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BASIC & Ladder

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A

User’s Guide
Version 2.05
Disclaimer
Every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the information in this guide. However, SEMAPHORE assumes
no responsibility for the accuracy of the information. Product information is subject to change without notice.

TWinSoft and A are registered trademark of SEMAPHORE.


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Copyright
 2004-2009 by

Edition: January 14, 2009


Author: Jean Burton

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 2


TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. PROGRAMS - BASIC................................................................................................ 9

1.1. SEQUENCE OF TASKS ............................................................................................. 9


1.2. GENERAL ..........................................................................................................10
1.2.1. Case .............................................................................................................. 10
1.2.2. Variable not declared ...................................................................................... 10
1.2.3. Statements and 'Line Feed'.............................................................................. 10
1.2.4. Colors ............................................................................................................ 10
1.2.5. Access from the process to the variable ............................................................ 10
1.2.6. Cycle time...................................................................................................... 11
1.2.7. Distinction between Local – Global – System variables ....................................... 11
1.2.8. Break Line ..................................................................................................... 11
1.2.9. Precautions / Miscellaneous ............................................................................. 12
1.3. COMMENT .........................................................................................................12
1.4. CONSTANT ........................................................................................................12
1.5. ASSIGNMENT ......................................................................................................13
1.6. DIM STATEMENT .................................................................................................14
1.7. COMPARISON .....................................................................................................15
1.8. IF ...THEN ... ELSE … ELSEIF STATEMENT..................................................................16
1.9. ARITHMETIC OPERATORS .......................................................................................18
1.9.1. General rules of type casting ........................................................................... 18
1.9.2. Special case with constant............................................................................... 19
1.9.3. Type casting exceptions with MS-CPU16 and TBox-LITE .................................... 19
1.9.4. + (Addition) .................................................................................................. 19
1.9.5. - (Subtraction) .............................................................................................. 20
1.9.6. * (Multiplication) ........................................................................................... 20
1.9.7. / (Division).................................................................................................... 21
1.9.8. Modulo Operator ............................................................................................ 21
1.10. LOGICAL OPERATORS ......................................................................................22
1.10.1. Introduction ................................................................................................... 22
1.10.2. AND .............................................................................................................. 22
1.10.3. OR ................................................................................................................ 23
1.10.4. XOR .............................................................................................................. 23
1.10.5. NOT .............................................................................................................. 24
1.11. FOR...NEXT ...STEP STATEMENT .......................................................................25
1.12. WHILE...WEND .............................................................................................27
1.13. MATHEMATICAL FUNCTIONS ..............................................................................28
1.13.1. Trigonometric................................................................................................. 28
1.13.2. Logarithmic .................................................................................................... 29
1.13.3. Exponential .................................................................................................... 29
1.13.4. Power ............................................................................................................ 30

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 3


1.13.5. Square root .................................................................................................... 30
1.14. FUNCTIONS (VARIOUS) ....................................................................................31
1.14.1. INC ............................................................................................................... 32
1.14.2. DEC ............................................................................................................... 32
1.14.3. ABS ............................................................................................................... 32
1.14.4. LOBYTE ......................................................................................................... 33
1.14.5. HIBYTE .......................................................................................................... 33
1.14.6. LOWORD ....................................................................................................... 33
1.14.7. HIWORD ........................................................................................................ 34
1.14.8. SWAPBYTES ................................................................................................... 34
1.14.9. SHL ............................................................................................................... 34
1.14.10. SHR ........................................................................................................... 35
1.14.11. Bit ............................................................................................................. 35
1.14.12. SetBit ......................................................................................................... 35
1.14.13. PackBits ..................................................................................................... 36
1.14.14. SplitBits ...................................................................................................... 37
1.14.15. Split32 ....................................................................................................... 38
1.14.16. Pack32 ....................................................................................................... 38
1.14.17. TriggerPos .................................................................................................. 39
1.14.18. TriggerNeg ................................................................................................. 39
1.14.19. PutChrono .................................................................................................. 40
1.14.20. Truncate .................................................................................................... 40
1.14.21. Odd ........................................................................................................... 40
1.14.22. BCD ........................................................................................................... 41
1.14.23. Sampling tables .......................................................................................... 41
1.14.24. Type Casting............................................................................................... 42
1.14.25. GetRTUTime, GetRTUDate ........................................................................... 43
1.15. TEXT FUNCTIONS ...........................................................................................44
1.16. TIMERS / COUNTERS.......................................................................................46
1.17. INDIRECT ADDRESSING ....................................................................................46
1.17.1. Reading functions ........................................................................................... 46
1.17.2. Writing functions ............................................................................................ 46
1.17.3. Initialization of a Pointer.................................................................................. 46
1.17.4. Note about ‘Address of’ function ...................................................................... 47
1.18. GOTO........................................................................................................47
1.19. KEYWORDS ..................................................................................................48
1.20. POU ..........................................................................................................49
1.21. POU – PROGRAM ..........................................................................................50
1.21.1. The Program 'Main' ......................................................................................... 50
1.21.2. Creating a Program ......................................................................................... 51
1.21.3. Calling a Program ........................................................................................... 51
1.22. POU – FUNCTION ..........................................................................................52
1.22.1. Creating a Function......................................................................................... 52

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 4


1.22.2. Calling a Function from a Program ................................................................... 54
1.23. POU – FUNCTION BLOCK.................................................................................55
1.23.1. Creating a Function Block ............................................................................... 55
1.23.2. Calling a Function Block in a POU Program ....................................................... 57
2. PROGRAMS - LADDER........................................................................................... 59

2.1. SEQUENCE OF TASKS OF THE PROCESS ......................................................................59


2.2. LADDER – PRINCIPLE............................................................................................60
2.2.1. Inputs ........................................................................................................... 60
2.2.2. Outputs ......................................................................................................... 60
2.2.3. Cycle time...................................................................................................... 61
2.3. LADDER - MODES ................................................................................................61
2.3.1. Display mode ................................................................................................. 61
2.3.2. Edit mode ...................................................................................................... 62
2.4. LADDER - TOOLBAR .............................................................................................63
2.4.1. Display mode ................................................................................................. 63
2.4.2. Edit mode ...................................................................................................... 64
2.5. VARIABLES ........................................................................................................65
2.5.1. Local Tags ..................................................................................................... 65
2.5.2. Global Tags.................................................................................................... 65
2.5.3. The colors of the Tags .................................................................................... 65
2.6. CREATE LADDER DIAGRAM .....................................................................................66
2.6.1. Inserting items ............................................................................................... 67
2.6.2. The colors of the Tags .................................................................................... 67
2.6.3. The Keys ....................................................................................................... 67
2.7. STEP BY STEP CREATING OF LADDER .........................................................................68
2.8. DRAWING LINES IN LADDER …. ...............................................................................72
2.9. FUNCTIONS........................................................................................................73
2.9.1. Analog Comparison Functions .......................................................................... 74
2.9.2. Special Functions ............................................................................................ 74
2.9.3. Timer & Counter Functions ............................................................................. 75
2.9.4. Math. Assignments functions ........................................................................... 75
2.9.5. Math. Arithmetic functions............................................................................... 76
2.9.6. Math. Bitwise functions ................................................................................... 76
2.9.7. Math. Shift functions ....................................................................................... 77
2.10. MATHEMATICAL BLOCK ....................................................................................78
2.10.1. Introduction ................................................................................................... 78
2.10.2. Type Casting .................................................................................................. 79
2.10.3. Assignments .................................................................................................. 79
2.10.4. Arithmetic operations ...................................................................................... 79
2.10.5. Comparisons .................................................................................................. 80
2.10.6. Bit manipulations ............................................................................................ 80
2.10.7. Boolean operations ......................................................................................... 81
2.10.8. Conversion + Indirect addressing..................................................................... 82

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 5


2.10.9. Miscellaneous ................................................................................................. 83
2.10.10. Note about ‘Address of’ function ................................................................... 83
2.11. POU (PROGRAM ORGANIZATION UNITS) .............................................................84
2.12. POU – PROGRAM ..........................................................................................85
2.12.1. The Program 'Main' ......................................................................................... 85
2.12.2. Creating a POU Program ................................................................................. 85
2.12.3. Calling a POU Program in another Program ....................................................... 87
2.13. POU – FUNCTION ..........................................................................................88
2.13.1. Creating a POU Function ................................................................................. 88
2.13.2. Example of a Function ..................................................................................... 90
2.13.3. Calling a POU Function in a POU Program ......................................................... 91
2.14. POU - FUNCTION BLOCK..................................................................................92
2.14.1. Creating a POU Function Block ......................................................................... 92
2.14.2. Example of a Function Block ............................................................................ 94
2.14.3. Calling a POU Function Block in a POU Program ................................................ 95
2.14.4. Debugging of a Function block ......................................................................... 96
2.14.5. Indirect addressing inside a Function Block ....................................................... 96
3. TIMERS ................................................................................................................. 97

3.1. PRESENTATION ...................................................................................................97


3.2. INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................98
3.3. CREATING A TIMER ..............................................................................................98
3.4. THE VARIABLES OF A TIMER ...................................................................................99
3.5. USING TIMERS IN LADDER ................................................................................... 100
3.5.1. The instance name ....................................................................................... 100
3.5.2. The Preset ................................................................................................... 101
3.6. USING TIMERS IN BASIC .................................................................................... 102
3.6.1. Reminder ..................................................................................................... 102
3.6.2. Syntax ......................................................................................................... 102
3.6.3. Reset Timer Function .................................................................................... 103
3.6.4. Examples ..................................................................................................... 103
3.7. USING TIMERS IN POUS ..................................................................................... 103
3.8. TIMER – SINGLE SHOT ....................................................................................... 104
3.9. TIMER – MONOSTABLE ....................................................................................... 105
3.10. TIMER – INTEGRAL ....................................................................................... 106
3.11. TIMER – ON DELAY ...................................................................................... 108
4. COUNTERS .......................................................................................................... 109

4.1. PRESENTATION ................................................................................................. 109


4.2. INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................. 110
4.3. CREATING A COUNTER ........................................................................................ 110
4.4. THE VARIABLES OF A COUNTER ............................................................................. 111
4.5. USING COUNTERS IN LADDER ............................................................................... 112

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 6


4.5.1. The contact used with the pulse input ............................................................ 112
4.5.2. The instance name ....................................................................................... 112
4.5.3. The Preset ................................................................................................... 113
4.6. USING COUNTERS IN BASIC ................................................................................ 114
4.6.1. Reminder ..................................................................................................... 114
4.6.2. Syntax ......................................................................................................... 114
4.6.3. Reset Counter Function ................................................................................. 114
4.7. USING COUNTERS IN POUS ................................................................................. 114
4.8. COUNTER - UP ................................................................................................. 115
4.9. COUNTER - DOWN ........................................................................................... 116
4.10. COUNTER - RING ........................................................................................ 118
5. LIBRARY MANAGER ............................................................................................ 121

5.1. IMPORT OF POUS (SAVING POUS IN A LIBRARY) ....................................................... 121


5.2. EXPORT OF POUS (RETRIEVAL OF POUS FROM A LIBRARY) ........................................... 122
5.3. USE OF A LIBRARY IN A TWINSOFT DOCUMENT ......................................................... 122
INDEX ..................................................................................................................... 124

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 7


Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 8
1. Programs - BASIC
TBOX MS and TBOX LITE support 2 languages: BASIC and Ladder.

Both languages are used to execute process automation

 BASIC is a text language, very easy to use for making calculation.


It supports all advanced mathematical functions.

 LADDER is a graphical language, which should be preferred when Boolean


operations are required. LADDDER is much more efficient than BASIC for handling
‘digital’ Tags.

BASIC and LADDER can be used together


We suggest that you divide your process into several programs (≅ sub-programs) depending
on the process concerned. According to the kind of process, you create programs in BASIC
and programs in LADDER.
Then you combine programs as you want: BASIC calling LADDER and reciprocal.

Chapter 1. explains the syntax of BASIC.

To see an example, load the TWinSoft document 'MSBASIC.tws' that you find in the
'Samples' directory of TWinSoft.

Example:
' This is my first program
If (Temperature > 70) or (Emergency=1) then
Pump=1
Alarm=1
endif

1.1. Sequence of Tasks


The variables are handled like following:
 Inputs are read before starting the cycle. A copy is used all along the cycle.
 Outputs are written at the end of the cycle. A copy is used all along the cycle.
 Variables are handled immediately in the cycle.

MS-CPU16 process cycle MS-CPU32 process cycle


Sequence of one cycle: Sequence of one cycle:
Reading DI (Reading AI if fast sampling selected) Reading DI and AI
Updating Timer and Counter Variables
1st cycle of Ladder/BASIC Updating ‘Time’ Variables
Handling registers and timer/counter
values “on the fly” 1st cycle of Ladder/BASIC

Writing DO (Writing AO if fast Writing DO and AO


sampling selected)
If new second: handling of
If new second: handling of sampling table
sampling table
Next cycle …
Next cycle …

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 9


1.2. General

1.2.1. Case
BASIC is not case sensitive.

1.2.2. Variable not declared


A variable used within the program and which has not been declared in the list of Tags of
the TWinSoft document is refused during compilation.

A variable must be declared either in the list of Tags (=global Tag), in the list of POU Tags
or with a Dim statement (=local Tag)

1.2.3. Statements and 'Line Feed'


The statements can be separated by a 'Line Feed' or by a colon ‘:’
Example with several assignments:
a=50
b=c
Or
a=50 : b=c

The statements must be on the same line.


Example with if .. then:
if a=50 then
b=c
endif

1.2.4. Colors
Comment : the comments appear in green color
Constant : a constant appears in red color
Keyword : a keyword appears in blue color (see the list at chapter 1.18)
Variable : a variable appear in black color

1.2.5. Access from the process to the variable


Inputs: the physical inputs are read once at the beginning of the cycle. It means that an
input used at several places in the program, will always be at the same value.
Outputs: the physical outputs are executed at the end of the cycle, according to their last
status.
Internal variables: the internal variables (DIV and AIV) are read/executed at the moment
they are treated within the program. It means the changing on a variable is
updated everywhere it is used.

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 10


1.2.6. Cycle time
One cycle corresponds to a complete process (BASIC and LADDER), from the first until the
last line.
The cycle time is the time needed to execute one cycle. The cycles are executed
permanently, one after each other.
For safety reason, one cycle can never be longer than 1.6 second. If this occurs, an internal
watchdog timer resets the TBOX automatically (the watchdog is minimum 1.6 second).

The cycle time is available from the ‘RTU Identification’, accessible in the main menu 
'Communication'.

1.2.7. Distinction between Local – Global – System variables


A suffix can be used to make the distinction between the different types of variable.

@ : it is a Global Tag (example: input0@)


# : it is a Local Tag (example: second#)
! : it is a System variable (example: second!)

1. To use System variables without declaring them as Tag, the suffix is


mandatory.
2. If there is no suffix, the order of resolution is local Tag if it exists, then global
Tag if it exists. Otherwise the compiler returns an error.
3. The suffix cannot be declared within a DIM statement (it is clear that the
variable will be local).

Examples:
dim Temperature as integer
if Temperature@ > 20 then

if triggerpos(prgrun!) then
......
Temperature@ is the global Tag, if it exists, otherwise the
compiler returns an error. It will not use the local Tag.

1.2.8. Break Line


When a line is very long, it can be cut using the character ‘_’ (underscore).

Examples:
If A=0 Or B=0 Or C=0 Or D=0 Or E=0 Or F=0 Or G=0 Or H=0 Or_
I=0 Or J=0 Or K=0 Or L=0 Or M=0 Or N=0 Or O=0 Or_
P=0 Or Q=0 Or R=0 Or S=0 Or T=0 then
output=0
endif

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 11


1.2.9. Precautions / Miscellaneous
 When declaring local Tags or arguments to Function or Function block, do not use
the same name as global Tags.
 When a Tag is dimensioned within the programming (example: dim Tag as Bool), it is
automatically considered as a local Tag.
 When several operators are used following each other, one needs to separate them
with brackets.
Example: if ((a=10) or (a=20)) and (b=0) then
 With Timer/Counter functions, if you wish to associate a Tag to ‘Value’ and/or ‘Preset,
they must be of type DWORD (32 bits).

