituent parts of the Fugue and explained their nature. on the executant factors. The expansion of a Fugue depend on the nature of the theme. on the number of parts. After this first group of entries of theme and answer. in the fundamental key. that take a share in it. only will characterise its general outlines. between the entry of the third and fourth part. or a Dance. the form of the answer. well-balanced entireness. first Kyrie in BACH'S Mass ^-minor. the fourth entry must be effected It has been shown that short interludes can again in the dominant. to demonstrate to the student. The theme commences in sues the if the Fugue be in four parts. We can or model of the fugue cannot be fixed quite definitely. that of a Menuet. as him from with full and undivided attention. 21. This can be done in manifold ways. or incapacitating following the contrapuntal combinations of the composition far. with the finishing of the theme. on the imagination and larger or smaller contrapuntal mastery of the Author. Upon the answer. that tion. which serves as a fundament for all musical forms of composias all our modern forms of musical composition have been developed out of the Fugue. Generally speaking. in as the marvellously beautiful stands unique in its kind. be used. which had performed the theme in the fundamental key to in the first exposition has in bring it now in the key of the dominant.114 CHAPTER XI. which had in the beginning of the Fugue. how the different members of the Fugue should be connected to an harmonious. A fugue of such length and expansion. the answer endominant. It would be advisable as we remarked before. an interlude leads into the key of the dominant. and then commences the second group of entries so that that part. that part succeeds in the tonic. sometimes shortly before. for instance. there remains only for us. The form as. 21. sometimes shortly after the end of it. and that. Fugues should not be extended. as the form of the fugue is by no means BO strictly limited. brought the answer .

the before the first part has quite completed the performance of But the answer may also commence greater part of the theme. 115 . One gives the answer or a succeeding entry of the theme in the second group. inasmuch. best in the. is an astringent. and the fourth part the answer in the dominant. where it a resting point. that modulations into foreign keys. one on the other> sooner or later. tB it into the his make work "interesting" Fugue. in the air. of our celebrated masters pass only into keys nearly related to the tonic-key. so to speak. would even prefer. is only possible. if the theme be adapted for a into the major-key. as the harmonious and modulatory artificialness lies.21. or in another nearly related key. The third principal group. in the shape of a commencing stretta.^a. the fourth. however this is not necessary. the second part brings the answer in the dominant. Often this would be impracticable. (stretta) contracted representation of theme alhd answer. had the theme at first. than was permitted in the first exposition of theme and answer. transposition as the theme would lose materially in its charm. But it is mentioned repea'tedly. and the second group of contains again the theme. occur. it always interrupts the natural 8* . the theme in the tonic. so that an interlude is intersected between the theme and the / On^T5~~also less strict in the choice of the key in the second group of entries of theme and answer"/ "als was the case with entries of the first group. or entries of themes or answers in these are not at all in accordance with the Even the largest and most developed Fugues nature of the Fugue. to which also leads an interlude. transposed into major in that part.y it. The entries^of theme and answer may follow. the interlude may lead entries which into the parallel major key. in order to make the entries of the' Stretta still more marked. the third the theme again in the parallel major key. in the same order. and the student tempted naturally answer. THE FORM OF THE FUGUE. that such a Before We as resting point should not exist. as in the first group ofjmjj-iesj this is the "Stretta". Sometimes theme follows upon theme. as the modulation into one or another key seems to make this desirable. answer upon answer. We have demonstrated this already at some length before 14) but return again to the" subject on account of the great importance of this matter. ( by the carrying may be led into would certainly be not suitable. The-answer may ap'pear in one part. Has the Fugue been conceived in the minor-key.form of ^a_half-cadenc'e. desire. at pleasure. Altogether much This however more freedom governs the second group of entries. later. the third part renders the answer again in the key in the dominant of the dominant. at the beginning. . sometimes in the key of the sub-dominant.

end. and shall. organ. restrictions able to indicate the harmony. and the current development of the Fugue. learn to construct the smallest shape of a fugue. KLENGEL proceeds in his piano. if we conceive it the as in this manner.116 flow CHAPTER XI.fugues parts. of course not be for may or at least seldom. 178. In this manner BACH goes to work. harmony by melodic figures. After the stretta. The two-part phrase stands totally Therefore a Fugue for in contradiction to the nature of the Fugue. He may work his earliest attempts also in two parts and But we regard such exercises only as prein a most concise form. from which we give here some themes. certainly we can command more auxilaries. of the two-part style and would remain ineffective. and we do not err. This is the Fugue in Two parts. The harmony woven into this theme by the melodic drawing of it. the the parts are conducted in a free manner to shortest and simplest form of the Fugue. two singing voices would render a very poor result by the scantiness and kept up. for this purpose. 22. in the only fugue in two parts of the "Wohltemperirte Clavier". place before the eyes of the student a small Fugue in two parts. . in two In like manner AUG. and to represent one might say. or two One would be violins. solely for the purpose. 177. We wish now to demonstrate the above mentioned shortest form of the Fugue in the simplest possible example. If one has to compose a fugue for two parts for piano. in breadth. liminary work that the student In Fugues the study of the Fugue. ALEX. of more parts this smallest form will. 22. cannot be misunderstood.

and to construct the fugue "in nuce". . Nevertheless. i ^ J p^s= =Br^-*-J33-f= -a- y B not if But the working out of such themes is a task. which we could and still such themes are necessary. One should however not detain the beginner too long with these exercises. . impute to a beginner. one desires to write so effective a composition as a fugue in two- After that it appears to be far a more difficult task to compose a fugue for two parts than for three or four. we consider them at present only as preliminaries the fugue in more parts one should also not criticise these essays too severely. and waa learned to invent suitable themes. The following theme: is answered quite regularly in the dominant: 183. THE FORM OF THE FUGUE. we have to begin our work in two parts. * 117 179. good counterpoint. After he has succeeded with a few of these specimens.22. in order that the student may get acquainted with the fugue in its most limited form. one may proceed to the work in three part style. parts.

on account of the mod- 185. But we could also place the counterpoint a bring it in that form with the theme. fcs . fifth lower. Our next task will be to invent a counterpoint to the theme which. i We ulation. is so in its principal features. in order that we can employ it again with the theme.118 CHAPTER XL 22. could few alterations. if not true to every note. and 186 a. use this counterpoint as well for the theme with a which would be necessary. according to the nature of the strict Fugue. 184.

work. having placed the neces- The student will It will Fugue itself. tpnr^- *- * n- * IL . which requires no further comment. sary indications over the notes. In the inversion. 187. Allegro. Theme. First group of the Piano. THE FORM OF THE FUGUE. learn. entries with Theme and Answer.22. 119 186 b. answer Interlude I leading into the key of the dominant. how this counterpoint finds use in the be shown in the course of the "Fughetta" (little fugue) that the theme is also well adapted in the regular way with We commence now our the answer in the dominant for the stretta.

Interlude II returning into the fundamental key.J20 CHAPTER Second group XI. of the part entries. *- i Leading into the fundamental key. 'W I . 22.

( We himself therein. we need not work with rigorous strictness.p. J. .23. the theme of a fugue in three the mentioned fugue enabled. Fugue in three parts. according to ex- ample 154. We have shown in the examples 155.erpoints for the have already remarked 17) that we need two countheme in the strict Fugue for three parts.pflfttin^ nf t. to use the parts with the counterpoints belonging to it.rpninta ja. p. STRICT FUOVE IN THREE PARTS.nnTit.F-minor fugue. We can make use of these in different inversions in the Fugue. selfunder- stood. BACH aa the As was same counterpoints throughout the whole fugue. The rp.Tip. 121 CHAPTER Strict XII. samp. whereat however. We will now proceed exactly by the given analysis in 17 of the . only_^possible aafay flfagttfl in -F-minor^oes not possess a stretta. 156 and 157. BACH always reproduces his counterpoints to the theme or the answer and the license he allows 23. and note down firstly. how SEE.

i. 189. as a connected melodious sequel. 23. Th\s little movement allows of being presented in six inversions. according to example 152. The second manner : counterpoint could be invented in the following *==(= We could notate these 24 bars also in one line.CHAPTER XII. We show now the counterpoint. . according to example 154. the student may notice this in example 188.

3E \ 1. STRICT FUQUE IN THREE PARTS.23. 9. i 2. 123 2. B. P--E ^J M .

% 23. 1. s .124 CHAPTER VII.

23. as one would scarcely make use of such a one for three vocal parts. 190. partly also. and what little variations. First principal group. We mark also fugue for piano. Allegretto scherzando. *=* Piano. partly to gain a greater fullness of this harmony. in order to render . STRICT FUGUE IN THREE PARTS. ornaments and adornments they may receive in rhythmical and melodious formation partly on account of their execution. and what alterations the to the counterpoints. answer what one can submit for the from example 190. * J-^iT ' ^d J It will be seen at can be used . to avoid monotony. 125 2. how this little movement two principal groups of entries of theme and liberties one is allowed to take.them suitable theme as well as for the answer. ^f .

^ ^ Antw. f . Th.126 CHAPTER XII. Cp. 23. I.

Cp.23. Cp. STRICT FVOVE IN THREE PARTS. E. tv I J* f~rg-^~rT^~r~: vEg3=C Cp. 127 Interlude. ^^ A T1B1 Answer. II.S . . I. I. Second principal group. Cp. Th.

others the student will have detected easily without especial intimation. 24. and give the last eight bars of example 190 so. as has been of example 190. closely related keys into our combinations. . We have drawn attention to some alterations of the counterpoints in example 190. From here also the inversion example 191. that the finishing bar of the theme experiences an unessential alteration. in order not to hear incesWe may draw also other santly the key of the tonic and dominant. 24. we wish now to emancipate ourselves a little from the model.128 WAPTER XII. done in the last eight bars 191. \ . Instead of beginning the entry of the answer in the key of the dominant and finishing it in that key.

ninth bar of example the continuation noted under 192: a detailed interlude. principal These retain last their justified position only before the For""this reason we give^ groups jrfjtheme and answer.. Jadassohn. which leads into the subsequent 192. 129 Z}-minor. < Here commences the stretta . foundinstead of the ed on the commencing motives stretta. the part .effects a In the Fugue for two parts one striking leap before its entry. Canon and Fugue. With the object of gaining the modulation of the dominant of we allow the bass to finish the answer with B and A.here the bass .. STRICT FUGUE IN THREE PARTS. but in fugues of more parts one likes to cause the parts to pause before their entry. as the movement would become conducted by one part only.24. the entries of the parts would be more pronounced. 9 . or. of the theme. cannot very well effect the former. if the part had paused before it. It does not lie in the character Jmng 191 often N haJf^j<tf--^dIoTe^ cadence8. as in the last bar of example 192.

te 193. % 24.130 CHAPTER XII. ! I ^Beginning of the theme in contrary "H P?^ -!-* Jin P-M* j 1 I ^ 1 * Theme in contrary motion f W r Theme .

9* . he on a great many varieties with respect to the form. and in which after the deviating ways one is allowed to introduce other keys other ones of theme and answer. STRICT FUGUE IN THREE PARTS. But he the principle to modulate after the first exposition of the themes. conceived Although the student is recommended to keep in his we have nevertheless to demonstrate under which to him. into the key of the dominant (in minor also into the . the most concise form. It would not be in equal form.J J The preceding Fugue. in accordance with will alight would find in all. circumstances he can touch upon other related keys. Leipzig. there remains a wide margin for thematic development into related keys. C. how. attain a in entries of more parts. a Fugue in four parts would. F.24. extwo parts It is only natural. TJefween this. that a fugue will gain in imporexample 187. even in of it. noted hibits a in examples 190 to somewhat larger circumference than the Fughetta in 193*).parallel-major key] a^djtp return after the last entries back again into the fundamental key. or theme first regular entries and theme. and in which manner he can develop it. exercises to the shortest form. 66 of the Author. in proportion to the number of parts concerned in the execution For this reason. answer and theme. . J 131 . the inventive power of the composer and the importance of the *) Which is taken Siegel from the Preludes and Fugues op. (Lhmemann). than a Fugue larger circumference by the two or three parts. W. answer and answer. the If advisable to try to give a definite order of modulations for this. student regards attentively the Fugues of the old masters. tance.

in each part Although the beginner need not take regard in his present first exercises to the compass of real . I) we recommend for attentive study. tion CHAPTER all X. forth.132 theme. in an easier manner difficult passages or progressions which would be unpractiHe may choose cable for execution on the piano for two hands. in which manner he wishes to develop his The Z>-minor fugue by BACH (Nr. VIII Wohlt. by alterations or themes with sustained notes for his first exercises. we Avish going into very distant keys. Clav. in not choose their themes. he will learn by practice to set by inversions of parts. whether the theme be formed simply or by figuration. and for the choice of harmony. it does not make any difference. Vol. ways this even in a Fugue of three parts. =3= i 5 Do compass. 194. the student ought to have written a great many and obtained sureness and freedom in style. 24.II. theme. as shown by example 194. which composer. to remark that it will not suffice. for the beginning. without At the close of this chapter. Not and answer of the in parts Jia. lower. either a fifth higher. to work only a few Fugues in three perfect parts. In the for it essays no regard need be taken to the practibiiity of it as one calls The student may write execution on the piano.v^_Jto jparticip ate with their entries of theme It will be left to the imaginathese developments. as well as in form before he should venture to commence the study of the Fugue in four parts. shows the different can be achieved. for imaginary parts. which have a large Short themes which do not transgress a sixth or seventh melodious compass. first Later on. will be treated more easily than Let the student consider that lengthy themes with larger compass. For the consideration of pure harmonic writing. each theme has to re-appear. or a fourth as answer.