1.3. Comment
• Rules
A comment can start with the keyword REM or with the single apostrophe '
REM : is considered as a statement. It can then only be used at the beginning of a
line.
' : is not a statement. It can then be placed anywhere in the line.

• Examples
REM this is a comment
' this is a comment
var1=var2 ' var2 is assigned to var1

1.4. Constant
• Rules
Constant statement can be expressed in:
 decimal
 hexadecimal (with prefix &H)
 floating point

• Limits
To be accepted, the constant must hold into a INT 32 bits or into a IEEE 32 bits Floating.

The 'time span' is limited to 49 days.

• Examples
decimal: a=123456 In an arithmetic operation, a constant is always
hexadecimal: a=&H1E240 converted into the format of the Tag it is associated to.
Floating point: a=123.456 Integer/2.5
 Constant will be converted to Integer, it means 2.

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 12


1.5. Assignment
• Syntax
VarName=expr ' variable

Table[x]=expr ' indexed variable, part of a table (array)

[x] is the index of the variable in the table. Only square brackets [ ] can be used.

The keyword LET can be used but is optional: LET a=b

• Indexing
With a local variable 'simple', indexing is not allowed.
With a local variable 'array', index must be specified with the Dim statement.
With a global variable, indexing is allowed. The variable is then considered as the first of a
virtual table composed of successive ModBus addresses. See For...next statement. with
Global Tags.

• Examples
Temperature=Setpoint
Delay=5
LET StartPump[2]=1

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 13


1.6. Dim Statement
The Dim statement is used to create Local Tags inside a program. Local Tags can also be
created from the list of 'POU Tags'.

• Syntax
Variable
Dim MyVar
Dim MyVar as <Type> ' See types below

Table (array)
Dim Table[n] <as Type> ' Table is an array of n elements (1 to n)
' The types of the elements can also be declared

Each variable of the table can be represented with the name of the table and its index:
Table[1]
Table[2]
....

The type is optional. If it is not declared, the default format is


WORD

• Types available

Types Description
BOOL 1 bit - Digital
BYTE 8 bits - Unsigned
INTEGER 16 bits - Signed
WORD 16 bits - Unsigned
LONG 32 bits - Signed
DWORD 32 bits - Unsigned
SINGLE 32 bits - Float IEEE

• Examples
Dim Temperature as Single
Dim input2 as Bool
Dim table[4] as Word

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 14


1.7. Comparison
The available comparison operators are:

= : equal to
< : smaller than
<= : smaller than equal to
> : larger than
>= : larger than or equal to
<> : different

The comparison returns a Boolean result. It can be used to compare 2 numbers and get the
result in a Bool, or in a sequence as condition; for instance if ..then.

• Syntax
if (expression1 operator expression2) then

result=(expression1 operator expression2)

• Arguments
result :Bool
expression :any expression composed of Bool, Byte, Word, Long, Float

You can mix several types of variables in the 'expressions'.

• Examples
Status=Value<>0
if (level<=125) then
Pump=1
endif

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 15


1.8. If ...Then ... Else … Elseif statement
Executes a group of statements according to a condition.

• Syntax
 Classical syntax: with Statements on different lines:
If Condition1 then
Statement1 In this example:
Statement2 If Condition1 is TRUE, Statement 1 and 2 are
elseif Condition2 then executed.
Statement3 If Condition1 is FALSE, Condition2 is tested.
else
If Condition2 is TRUE, Statement3 is
Statement4
endif executed otherwise Statement4 is executed

The same instructions can be written as follows:


If Condition1 then
Statement1
Statement2
else
if Condition2 then
Statement3
else
Statement4
endif
endif

 Several Statements on the same line: the Statements must be separated by colons:
If Condition then
Statement1 : Statement2
endif

 Condition and Statement in 1 line: Then endif cannot be indicated.


If Condition then Statement1

 Several If ... then statements chained


It is possible to chain several If ... then statements.
In such case, each of them must end with endif keyword.
If Condition1 then
Statement1
If Condition2 then
Statement2
endif
endif

• Arguments
 Condition
The condition is Boolean. It can be any expression resulting in TRUE or FALSE status.

Examples:
If Button then ‘(is equivalent to: if Button=1 then)

If not Button then ‘(is equivalent to: if Button=0 then)

If ((Var1>=15) AND (Var1<=25)) then

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 16


• Examples
Call of a POU
If (level>100) then
Call StopPump 'StopPump is a POU Program
endif

Start of a Loop on condition


If (Level<15) then
for i=1 to 4
If Pump[i]=0 then
Pump[i]=1
endif
next
endif

Test a value at '0'


If Level then 'The condition is TRUE as long as Level<>0
pump=1
endif

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 17


1.9. Arithmetic operators
1.9.1. General rules of type casting
Type Casting means that several formats of (WORD, FLOAT, …) can be associated in
arithmetic operations.
TWinSoft handles type casting automatically, according to “C” rules. TBOX MS32 respects
literally those rules. TBOX MS16 and TBOX LITE have some exceptions described chapter
1.9.3. following.

“C” rules in type casting:


Following table give cast's results of any arithmetic function (+, *, …):
Bool Byte Int Word Long DWord Float
Bool Bool Byte Int Word Long DWord Float
Byte Byte Byte Int Word Long DWord Float
Int Int Int Int Word Long DWord Float
Word Word Word Word Word Long DWord Float
Long Long Long Long Long Long DWord Float
DWord DWord DWord DWord DWord DWord DWord Float
Float Float Float Float Float Float Float Float

The table associates all formats of variables, with in


the middle the format used to caculate the result (of
any operation).

Example:
INT * LONG  calculated in LONG

Conclusions about the above table:


- Check there is not risk of overflow or unexpected values because of different
formats of Tag. Think of formats of Tag you combine

Next table determine when variables are casted automatically at compilation:


Bool Byte Int Word Long DWord Float
The general rule is that
Bool - √ √ √ √ √ √ when combining several
Byte √ - √ √ √ √ √ formats, the ‘lowest’ format
is automatically casted to
Int √ √ - - √ √ √ the ‘highest’.
Word √ √ - - √ √ √
Example : Bool + Int
Long √ √ √ √ - - √ Bool will be automatically
DWord √ √ √ √ - - √ casted to Int

Float √ √ √ √ √ √ -
√ means automatic casting at compilation

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 18


1.9.2. Special case with constant
When a constant is concerned, the constant is always converted into the format it is
associated to.
Examples:
RESULT=WORD / 10.0 Constant converted into a WORD before the division
RESULT=WORD / FLOAT WORD converted into FLOAT. See above

WORD=MINUTE*100 +SECOND If MINUTE is in byte format (by default) then MINUTE*100


is computed in BYTE format. If its result is > 255, the final
result will be wrong.
Then you should force the casting of MINUTE (see 1.12.24)

1.9.3. Type casting exceptions with MS-CPU16 and TBox-LITE


When some different formats are associated, the intermediate calculation is done using
the “best” format according to the format of the Result Tag.As this rule could not be applied
to ALL combinations, we do not use it anymore with TBOX MS32 (see chapter 1.9.1. above)
Examples:
FLOAT = FLOAT + WORD WORD transformed in a FLOAT
LONG = LONG + FLOAT FLOAT rounded to LONG
FLOAT = FLOAT + LONG LONG transformed to FLOAT
WORD = FLOAT + FLOAT Result in WORD with the addition of the FLOAT rounded
LONG = WORD + WORD In case the result of the operation is > 65535, TWinSoft
presumes the result will go to a Long.
Be sure the Tag receiving the result is of form at Long
LONG = WORD * WORD same as above

It is also possible to force the casting you want.

See Type Casting functions at chapter 1.14.24

1.9.4. + (Addition)
Sums several numbers

• Syntax
result=expression1+expression2+ expression3 ...

• Arguments
result :Byte, Word, Long, Float
expression :any expression composed of Bool, Byte, Word, Long, Float

You can mix several types of variables in the 'expressions': it is automatically converted to
the type of the variable 'result'

• Examples
Word1=Word2+Float2+Float3 'Result in 'Word' format with Float rounded
Float1=Word2+(Float2*2) 'Result in Float

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 19


1.9.5. - (Subtraction)
Gives the difference between numbers or used to change a number to negative.

• Syntax
result=expression1-expression2-expression3 ...
result=-number

• Arguments
result :Byte, Word, Long, Float
expression :any expression composed of Bool, Byte, Word, Long, Float

You can mix several types of variables in the 'expressions': it is automatically converted to the
type of the variable 'result'

• Examples
Word1=Word2-Float2-Float3 'Result in 'Word' format with Float rounded
Float1=Word2-(Float2*2) 'Result in Float

With Addition and Subtraction, according to the types


used, (Byte, Word or Int) be attentive to roll over

1.9.6. * (Multiplication)
Multiplies numbers.

• Syntax
result=expression1*expression2*expression3 ...

• Arguments
result :Byte, Word, Long, Float
expression :any expression composed of Bool, Byte, Word, Long, Float.

You can mix several types of variables in the 'expressions': it is automatically converted to
the type of the variable 'result'

if expression1 and expression2 are WORD, the result is automatically


changed to DWORD. This avoids over range problems.
The rules are:
 BYTE * BYTE = WORD (16 bits)
 WORD * WORD = DWORD (32 bits - unsigned)
 INT * INT = LONG (32 bits - Signed)

• Examples
Word1=Word2*Float2*Float3 'Result in 'Word' format with Float rounded
Float1=Word2*Float2*2 'Result in Float

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 20


1.9.7. / (Division)
Divides numbers.

• Syntax
result=expression1/expression2/expression3 ...

• Arguments
result :Byte, Word, Long, Float
expression :any expression composed of Bool, Byte, Word, Long, Float

You can mix several types of variables in the 'expressions': it is automatically converted to
the type of the variable 'result'
When a divisor=0 (zero) the result is unpredictable and
depends on the type of 'result' variable.
To avoid any problem, you have to check the divisor(s) before
executing the division(s)

• Examples
if (Float2>0) and (Float3>0) then
Word1=Word2/Float2/Float3 'Result in Word with Float rounded
endif

if (Float2>0) then
Float1=Word2/Float2/2 'Result in Float
endif

1.9.8. Modulo Operator


Divides 2 numbers and returns the remainder

• Syntax
result=number1 % number2

• Arguments
result :Word, Long, Float
numbers :Word, Long

You can mix numbers of 'Word' and 'Long' types together: the type of the numbers are
automatically converted to the type of the 'result'

Both numbers must be positive.


If one number = 0 then result = 0

• Examples
Remainder=47 % 15 'Remainder=2

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 21


1.10. Logical operators
1.10.1. Introduction
There are 2 ways to interpret those operators:
- as Boolean operators
- as Bitwise operators

Boolean operators
This is probably the more usual way to use the logical operators: in an expression you execute
Boolean operations between several Tags.
Example:
if ((Var1>=150) And (Var2<=200)) Or ((Emergency=1) And (not Button))

Bitwise operators
Those operators are used between 2 Tags and execute Bitwise operations on each bit of the
Tags:
AND Operator
OR Operator
XOR Operator
NOT Operator When using several operators, be careful to the priority of the
operations. We advise to use brackets to separate clearly
the operations.
Example: A=2 And B <>3
Without brackets, will be calculated as follows:
(A=((2 And B)<>3))
With brackets, like it is probably required:
(A=2) And (B<>3)

1.10.2. AND
Performs a Bitwise AND operation on 2 expressions.
00110101
11010110
00010100

• Syntax
result=expression1 And expression2

• Arguments
result :Word or Long
expression :any expression composed of Bool, Byte, Word, Long

You can mix several types of variables in the 'expressions': it is automatically converted to the
type of the variable 'result'

• Examples
MyVal=Word1 And 255 'Mask to erase the MSB
MyVal=(Word1*2) And Word2

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 22


1.10.3. OR
Performs a Bitwise OR operation on 2 expressions.
00110101
11010110
11110111

• Syntax
result=expression1 Or expression2

• Arguments
result :Word or Long
expression :any expression composed of Bool, Byte, Word, Long

You can mix several types of variables in the 'expressions': it is automatically converted to
the type of the variable 'result'

• Examples
MyVal=Word1 Or Word2
MyVal=(Word1*2) Or Word2

1.10.4. XOR
Performs a Bitwise XOR operation on 2 expressions.
00110101
11010110
11100011

• Syntax
result=expression1 XOR expression2

• Arguments
result :Word or Long
expression :any expression composed of Bool, Byte, Word, Long

You can mix several types of variables in the 'expressions': it is automatically converted to
the type of the variable 'result'

• Examples
MyVal=Word1 XOR Word2
MyVal=(Word1 XOR Word2) And Word2

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 23


1.10.5. NOT
Performs a Bitwise NOT operation on 2 expressions. It inverts the bits.
11010110
00101001

Notes:
1. The NOT function is a complement to 1
2. An inversion (a=-b) is a (complement to 1) + 1

Examples:
Value NOT Inversion
-2 1 2
-1 0 1
0 -1 0
1 -2 -1
2 -3 -2

• Syntax
result=expression1 Not expression2

• Arguments
result :Word or Long
expression :any expression composed of Bool, Byte, Word, Long

You can mix several types of variables in the 'expressions': it is automatically converted to
the type of the variable 'result'

• Examples
MyVal=Word1 Not Word2

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 24


1.11. For...Next ...Step statement
For...Next is used to repeat several statements, a specified number of times using loops and
indexing of table (array).
We speak also of 'index addressing', as we access variable using an index.

It is the ideal tool to execute repetitive procedure.


Be careful using big value for i.
With function For…Next, the program
• Syntax jumps out of the routine when all steps
 For ... next i have been executed.
Statements are executed n times: If there are too many, the program might
Dim i as Word generate a watchdog.
For i=x to n step y
You should then use For … nextcycle
Statement
Statement
next i

x : start index. Any number ( >= 1)


n : last index. Any number > x
step y : optional. Increment in the index at each next operation.
If not declared, step = 1.
Must be different than 0

 For ... nextcycle


The Statement is executed once at each cycle of the program: This can be useful to
balance the resources of a program, and mandatory when there are a lot of steps.
Dim i as Word
For i=1 to n
Statement
nextcycle i

Index can be an expression.


Example: (i*2)+3

• With local Tags


To use index addressing with local Tags, you must declare a table (array) with its dimension
and type.
It cannot be declared from the list of POU Tags, but using code in the program.
Example:
Dim InitValue[3] as Word
Dim i as Word
For i=1 to 3
InitValue[i]=0 In this example, [3] is the size of the array.
next i Only square brackets [ ] can be used

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 25


• With global Tags
As global Tags have been created, they already have a type.
The table is composed of one selected Tag, and the following Tags in order of their ModBus
addresses from the list of Tags.
Example: you have 'start' variables you want to activate at the same time.
You create the 4 Tags, with successive ModBus addresses.

Signal Tag ModBus


address
IN 0 Start1 256
IN 1 Start2 257
IN 2 Start3 258
IN 3 Start4 259

Dim i as Word
For i=1 to 4
Start1[i]=1
next i

Start1[2] is then corresponds to Start2


etc...

• Example
For...Next statements nested

REM start of Pumps and associated lamp.


Dim i as Word
Dim j as Word
If start=1 then
For i=1 to 5
Pump1[i]=1
next i
For j=i+5 to 15 'at this step, i=5 => j=10
Lamp1[i]=1
next j
endif

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 26


1.12. While...Wend
While...Wend statement executes a loop as long as the condition is TRUE.
Therefore, the rest of the program is not executed as long as the condition is TRUE.

Make sure the loop does not exceed 1 second.