133 singing voices still nor to the practicable reproduction by an executant.F$-minor fugue (Nr. to him. II. moving in slow time. We find only is isolated exceptions. added.) or case. it would be easy enough to strict Fugue has been studied thourougly. . in his . invent suitable themes by himself. in essentially quicker time is (Nr. for piano. is not at all sympathetic to us. It must be left to the into use over and brought nature of the Fugue. the method of furnishing themes of the pupils. although Fugues for voices. the new counterpoints are kept for further development. 196. with what wise economy the if we may use the expression has been same material over again.24. and the counterpoint to suit it. masters carefully. he should consider that his present endeavors purpose to lead to him the composition first organ. independantly He should learn to . to For a exercise let in under Nr. to develop out of the theme. as Clav. runs diametrically against the If one scrutinizes the Fugues of our great one would perceive. but the mechanical putting to- The student may form tUfe counterpoint to this theme in such a way that they re-appear at the principal groups of the thematic entries. If one theme and counterpoint for his work for a strict fugue. imagination and the artistic taste and refined sense. gave him a there would be scarcely anything else left gether of the whole fugue. the whole Fugue. . To furnish always different counterpoints to the themes. vol. 195.) But in such a I. XIV vol. especially as such a one provided the . STRICT FVGVE IN THREE PARTS. a when new counterpoint in the course of a fugue. the case in BACH'S fugue in ^4-major XIX Wohlt. though of course with the necessary alterations. For this reason we dispense with the practice of the so-called Free-fugue with construct changing counterpoints. and him make use of the theme noted general.

Wohlt. After of the student construction to the strict Fugue has attained perfect sureness in the in three parts. find also with the masters comparatively not a counterpoints. which the style in four parts Experience in teaching of many year's standing has tought that it would be unpractical to commence at once with the Fugue us. We for a changing counterpoint something strikingly new. of a Double-fugue. fugue IV. he will be able. by bringing the second principal group at once as a Stretta. thereby damaging the unity of the composition. It could possibly be brought again. JBL ' BACH has done in his . to conduct his first attempts in a the counterpoint. to the latter finding support in cne or the other motive of the theme or the first counterpoint. one would do well always to pay attention at the formation of the in another part. if . or something especially conspicuous and adverse to the character of the Fugue. melodically or rhythmically. A (Compare Wohlt. as a strict one in four parts. . chosen at the beginning of the answer. need not return. IX. strict against few free ones fugue in four parts with retakes more or less at once the character maining equal counterpoints. vol I. offers. at the outset. counterpoint.E-major fugue.j 197. three Besides. We small in number of Free Fugues parts. 25. it should accidentally show itself adaptable but no On the contrary. in four parts. vol II. with one or two. in four parts. therefore. It would be a different matter if as has been remarked 22 a new counterpoint perfectly in accellerated movement should be added and remain. 1 'jj ff /F _ . Nr. CHAPTER XHL Free Fugue 25. This is better avoided. entirely or partly free The manner . always recurring. commence the studies in the free Fugue in four parts. bars 36 94. We have to overcome here the great difficulties. One would remain too long in the same keys of tonic and dominant. Clav.134 CHAPTER XIII. and to borrow the development from consider it a total failure to employ already existing material. as Clav. regard need be taken to make it so.) strict maintenance of keys of tonic and dominant cannot be recommended at the second principal group of entries. . every student has. .

26. FREE FUGUE IN FOUR PARTS. 135 /w-ff-tf .

Tenor. Answer.136 CHAPTER XIII. i Urn f=*$ Counterpoint. $t t-- e*&$&^f~^=f S ^ rl ^ ==J^=F=3 r * *f t/ ITg=EEk IWtf*"* : . ftV* Alto. Theme. 26.

201. Nevertheless exceptions can be found. as interlude I. Simultaneously the bass intonates the theme in 6rj}-minor.26. . vol I. j 137 Soprano. formed by the same thematic motive. ss rr a^ . With latter this the first principal group of entry is concluded. t Bass.) Now second of the the second interlude for the preparation of the entries of the group. FREE FUGUE IN FOUR PARTS. the must be formed perfectly regularly. Interlude II. follows (compare BACH. Wohltemp. Commencement of the entries of the second principal group. Clav. Fugue I. this period finishes with a full cadence in the key dominant. Theme.

gBir-r-|^pflF^rT-t-ESEEp Instead of returning to the tonic <7$-minor. in notes twice as long as the original theme. First Stretta. Soprano Theme. the bass . the answer. in a Stretta conducted with canonical strictness. g=j cr 202. mr ^ g r *L r Tenor. =^r ^* f=EPF Answer in the Subdominant.E-major ensues.138 CHAPTER XIII. " ftr = f^ Bass. 5fT^ . a short evasion into The soprano gives the theme in this key. Theme. 26.

x*ii-S :-S SB ^ T b^^pi^ -rrr rr pyi=j^^_j_^iii!=ji=^T-j ^C'^g 1 ^ Bass. 203. Close of the second. Theine. ^ i "n J BJ i j .in C"$-minor. 139 E^S -fl-J^ -^ i =P =r rzr 3= S 1 r^ 3=t r trD" Alto. Theme.26. and commencement of the third principal group. with the theme in the bass. FREE FVGUE IN FOUR PARTS.

Soprano. $fc v-tf-ff- a f W^ -?Bass. Soprano. Theme. 26. 40 M r >*H=&= Second Stretta. Theme. -&M=^ af ^- -i-. Answer.140 CHAPTER XIII.ji ^S J=4 3 =333 ^ ^ ^T ^^f^ a _A F^ff ffl^ *J . J m=*= *ys 3=*Organ-point of the Tonic.

^. as is the . The entry occurs best with the pleasure. 56. the counterpoint. W. as it were. .-rg "^ i fe^&n 1*r I -mr. { { One cannot however break . It is \ four parts to employ these four parts it will be better. Fugue for effective. I I i ." op. A J ! . but there follows a coda. the entry would be much more not necessary in . off but case only in after having finished a melodious a part abruptly at pleasure. sentence . FREE FUGUE IN FOUR PARTS. Siegel (Linnemann). . 141 Originally the Fugue would finish here. *) "Preludes and fugues. Deceptive cadence on account of the lengthened close. that one part should pause before nay constantly \the entry of the theme or answer.a- U'^! : -<. which has been pausing. to commence again at part.iU 1 204. We \ will now a still have to make a few general remarks. to this coda is worked intentionally only harmoniously and not con- trapuntally. to bass of example 202 bar 10. Leipzig C. theme or the answer. the that Although the preceding Fugue*) From the author's is a free one. and.allow It is also not good.26. accidentally. The accompaniment (postlude) which contains the theme in the bass. F.

a good. recurring least at the principal entries the fourth It has already been shown ( part nearly always remains free. nevertheless preserves a uniformity. G-minor XIV and XVI Wohlt. the first . 27.) suitable place. this can only occur at a 58. 27. three times in the key of the dominant 6rjf-minor. moto motion (per be used in contrary motion if it can be employed for that purpose in a natural and unconstrained way. enlargement.J42 CHAPTER XIV. in three parts. ^4-major. for The in this student may he analyze some of such four-part Fugues. worked by the inversions one acts more or rules of triple counterpoint. worked manner. vol I. 17) at the analyses of BACH'S F-minor Fugue (Nr. The student should also not place too much value on a Stretta which is too artificial and many-parted. All these matters motion. (Nr. . him try to invent not only useful. But we warn against employing too much artificialness. Clav. but also characteristic themes. such as contrary themes with After having obtained some practice and sureness. counterpoint as continuation (postlude) to the theme. (Compare 20 and Manual of Harmony For his first attempts the student may choose short let small compasses. counterpoints. would see. with which less freely in the course of the Fugue. vol I. in the jp^-minor and also in the Clav. and three times in the key of the third below.) . The theme has been introduced fourteen times in its whole entirety six times in the tonic C^minor. however not be broken of at pleasure. twice in the key of the third above : j-major. Fugue for singing voices with and without accompaniment. instance. The theme should only should only be means for the purpose of inventing within the limits of the fugue. XII Wohltemp. The Fugue also contains a Pedal-point of four bars duration. and the second counterpoint as continuation to the first so as obtain a small movement . congenial. The Strict Fugue at for four parts is formed mostly by two . The modulation moves therefore only within the nearest related keys. the student must observe carefully to commence the Pedal-point only on a The Pedal-point can point. and organically-shaped composition. by the frequent employment of the same thematic motive. diminution or retrograde retrograde. rhythmically and melodically defined. CHAPTER XIV. Strict Fugue in four parts.) how one has to invent the theme as principal subject.

One proceeds of the strict Fugue three parts. exactly as at the composition but one has the advantage of being able also to employ the fourth part in the course of the work. and that it contains one or two addito which the musical codas interludes and the accordance with the sense of the words may be . Also the word "Amen" can be accentuated at pleasure. One could therefore make use of the two words: the principal movement word "Hallelu. first The words "Amen" could be given We . . in its combination of the words "Hallelu" and "jah".) and also in others. Praise ye the pal subject would have to be composed to the words One can use the Lord". is self-understood. expresses a meaning. ied However to our knowledge no use of this justif- arrangement has been made. That the word "Halleluja" in the theme. The princibears the . we and gather together the directions for the strict the Fugue for voices in mixed chorus. XVII in vol.Praise ye the ye the Lord. that the text be neither too long nor short. Firstly we have to take into consideration the words with regard Not every text can the composition of a Fugue for vocal parts.. FUGUE FOR VOICES etc. placed counterpoint would be to praise the . In not make our treatise too lengthy. the word. II. condensed in a few words. hallelujah". and emphasis as well on the first. : at words "Praise ye" and "the Lord".28. to the counterpoint to the theme. for the principal tional sentences in counterpoints movement. We add a few more texts for other work. praise first the Lord". and "Amen" in the counterpoint can be repeated. as also the repetition of the single words "Praise" and "Lord". If we wish to make use of only the same recurriny counterpoint one short sentence will suffice. Text-Fugue to these words he advise the beginner to write as will have the advantage of . STRICT FUGUE IN FOUR PARTS. to Fugue in four parts. sometimes a single word. as on the second syllable. The Lord". as well at the beginning. In selecting be made use of for the purpose of serving as words. "Praise ye the Lord for He is kind and His mercy endureth for ever". expresses. Even for for this the only word "Halleluja" may be sufficient. placed. presumably with repetition of the words. that they are all composed in that manner. also "Praise ye" and may perhaps organise the words in this way: . words. (the contraction of the name of God-Jehovah) the meaning "Praise the Lord". Halleluja allowing the accent on every one of the four syllables. The strict Fugue is employed more for vocal than for instru- mental music In the latter appear as a necessary order the equally repeated words of the text condition for the returning and recurring to counterpoints. "Praise the Lord. too we have that it to take care. 28. 143 y*2-major fugue Nr.

otherwise the execution of it by the same voice in the dominant would be difficult. or a fourth lower) and in other It will be advisable not to transgress either in nearly related keys. all is in Israel" "Rejoice . regard must be taken. as well as also in the dominant. . praise and glory to Thee. oh my soul" (theme) "and His holy name" (counterpoint). ever" etc. 29. . ye heavens" (theme) "for the Lord hath done it" (counterpoint) Lastly: Shout joyfully to the Lord" (theme) "who is our strength" (counterpoint) etc. or repeat single words from it. show here theme and counterpoint in one and the same We . endureth for ever. for He is kind" for the first theme. seventh. eternal. nay impossible. One can also put a second counterpoint to the same words or a part of them. either the whole sentence. He is endureth for ever". "The Lord hath redeemed Jacob" (theme) "and (counterpoint). he may not separate that which belongs together. One can however also take the words . praise and glory to Thee" and the counterpoint to the words "eternal. His mercy endureth. and use "and His mercy endureth for ever" for the first counterpoint. Another: powerful Or: "Praise ye the Lord. or at . If it be desirable to add a second recurring counterpoint. to choose those. kind" the second to the words "and His mercy Here one can also use at pleasure.144 words "for CHAPTER XIV 29. merciful God".. how as the then should a theme of a Fugue for voices. the very most an octave. most adaptable.Praise ye the Lord. for instance: "and His mercy. suitable text with a recurring counterpoint would be the Lord" (theme) "and His power endureth for ever" . : place at the invention of a Fugue-theme to have a right and natural declamation of the words. HAYDN composes the final fugue in his Spring of the "Seasons" to the words "Honour. one can choose one or a few words suitable to the verse Another "Great is used from Scripture. (counterpoint) Another: that in me is. a theme or in a counterpoint the limits of a sixth. merciful God". and At the invention of a theme counterpoint be invented? How of counterpoint proper. it first The student must observe in the the text must never be an arbitrary one. He gives the theme to the beginning words "Honour. for instance: "Hallelujah". it rests with the composer. in order to lay The treatment of at pleasure under the theme or counterpoint. (a fifth higher. that both can be executed with ease by one and the same voice in the tonic.

We choose the text: "All Thy mercy and all Thy truth govern over us in eternity. 205. In eternity thank Thee Lord". FV6VE FOR SINGING the limited compass permits the transpositions which etc. Alto. Tenor. 145 voice.29. we have marked. STRICT FUQUE IN FOUR PARTS. All Thy mer-cy H-3 .

. 29.146 Js j-ff-i CHAPTER XIV.

Although this kind of Fugue may occur now-a-days seldom enough. FUG VE FOR SINGING etc. many accompanied fugues. only in the first bars. that the Fugue does not need any further . (Breitkopf and Hartel.. Hymns etc. The regularly recurring employment of the two counterpoints is so easily perceptible. Leipzig). Theme. as is the case in accompanied by Orchestra. STRICT FUG VE IN FOUR PARTS . For she hath re . 65. The instruments go. We propose now to give an example of a Fugue with 30. even Motetts. and give. to invent non-accompanied vocal Fugues for four parts. The Fugue is taken from the in more elaborated will nevertheless It is Author's "Trostlied" op. her her guilt. 10* . Fugue we give its orchestral accompaniment as a The two counterpoints enter at once in the instru. ments with the presentation of the theme by the tenor. explanation. almost always with the vocal-parts. still the exercise remain an excellent and indispensable practice. 1 47 try after that. the two counterpoints of which the first brings the same words as the second.30. a bass and a filling part for the perWe show first the theme and formance of the theme by the tenor.ceiv'd two-fold re - quital from the 209. Psalms. for for all - - - hand of God. g* guilt for * all =^ c guilt. Now follows the Pianoforte-score. two equally recurring counterpoints.

Fnge. pesante Alto. G r Tenor. sempre f marc. Sostenuto.148 210. f Soprano. SO. that Alley ro deciso. CHAPTER XIV. sempre f marc. -F- . Piano. ex - pia-ted her guilt. For she hath re- Bass.

149 sempre f marc. from the hand.qui . from the God m for all her J- ! f ^EEE^t^E^EEp =p sempre f marc.30. For she hath re . FUGUE FOR SINQWG etc. For she hath re- hand of God.ceiv'd two-fold re . from the hand of 1 guilt.tal from the -*- - =t hand of God. for all - - . for ~T _ ^B? i rr t=* =25=3=3=*= i& EriEE^JZj * j=^g 3-J 3 i .her guilt. STRICT FUGUE IN FOUR PARTS.