A watchdog is generated after about 1.6 second.
When it is possible, we advise to use the For…Next or
For…Nextcycle statements

• Syntax
 Classical syntax
While condition
statement1
statement2
Wend

 Several While...Wend can be chained


While condition1
statement1
While condition2
statement2
Wend
Wend

• Argument
condition : Bool, Tag or expression

• Example
While level>150
call Alarms
Wend

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 27


1.13. Mathematical Functions
1.13.1. Trigonometric
The trigonometric functions supported are:
Sine, Arcsine, Cosine, Arccosine, Tangent, Arctangent.

All trigonometric functions work with angles expressed in


radians.
A circle of 360 degree corresponds to 2 π radians

• Syntax
Result=Sin(x)
Result=Cos(x)
Result=Tan(x)
Result=ArcSin(x)
Result=ArcCos(x)
Result=ArcTan(x)

• Argument
x : Single or constant
result : Single

• Examples
‘Calculation of pi
Dim a as Single
Dim Pi as Single
a=arcsin(1)
Pi=a*2

‘Implementation of a sinusoid
if triggerpos (PrgRun) then Radian=0
if Radian < (Pi*2) then 'Pi*2 = 360 degrees
Radian=Radian + (Pi/180) 'Pi/180 = 1 degree
else
Radian=0
endif
Sine=sin(Radian)
Sinusoid=(sine*90) + 200
Degree=(Radian*180)/pi

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 28


1.13.2. Logarithmic
The logarithmic functions supported are common logarithms and natural logarithms

 Common logarithm have the base 10


Log (10) = 1
Log (100) = 2
Log (1000) = 3

 Natural logarithm have the base e.


The constant e is approximately 2.718282.

• Syntax
Result=Log(x)
Result=Ln(x)

• Argument
x : Single or constant
result : Single

1.13.3. Exponential
Exponential function returns e (the base of natural logarithm) raised to a power
The constant e is approximately 2.718282
The Exp function is the complement to natural logarithm function (see above)

• Syntax
Result=Exp(x)

• Argument
x : Single or constant
result : Single

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 29


1.13.4. Power
The Power function returns the value of a base expression taken to a specified power.

• Syntax
Result=Pow(base, exponent)

• Argument
base : Single or constant
exponent : Single or constant
result : Single

• Example
Power=Pow(10, 3) ‘returns 1000 (10^3)
Power=Pow(0, 0) ‘returns 1
Power=Pow(1, 0) ‘returns 1

When working with Tag(s) as argument, be careful that the


result is a Float (IEEE), with a precision of 7 digits.
Threrefore, 10^7 or higher may not return the expected value.

1.13.5. Square root


Returns the square root of a number.

• Syntax
Result=Sqrt(x)

• Argument
x : Single or constant
result : Single

• Example
MySquar=Sqrt(4) ‘returns 2
MySquar=Sqrt(9) ‘returns 3
MySquar=Sqrt(23) ‘returns 4.796
MySquar=Sqrt(0) ‘returns 0

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 30


1.14. Functions (various)
The following Functions are supported. See details in the following pages.

Type Function Description


Operators INC Increment
DEC Decrement
Absolute value ABS
Byte manipulation LOBYTE returns LSB of a WORD
HIBYTE returns MSB of a WORD
LOWORD returns Word 'Low' of a DWORD
HIWORD returns Word 'High' of a DWORD
SWAPBYTE switches bytes of a WORD
Shift SHL Shift left
SHR Shift right
Bit manipulation Bit to read a bit a analog value
SetBit to write the bit of an analog value
PackBits to put bits in an analog register
SplitBits to extract bits from an analog register
Trigger TriggerPos to work on the positive edge of a digital Tag
TriggerNeg to work on the negative edge of a digital Tag
Chrono PutChrono to force the writing of a value into chrono
Various Truncate to extract an Integer from a Float
Odd to indicate whether a Tag in Even or Odd
BCD to transform a decimal number to BCD format
Sampling Table Tablesize to check the size of a table
Samplebyte to access data of a Tag in ‘Byte’ format
Sampleword to access data of a Tag in ‘Word’ format
Sampledword to access data of a Tag in ’32 bits-Long’ format
Samplesingle to access data of a Tag in ’32 bits-Float’ format
Type Casting CBool Type casting to Boolean format
CByte Type casting to Byte format
CDWord Type casting to 32 bits-Long format (Unsigned)
CInt Type casting to Integer format (Signed)
CLng Type casting to 32 bits-Long format (Signed)
CSng
Type casting to 32 bits-Float format
CWord
Type casting to Word format (Unsigned)
Time GetRtuTime Copy the 3 ‘time’ variables in an atomic operation
GetRtuDate Copy the 3 ‘date’ variables in an atomic operation

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 31


1.14.1. INC
The INC function increments a variable (+1).

• Syntax
inc(Var)

• Argument
Var :must be any Integer variable: Byte, Word, Long

• Example
If TriggerPos(Pump_0) then
inc(Counter_0)
endif

1.14.2. DEC
The DEC function decrements a variable (-1)

• Syntax
dec(Var)

• Argument
Var :must be any Integer variable: Byte, Word, Long

• Example
If TriggerPos(Pump) then
dec(PumpActive)
endif

1.14.3. ABS
The ABS function returns the absolute value of any variable.

• Syntax
Result=abs(Var)

• Argument
Var :any format: Byte, Word, Long, Float

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 32


1.14.4. LOBYTE
Mask on the lowest Byte of a Word variable.
Example:
Variable: 0010010101101011
Mask: 0000000011111111
Result: 0000000001101011

• Syntax
Result=LoByte(Var)

• Argument
Var :Word (16 bits)
Result :Byte or Word

1.14.5. HIBYTE
Mask on the highest Byte of a Word variable.
Example:
Variable: 0010010101101011
Mask: 1111111100000000
Result: 0010010100000000

• Syntax
Result=HiByte(Var)

• Argument
Var :Word (16 bits)
Result :Byte or Word

1.14.6. LOWORD
Mask on the lowest Word of a DWord variable.
Example:
Variable: 00100101011010110010001100111101
Mask: 00000000000000001111111111111111
Result: 00000000000000000010001100111101

• Syntax
Result=LoWord(Var)

• Argument
Var :DWord (32 bits)
Result :Word

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 33


1.14.7. HIWORD
Mask on the highest Word of a DWord variable.
Example:
Variable: 00100101011010110010001100111101
Mask: 11111111111111110000000000000000
Result: 00100101011010110000000000000000

• Syntax
Result=HiWord(Var)

• Argument
Var :DWord (32 bits)
Result :Word

• Example
HighestWord=HiWord(Long)

1.14.8. SWAPBYTES
Invert the bytes of a Word variable.
Example: inversion
Variable: 01111100 11000011
Result: 11000011 01111100

• Syntax
Result=SwapBytes(Var)

• Argument
Var :Word
Result :Word

1.14.9. SHL
Shift to the left of x bits (without roll over).
Example: Shift left of 4
Variable: 00001111 00011000
Result: 11110001 10000000

• Syntax
Result=SHL(Var,shift)

• Argument
Var :Word or DWord use the same format for Var and Result
Shift :Word or Constant
Result :Word or Dword

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 34


1.14.10. SHR
Shift to the right of x bits (without roll over).
Example: Shift right of 4
Variable: 00001111 00011000
Result: 00000000 11110001

• Syntax
Result=SHR(Var,shift)

• Argument use the same format for Var and Result


Var :Word or DWord
Shift :Word or Constant
Result :Word or Dword

1.14.11. Bit
This function allows reading a bit in an analog register. The bit number starts at ‘bit0’ (lsb).
Example:
… 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1
bit # .. 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
.

• Syntax
Result=Bit(Register, BitNumber)

• Argument
Result :Bool
Register :Word, DWord
BitNumber :Constant, Byte, Word, DWord

• Example
If bit(PumpList,4) then
Lamp4=1
endif

1.14.12. SetBit
This function allows forcing a bit in an analog register. The bit number starts at ‘0’ (lsb)

• Syntax
SetBit(Register, BitNumber, Value)

• Argument
Register :Word, DWord
BitNumber :Constant, Byte, Word, DWord
Value :Bool

• Example
'Inversion of bit 8.
Setbit(Register,8,not bit(Register,8))

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 35


1.14.13. PackBits
These functions allow putting a series of addresses of digital Tags into an analog register.

There are 3 PackBits functions:

PackBits8: to put 8 Tags of successive addresses to a Byte register.


PackBits16: to put 16 Tags of successive addresses to a Word register.
PackBits32: to put 32 Tags of successive addresses to a DWord register.

• Syntax
Byte_register = PackBits8(Value)
Word_register = PackBits16(Value)
DWord_register = PackBits32(Value)

• Argument
Register : depending of the function it is a Byte, Word, or DWord
Value : it is the ModBus address of the first bit. The value at this address becomes the
lsb of the analog register

• Example
'Putting Digital DIR_0 to DIR_15 to register ANA_16
'ModBus address of DIR_0 = 20480

ANA_16 = PackBits16(20480)

DIR_0 0 1 1 1
DIR_1 0 1 0 1
DIR_2 0 1 0 1
DIR_3 0 1 0 1
DIR_4 0 1 0 1
DIR_5 0 1 0 1
DIR_6 0 1 0 1
DIR_7 0 1 0 1
DIR_8 1 0 0 1
DIR_9 0 0 0 1
DIR_10 0 0 0 1
DIR_11 0 0 0 1
DIR_12 0 0 0 1
DIR_13 0 0 0 1
DIR_14 0 0 0 1
DIR_15 0 0 1 1

ANA_16 256 255 32769 65535

1. When creating the digital Tags, be sure you reserve enough


addresses after the one declared in the function

2. Tags for all addresses do not need to be created, but it is


advised to do it to avoid confusion when creating Tags
afterwards

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 36


1.14.14. SplitBits
These functions allow extracting bits from an analog register to a series of ModBus addresses of
digital Tags.

There are 3 SplitBits functions:

SplitBits8: extract the 8 bits of a Byte to 8 successive ModBus addresses of digital Tags.
SplitBits16: extract the 16 bits of a Word to 16 successive ModBus addresses of digital
Tags.
SplitBits32: extract the 32 bits of a DWord to 32 successive ModBus addresses of digital
Tags.

• Syntax
SplitBits8(Byte_register, Value)
SplitBits16(Word_Register, Value)
SplitBits32(DWord_Register, Value)

• Argument
Register : depending of the function it is a Byte, Word, or DWord
Value : it is the ModBus address of the first bit. The value at this address
corresponds to the lsb of the analog register

• Example
'Extracting bits of ANA_16 to DIR_0 ... DIR_15
'ModBus address of DIR_0 = 20480

SplitBits16(ANA_16,20480)

ANA_16 256 255 32769 65535

DIR_0 0 1 1 1
DIR_1 0 1 0 1
DIR_2 0 1 0 1
DIR_3 0 1 0 1
DIR_4 0 1 0 1
DIR_5 0 1 0 1
DIR_6 0 1 0 1
DIR_7 0 1 0 1
DIR_8 1 0 0 1
DIR_9 0 0 0 1
DIR_10 0 0 0 1
DIR_11 0 0 0 1
DIR_12 0 0 0 1
DIR_13 0 0 0 1
DIR_14 0 0 0 1
DIR_15 0 0 1 1

1. When creating the digital Tags, be sure you reserve enough


addresses after the one declared in the function

2. Tags for all addresses do not need to be created, but it is


advised to do it to avoid confusion when creating Tags
afterwards

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 37


1.14.15. Split32
This function converts one 32 bits register to two 16 bits registers.

This can be useful if you have to transfer 32 bits register, using a unique transaction including
16 bits and 32 bits registers. The 32 bits registers will be seen as 2 x 16 bits registers.

• Syntax
Split32(32bitsReg, Hword, Lword)

• Arguments
32bitsReg : Register to split into 2 Words (DWord or Float)
Hword : High 16 bits of the 32 bits register (Word)
Lword : Low 16 bits of the 32 bits register (Word)

• Example
'Converting the Floating register Temperature to TempHigh and TempLow

Split32(Temperature, TempHigh, TempLow)

1.14.16. Pack32
This function converts two 16 bits registers into one 32 bits register.

• Syntax
Pack32(32bitsReg, Hword, Lword)

• Arguments
32bitsReg : Register receiving the 2 Words following (DWord or Float)
Hword : High 16 bits of the 32 bits register (Word)
Lword : Low 16 bits of the 32 bits register (Word)

• Example
'Converting the Temperature consisting of 2 Words

Pack32(Temperature, TempHigh, TempLow)

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 38


Trigger

The Trigger function allows checking a transition in an expression.

1.14.17. TriggerPos
It informs on the transition '0' to '1' of a digital Tag.

• Syntax
X = TriggerPos(expression)

X = 1 at changing of the expression (FALSE to TRUE) during one cycle of the program.

• Argument
X :Bool
Expression :any expression composed of Bool, Byte, Word, Long

• Examples
'To Set an Output when pressing a start button
if TriggerPos(Start) then
Output=1
endif

'To initialize a variable at start up of TBox MS


Dim Setpoint as Word
if TriggerPos(PrgRun!) then
Setpoint=123
endif

1.14.18. TriggerNeg
It informs on the transition '1' to '0' of a digital Tag.

• Syntax
X = TriggerNeg(expression)

X = 1 at changing of the expression (TRUE to FALSE) during one cycle of the program.

• Argument
X : Bool
Expression : any expression composed of Bool, Byte, Word, Long

• Example
'To Reset an Output when pressing a Stop button
if TriggerNeg(Stop) then
Output=0
endif

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 39


1.14.19. PutChrono
This function forces recording into the chronology.
Depending on the type of the Tag selected, the value is written to the ‘Analog chronology’ or
‘Digital chronology’.

• Syntax
PutChrono(variable)

• Argument
variable : Tag to insert into the chronology
digital Tag (Bool)  writing to Digital chronology
analog Tag (Byte, Word, Long, Single)  writing to Analog chronology

• Examples
if Button=1 then
PutChrono (Button)
PutChrono (Level)
PutChrono (Temperature)
Endif

1.14.20. Truncate
This function extracts the whole number from a Tag in Single format.

• Syntax
Long_register=Truncate(Single_register)

• Argument
Long_register : Long
Single_register : Single

• Examples
Whole_value = Truncate(Floating_reg)

If Floating_reg = 123.456 then Whole_value = 123

1.14.21. Odd
This function indicates whether an analog Tag is ODD or EVEN.

• Syntax
Bool_register=odd(analog_register)

• Argument
Bool_register : Bool
analog_register : Byte, Word, Long, Single

• Examples
Output=odd(Analog)

If Analog is ODD, Output=1; otherwise Output=0

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 40


1.14.22. BCD
This function transforms a decimal number to BCD format.
BCD format means that each 4 bits is considered as an entity corresponding to 1 number.

• Syntax
Word_output=bcd(Word_input)

• Arguments
Word_output : Word
Word_input : Word

• Examples
Output=bcd(Word)

If Word=4660 then Output=1234

decimal: 4660
binary: 0001 0010 0011 0100
BCD 1234

1.14.23. Sampling tables


These functions allow accessing a specific value in a sampling table. They let you benefit
from pre-computed values in a sampling table, as illustrated in the example below:

• Syntax
tablesize(index) to check the size of a table
samplebyte(index,offset) to access data of a Tag in Byte format
sampleword(index,offset) to access data of a Tag in Word format
sampledword(index,offset) to access data of a Tag in 32 bits format
samplesingle(index,offset) to access data of a Tag in Float format

• Arguments
index: index of the sampling table (see list of sampling tables)
offset: sample you want to access. Offset=0 means the last sample

• Examples
Imagine you want to calculate the arithmetic average of a value based on a period of 15
minutes. You could do it using Ladder or BASIC. But you can make it much more easily using
a sampling table and one of those functions.

Sampling table configuration:


– Type= average
– period= 15 minutes
– Size= 1

You then use the function appropriate to the format of the Tag as follows:
Average=sampleword(1,0)

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 41


1.14.24. Type Casting
TWinSoft handles type casting automatically, but in some cases it can lead to
misinterpretation.

To prevent it, we have implemented Type Casting functions that make you be sure of the
type used in the Functions.