:t: 3from the For she hath re .150 CHAPTER XIV.fold re - qui . for all - her 5=p^ I f :z 1 ^^=fa=E 1-I I f=F ft ~-. -H 1 for all God for all her HIS guilt. sempre f marc.^JT. ceiv'd two . for t=&E=\ from the i hand of God.tal from the hand of 3tZ=t God for all - - - .her guilt. EiE from the hand of God for all. L T -iy-j |- . 30.ceiv'd twofold re - qui - tal jJ.

STRICT FUGDEIN FOUR PARTS.03. FUGUE FOR SINGING etc. 151 .

30.tal from the guilt. for all for all her God. her guilt. for . m guilt. from the hand of God for all. for -J5L t=ter\-^for all God.152 CHAPTER XIV. of God. for she hath re .ceiv'd twofold re - qui . for all. for all. for all her m all. of God. of ESljjPSEp IF guilt.

FVGVE FOR SINGING 5" etc. 153 fl/ub H* f r~~i . STRICT FVGVE IN FOUR PARTS.30.

her guilt. for all her for she hath re . for for all . all her 3^? for all. for all her guilt. for all her hand of God & for all. guilt.154 CHAPTER XIV.ceiv'd two-fold re - qui . guilt.tal from the tet=i & 3=*FS f f . 30. for all her m fefe=fa^&=^U^^ =# = -^=3*==F I f |f^-HM~44= ^^ iM-^r :rg" J F^p guilt. for all. for all her guilt. i^ 1=1=^ 1 ^ P^-^^ all. guilt.

155 BS 9 fr _ 1 -r :p: From the hand of God for +=? tguilt. for all guilt for all mm for all her guilt.: hand of God. for all her -^ ceiv'd two . SEE 5l=fe from the Lord. STRICT FUGUE IN FOUR PARTS. her guilt from the Lord.fold re - qui - tal from the hand T" of Q- Li _ T _ ^= . from the hand of God i i i "j i=t* =?fc V * p: HiE =* ITS I* her ^ her all.30. FUGUE FOR SINGING '-j etc. for she hath re- it p. her guilt -^EJEFSJ guilt.

for =fc=P=f for all ===t= her guilt. she hath re - ceiv'd two-fold re- *My-. for God for all her guilt. all 1= guilt. SEEE guilt.terf ^ 0^-9 . for all her i?- Vf ^===1 1 -^ ir4ri jfcUuJ= i= J t God. for . her guilt from God. ^ for all her ter guilt.156 CHAPTER XIV. 1 9 guilt from I I for -H all | || for -I | I her guilt. 30. 1 for all. & -y& for all her guilt.

etc. for all her ^ all her guilt. for all her guilt.30. STRICT FUG UE IN FO VR PARTS FUG VE FOR SINGING . for all. for all her :i= :* . 157 all. for all her guilt. for all - her all her guilt. for all her all her guilt. for jjjLJi 5=^ r all her guilt. for qui-tal from the hand of God for for all.

158 CHAPTER XIV. ff fJ anP^ s-*-^ *t-C--i = from the hand of God ^4 . f *~? j p m . from the hand of :*=*=*:: guilt. from the hand of tr guilt.I '. all her g^=-j^^^fe^g ^ . from the hand of God.'* God. from the hand of ? God. * pitt f e cresc. guilt. of God. ^ of God f for all. -s>guilt. from the hand of God. 30. of M^!=I3: = tP ifc /" ^*- e cresc.

FUGUE FOR SINGING etc.tal she hath re . 159 * guilt.ceiv'd two-fold re from the m -A tefefr-f -9\> ' * ^ j J I I J 1 4-H^^ "F^* 1 J *~*~* fr=jJZB^g_^ hand ? S of f-P God for all her guilt. all her S itf ^ -f=^5 . * // for frj* i J FJ^J 3 - i J qui * .30. STRICT FUGUE IN FOUR FARTS.

all her guilt. motto. molto. for all her guilt from the p f f \ f^&5 ^FT CJtffc^^S^*^ IfJa . from the hand. ff 30 I as guilt. f m f. 9*r^^^S 93E =||Ep i5^ . hand of God. from the hand. t- 1 m Trumpets. cresc. from the hand of God.160 CHAPTER XIV. 5 ^F=PP cresc. from the hand of from the hand.

161 /r\P l> .31 STRICT FUQVE IN FOUR PARTS. FVQVE FOR 8INOINO etc.

credness Towards the end of the Fugue the commencing bass of the theme resounds. counterpoint. simultaneously played by Trombones and Trumpets in the The two choruses accompany this by a motive of the enlargement. come be . ' Bass. 212. 2 Trumpets. 3 J| O Bass. M o o Tenor. Wor-ship the Lord with gladness. . Soprano.fore his sa . H-J Tenor.162 CHAPTER XIV. 31. Soprano. Alto. Alto. 3 Trombones.

with joyful. FUGUE FOR SINGING ete. 163 with joy - - ful songs. 11* .31. with glad ness. with Joy-ful. STRICT FUGUE IN FOUR PARTS.

164 CHAPTER XIV. . 31.

praise and thanks to EE praise and thanks. Soprano.ness flows. we a*EJ praise and thanks. 165 213. Thy good -ness flows. 1 To us Alto. STRICT FUGVE IN FOUB PARTS. FUGLE FOR SINGING etc.31. ~fr etc. 3E To us Thy v- V K give Thee good. I ~{^ *== good - ness flows . we give Thee Piano.

MOZART. find in this Fugue an instrumental prelude.minor Mass of BACH. in orchestral part may also produce short. before the of the vocal parts. the end. to allow the close of a movement to sing out well at The and the manifold great variety of form in the more developed kinds of Fugue treatment of the Orchestra in the accompaniment We of them. in which both themes appear at once and are developed with each other. especially in more developed Fugues. later on the instruments go with the parts. as for instance the Fugue from HANDEL'S ''He slew all the first-born in Egypt" is accom- panied at the beginning only by chords. from the 95th Psalm by MENDELSSOHN. 1) 2) Double Fugues. forming a counterpoint developed together with it. "For Thine although it are is the Seas" is also worked for the greater part as accompanied only by chords } Fugue. . 32. We distinguish three kinds of which two themes Double- Fugues. HANDEL. ments.166 CHAPTER The XV. CHERUBINI. An instrumental postlude of a few bars may also occur occa- We sionally. Double-Fugue. The chorus. HAYDN. We call a Fugue a Double-Fugue in are introduced and developed. and an instrumental interlude in the middle entry of it. This would afford to the vocal parts a suitable resting point. Simultaneously the first theme associates itself with the second and is as it were. We desire also finally niously Israel in by Egypt: to mention. SCHUMANN and many other excellent masters of the present day. 32. independent moveBut these "intermezzi" would the middle of the Fugue. in order that the uniform character of the composition be not injured. We draw attention to the five-part Fugue of the Kyrie. CHAPTER XV. BEETHOVEN. cadence. Fugue with three or four themes. always have to be based on motives of the theme or counterpoint in a manner suitable to the style. can only refer the student to the works of BACH. that a Fugue can be accompanied harmochords only. MENDELSSOHN. to the second. does not allow us to give individual examples for ail cases. best after a halfissue. in the B. Double Fugues in which at first only one theme is brought to an Later on the second theme appears.