• Syntax
CBool(Var) Type casting to Boolean format
CByte(Var) Type casting to Byte format
CDWord(Var) Type casting to DWord format
CInt(Var) Type casting to Integer format
CLng(Var) Type casting to Long format
CSng(Var) Type casting to Single (Float) format
CWord(Var) Type casting to Word format

• Examples

Without Casting With Type Casting Function


Imagine A as a BOOL and A=1:

(A * 3600) is interpreted as (1 * 1 ) !! (CInt(A) * 3600)  (1 * 3600)


Type casting must be applied to the constant A is used as an Integer and not a Boolean
Imagine A as a WORD and A=65535
Imagine B as a INTEGER

B=Abs(A) the result will be –1 !! B=Abs(CInt(A)) the result will be 1


Abs(65535)  65535 Abs(-1)  1
65535 in INTEGER format becomes -1

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 42


1.14.25. GetRTUTime, GetRTUDate
You can use the system variables ‘Time’ (Hour, minute, second, …) to synchronize events
from BASIC programming.
The risk is that handling several of those variables in one statement may lead to confusion.
Example:
If(Hour=6) and (Minute=0) and (Second=0)...

It is possible that the time changes during the test.

To avoid this situation, we have implemented a dedicated function to retrieve time using an
atomic operation (all operations without interruption)

• Syntax
GetRtuTime(MyHour, MyMinute, MySecond)
GetRtuDate(MyDay, MyMonth, MyYear)

• Arguments
Myxxx: Byte, Word (internal variables)

• Example

Sending an e-mail every day at 6:00 AM

GetRtuTime(MyHour, MyMinute, MySecond)


SendMail=((MyHour=6) And (MyMinute=0) And (MySecond=0))

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 43


1.15. Text Functions
Text Functions are dedicated to BASIC, even if in some case, Text Tags can be used in Ladder
(like in comparison functions).

Text Functions can be used in any type of POU (Program, FB or F) and when used in FB or F,
'Text' arguments are supported in BASIC as well as in Ladder.

It is no possible to call a function within a function. Example:


Cat=("ABCD",CStr(123))
Instead, you have to use each function separately:
Temp= CStr(123)
Cat=("ABCD",Temp)

n=Len (T) returns the length of the Tag Text T

if (T1 = T2) returns true if T1 and T2 are identical, otherwise false.

if (T1 < T2) returns true if T1 is lesser than T2., otherwise false
Comparison stops at the first difference between characters

if (T1 > T2) returns true if T1 is greater than T2, otherwise false.
Comparison stops at the first difference between characters

T1 = T2 Copies T2 to T1.
To copy a text directly to T1, use the double quotes.
Example: T1="ABCDEF"
T3 = Cat(T1, T2) Concatenates T1 and T2 into T3.

n = CBool (T) returns a BOOLEAN corresponding to the number found at the start of T

n = CByte (T) returns a BYTE corresponding to the number found at the start of T

n = CInt (T) returns an INTEGER corresponding to the number found at the start of T

n = CWord (T) returns a WORD corresponding to the number found at the start of T

n = CLng (T) returns a LONG corresponding to the number found at the start of T

n = CDWord (T) returns a DWORD corresponding to the number found at the start of T

n = CSng (T) returns a SINGLE corresponding to the number found at the start of T

T = CStr (n) creates a Text Tag T corresponding to the given number n. Type is implicit
and corresponds to the one of the Tag or constant n.

T = CHex(n) creates a Text Tag T of hexadecimal character representing the number n.


Type is implicit and corresponds to the one of the Tag or constant n.

T2 = LCase(T1) converts the whole text T1 to lower case in T2

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 44


T2 = UCase(T1) converts the whole text T1 to upper case in T2

i = InStr(T1, T2) returns position i of the first occurrence of T2 in T1, and -1 if no


occurrence

T2 = Left(T1, n) extracts to T2 a substring of n characters from the beginning of T1

T2 = Right(T1,n) extracts to T2 a substring of n characters from the end of T1

T2,Mid(s1, i, n) extracts to T1 a substring of n characters from the position i in the middle


of T1

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 45


1.16. Timers / Counters
See chapters 3 and 4

1.17. Indirect addressing


Indirect addressing allows accessing Variables from their addresses (and not from their Tag
name)
It can be in most of the case replaced by 'index addressing' and For...Next...Step
statement which is typically used in BASIC programming.

1. For programmers used to A Ladder programming, those


indirect functions are available, but replaced in BASIC by
indexed addressing (array).
Use of indirect addressing should be very limited.
2. According to the type of Function used (Bool, Word, Float or
Long), be careful to associate addresses of similar registers.

1.17.1. Reading functions


• Syntax
Digital=PeekBool (Pointer) 'Reading address of a BOOL
Analog16=PeekWord (Pointer) 'Reading address of a WORD
Float=PeekFloat (Pointer) 'Reading address of a FLOAT
Analog32=PeekLong (Pointer) 'Reading address of a LONG

• Arguments
Pointer : Word register containing the ModBus address of the variables.
Digital : Boolean variable to receive the status at the address of 'Pointer'.
Analog16 : Analog variable to receive the value at the address of 'Pointer'.
FLOAT : We advise to use a type of variable equivalent to the one of
Analog32 :
the address read (Float when addressing a Float, Long when
addressing a Long, ...).

1.17.2. Writing functions


• Syntax
PokeBOOL(Pointer, State)
PokeWord(Pointer, Value)
PokeFloat(Pointer, Value)
PokeLong(Pointer, Value)

• Arguments
Pointer :Word register or Expression containing the ModBus address of the variables.
State :Value (0 or 1) to write in the address of 'Pointer'
Value :Value or Expression to write in the address of 'Pointer'

1.17.3. Initialization of a Pointer


This function allows you to get the address of a Tag. It can be useful to initialize a Pointer
from the first Tag that has to be treated by the indirect addressing functions.

• Syntax
Pointer=AdrOf(Tag)

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 46


1.17.4. Note about ‘Address of’ function
The function Adrof(Tag) is particularly useful when working with addresses into Function
or Function Blocks (see chapter 1.21. and 1.22.)

Working with Function or Function Block, if you need the ModBus address of an input
argument, you will have first to extract it using BASIC Function Adrof(Tag) (see above).

Working with the former TBox (CPU-3), the ModBus address of the argument is passed
to the Function or Function block.
Working with TBOX MS or TBOX LITE, the value of the Tag is passed to the Function or
Function block (in fact, the argument is copied into an intermediate variable. Then the link
with the real Tag is lost).

Example in the Function ‘SendAsciiFrame’ of the TEXT driver.

1.18. GOTO
• Label
A label can be defined anywhere in a program as follows:

Alarms:
Pumps:

The colon " : " indicates it is a label. The name of a label must use the following rules:
 characters accepted are letters, numbers and underscore.
 the name cannot start with a number.
 the maximum length is 15 characters.
 BASIC is not case sensitive.

To avoid confusion, do not use keywords (see chapter 1.18) or Tag names.

• Syntax
Goto Label

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 47


1.19. Keywords
BASIC uses the following keywords. You should not use names similar to those keywords.

% (modulo) LoByte
_ (underscore = break line) Log
Long
Abs LoWord
AdrOf Ln
And
ArcCosine Mid
ArcSine
ArcTangent Next
As Not

Bcd Odd
Bit Or
Byte
PackBit
Call PeekBool
Cat PeekFloat
CBool PeekLong
CByte PeekWord
CDword Pow
CHex PutChrono
CInt
CLong Right
Cosine Rem
CountDown
CountUp Samplebyte
CountRing Sampleword
CountReset Sampledword
CSng Samplesingle
CStr SetBit
CWord Shl
Dec Shr
Dim Sine
DWord Single
SplitBit
Else Sqrt
Elseif Step
Endif SwapByte
Exp
Tablesize
For Tan
Then
GetRTUTime TimerSS
GetRTUDate TimerMS
Goto TimerIN
TimerOD
HiByte TimerReset
HiWord To
Integer TriggerNeg
TriggerPos
If Truncate
Inc
InStr Xor

LCase UCase
Len
Left Wend
Let While
Word

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 48


1.20. POU
According to IEC1131-3 standard, the programs are organized in POU, which stands for
‘Program Organization Unit’

In order to organize the programming, 3 types of POU are available.

Programs give you the possibility to divide your project into several sub-
programs (pump management, alarms, intrusion, ...)
Each sub-program is POU Program.
Functions give you the possibility to create your own function.
It is a piece of program leading to one result. Useful when there
are repetitive calculations.
Function Blocks give you the possibility to create your own 'applet' or procedure
(starting a pump, regulating temperature).
It is a piece of program composed of input and output arguments.
Useful when the same process is applied to different sets of I/O
(eg. Management of a pump in an application handling 4 pumps).

Recursion is authorized but not for Function


Block (A function cannot call itself):
1. We do not advise you use recursion
2. It is under your own responsibility

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 49


1.21. POU – Program
Introduction
The Programs can be considered as sub-programs. They allow you to structure your
BASIC project into several sub-programs.
Practically, you have a BASIC program ‘main’, which calls sub-programs. These sub-
programs correspond to an action such as: start pump, intrusion control, alarms
management etc..., and can be called from any other Program.
This architecture gives you a clear view of the whole project.
The Programs can be tested individually and it makes changing easier.

A Program can call another Program that can call another Program etc...
If you use Programs that call other Programs, be careful to avoid loops: Programs 1 calling
Program 2 calling Program 3 that calls Program 1.

1.21.1. The Program 'Main'


The program 'main' is the root program. It must be unique and called ‘main’. It is used
to call other Programs (sub-programs).
It is the default program when starting a new TWinSoft document.

The program ‘Main’ supports LADDER or BASIC language. The language can be changed,
provided that the Program is empty.
Right click ‘main’, select ‘Properties’ and choose a language.

While editing, it is possible to enter another POU directly from a


program:
You select the name of the POU, press <CTRL> and double-click
the name.

Changing language of ‘Main’


To change the language of ‘Main’, right click the name ‘Main’, go to Properties and change
language to BASIC

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 50


1.21.2. Creating a Program
To create a Program, click the 'Programs' folder in the Project Workspace.
In the window appears the list of existing POUs (all types of POU). When starting TWinSoft
the first time, the only one is the 'main'.

Double click 'Add a POU', type a Name (No accent, space or keywords (see chapter
1.18)) and check the type 'Program'.

Select language BASIC

Click OK.

You have created a Program and it appears in the 'Programs' folder.

When you double click the name of the Program in the list, the window for BASIC edition
appears with a new Tab for the current program.

You use standard BASIC language for programming.

1.21.3. Calling a Program


A Program can be called from any other Program. It is important that finally, it is called from
the 'Main' Program.

• Syntax
To call a Program, use the syntax:
call Alarms 'Alarms is the name of the POU Program

The instruction Call is optional

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 51


1.22. POU – Function
Introduction
A Function is a user-defined program that executes a calculation yielding to one result. It
is useful when a calculation you regularly need to execute does not exist as Standard
functions. You call it in Programs every time you need to execute the calculation. It has one
or several inputs and only one output. When a Function is used many times in a Program,
the same code is always executed; one cannot keep trace of internal status between 2 calls.

According to the type of the output, there are 4 types of Functions:


 BOOL :Boolean output.
 WORD :analog output 16 bits. Inputs can be digital (Boolean) or
 LONG :analog output 32 bits. analog.
 FLOAT :Floating point output. Timers cannot be defined in a
Function

1.22.1. Creating a Function


To create a Function, click the 'Programs' folder in the Project Workspace.
In the window appears the list of existing POUs (all types of POU). When starting TWinSoft
the first time, the only one is the 'main'.

Double click 'Add a POU', type a Name (No accent, space or keywords (see chapter
1.18)) and check the type 'Function'.

Select the language BASIC

Select the type of the output (result of the calculation): BOOL, WORD, LONG or FLOAT.

Click OK.

You have created a Function and it appears in the 'Programs' folder.

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 52


When you double click the name of the Function in the list, the window for BASIC edition
appears with a new Tab for the current program.

Example of Function
The following Function is an analog Function (it means the output is analog). It performs
the percentage of an input value.

• The Tags
When creating a Function, TWinSoft automatically creates the 'Output' Tag. It is the unique
Output allowed.
'Inputs' and 'Outputs' of the Function are the arguments that will be replaced when calling
the Function (see next).
You create then the 'Inputs', corresponding to the arguments of the Function.
Be careful with the 'type' associated to the arguments.
If you need 'local' Tags, you can create them from the list, or using the DIM statement.

 The way a POU Function works, involves that one can define only local Tags in a POU
Function.

Percent: the output of the Function. It is unique and is the result of the
calculation.
MAX, MIN, VAL: are the Inputs of the Function.
Delta, scale: local analog Tags used as temporary variables necessary to calculate the
percentage.

Global Timer and Counters are allowed in Function, but it is very


uncommon and not logic.

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 53


• The programming
You use standard BASIC language for programming.

The column ‘Value’ in the list of POU Tags cannot be


used.
It displays random values.

To check the Tags, look in the ‘list of Tags’ to the


global Tags associated to the arguments.

1.22.2. Calling a Function from a Program


A Function is called from a Program

• Syntax
Result=Function(Arg1, Arg2, Arg3, ...)

• Arguments
Result the Tag receiving the result of the Function
Function the name of the Function
Arg the input arguments (Tags or constant)
The Arguments have to be entered in the order they have been
created in the list of Tags of the Function.
Example:
Arg1 = Input
Arg2 = MIN
Arg3 = MAX
....

Example
'Call of Function: output=Percent(max,min,input)
AIR0 = Percent(maximum, minimum, ana_0)

POU Functions can be exported to a Library to be


used in other TWinSoft documents, using the
Library manager menu (see chapter 5: ‘The library
manager’)

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 54


1.23. POU – Function Block
Introduction
Function Blocks are user defined small 'applets', or procedures that perform a set of
operations on a given set of I/Os (or registers).
Function Blocks are particularly helpful when the same set of operations must be performed
on several different sets of I/Os, figuring instances of a small process.

eg.: The TBox needs to handle 4 identical pumps. No need to copy the same program 4
times.
You call a Function Block from a Program every time you need to execute the process and
you assign Tags to it.

We advise you against using Functions in a Function Block. In fact, a Function exists
only once and uses always the same internal variables when it is called.
A Function Block uses new Tags (local and global) every time it is called from a Program.

1.23.1. Creating a Function Block


To create a Function Block, click the 'Programs' folder in the Project Workspace.
In the window appears the list of existing POUs (all types of POU). When starting TWinSoft
the first time, the only one is the 'main'.

Double click 'Add a POU', type a Name (No accent, space or keywords (see chapter
1.18)) and check 'Function Block'.

Select the language BASIC

Click OK.

You have created a Function Block and it appears in the 'Programs' folder.

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 55


When you double click the name of the Function Block in the list, the window for BASIC
edition appears with a new Tab for the current program.

Example of Function Block


The following Function Block performs the start of a digital output with a programmable
delay.

This Function Block implementation describes the inputs and outputs involved in the
management of the delay. It also specifies how the dcelay is applied to the ouput.
It does not specify which Tags are physically connected to the ‘delay’: this is the job of the
FB calling in a program (see below).

• The Tags
Inputs and Outputs of a Function Block are the arguments to be replaced when calling the
Function Block.
You create then the 'Inputs' and 'Outputs' in the list of POU Tags of the Function Block.
If you need 'local' Tags, you can create them from the list, or using the DIM statement.

INPUT is a digital input that will activate the OUTPUT after the DELAY.

is a digital output. It will be connected to a motor, for instance when


OUTPUT
calling the Function Block.

is an analog input containing the number of seconds of the delay. It


DELAY
must be associated to the timer used in the Function Block.

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 56


Timer0 is a local timer.

value is a local digital Tag of the type 'Timer - Valaue'.

status is a local digital Tag of the type 'Timer - Status'.

Timer_preset is a local analog Tag of the type 'Timer - Preset'.

• The programming
You use standard BASIC language for programming.