that in none of the before-mentioned kinds both themes should ever commence quite simultaDouble-Fugues One allows. DOVBLE-FDQUE. the first. Both themes are required to contrast rhythmically. we cite the Eyrie from the "Requiem" by MOZART. in this manner both But we wish to . . The most extended form first 167 3) one theme is a second theme is Double-Fugue is that. the alto the second theme. a little sooner. brought introduced. in which both themes are introduced at once and worked out together. themes contrast better with each other. FUGUE WITH THREE OR FOUR THEMES. on the contrary. of Finally both themes are treated ment. in which at After a half-cadence by all parts.v jjLfc - ======: 1 214. The first theme is sung to the second to the words "Christe eleison". For the first mentioned form Double-Fugue. which is worked out in its turn. together for the last develop- of remark. words "Kyrie eleison".32. . The bass intonates the Allegro. as much as possible. the second theme to begin neously. sometimes also a little later.

the soprano overtaking the counter-theme.theme. To this joins immediately overtaking the counter. in which mostly both themes take a part. On this harmony the tenor commences with the second theme.theme. The last entry of the principal theme in the alto ensues. in the twelfth. In bar 22 the bass takes up the first theme in (7-minor.168 CHAPTER The alto XV. Then follows a short interlude. the tenor performs the counter-theme. with the principal (bar theme in the dominant. the bass dulates to sounds the counter-theme. the alto renders the counter. the end of both themes mothe dominant of 6r-minor. < -+ . Now the soprano intonates the first theme in /''-major (bar 1 6) bass 11 . as connection to the parallel majorkey. begins again the first end of the entry of the themes the in the theme in Z>-miiior towards the Dominant by soprano and tenor. of the Fngue) the entry of the tenor. le Ky pBl 215. in used in Double counterpoint connection with the second theme in the bass. Now follow various highly interesting Strettas until the conclusion of the Fugue. 32. Bar 2G brings an entry of the soprano with the principal theme in By-major.

DOUBLE-FUOUE. -y-a : * . Only once. At the beginning the following theme only appears. ^**&. and as we may anticipate. 34. ] 69 orchestral accompaniment is reduced to a mere assistance of the vocal parts. tr 217. The instruments go generally in unison with the voices. 216.33. This theme the dominant. a perfect. the 'celli and bassea assist the soprano and alto with three y quavers f ^y this w ^i c ^ magni- the bass-voices gain breathing-time. As indispensable to the student. treated together. ficent ^i The careful study of Double-Fugue 33. _u is developed through 41 bars to a half-cadence on After that the second theme appears and both are . universally is known sample of a Double-Fugue of the second kind. FUGUE WITH THREE OR FOUR THEMES. we mention the Fugue from the ^-minor Suite for orchestra op 115 by FRANZ LACHNEE. now and then the trumpets and drums give a few notes for filling in the harmony. in bars 5 and 6.

"- t-. accompanied by 'celli. It first appears in the tenor. bassoons and horns. basses. violas. . 218. Breitkopf & Hartel). .170 CHAPTER XV. wir und weinten. 34. sat Babylon we Lento. p espr. Author's "Trostlied" op. (Leipzig. 65. we add the accompaniment in piano-score. The first theme is composed to the words: "An den Wassern zu Babel sassen wenn wir an Zion gedachten" (By the waters of and wept when we thought of Zion).

the second theme appears also first in the tenor. . This theme is 17] brought to an issue by all voices. 219. essentially. from J-minor to C'-major at the end of the first exposition. espress. FUGUE WITH THREE OR FOUR THEMES.34. And we hang ed our harps upon the wil- H 1 1 F T E lows. of the second theme by all parts. DOUBLE-FUGUE. The the two themes join the comaccompaniment has been simplified without the figurations of the Violins. After three bars of an instrumental modulating interlude. ^1 in -0. leads to a on the dominant. Now marked below. r_ the midst there - of The development half-cadence binations.

Alto. . Piano. CHAPTER f dolce XV. 34.172 220. Tenor. Soprano. Bass.

ber - ed thee Part. f-r-M^ T>iu : * f l^f2^ffff. in the midst.j> on. when Ion we sat and wept. FUQUE WITH THREE OR FOUR THEMES -* 173 / i c when cresc. DOVBLE-FUOVE. And we hang in cresc. when ed our hasps upon the wil lows We sat there and wept. we re - mem . I ter -i -* r~\l ==s!*i= ^ - ly.^= : . and wept. and ?4^EE= wept. Zi H. thee re - - mem - ber'd. the midst there - of. By the wa .ters of Ba - by- -li ^j=f=3 on. and wept.34. Part.

' CT^TS .^\3z* +.174 CHAPTER XV. 34. we cresc. f ^?. Ion we sat and wept.ters of Ba - by- == ^ -S-r-f-f= - i= ?=?=f=rd * T= fi r^ lows h F I 1 ^-L r 4- F F f F 1 ] ed our harps u-pon the wil -: I harps up -on the wil - - lows the wil lows.on. I. By the wa . and wept. by the ri - vers of Ba L - by- Part.* r ^ p__^_-fr=E=-U when we r fc-| - j~~^~r~T E f r r remem - ber ed Zi - on. remem r - ber-ed Zi . _ M.

vers of by - Ion we sat and wept.34.on re-mem - - ber'd. n. when -gp Part. DOVBLE-FUGVE. and r? i E Ba - rl . ter - ^-rtK^ ly. wept bit. r* ed our And we hang harps up-on thewil- wa-ters of Ba - by - Ion 5^3=3: we sat ^. wept. / m ^ the bit iLj^j^z^iErF^ midst there-of and wept. wept . FUGUE WITH THREE OR FOUR THEMES. 175 in the midst there - of and wept. by Part. the I. by the when we remem-be-red Zi - on. and thee Zi . and wept. /" sempr motto csprcss.ter -ly.

34.176 CHAPTER XV. piit tfn *~f~f~ f~~\ ^ . f crete.

strict Fugue the counterpoint only appears after the conclusion of the ence is . After the student has practised the it strict Fugue with to equally recurring counterpoint sufficiently. and are developed as strictly as possible one with another in the Double-Fugue. compose a Fugue with two. 12 . coda. even with three themes. as we called it significantly "Post-lude. a Tripel-Fugue. DoubleFugues. which are consequently carried through one with another.35. differ- not so very great and consists in fact only in this . cipal theme has been remarked before. principal theme. while in the simple. The . for it possesses two secondary themes. will afford him no trouble. notated under 210. . Clav. besides the principal one. counand that they did not enter simultaneously with the printerpoint As doea not alter much the character of the matter. of the theme". in reality. as well as the principal one. connected with it. which are worked out consequently together with the latter. which are. scrutinised in 17. Canon and Fugue. and returns later on. FVGVE WITH THREE OR FOUR THEMES. One would be quite justified in calling the Fugue in F-rninor from the Wohlt. 151 157 demonstrate. One could call the Fugue. DOVBLE-FVGUE. as examples That we called these secondary themes. for it contains two secondary themes. Jadassolin. according to their nature.that the themes are simultaneously entered. 177 35. also a TripleFugue. the ''Wohltemperirte Clavier" offers a great many Fugues.. in a more or less strict form.