1.23.2. Calling a Function Block in a POU Program


• Instantiation
A Function Block can be called several times, and for each call TWinSoft allocates new Tags.
The Instantiation allows TWinSoft to distinguish each call.
The Instantiation is done using a POU 'local' Tag. - From the Program where you wish to call
the Function Block:
- In the list of POU Tag, click Add a POU Tag
- Type a name as Tag (the instance name)
- Select as ‘Type’ : FB Instance
- Select as ‘Name’ the name of your Function Block
- Click OK
- The instance appears in the list of ‘POU Tag’.

Example of Instantiation:

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 57


• Syntax
Call Instance(Arg1, Arg2, Arg3, ...)

The instruction Call is optional

• Arguments
Instance the name given to the local Tag used as Instantiation
Arg the input arguments (Tags or constant)
The Arguments have to be entered in the order they have
been created in the list of Tags of the Function Block

Example
'The function block [Start_w_Delay] activates an output after a entered
'delay in seconds; Arguments: (Input,Delay,Output).
call Motor1(DI_4, 6, DO_3, COUNT)

POU Functions can be exported to a Library to be


used in other TWinSoft documents, using the
Library manager menu (see chapter 5: ‘The library
manager’)

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 58


2. Programs - Ladder
TBOX MS and TBOX LITE support 2 languages: BASIC and Ladder.

Both languages are used to execute process automation

 BASIC is a text language, very easy to use for making calculation.


It supports all advanced mathematical functions.

 LADDER is a graphical language, which should be preferred when Boolean


operations are required. LADDDER is much more efficient than BASIC for handling
‘digital’ Tags.

BASIC and LADDER can be used together


We suggest that you divide your process into several programs (≅ sub-programs) depending
on the process concerned. According to the kind of process, you create programs in BASIC
and programs in LADDER.
Then you combine programs, as you want: BASIC calling LADDER and reciprocal.

This chapter explains how to program in LADDER.

To see an example, load the TWinSoft document 'MSLadder.tws' that you find in the
'Samples' directory of TWinSoft.

2.1. Sequence of Tasks of the process


The same as with BASIC (see chapter 1.1)

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 59


2.2. Ladder – Principle
The principle of the Ladder diagram is based on an electrical description of the process or
machine, using relay logic. To the left of the screen are the inputs (they are conditions for
which an action will be undertaken) and to the right are the outputs (which result from these
actions).

2.2.1. Inputs
All inputs, whether digital or analog, can be combined to create logical equations:
<AND> using several inputs on the same line
<OR> using several inputs one above each other.
All analog comparison functions and/or digital inputs on the same program line will represent
true or false. The result defines the actions of the output (will or will not be performed).
The different types of Input conditions are accessible in the LD Toolbar.

2.2.2. Outputs
Digital output functions are engagements (SET relay) or disengagement (RESET relay), they
can be the image or the opposite of the result of the tested input conditions (OUTPUT relay
and NEGATIVE relay). Other functions have been introduced proper to telemetry like
transmission of alarms, data logging, … To process analog variables, many mathematical
functions and POU (Program Organization Units ) functions have been implemented, but
you might find easier to use BASIC for making calculation (see chapter 1: BASIC )
The selection of different types of Output is accessible in the LD Toolbar.

Example of Ladder

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 60


2.2.3. Cycle time
The same as with BASIC (see chapter 1.2.6.)

2.3. Ladder - Modes


Introduction
The Ladder programming operates in two different modes.

The first is display mode, which allows you to see the entire program, one page at a time.
It is in this mode that you can see the state or the value of variables in real time.

The second mode is edit mode, which allows inserting a new line anywhere in the Ladder,
at the beginning, at the end or between two existing lines. This mode also allows modifying
an existing line.

To see an example program, open the TWinSoft document ‘MSLadder.tws’ from the directory
‘Samples’ of TWinSoft.

2.3.1. Display mode


To access the Ladder in Display mode, click in the Project Workspace on the 'Programs'
folder. The last Ladder that was opened is displayed. The white tab underneath indicates
the active program. The tab 'MAIN' is the main program, that is automatically executed by
the RTU; the other POUs having to be called from the ‘MAIN’.

The Ladder diagram is drawn in red lines with the Tags associated at each input contact,
output relay or IN/OUT of functions.

The Comment lines appear as gray blocks.

When a jump (JUMP) is programmed, the jump’s mnemonic appears at the right side of a
double arrow. The mnemonic is a LABEL that appears in black text.

A call to another program appears in a red block with one IN/OUT line.

The state of the Boolean objects (input contacts, analog comparison, output relays) is
displayed as a green overlay if the condition represented by the contact is true (in the case
of a trigger input contact, the result represents the current state of the Tag.

When moving the cursor on analog Tags in Functions or Math blocks, the current value is
displayed in the bottom left corner of the screen. For digital Tags the display indicates
<On> or <Off> according to the current value.

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 61


2.3.2. Edit mode
The Edit mode is used when inserting a new line or modifying an existing line.
To insert a line, use the LD Toolbar. Three types of lines can be inserted using the following
buttons:

to insert a line of Ladder

to insert a line of Comment

to insert a Label that will be called by a JUMP

The Ladder diagram is made of several lines that are numbered starting at 1. Only one line at a
time can be edited with only one rung (a rung is a set of Input conditions connected to only
one set of Outputs). When editing is finished, the line must be compiled to proceed with the
next one:

To save and compile a line. If an error occurs, a dialog box informs you on the
error. The key <+> can also be used to save and compile a line.
If you were editing an existing line, you return to display mode.
If you were inserting a new line, you stay in edit mode.

To quit editing and discard changes. The key <ESC> can also be used.

To select any item (line, contact, relays or Functions) of a Ladder line. Once
selected it can be edited by a double click to replace Tags. You can also erase the
selected item by pressing the key <Delete> or insert a new contact, relay or
Function by selecting the proper icon in the LD Toolbar.

Inserting a new line as last line


To insert a new line as last line, place the cursor at the end of the last line and click the icon
corresponding to the type of line you wish to insert.

Inserting a new line between 2 existing lines


To insert a line between 2 existing lines, place the cursor on the existing line that the new line
will correspond to. The new line will move the existing line to next position after it is inserted.
When a line is selected, it is surrounded. Then click the icon corresponding to the type of line
you wish to insert. The line you placed the cursor on will be moved downwards. Using the
keyboard UP and DOWN arrows moves the selected line.

Modifying an existing line


To modify an existing line, place the cursor on the line you wish to modify. Then double-click
it. The arrow icon of the LD Toolbar is automatically selected.

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 62


2.4. Ladder - Toolbar
The LD Toolbar is the panel of tools necessary to edit Ladder. Different icons are active
according to the current mode of Ladder:

2.4.1. Display mode


Clicking one of the following icons lets you enter in the edit mode:

To insert a line of Ladder.

To insert a line of Comment.

To insert a Label that will be called by a JUMP.

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 63


2.4.2. Edit mode
To Select any item (line, contact, relays or Functions) of a Ladder line. Once
selected it can be edited by a double click to replace Tags. You can also erase the
selected item by pressing the key <Delete> or insert a new contact, relay or
Function by selecting the proper icon in the LD Toolbar.

To Save and Compile a line. If an error occurs, a dialog box informs you of the
error. The key <+ >can also be used to save and compile a line.

To Quit editing and discard changes. The key <ESC> can also be used.

To insert a Normal input contact for digital input. The condition will be true if
the input is active.

To insert an Invert input contact for digital input. The condition will be true if
the input is inactive.

To insert a Positive input trigger for digital input. The condition will be true only
once when the input passes from an inactive level to an active level.

To insert a Negative input trigger for digital input. The condition will be true
only once when the input passes from an active level to an inactive level.

To insert a Digital output normal. Output is activated if the results of the input
condition(s) are true.

To insert a Digital output inverted. Output is activated if the results of the input
condition(s) are false.

To insert a Digital output set. Output is set and memorized if the result of the
input condition(s) are true; this type of output is typically used with a 'trigger'
input

To insert a Digital output reset. Output is reset and memorized if the result of
the input condition(s) are true; this type of output is typically used with a 'trigger'
input

To draw continuous horizontal or vertical lines. To join inputs conditions together


to create logical equations and to possibly connect to many outputs.
WARNING: a set of inputs can only lead through one horizontal line to only
one set of outputs. It is called a rung.

To insert a Program, Function or Function Block. A list opens with the


standard Functions (under the folder 'Standard') and with the user defined
Programs, Function and Function Block (under the folder 'This file')

To insert a Mathematical block. In this block, mathematical functions can be


inserted by clicking on 'New Math Function'.
See the list of available functions in chapter 2.9.

Initiates a Jump to the line whose label corresponds to the one that is entered
here (to enter a label, see above in the list of icons of 'Display mode').

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 64


2.5. Variables
Introduction
Variables can be physical I/O, internal variables: analog (AIV) or digital (DIV) and system
variables.
A variable becomes available when it is declared as a Tag. According to the use we make of
the variables in Ladder programming, there are two families of Tags:
 Local Tags
 Global Tags

2.5.1. Local Tags


A Local Tag is a non-specific register used as temporary value in a calculation. When
compiling the TWinSoft document a free memory zone (DIV or AIV) is assigned to it
according to its type.

Local Tags are only used in the POU where they have been created.
They appear in the list of Local Tags, above the Ladder diagram of the POU (see next).

2.5.2. Global Tags


A Global Tag can be of two types:
A specific variable (DIV, AIV, system variable, communication variable) that you wish to
use.
A physical I/O of the RTU created in the List of Tags.

Global Tags can be used in any POU Program and Function Block (see next).

2.5.3. The colors of the Tags


The color used to display the Tag in Ladder programming informs you of its type:
 Black: Global Tag.
 Blue: Local Tag.
 Brown: System variable (analog or digital). It is always considered as Global Tag

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 65


2.6. Create Ladder Diagram
Introduction
Creating Ladder diagram consists of 'drawing' program lines with input contacts or functions
and output relays or functions placed between 2 vertical Power Rails. The two rails can be
considered as electrical wires between which items are placed. The lines as a whole
represents your local automation.

In the LD Toolbar click - - to insert a new Ladder Line. In the window of Ladder
programming, a rectangle appears with a line number. Only one line at a time can be
edited with only one rung (a rung is a set of Input conditions connected to only one set of
Outputs). The grid shows you the places where you can place contacts, relays and
functions.

The Ladder is executed from left to right and from top to bottom.
Each input is read before executing the Program and the value stored to be used all along
the Program.
In the same way, each output is saved and executed only at the end on the Program.
Be careful when using an output at different places in the Program, unless you do
SET and RESET. To help you, check the Cross reference of the Tags.

According to the item you wish to use, select the proper icon in the Toolbar.

To get used to ladder programming, go to


chapter 2.7. Step by step creating of ladder
and chapter 2.8. Drawing lines in ladder…

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 66


2.6.1. Inserting items
When inserting an item, you must declare the variable(s) associated to it: Digital Tag for a
contact and a relay, Digital or Analog Tags for Functions.
You have to work with Tags.

A Tag (local or global) can be created while inserting an item.

There are two possibilities to select a Tag:


- You know the name of the Tag: you type its name. TWinSoft is not
case sensitive, so you can type it in capital or small letters.
The Tag exists
- You don’t know the name of the Tag: you click the button to open
the list of Tags. You have the choice between Global Tag, Local Tag
and System variables (see previous chapter ‘Variables’).

You type its name and press <ENTER> to create it. The Tag can be
The Tag does not exist
either Local Tag or Global Tag (see previous chapter ‘Variables’).

According to the field you are in, you can select a


Tag (digital or analog) or directly type a constant.
Check the title of the insertion window; it informs
you on what you can use.

2.6.2. The colors of the Tags


See chapter 2.5.3 above.

2.6.3. The Keys

<+> To compile a line. Similar to the icon

- When a line is selected: to quit edit mode. Similar to the icon


- When an item is selected: to release the item and return to selection mode
<ESC> (arrow).
- When Tag box is opened: to carry on without specifying a Tag. '???' will be
inserted instead. To enter a Tag afterwards, double click '??? '

<DEL> To delete the selected item.

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 67


2.7. Step by step creating of Ladder
We assume that Tags already exist and that we work with global Tags.

Suppose we are controlling a Reservoir LEVEL. When it reaches the value 150, we start the
PUMP to remove water. At the same time, we start a Timer INTEGRAL that memorizes the
number of minutes the pump has been working.
The PUMP can also be started manually.
When 100 hours are reached (360000 seconds), the status of the timer changes to 1 and
activates the output MAINTENANCE.

We will create the following lines:

We use the following Tags (see TBOX MS or TBOX LITE manual chapter: Tags ):
Level analog input (Float)
Manual digital input.
Pump digital output.
Timer_Status digital internal variable associated to the timer ‘Qty_minutes’
Maintenance digital output.
Reset digital input.

List of Tags in TWinSoft

List of Timers in TWinSoft

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 68


If you encounter difficulties in drawing lines, go to chapter 2.8. Draw ing
Lines in Ladder…

1st line of Ladder:


1. In the program ‘MAIN’, click the icon to insert a line of comment. Type you text and
click ‘OK’.

2nd line of Ladder:


2. Click the icon to insert a new line. The edit block is ready to create the second line.
The grid shows the position where you can place the items.

3. Click the icon to insert the function A>B and then click next to the left Rail.

4. Enter the Tag LEVEL or select it from the list of Tags and then enter the constant 150.

5. Click the icon to insert a digital contact, then click below the comparison Function
close to the left rail.

6. Enter the Tag MANUAL or select it from the list of Tags.

7. Click the icon and draw a horizontal and vertical line to join the output of the
comparison Function.

8. Click the icon to insert an output relay, then click on the output of the comparison
Function. A horizontal line including the relay is automatically drawn to the right rail.

9. Enter the Tag PUMP or select it from the list of Tags.

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 69


10. Click the icon , go to the folder ‘Timers’ and select the timer Integral (TI).

11. Type the name of the Timer (instance name), or if it exists, you can browse it from the
button

12. Type the Preset of 360000 (= 100 hours). Preset is always expressed in seconds.

13. Click the icon and draw a horizontal and vertical line to join the timer Function to
the right rail and to the output of the comparison Function.

14. Press the key <+>, or click the icon to compile the line. Doing this, the edition block
is ready to create the third line.

3rd line of Ladder:


15. Click the icon to insert a Positive edge trigger contact, then click next to the left
rail.

16. Enter the Tag TIMER_STATUS.

17. Click the icon to insert a SET output relay, then click next to the right side of the
contact TIMER_STATUS. A horizontal line including the relay is automatically drawn to the
right rail.

18. Enter the Tag MAINTENANCE or select it from the list of Tags.

19. Press the key <+>, or click the icon to compile the line. Doing this, the edition block
is ready to create the fourth line.

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 70


4th line of Ladder:
20. Click the icon to insert a Positive edge trigger contact, then click next to the left
rail.

21. Enter the Tag RESET or select it from the list of Tags.

22. Click the icon to insert the reset timer Function, then click next to the contact
RESET.

23. Type the name of the Timer or select it from using the browse button .

24. Click the icon and then click the reset timer Function; drag it one step to the right.

25. Click the icon and draw a horizontal line between the RESET contact and the reset
timer Function.

26. Click the icon to insert a output relay associated to the Tag MAINTENANCE, then click
under the reset timer Function. A horizontal line is automatically drawn to the right rail.

27. Enter the Tag MAINTENANCE or select it from the list of Tags.

28. Click the icon and draw a horizontal and vertical line to join the input contact to
the output relay MAINTENANCE.

29. Press the key <+>, or click the icon to compile the line. Doing this, the edition block
is ready to create the next line.

30. Press <ESC> to return to Display mode.

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 71


2.8. Drawing lines in ladder ….
You might find difficulties in drawing line, then it is important you understand the rules:

• To draw a line, you drag the cursor until the end.


• You draw horizontal and vertical line after each other.
• With the cursor inside a cell, the line is drawn when you cross to the next cell.