one would rarely succeed in inventing four thealtogether. the Choral-Fugue and the Contra-Fugue. to any length of The listener employ the five parts continuously for would soon be fatigued. a much more imcan be obtained in a Fugue for five parts. 36. As the movement in five parts offers greater fullness and richness of harmony. restrictions We which do not however en- it imposes. parts. one from another. But one should not suppose that the movement must be always. and the are so great. contrapuntal study. The difficulties arising from as such. Besides. For the composition of a Triple-Fugue it would be necessary. or Orchestra.) in five 4. time. However. by which the creative individual imagination should rule and govern with ease and sureness.178 CHAPTER. Five parts. (out of Clav. If one intends to compose a Fugue with four themes. Nr. I. posing effect ciation of all parts. supposing this experiment to have succeeded. But it Vocal parts. 75. CHAPTER Fugue in XVI.writing. the C-minor Fugue (Wohltemp. one would have to work them this in quadruple counterpoint.0J7-minor for five the practibility of exeparts contain only 20 bars. to work the three themes in triple counterpoint. in Piano-Fugues by the consideration taken for Thus the Fugue its in . that the imagination is lamed it. Fugue for Double-Chorus in eight parts. only would also be unpracticable in five part Fugues for Organ. than to bring into connection some of the possible 23 inversions by suitable interludes in an adaptable manner. if he had to . and sometimes five This is offered enough in three. than the one in four parts. nothing else would have to be done. But we do not propose to make the composition of the Fugue With the composition of the Fugue. cution. over to the commencement of Free-composition. which would have the characte- courage task. in five parts. mes. written in quadruple counterpoint. as might be deemed adapted for its higher purpose. if it were now often four. All contrapuntal glide ristic features art should serve only as the means. XVI 36. and which would distinguish themselves. we a dry. rhythmically and metrically. of course. or mostly. by the asso- The effect would be heightened. about 26 to 28 at an extention of 115 bars. vol. parts. than would be possible in four part.

chorus composed of two sopranos. & _fr The theme of a ninth. which is sublime beyond description. In that Fugue. 179 follow attentively and continuously such a large of real parts. or Orchestra these constraints need not be imposed. which parts is to double. named marperhaps only exception. Organ. for especial study. of Fugue in C'-major has only the compass of a se- 224.and bass-part. We The last recommend all these Fugues of BACH . Nr. one would do best to have the alto. As a we mention the often vellous is not only generally. Kyrie-Fugue from the . but always in five parts. and bass. in his ^-minor Fugue. of the Organ-Fugue in C'-minor goes to the compass 223. a. mentioned Fugue only becomes five parts after the entry of the theme in double enlargement in the pedal the answer follows at once.Z?-minor Mass in five parts by BACH. in five tenor. or Orchestra it would not signify.tenor. contains the compass of a ninth. as small a compass as possible. vocal Fugue for five voices the limit of the theme will have to be within One should keep it carefully considered as to its height and depth. so that each voice may bring it in the tonic. the movement rare. XXII.36. a fourth lower or fifth higher. Clav. In a Fugue for Piano. I. that of a 221. BACH'S theme. vol. Organ. comprising a tenth. In a vocal Fugue in five parts. the answer. and also in the dominant. tenth. etc. The theme venth. FUGUE IN FIVE PARTS. 12* . The -F-minor Fugue for Organ in five parts possesses the following theme.alto. Wohlt. The above-mentioned Piano-Fugue in J3t7-minor At a evidently written for a soprano. FUGUE FOR DOUBLE CHORUS number etc. For a Fugue parts for Piano.

for five parts. Fr. as well as also in the enlargement. it contains a developed Fugue forms the Menuetto of the Symphony. With this exception the theme appears also in contrary motion in the enlargement towards the close of the Fugue. op. (Z)-minor. Kistner) on the following theme. in the pedal. 37. Allegro non troppo. Leipzig. and twice again in the pedal. . f mare. In the third symphony of the Author's. be extended at pleasure.ISO CHAPTER XVI. the compass of the theme may If one write for orchestra. 50.

come Bass. Leipzig. a great gradation may be produced in a Stretta. Breitkopf & Hartel. The orchestral accompaniment has been Allegro moderate. ^ S theme. Here follows an example of a Fugue for eight parts from the author's 100th Psalm (op. Come be . 60. |Ete ^ . even for a few bars. Piano. ' it - Wor-shipthe Lordwithglad ness. Alto. (?=fr=t= fete Wor-shipthe Alto. Tenor. come. Soprano.37. Soprano. six or seven parts. 226.) marked as a Piano-score. FUGUE FOR DOUBLE CHORUS etc. i songs. songs. Wor-shipthe Lord with m Tenor. 1 81 But by the contracted dently as real parts. =t Come - J^ come be -fore his coun-te-nance. FUGUE IN FIVE PARTS. come.fore his coun-te-nance. ffia :=: Bass. entries of five.

37. GFM fifr > EE ' 1 ' : d ' f 1 -^ - .182 CHAPTER XVI.

worship the Lord with glad - - ness.te-nance. 1 come to his ooun-te-nance. come with songs. come to his coun. 183 fore bis ccmn-tenance come.te-nance. FUGUE FOR DOULBE CHORUS etc. FVO UE IN FIVE PARTS. come with joy-fnl nance. Wor-ship the Lord with glad- te - nance Wor-ship the .37. as fore to his coun . Wor-ship the Lord with come to his coun -te-nance. te-nance.

Worship the Lord with *T come r to r his Eg sa = EEEE^ES cred - ness. with glad - ness the Lord. 37. the Lord.184 CHAPTER XVJ. Wor-ship the ^Lj_tiz2== it i ^ i <3 m \ =i ness Wor-ship the Lord with glad - ^ Wor-ship the Lord -_^fz ^ Worship the Lord with glad glad - ^Z :*== *=- m Lord. the ness. o come. ness. Lord with glad U- t -L=^ . i songs.

37. FVG HE IN FIVE PARTS. ] 85 HEEE f . FVOVE FOB DOUBLE CHOB VS etc.

186 CHAPTER XVI. the Lord. " Wor-ship the Lord with glad - ness. Worship the Lord with :?=l=^him. Worship the Lord with Wor-ship the Lord with glad - - ness. Wor-ship the Lord with glad - ness. -P joy - - ful songs nance. 37. Wor-ship the m ~^m Wor-ship the Lord with m .