Select the tool ‘Line’ from the LD toolbar

Place the cursor inside the cell and


maintain the left button of the mouse …

… drag the mouse to the right. When you


cross to the cell next, a black line appears…

…when you have reached the end of the


horizontal line, release the button. The
line changes to red color.
To continue, at the cursor position
maintain the left button of the mouse …

… drag the mouse to the bottom. When


you reach the bottom of the cell a black line
appears…

…when you have reached the end of the


vertical line, release the button. The line
changes to red color.
To continue, at the cursor position
maintain the left button of the mouse …

… drag the mouse to the right.


When you cross to the cell next, a
black line appears…

…when you have reached the end of


the horizontal line, release the
button. The line changes to red color.

That’s it !

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 72


2.9. Functions
Ladder provides a series of pre-defined functions to perform operations like Comparisons,
Assignment, Boolean operations,.…
Ladder provides also Timer functions (for counting time) and Counter functions (for
counting pulses).
Almost all functions have the 2 connections:

- EN: Enable Input: Connection to the Ladder line. EN must be TRUE to perform
the Function.
- ENO: Enable Output: it is the image of EN. If EN is TRUE, ENO is TRUE. It can
be connected to a contact or a relay, a Mathematical block or another
Function.

To insert a Function, in the edit mode of Ladder Programming, click the icon of the LD
Toolbar.

The functions are divided into several folders:

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 73


2.9.1. Analog Comparison Functions
Those functions represent input conditions used to carry out comparisons between 2
analog variables.

The output is TRUE when the input values fit with the comparison, otherwise it is FALSE.
The output can be connected to a relay, a Math Block, another Function or a POU. The
parameters are:

- EN: Connection to the Ladder line. EN must be TRUE to perform the Function.
- A, B: Inputs : analog Tags (Byte, Word, Long or Float) or constant.
- OUT: Digital Output of the Function: TRUE when A & B fit with the Function
selected and EN is TRUE.
It can be connected to a relay, a function or a mathematical block

When ana0 is equal to ana1, OUT is TRUE

When ana0 is smaller than ana1, OUT is TRUE

When ana0 is larger than ana1, OUT is TRUE

When ana0 is smaller than or equal to ana1, OUT is TRUE

When ana0 is larger than or equal to ana1, OUT is TRUE

When ana0 is different to ana1, OUT is TRUE

2.9.2. Special Functions

Writing of the digital Tag 'dig0' in the Digital Chronology.

Writing of the analog Tag 'ana0' in the Analog Chronology.

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 74


2.9.3. Timer & Counter Functions

See chapters 3 and 4

2.9.4. Math. Assignments functions


The parameters are:
- A: Input : analog Tag or constant.
- Q: Output : analog Tag of the Function.

Q = A: the Tag 'anaOUT' contains a copy of the value of the Tag anaIN'

Q = -A: the Tag 'anaOUT' contains the inverse value of the Tag 'anaIN'

Q = low(A): the Tag 'anaOUT' contains a copy of the 8 lowest bits of


the Tag 'anaIN'
A and Q must be WORD

Q = high(A): the Tag 'anaOUT' contains a copy of the 8 highest bits


of the Tag 'anaIN'
A and Q must be WORD

Q = abs(A): the Tag 'anaOUT' contains a copy of the absolute value of


the Tag 'anaIN'
A and Q must be WORD

High-LowQ = Low-HighA: the Tag 'anaOUT' contains the inversion


of the 8 highest bits and the 8 lowest bits of the Tag 'anaIN'
A and Q must be WORD

in(A): increase by 1 bit the Tag 'anaIN'.

dec(A): decrease by 1 bit the Tag 'anaIN'.

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 75


2.9.5. Math. Arithmetic functions
The parameters are:
- A, B: Inputs : analog Tags (Byte, Word, Long or Float) or constant.
- Q: Output : analog Tag (Byte, Word, Long or Float).

The Tag 'anaOUT' is the addition of the Tags 'ana0' and 'ana1'

The Tag 'anaOUT' is the subtraction of the Tags 'ana0' and 'ana1'

The Tag 'anaOUT' is the multiplication of the Tags 'ana0' and 'ana1'

The Tag 'anaOUT' is the division of the Tags 'ana0' and 'ana1'

The Tag 'anaOUT' is the rest after the division of the Tags 'ana0' and
'ana1'.
Example: 2 = 17 MOD 3

2.9.6. Math. Bitwise functions


The parameters are
- A, B: Inputs : analog Tag (Word only) or constant.
- Q: Output : analog (Word only) or digital Tag, according to the Function.
- Bit: Input : digital Tag of the Function
- Index: Input : constant between 0 and 15
- Word: Input or Output : analog Tag, according to the Function

'anaOUT' is the result of the logical AND between 'ana0' and 'ana1'
Example: 0001000011111111
AND 0001100000001111
0001000000001111

'anaOUT' is the result of the logical OR between 'ana0' and 'ana1'


Example: 0000000011111111
OR 1111000000001111
1111000011111111

'anaOUT' is the result of the logical XOR between 'ana0' and 'ana1'
Example: 0000000011111111
XOR 1111000000001111
1111000011110000

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 76


The status of digital Tag 'dig0' will be copied in the analog Tag
'anaOUT' at the position indicated by the Index.
Example: dig0: 1
Index: 3
anaOUT: 0011010011001001

The status of the bit of the analog Tag 'ana0' indicated by the
Index will be copied in the digital Tag 'digOUT'.
Example: ana0: 1100101000010010
Index: 5
dig0: 0

2.9.7. Math. Shift functions


The parameters are:
- IN: Input : analog Tag. It is a Word or a Byte according to the Function
- Bit: Constant : number of bits to shift
- Q: Output : analog Tag (Word) of the Function
Wraparound means that the bits scrolling out from one side of a Byte (8 bits) or Word
(16 bits) are copied at the other side of the byte or word.

'anaOUT' has the number of 'Bit' shift to the left (max. 15) of the
Word analog Tag 'ana0'
(without wraparound).

'anaOUT' has the number of 'Bit' shift to the right (max. 15) of the
Word analog Tag 'ana0'
(without wraparound).

'anaOUT' has the number of 'Bit' shift to the left (max. 7) of the Byte
analog Tag 'ana0'
(with wraparound).

'anaOUT' has the number of 'Bit' shift to the right (max. 7) of the
Byte analog Tag 'ana0'
(with wraparound).

'anaOUT' has the number of 'Bit' shift to the left (max. 15) of the
Word analog Tag 'ana0'
(with wraparound).

'anaOUT' has the number of 'Bit' shift to the right (max. 15) of the
Word analog Tag 'ana0'
(with wraparound).

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 77


2.10. Mathematical Block
A mathematical Block allows carrying out analog output operations like assignment,
arithmetic operations, comparisons, Boolean operation, indirect addressing, …

When calculations are concerned, we advise the use of BASIC;


being a text language, you may find it more user-friendly.
Another reason is that advanced mathematical functions are
only available with BASIC (SIN, COS, POWER, …)

To insert a Math block, in the edit mode of Ladder Programming, click the icon of the
LD Toolbar.

2.10.1. Introduction
There are 7 categories of mathematical functions available (to use in math blocks):

• Assignments
• Arithmetic operations.
• Comparisons.
• Bit manipulations.
• Boolean Operations.
• Conversion + Indirect addressing.
• Miscellaneous.

In the functions, the Arguments to be replaced by Tags (or constants) are represented as
follows:

- A, B, C, and D Analog Tags.


Depending on the functions the Tags can be:
- Combination of any type of Tags (Byte, Word, Long, Float).
TWinSoft will automatically converts to the type of the Tag ‘Result’.
- Limited to Byte or Word (obvious according to some functions like
Rotation, conversion of 16xBool to a Word, …)
- Ptr Pointer
Doing indirect addressing, it is an Analog Tag
- BOOL Digital Tag

An assignment operation is always executed from the right to the left. In other words, we
have: result = operation
or: output = input (meaning the value of Input variable is copied in the
Output variable).

To insert a 'Math function' between 2 existing functions in a Math block, edit the line,
place the cursor at the position you want to insert the function, and press the key <Insert>
of keyboard.

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 78


2.10.2. Type Casting
Read information about Type Casting chapter 1.9.1.

2.10.3. Assignments
A = B 'A' contains a copy of the value of 'B'
A = -B 'A' contains the inverse value of 'B'
A = Low(B) If B is a WORD: 'A' contains a copy of the 8 lowest bits of 'B'
If B is a LONG: 'A' contains a copy of the 16 lowest bits of 'B'
A = High(B) If B is a WORD: 'A' contains a copy of the 8 highest bits of 'B'
If B is a LONG: 'A' contains a copy of the 16 highest bits of 'B
A = Abs (B) 'A' contains a copy of the absolute value of 'B'
A = Swap(B) 'A' contains the inversion of the 8 highest bits and the 8 lowest bits
of 'B'
Examples: B = 256 (00000001 00000000)
A=1 (00000000 00000001)
inc (A) increase the value of Tag 'A' by 1 unit
dec (A) decrease the value of Tag 'A' by 1 unit

2.10.4. Arithmetic operations


A = B + C 'A' is the addition of 'B' and 'C'
A = B - C 'A' is the subtraction of 'B' and 'C'
A = B * C 'A' is the multiplication of 'B' and 'C'
A = B / C 'A' is the division of 'B' and 'C'
A = B * C / D 'A' is the result of the multiplication of ‘B’ and ‘C’, divided by ‘D’.
Particularly useful to execute scaling with one function.
A = B AND C 'A' is the result of the logical AND between 'B' and 'C'
Example: 0001000011111111
AND 0001100000001111
0001000000001111
A = B OR C 'A' is the result of the logical OR between 'B' and 'C'
Example: 0000000011111111
OR 1111000000001111
1111000011111111
A = B XOR C 'A' is the result of the logical XOR between 'B' and 'C'
Example: 0000000011111111
XOR 1111000000001111
1111000011110000
A = B MOD C 'A' contains the rest after the division of 'B' and ‘C’.
Example: 2 = 17 MOD 3

When doing logical operations, check you don’t work with Float
variable.
There is no linear sequence in the binary format of Float register,
like with Word or Long.

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 79


2.10.5. Comparisons
BOOL = B == C 'BOOL' is TRUE if 'B' equal 'C', otherwise it is FALSE
BOOL = B < C 'BOOL' is TRUE if 'B' is smaller than 'C', otherwise it is FALSE
BOOL = B > C 'BOOL' is TRUE if 'B' is greater than 'C', otherwise it is FALSE
BOOL = B <= C 'BOOL' is TRUE if 'B' is smaller than or equal to 'C', otherwise it is
FALSE
BOOL = B >= C 'BOOL' is TRUE if 'B' is greater than or equal to 'C', otherwise it is
FALSE
BOOL = B <> C 'BOOL' is TRUE if 'B' and 'C' are different, otherwise it is FALSE
BOOL = odd B 'BOOL' is TRUE if the value of 'B' is odd, otherwise it is FALSE

2.10.6. Bit manipulations


Wraparound means that the bits scrolling out from one side of a byte (8 bits) or word (16
bits) are copied at the other side of the byte or word.

bit (A,BitNb) = BOOL The status of digital 'BOOL' will be copied in the analog 'A' at the
position indicated by 'BitNb', starting with ' 0 ' for Lsb.
Example: Bit: 1
BitNb: 3
A: 0011010011001001
BOOL = bit( A,BitNb) The status of the bit of the analog 'A' indicated by 'BitNb' will be
copied in the digital 'BOOL', starting with ' 0 ' for Lsb.
Example: A: 1100101000010010
BitNb: 5
Bit: 0
A = shl(B,shift) 'A' has the number of Bits indicated by 'shift' shift to the left
(max. 15) of the Word 'B'
(without wraparound).
Example: B: 0000000011111111
Shift: 4
A: 0000111111110000
A = shr(B,shift) 'A' has the number of Bits indicated by 'shift' shift to the right
(max. 15) of the Word 'B'
(without wraparound).
Example: B: 0000000011111111
Shift: 4
A: 0000000000001111
A = rol byte(B,shift) 'A' has the number of Bits indicated by 'shift' shift to the left
(max. 7) of the Byte 'B'
(with wraparound).
A = ror byte(B,shift) 'A' has the number of Bits indicated by 'shift' shift to the right
(max. 7) of the Byte 'B'
(with wraparound).

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 80


A = rol word(B,shift) 'A' has the number of Bits indicated by 'shift' shift to the left
(max. 15) of the Word 'B'
(with wraparound).
Example: B: 0000000011111111
Shift: 4
A: 0000111111110000
A = ror word(B,shift) 'A' has the number of Bits indicated by 'shift' shift to the right
(max. 15) of the Word 'B'
(with wraparound).
Example: B: 0000000011111111
Shift: 4
A: 1111000000001111

2.10.7. Boolean operations


BOOL = not(BOOL) the inverse of the digital Tag of the right is assigned to the digital
Tag of the left
BOOL = BOOL AND BOOL the result of the logical AND between the two digital Tags of the
right is assigned to the digital Tag of the left
BOOL = BOOL OR BOOL the result of the logical OR between the two digital Tags of the right
is assigned to the digital Tag of the left
BOOL = BOOL XOR BOOL the result of the logical XOR between the two digital Tags of the
right is assigned to the digital Tag of the left

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 81


2.10.8. Conversion + Indirect addressing
A = bcd(B) transforms the Word 'B' to a BCD format and transfers the result to the
Word 'A'. 'B' must be of maximum 39321 (corresponding to 9999) to
prevent an overflow condition.
BCD format means that each 4 bits is considered as an entity
corresponding to 1 number.
Example:
binary: 0001 0010 0011 0100
BCD 1234
decimal: 4660
A = 16 x (BOOL) places the 16 digital variables of successive addresses, starting with
the digital Tag 'BOOL' in the Word' A'.
Example:
to copy 16 digital inputs of an extension card in a word.
WARNING: when using this function, check that there are 16 successive
ModBus addresses, starting from the Tag ‘BOOL’

16 x (BOOL) = A places the 16 bits of the Word 'A' in the 16 digital variables of
successive addresses, starting with the digital Tag 'BOOL'.
Example:
to SET or RESET 16 DO of an extension card using an analog variable.

When using the two above functions, check that


there are 16 Tags with successive ModBus
addresses, starting from the Tag ‘BOOL’

A = FloatToInt (Flt * 10 E Const) conversion from the Float 'Flt' to the Integer 'A' ,
with a possible scaling from 10E-4 to 10E+4. The
exponent must be a constant:'Const'.
Flt = IntToFloat (A) * 10 E Const conversion from the Integer 'A' to the Float 'Flt',
with a possible scaling from 10E-4 to 10E+4. The
exponent must be a constant:'Const'.
BOOL = indirect (Ptr) the Tag or Constant 'Ptr' contains the ModBus address of the digital
variable that will have its status assigned to the digital Tag 'BOOL'.
Example:
to read the status of an output 'Q0' having ‘32’ as ModBus address:
DIV0 = indirect (Pointer). (Pointer = 32)
Indirect (Ptr) = BOOL the status of the digital Tag 'BOOL' will be copied in the digital variable
whose ModBus address is defined in the Tag or Constant 'Ptr'.
Example:
to write the status of DIV0 to the output 'Q2' having ‘34’ as ModBus
address:
Indirect (Pointer) = DIV0. (Pointer = 34)

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 82


A = indirect (Ptr) the Tag or Constant 'Ptr' contains the ModBus address of the analog
variable that will have its value assigned to the analog Tag 'A'
Example:
to read the value of the input 'ana0' having 64 as ModBus address:
AIV0 = indirect (Pointer). (Pointer = 64)
indirect (Ptr) = A the value of the analog Tag 'A' will be copied in the analog variable
whose ModBus address is defined in the Tag or Constant 'Ptr'.
Example:
to write the value of ‘ana0’ to the analog output having as ModBus
address 288:
Indirect (Pointer) = ana0. (Pointer = 288)

2.10.9. Miscellaneous
Adr = Tag (Tag) Gives you the ModBus address of the ‘Tag’.
Number between 1 and 65535 (see note below)
put Bit in dig chrono Writing of the digital Tag 'Bit' in the Digital Chronology.
put A in ana chrono Writing of the analog Tag 'A' in the Analog Chronology.

2.10.10. Note about ‘Address of’ function


This function is particularly useful when working with addresses into Function or Function
Blocks (see chapter 2.13. and 2.14.)

Working with Function or Function Block, if you need the ModBus address of an input
argument, you will have first to extract it using Math. Function Adr = Tag(Tag) (see above).

Working with the former TBox (CPU-3), the ModBus address of the argument is passed to the
Function or Function block.
Working with TBOX MS or TBOX LITE, the value of the Tag is passed to the Function or
Function block (in fact, the argument is copied into an intermediate variable. Then the link with
the real Tag is lost).

Example with Function ‘SendAsciiFrame’ of TEXT driver

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 83


2.11. POU (Program Organization Units)
IEC1131-3 Ladder programming is organized not only with contacts and relays, but also with
different POUs and functions.

Three types of POU are available, all of which use the same Ladder programming tools and
BASIC instructions:

List of POU
POU program: sub-program that is called in the ‘Main’ program or any other POU program.

POU function: standard functions (comparison, math. Functions, timers,...) or user defined
functions.

POU function block: user defined small 'applet' that performs a function (start of a pump,
regulating temperature...)

Recursion is authorized but not for Function Block


(A function block cannot call itself):
1. We do not advise you use recursion, because of
cycle time issue.
2. It is under your own responsibility

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 84


2.12. POU – Program
Introduction
POU programs allow you to structure your Ladder program into several sub-programs.
In practice, you have a main Ladder program, which calls sub-programs. These sub-
programs contained within a Ladder diagram precisely define an action such as; start
pump, intrusion control, alarms management...etc, and can be called from anywhere in the
‘Main’ program or any other POU program.
They give you a clearer view of the whole automation program, they can be tested
individually and allow you to make things easier for changing.

A POU program can call another POU Program that can call another POU Program etc...

If you use POU Programs that call other POU Programs, be careful to avoid loops: like
Program 1 calling Program 2 calling Program 3 that calls Program 1.

2.12.1. The Program 'Main'


The program 'main' is the root program. It must be unique and called ‘main’. It is used
to call other Programs (sub-programs).
It is the default program when starting a new TWinSoft document.

The program ‘Main’ supports LADDER or BASIC language. It can be changed at the
condition the program is empty.
Right click ‘main’, select ‘Properties’ and choose a language.

2.12.2. Creating a POU Program


To create a POU Program, click the 'Programs' folder in the Project Workspace. In the right
window appears the list of existing POUs (all types of POU). When starting TWinSoft the
first time, the only one is the 'main'.

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 85


Double click 'Add a POU', type a Name (No accent, space or keywords (see BASIC))
and check 'Program'.

Select the language ‘Ladder’

Click OK.

You have created a POU Program and it appears in the 'Programs' folder.

When you double click the name of the Program in the list, the window for Ladder
programming appears with a new Tab for the current Program.

Now you can create a Ladder Diagram for the Program you have defined.

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 86


2.12.3. Calling a POU Program in another Program
To call a POU Program, click the icon in the LD Toolbar. In the folder, 'This File' select
the POU Program you wish to insert. All POU Programs have the following parameters:

- EN: Enable Input: Connection to the Ladder line. EN must be TRUE to run the
Program. If it is connected directly to the left rail, it will be executed at each
cycle of the Ladder, otherwise it can be connected to an input condition.

- ENO: Enable Output: it is the image of EN. If EN is TRUE, ENO is TRUE. It is


usually connected to the right rail but can be also connected to a contact or a
relay, a Mathematical block or a Function.

Calling a POU Program is like calling a sub-routine. The program associated to it is executed
at the position where it is called.

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 87


2.13. POU – Function
Introduction
A POU Function is a user-defined piece of Ladder that executes a calculation ending in
one result. It is useful when a calculation you regularly need to execute does not exist in
the list of Standard Functions. You use it in POU Programs every time you need to execute
the calculation. It has one or many inputs and only one output. When a Function is used
many times in a POU Program, the same code is always executed.

Example:
You need regularly to execute the calculation: y= [(a+b) * (c+d)] /2.
You will not find this formula in the Standard Functions or in the Mathematical Function
block. You will then create your own Function that will execute your calculation every time
you call it.

According to the type of the output, there are 4 types of Functions:


 BOOL: digital output.
 INT: analog 16 bits output.
 LONG: analog 32 bits output.
 FLOAT: floating point output.

An example of user defined Function is available in the TWinSoft document ‘Ladder.tbox’, in


the 'Samples' directory of TWinSoft. The Function executes the scaling of an 8-bit analog
input.

2.13.1. Creating a POU Function


To create a POU Function, click the 'Programs' folder in the Project Workspace. In the right
window appears the list of existing POUs (all types of POU). When starting TWinSoft the
first time, the only one is the 'main' POU Program.

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 88


Double click 'Add a POU', type a Name (No accent, space or keywords (see BASIC))
and check 'Function'.

Select the language Ladder

Select the type of the output (result of the calculation): BOOL , WORD, LONG or FLOAT.

Click OK.

You have created a POU Function and it appears in the 'Programs' folder.

When you double click the name of the Function in the list, the window for Ladder
programming appears with a new Tab for the current Function.

1. By default, the name of the Output is the name of the Function.


You can rename the output by using the context menu on its name
(mouse right clicking on the name).

2. POU Functions can be exported in a Library to be used in other


TWinSoft documents, using the Library manager menu

Now you can create Ladder Diagram for the Function you have defined.

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 89


2.13.2. Example of a Function
The following Function is an analog Function (it means the output is analog). It performs
the percentage of an input value.

The Tags :
When creating a Function, TWinSoft automatically creates the 'Output' Tag. It is the unique
Output allowed.
Inputs and the Output of a Function are the arguments to be replaced when calling the
Function.

 The way a POU Function works, involves that one can define only local Tags in a POU
Function.

Percent: the output of the Function. It is unique and is the result of the
calculation.
MAX, MIN, VAL: are the Inputs of the Function.
Delta, scale: local analog Tags used as temporary variables necessary to calculate the
percentage.

The Ladder :

A math block using 3 functions is used.

Global Timer and Counters are allowed in Function, but it is very


uncommon and not logic.

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 90


2.13.3. Calling a POU Function in a POU Program
To call a Function, click the icon in the LD Toolbar. The folder, 'This File' contains
Functions and Function Blocks created in the current document. If the Function owns to a
Library, the latter appears as a Folder. Select the Function you wish to insert. All Functions
have the following parameters:

- EN: Enable Input: Connection to the Ladder line. EN must be TRUE to perform the
Function. If it is connected directly to the left rail, it will execute at each cycle
of the Ladder, otherwise it can be connected to an input condition.

- ENO: Enable Output:


if the Function is Analog: it is the image of EN. If EN is TRUE, ENO is TRUE.
It is usually connected to the right rail but can be also connected to a contact or
a relay, a Mathematical block or another Function.
if the Function is Digital: ENO and the Output of the Function are linked
inside the Function. It is TRUE if the result of the calculation AND EN are TRUE.
It must then be connected to contact or a relay, a Mathematical block or
another Function.

When calling the Function in a POU Program, you must assign a Tag to the (unique)
Output, and a Tag or constant to each input.

All inputs are at the left side of the Function; the output at the right side.

In this example, we wish to have the percentage of input ‘ANA_0’ in the range between 0
and 500.

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 91


2.14. POU - Function block
Introduction
POU function Blocks are user defined small 'applets' that performs a function (start of a
pump, regulating temperature...). If this function is repetitive in your program and you don't
wish to define it every time you need it, then you create it once as a POU Function Block,
with Input and Output arguments.
You call it in POU Programs every time you need to execute the function and you assign
Tags of your program to the arguments of the Function Block.
We advise you against using POU Functions in a POU Function Block. In fact, a POU Function
exists only once and always has the same variables that are used when inserting the POU
Function.
A POU Function Block uses new resources (Tags, Timers, …) every time it is called in a
POU Program.

2.14.1. Creating a POU Function Block


To create a POU Function Block, click the 'Programs' folder in the Project Workspace. In the
right window appears the list of existing POUs (all types of POU).

When starting TWinSoft the first time, the only one is the POU Program 'main'.

Double click 'Add a POU', type a Name (No accent, space or keywords (see BASIC))
and check 'Function Block'.

Click OK.

You have created a POU Function Block and it appears in the 'Programs' folder.

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 92


When you double click the name of the Function Block in the list, the window for Ladder
programming appears with a new Tab for the current Function Block.

POU Function Blocks can be exported to a Library


to be used in other TWinSoft documents, using the
Library manager menu (see chapter 5: ‘The library
manager’)

Now you create Ladder Diagram for the Function Block you have defined.

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 93


2.14.2. Example of a Function Block
The following Function Block performs the start of a digital output with a programmable
delay.

The Tags:
Inputs and Outputs of a Function Block are the arguments to be replaced when calling the
Function Block.

INPUT is a digital input that will activate the OUTPUT after the DELAY.

is a digital output. It will be connected to a motor, for instance when


OUTPUT
calling the Function Block.

is an analog input containing the number of seconds of the delay. It


DELAY
must be associated to the timer used in the Function Block.

Timer is a local timer.

Timer_preset is a local analog Tag of the type 'Timer - Preset'.

Timer_status is a local digital Tag of the type 'Timer - Status'.

The Ladder :
 The DELAY is copied in the preset of the timer and multiplied by 1000 (the timer
preset is expressed in milliseconds).
 When INPUT changes to 1, it starts the timer Single Shot
Note: when working with an external Preset (the local variable 'Timer_preset'), the
Preset of the timer can be set to any value; it is not used. Here = 0
 When the timer has finished counting AND INPUT is still active, the output is set.
 A negative edge on INPUT resets the OUTPUT.

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 94


2.14.3. Calling a POU Function Block in a POU Program
To call a Function Block, click the icon on the LD Toolbar. The folder, ‘This File’
contains Function Blocks and Functions created in the current document. If the Function
Block owns to a Library, the latter appears as a Folder. Select the Function Block you wish
to insert. All Function Blocks have the following parameters:

- EN: Enable Input: Connection to the Ladder line. EN must be TRUE to perform the
Function Block. If it is connected directly to the left rail, it will execute at each
cycle of the Ladder, otherwise it can be connected to an input condition.

- ENO: Enable Output: it is the image of EN. If EN is TRUE, ENO is TRUE. It is usually
connected to the right rail but can be also connected to a contact or a relay, a
Mathematical block or another Function.

When Calling the Function Block in a POU Program, you are asked to enter an 'FB Instance
name' (in this example ‘Motor1’).
This name allows TWinSoft to distinguish between Function Blocks, when multiple calls of
similar Function Blocks are defined.
Afterwards you must assign to the Output(s) and Input(s) Tags or constant. All inputs are at
the left side of the Function Block, all outputs at the right side.

In this example, the FB is called ‘Motor1’, the input ‘D0’ activate the output ‘Q2’ with a delay
of 5 seconds.

Each call of Function Block is unique and different from each other; local Tags of the
Function Block as well as timer and counter, will be assigned to free registers,
timers and counters when compiling.

1. A Function Block accepts maximum


16 Arguments.
2. There is no limit in the quantity of Timers
and Counters used in a Function Block.

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 95


2.14.4. Debugging of a Function block
As explained above, the same piece of Ladder of the POU FB can be called several times
(several instances).
In order to debug a function block, to check values and status of the local Tags, it is not
sufficient to enter the code of the FB, because TWinSoft needs to know which instance is
concerned.

IMPORTANT:
1. The document must have been sent to TBox with the last changes
2. If TWinSoft is opened after the document has been sent, the document must be
compiled, to allow TWinSoft assigning registers to the local Tags.
3. The complete path from the Program 'main' must be followed to access the FB.
Example: 'Main' -> 'Motors' -> FB 'Motor1'.

To debug the FB, while in 'Visualization mode', double click the call of the FB from the POU
program in which it is used:

The source code (Ladder) of the FB is then opened and dynamized according to its instance.
In the list of POU Tags, the column 'Value' displays values of each local Tag.

2.14.5. Indirect addressing inside a Function Block


See chapter 2.10.9.

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 96


3. Timers

3.1. Presentation
Timers are used for counting a time, a delay.

• The maximum working time of 1 hour for a pump


• The control of the time a modem is connected
• The flashing of a lamp, using building a Flip-Flop with 2 timers
• A delay before starting a motor
• A delay before detecting an intrusion
• …

Counters are used for counting pulses (see chapter 4).

The mechanism of both functions is similar, the way they are used and the variable
associated.
The difference is that when a timer has been launched, it runs on its own until a defined
preset of time when a counter increments every time it receives a pulse.

Timers can be used either with BASIC or Ladder programming.

When created, Timers and


Counters are available from
the Resources in a folder:

The List of Timers and


the List of Counters

The way of using timer in Ladder is discussed in chapter 3.5 and in BASIC chapter 3.6.

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 97


3.2. Introduction
Four models of timers are available:

 Single Shot: time cycle resets on each input activation.


 MonoStable: time cycle does not reset until it is over.
 Integral: time cycle with accumulation.
 On Delay: time cycle without accumulation.

Each model is presented with a diagram in chapters 3.8, 3.9, 3.10 and 3.11

In theory, the quantity of timers is not limited. Practically, it is limited to 32767 !

For each timer (regardless of type), there are two analog variables and one digital variable
associated with it:

• Preset: analog variable with the Timer Preset.


• Value: analog variable with the Timer Value.
• Status: digital variable, i.e. the logical state of the Timer.

These three variables can be assigned as Tags and used in the BASIC or Ladder diagram
(example: an automatic modification of a process at timed intervals).

To see an example of using Timers, load the document 'MSTimer.tws' that you find in the
sub-directory of TWinSoft 'Samples'.

3.3. Creating a Timer


You create the Timers in the List of Timers, from the ‘Resources’
A Timer can also be created while editing a Ladder diagram, but for BASIC the Timer must
be created before it can be declared in a program.

From the ‘Resources’ and the list of


Timers, click ‘Add a Timer’

To edit an existing Timer, you


double-click it in the list.

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 98


3.4. The variables of a Timer
Each Timer can be controlled using 3 variables:
• Preset: AIV in 32 bits DWord format (time in millisecond)
• Value: AIV in 32 bits DWord format (time in millisecond)
• Status: DIV as it indicates the timer is running or not.

Those variables are standard internal variables, with a free name. Once created in the
list of Tags they can be associated to a timer.
Probably status will need to be created, as it will be required to control the timer: timer
still running or period elapsed.
Preset and Value are optional and only required if they need to be monitored from the
process or from external software.

For example the Timer Fan1,


with 3 Tags associated:

Status of the Timer:

Value of the Timer:

Preset of the Timer:

1. Tags cannot be shared by several timers.


2. You don’t have to create a variable if you don’t need it.
3. Do not give the same name for ‘Timer’ and ‘Counter’ (see chapter 4)

When Tags are available, the current values appear in the list of Timers:

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 99


3.5. Using Timers in Ladder

To use a timer, you click the F/FB


button in the LD Toolbar and
you select from the Folder ‘Timers’
the type of timer you need.

The Function ‘ResetTimer’ is used


to reinitialize a timer, depending on
the model (see below) or to clear it
before it has reached its preset.

Once you have selected the type of timer, it appears in the Ladder line.

Example with a Timer Monostable (MS)

3.5.1. The instance name


Any name, used as reference to the timer:
- If it has been previously created in the ‘list of timers’ (see below): you select it.
- If it does not exist: you type a name and TWinSoft prompts you to create it.

Example: Fan1

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 100


3.5.2. The Preset
A constant to indicate the time in seconds. This constant is in floating point with the
decimal representing time smaller than 1 second.