FUGUE FOR DOUBLE CHORUS etc.37. Fl'GUE IN FIVE PARTS. *' R ^ i 1J ' ' . 187 ~JF* $5 . E .

as may appear suitable to the composer for the representation of the whole. only afterwards the choruses separate. that in the face of the extraordinary difficulties. species of Fugues. to rest after with their The accompanying movement and form. Is one desirous of adding a Choral in the course of a Fugue. until cite as an instance. or perhaps both. when in purpose. 38. or allows the basses to go in parallel octaves. The student will remember from our treatise on counterpoint 30. accompanied by One the other parts. chorus from BACH'S Passion-music to it and allows it however continue were. by all the altos and tenors of both choruses in unison only with the coda of the theme (bar 4) cipal theme (Israel in . as it fugated each pause. one would do well to form the theme and the counterpoint accordingly. one either unites occasionally the sopranos or basses of both choruses. 38. or leads sometimes the alto of one chorus with the to soprano or alto of the other. alternate. Towards the end of the Fugue. allows the Choral-melody to enter at a suitable place. that the altos and tenors remain united. There are left now for explanation some rarely occurring These are the Chorale-Fugue and the rarely found al Counter-Fugue (fuga rovescio. and only in the twelfth bar more than four parts are developed. will not be found many Choral-melodies that would be suitable for this The effect will be a more striking one. which we anticipate parts be known by everybody. an interlude. which one encounters in the progression of eight real parts. both choruses are again united into a four part chorus. We St. the Fugue becomes double chorused.) at first. by accompanying the chorale with material that new or not thematic. or go together. the middle of a Fugue the Chorale-melody enters. . the Choral-melody recommences. by But there taking for a theme the beginning of a Chorale-melody. the first MATHEW. in order that one or the other.188 points CHAPTER XVI. be adapted for accompanying the latter. is still If the latter cannot be called a Fugue written predominantly in the of most splendid Fugal-style. by thematic entries or contrapuntal motives. part II No. HANDEL even brings his prinin the magnificent Fugue "I will sing unto the Lord" Egypt. fully and strikingly. or combines both choruses one in four parts. One should not manage in an is arbitrary manner.) One forms a Choral-Fugue. 44. It would be best to spin out a characteristic-rhythmical motive of theme or counterpoint during the entry of the Chorale-melody. enters as The choral "0 Lamb God innocent" "ripian-part" to both choruses. and which has not occurred in the Fugue. In the ninth bar. the parts divide in this way.

that kind of rarely occurring Fugue. the third part brings the theme in contrary motion and the fourth answers it. which already the first answers of the theme are already given in contrary motion.39. FUG UE IN FIVE PARTS. fro f . 227. But Counter-Fugues can also be found. in which theme and answer are given in two parts in the first instance in similar motion. also in contrary motion. 189 in 39. FUG UE FOB DO UBLE CHOR US etc. One might then commence a Counter-Fugue in this manner. in that case. Counter-Fugue is.

228.190 CHAPTER XVI. Ac LJ-J-J- . 39.

in some cases. . . studies. a free ending be added. and any one that also exercise. to like if one does not wish will experience this with such work. any other. 191 may be permitted in such a rugate-movement. FUGUE IN FIVE PARTS. . (if of all kinds from time this he does not continue his contrapuntal to time) soon make the experience. style. the contrapuntal studies of the Even he. dare be allowed in a Often. Here the striving student. with the greatest ardour and conall the requirements of this book scienciousness and who has acquired a perfect knowledge and sureness treatise ends. requires constant forget again the greater part of it. Constantly renewed contrapuntal studies will act impulsively on the artistic intelligence and the imagination of the composer. who occupies himself constantly and seriously . intellectual technic. will. even if.39. FUQUE FOR DOUBLE CHORUS etc. the freely fugated movement stands in the middle of Fugue. artist. not so. a not strictly contrapuntal composition the free style alternates with In the Fugue we have to deal only with the strict the strict one. who has fulfilled composer. or in contrapuntal forms.

al rovescio. 16G. in the Fifth. 6977. X. 78. Organ-Fugues. 105. 73. . II. 5057.3-f Z INDEX. 1 6. XI. (response. in contrary motion for two parts in all intervals. 166. 8. 12. 100105. in the Second. 6899. 101. 2230. 133. in the Sixth. Double. VHI. HI. 19. 142166. - in retrograde motion.Passion-music Beethoven. accompanied by free parts. 57. 77. 4. 129.with free harmonious accompaniments. IV.unaccompanied in two parts. 134. 7. 86. 20. 18. XIII. 50 57.in the Seventh. XV. 13. Inversus. 91. 102. - circle. 178. Kyrie. 17. see Wohltemperirtes Clavier.for Vocal-parts. 74. 22 in two parts. Wohltemperirtes.Double in contrary motion. accompanied by free parts. in Unison. 58. 20. Chapter V. Cherubini. 57. 57. Answer of the Fugue-Theme regular. 179. 108. 71. in the Octave. Mathew. 166. 134142. 179. 132. VI. 21. . Canon . 19. 87. . XII. in enlargement.in equal motion for two parts. 22. 137. 58. 87. 105113. 38. 81. 78. 66. . 179191. 21. 90. 188. IX. 106. parts. . . 98. chromatico ed enharmonico. in general. 15. 82. Cfavier. 57. 142. 143. 114. 166178. 80. 57. XVI. 58-68. St. 178. - in diminution. XIV. 3050. 5. 30 49. in three 30. 114121. . 84. comes). 55. clef. VII. I. Bach. in the Third. 70. 69. Riddle. 100. 121133. 7789. and four 54. 109. - Mirror. in the Fourth 12. Cadence in the Fugue. 121.

. 168. Interludium.for vocal parts.INDEX. 178. Fugue. 142. Fugato. 77. 2.with instrumental accompaniment. Triple in the Fugue. 75. Countersufy'ect. 98. . 166. 145. 84. 82. strict one. general remarks. Stretta. 89. 91. two parts.of second group. Exposition of theme in Fugue. Haydn. Dux. 13 . 1. Moritz. . 168. . Climax in the Fugue. 79.in three parts. 89. for Organ. 166. - Orchestra. counter-theme. Instrumental Fugue. 69 1 93 Double Canon. . 69. 71. 54. Continuation of theme in the Fugue. see Canon. Israel in Egypt (Handel). 105.Counterpoint in in.Fugue. 57.Counter-Fugue rovescio). 143. 178. 69. 179. 166. 122. 77. 105. 114. . 189. 67. 146. Free Canon. 3. 161.of first group. 121. in Fugue. . Counterpoint Double in the Octave.with Chorale. Canon and Fugue. 162. as counterpoint in Fugue. 70 Entry. . 134. 179. 58. 116. Imitation. 121. Triple in the Canon. Free one in four parts. - - - for eight parts. 190. Hauptmann. 168.Double with three or four themes. 80. 78. 116. 166. Kunst der Fuge. 143. response of the Fugue-theme. 100.answer of the Fugue.Piano-Fugues. Stretta. 178. for five parts. strict one in four parts. for Double Chorus. . Harmonious Themes in Fugues. Quadruple in the Canon. 177. Engfiihrung. 191. 115. Handel. Free-parts. Comes. 25. Jadassohn. Climax. (Engfiihrung). die. . . 61. Alex. 166. 78. 89.Double in the Twelfth. principal Theme Ending. 115. 69. 51. of parts in the Fugue. 71. Klengel. (al . . August. Triple. leader.Theme - of. . 90.

Franz. 88. 2 7. 162. (Pedal-point).194 Kyrie (Bach). 168. 167. 114. Lachner. 166. Mozart (Kyrie). j. Orchestral accompaniment in Fugue. 71. 69. Leader. 66. Organ-point. 113. 147. . 167. 142. (Double Fugue in E-minor).' uyuca \u Paragraphs : 1 page 1. (Mozart). 178. 169. Mendelssohn. Order of entries in Fugue. 178. 81. (dux) in Fugue. 69. Leading-note in Fugue-answer. INDEX.

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