Examples: 1. The minimum preset and resolution are:


0.50 = 500 ms. MS-CPU16: 10ms
7.50 = 7 sec. 500 ms. MS-CPU32: 1ms.
900 = 15 minutes 2. The character used to separate units from
decimals depends on your regional settings,
typically ‘ , ’ or ‘ . ’

Dynamic Preset
If you want to work with a dynamic preset, you will use a Tag (format DWord 32 bits)
associated to the Preset (see chapter 3.4. above).
You still have to indicate a constant here, it will not be used but is mandatory when calling
the function.

A Timer function is inserted to a ladder line as follows:

In Blue, its name (see instance name above).


Its Preset (see above).
EN Enable. It activates the timer function.
ENO Enable Output : it is the image of EN. If EN is TRUE, ENO is TRUE. It
can be connected to a contact or a relay, a Mathematical block or another
Function.

If you want to clear a timer, you select the Function 'ResetTimer' associated to its name.

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 101


3.6. Using Timers in BASIC
3.6.1. Reminder
Four models of timer can be used in BASIC programs:
 Single Shot: fixed time and restartable
 MonoStable: fixed time not restartable
 Integral: measuring of a period with accumulation
 On Delay: measuring of a period without accumulation

3.6.2. Syntax
Single Shot: TimerSS (Name, Start, Preset)
MonoStable: TimerMS (Name, Start, Preset)
Integral: TimerIN (Name, Start, Preset)
On Delay: TimerOD (Name, Start, Preset)

• Arguments
Name : It is the name of the timer you have created (see chapter 3.3. above)

Start : INPUT Bool.


The Tag or expression that activates the timer.

Preset: INPUT. Constant giving the preset of the timer in sec. using a Floating register.
Example: 10.5 (= 10 seconds and 500 ms.)

To access other variables of a Timer (Status and Value), or to work with dynamic Preset,
you have to create Tags and associate them to the timer while creating it (see chapter 3.3.
and 3.4. above)

It is not possible to loop on timer arguments.


Example:
For i=4
TimerSS(name, start[i],Preset[i])

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 102


3.6.3. Reset Timer Function
A dedicated reset function can be used to re-initialize the timer (depending on the type of
Timer. Please refer to the diagrams in chapters 3.8, 3.9, 3.10 and 3.11).

• Syntax
TimerReset (Name)

• Argument
Name : It is the name of the timer you have created (see chapter 3.3. above)

3.6.4. Examples
 How to manage time sequences using a Timer.
Upon a given event, one needs to start the following sequence:
- 1 minute after event, execute Prog1
- 5 minutes after event, execute Prog2
- 10 minutes after event, execute Prog3

You create a Monostable Timer from the list of Timers. You name it for instance MyTimer.

'The variable ‘Event’ is a digital input of the RTU


TimerMS(MyTimer,Event,1800)

if TriggerPos(Time>=60) then call Prog1


if TriggerPos(Time>=300) then call Prog2
if TriggerPos(Time>=600) then call Prog3

 Flip-Flop using 2 Single Shot Timers.


When you want to execute an operation alternatively on 2 devices, you can easily create the
alternation with 2 Timers: one starting the other.
It is possible to adapt the frequency of the Flip-Flop by changing dynamically the value of
Tags ‘Preset1’ and ‘Preset2’.

You create 2 Single Shot Timers, each of them with a ‘Status’ Tag and a ‘Preset’ Tag.
You name the timers, for instance MyTimer1. and MyTimer2

'Flip-Flop using 2 Timer SS / 2.5 sec. ON and 2.5 sec. OFF

TimerSS (MyTimer1,not(Status2),2.5)
TimerSS (MyTimer2,not(Status1),2.5)

3.7. Using Timers in POUs


Timers are used differently in the different POUs:

Program: you use Global Timers (the ones you declare in the folder ‘Timers’)
Function: you cannot use Timer
Function Block: you use Local Timers (you declare them in the list of local Tags of the
POU)

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 103


Coming in following chapter, the presentation of each model of Timer with its
implementation in Ladder and a timing diagram.

3.8. Timer – Single Shot

Example of Ladder implementation

A rising edge on the Tag INPUT starts the timer for the PRESET time period (5sec.). The
Tag STATE (which corresponds to the digital state of the timer) changes to 1 as soon as a
rising edge of the Tag INPUT appears and changes to 0 when the PRESET time expires, or
upon activation of a 'Reset Timer' Function associated with the timer.

If a new rising edge of the Tag INPUT appears before the end of the Preset time the
cycle is re-started

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 104


3.9. Timer – Monostable

Example of Ladder implementation

A rising edge on Tag INPUT starts the timer for the PRESET time period (5sec.). The Tag
STATE (which corresponds to the digital state of the timer) changes to 1 as soon as a rising
edge of the Tag INPUT appears and changes to 0 when the PRESET time expires, or upon
activation of the Timer Reset function associated with the timer.

If a new rising edge appears before the end of the PRESET time, it has no effect on the
cycle

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 105


3.10. Timer – Integral

Example of Ladder implementation

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 106


The Tag INPUT must remain at 1 for the duration of the time defined in PRESET, so that
the Tag STATE (which reflects the digital state of the timer) can change to 1. It remains
active until the first rising edge of the Tag RESET (re-initialization the timer).
If Tag INPUT falls to 0 before the end of the PRESET time, the value of the timer is
retained (except if the rising edge of the Tag RESET appears and resets the timer).

The re-activation of the Tag INPUT allows the timer continuing and completes the cycle.

The only way to reinitialize the timer


is using the ‘Reset Timer’ Function

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 107


3.11. Timer – On Delay

Example of Ladder implementation

If the Tag INPUT remains at 1 for the duration of time defined in PRESET, the Tag STATE
(which reflects the digital state of the timer) changes to 1. This Tag returns to 0 as soon as
INPUT changes to 0.
If INPUT is deactivated before the end of the time cycle, the value of the timer is
reset to 0.

There is no accumulation.

The Tags of the timer are updated when the timer is


scanned. It means that the precision depends on the cycle
time of the process.

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 108


4. Counters

4.1. Presentation
Counters are used for counting pulses

Counters are used for asynchronous event counting.

Timers are used for counting a time, a delay (see chapter 3)

• The maximum working time of 1 hour for a pump


• The control of the time a modem is connected
• The flashing of a lamp, using building a Flip-Flop with 2 timers
• A delay before starting a motor
• A delay before detecting an intrusion
• …

The mechanism of both functions is similar, the way they are used and the variable
associated too.
The difference is that when a timer has been launched, it runs on its own until a preset
when a counter increments every time it receives a pulse.

Counters can be used either with BASIC of Ladder programming.

When created, Counters are


available from the Resources in a
folder in the List of Counters

The way of using counter in Ladder is discussed chapter 4.5 and in BASIC chapter 4.6.

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 109


4.2. Introduction
Three types of counters are available:

 Counter UP: Counts up


 Counter DOWN: Counts down.
 RING counter: Circular counter (it restarts itself when the Preset is
reached.

Each model is presented with a diagram in chapters 4.8, 4.9 and 4.10

In theory, the quantity of counters is not limited. Practically, it is limited to 32767 !

For each counter (regardless of type), there are two analog variables and one digital variable
associated with it:

• Preset: analog variable with the Counter Preset


• Value: analog variable with the Counter Value.
• Status: digital variable, i.e. the logical state of the Counter.

These three variables can be assigned as Tags and used in the BASIC or Ladder diagram
(example: an automatic process at intermediate values).

4.3. Creating a Counter


You create a Counter from the ‘list of Counters’.

A Counter can also be created while editing a Ladder diagram, but for BASIC the Counter
must be created before it can be declared in a program.

From the ‘Resources’ and the list of


Counters, click ‘Add a Counter’

To edit an existing Counter, you


double-click it in the list.

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 110


4.4. The variables of a Counter
Each Counter can be controlled using 3 variables:
• Preset: AIV in 32 bits format (maximum number of pulses)
• Value: AIV in 32 bits format (current quantity of pulses)
• Status: DIV (it indicates the preset quantity of pulses has been reached).

Those variables are standard internal variables, with a free name. Once created in the
list of Tags they can be associated to a counter.
Probably Status will need to be created, as it will be required to control the counter:
maximum number of pulses reached or not.
Preset and Value are optional and only required if they need to be monitored from the
process or from external software.

For example the Counter Pum p1_hours,


with 3 Tags associated:

Status of the Counter:

Value of the Counter:

Preset of the Counter:

1. Be sure you create different variables for each counter.


TWinSoft will prompt you when you use a variable already
used by another counter.
2. It is not needed to create a variable if you don’t need it.
3. Do not give the same name for ‘Counter’ and ‘Timer’ (see
chapter 3)

When Tags are available, the current values appear in the list of Counters:

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 111


4.5. Using Counters in Ladder

To use a counter, you click the F/FB


button in the LD Toolbar and
you select from the Folder ‘Counters’
the type of counter you need.

The Function ‘ResetCount’ is used


to reinitialize a counter, depending
on the model (see next) or to clear it
before it has reached the preset.

Once you have selected the type of counter, it appears in the Ladder line.

Example with a Counter UP

4.5.1. The contact used with the pulse input


It must be an ‘Edge’ contact
(positive or negative edge contact)

4.5.2. The instance name


Any name, used as reference to the counter:
- If it has been previously created in the ‘list of counters’ (see below): you select it.
- If it does not exist: you type a name and TWinSoft prompts you to create it.

Example: Pump1_Hours

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 112


4.5.3. The Preset
A constant to indicate the quantity of pulses to reach the end of counting. This constant is
expressed in Dword format (max. 4,294,967,296)

A Counter function is inserted to a ladder line as follows:

In Blue, its name (see instance name above).


Its Preset (see above).
EN Enable. Each pulse increments the counter with 1.
ENO Enable Output : it is the image of EN. If EN is TRUE, ENO is TRUE. It
can be connected to a contact or a relay, a Mathematical block or another
Function.

If you want to clear a counter, you select the Function 'ResetCount' associated to its name.

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 113


4.6. Using Counters in BASIC
4.6.1. Reminder
Three types of counters are available:

 Counter UP: Counts up


 Counter DOWN: Counts down.
 RING counter: Circular counter (it restarts itself when the Preset is reached.

4.6.2. Syntax
CountUP (Name, Start, Preset)
CountDown (Name, Start, Preset)
CountRing (Name, Start, Preset)

• Arguments
Name : It is the name of the counter you have created (see chapter 4.3. above)

Start : INPUT Bool. The Tag or expression that increments the counter.

The ‘start’ input must be associated to a Trigger


function (TriggerPos or TriggerNeg)

Preset: INPUT. Constant giving the preset in number of pulses.

4.6.3. Reset Counter Function


A dedicated reset function can be used to re-initialize the counter (depending on the type of
Counter. Please refer to the diagrams in chapters 4.8, 4.9, 4.10)

• Syntax
CountReset (Name)

• Arguments
Name : It is the name of the counter you have created (see chapter 4.3. above)

4.7. Using Counters in POUs


Counters are used differently in the different POUs:

Program: you use Global Counters (the ones you declare in the folder ‘Counters’)
Function: you cannot use Counter
Function Block: you use Local Counters (you declare them in the list of local Tags of the
POU)

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 114


Coming in following chapter, the presentation of each model of Counter with its
implementation in Ladder and a timing diagram.

4.8. Counter - UP

Example of Ladder implementation

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 115


Suppose that the Preset of the counter is 5. At each rising edge of the Tag PULSE, the
value of the counter is incremented with 1, and when it reaches the value of the Preset,
the Tag STATE (which represents the digital state of the counter) changes to 1.
The count continues until the Tag RESET is triggered, which resets the value of the
counter.

At any given time, you can reset the counter with the help of the function CounterReset,
activated in this example by the Tag RESET.

You can pre-position the current value of the counter (using the
Ladder diagram and the variable associated to the value) if you
do not want the counting to start at zero, but at another value.

4.9. Counter - DOWN

Example of Ladder implementation

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 116


Suppose that the Preset of the counter is 3 and the variable associated to the value of the
counter is initialized to 5 (Tag COUNT). The latter has priority on the preset defined in the
Counter function.
This operation can be done manually or by the Ladder diagram. In this example, it is the
Tag INIT that initiates this operation.

At each rising edge of the Tag PULSE, the value of the counter is decremented.
The Tag STATE (which represents the digital state) remains at 1 as long as the current value
is greater than the pre-selection.
When the current value becomes less than the pre-selection, the Tag STATE changes to 0
and the counting continues to 0.

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 117


4.10. Counter - RING

Example of Ladder implementation

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 118


Suppose that the Preset of the counter is 5.
At each rising edge of the Tag PULSE, the value of the counter is incremented, and when
this value reaches the Preset value, the Tag STATE (which represents the digital state)
changes to 1.
During the next rising edge of the Tag PULSE, the value is set to 0.

A new counting cycle begins.

At any given time, you can reset the counter with the help of the function ResetCount,
activated in the example by the Tag RESET.
If the Tag RESET is associated to a ‘normal contact’, the counter is blocked until the
contact opens again and releases the counter (see notes below).

1. When working with counters, use positive or negative edges


(pulse contact, push button).
2. Do not drive more than once the same counter. If different
input conditions are necessary to increase (decrease) a counter,
use those on the same Ladder line, and if this is impossible, use a
temporary digital variable to summarize all your conditions, then
declare this variable, to drive the counter.

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 119


Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 120
5. Library Manager
TWinSoft offers the possibility to save POU Functions and POU Function Blocks in external
files called ‘Libraries’ in order to use those POU in other TWinSoft documents.
A library can contain several POUs.
Function and Function Blocks from both BASIC and Ladder are concerned

A library corresponds for instance to a customer or to a category of functions.

A library is a file with the extension .LIB, saved by default in the directory of TWinSoft.

POU Program cannot be saved.

5.1. Import of POUs (saving POUs in a Library)


To access the Import menu, click ‘Tools’ on the main menu bar and select ‘Library manager’

Only POU Functions and Function Blocks can be saved in a library:


1. You select an existing library (‘File’  ‘Open’), or you create a new library (‘File’ 
‘New’).
2. You open the list of available POUs of the current document (‘Edit’ ‘Import POU...’).
3. You select the POU you wish to save in the Library; you repeat operations 2 and 3 for
each POU.
4. You save the Library (‘File’  ‘Save’).

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 121


Libraries can be protected by a password, so that it is
impossible to ‘Export’ it into a TWinSoft document, to
see the internal code.

5.2. Export of POUs (retrieval of POUs from a library)


To access the Export menu, click ‘Tools’ on the main menu bar and select ‘Library manager’
(see import of POUs above)

Export is necessary if you wish to edit a POU in the current document that has been saved in
a Library.
You open a library (‘File’  ‘Open’); the POUs appear in the top window.
You select the POU and export it (‘Edit’  ‘Export’); you repeat this operation for each POU.
The POUs are then available in the list of 'Programs', in the Project Workspace.

5.3. Use of a Library in a TWinSoft document


To access the 'Libraries' menu, click 'File' on the main menu bar and select 'Libraries...'

The ‘Available Libraries’ are the ones present in the directory of the current TWinSoft
document or in the directory of TWinSoft.
When a library appears in the list, all its POU Functions, and POU Function Blocks are
available to be used in Ladder programming: in the list of Functions, the Libraries appear as
Folders, each containing their own POUs.

To add a Library to the current TWinSoft document, select it from the list of ‘Available
Libraries’ and click ‘Add: ’.
When you have selected the library(ies) you need, click ‘Close’.

The button 'Manager' jumps to the creation of Library menu.

To remove a Library from the current TWinSoft document, select the Library and click
'Remove'. This operation is available only if you don’t use POU of the concerned library in the
current document.

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 122


Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 123
Index

BASIC (next)
A SplitBits, 37
square root, 30
Address of (function), 47, 83 suffix, 11
Tags, 11
B Text Functions, 44
trigger, 39
BASIC, 9 trigonometry, 28
- (subtraction), 20 Truncate, 40
* (multiplication), 20 types of variable, 14
/ (division), 21 while...wend, 27
+ (addition), 19 XOR, 23
abs, 32 Break line, 11
AND, 22
assignment, 13 C
BCD, 41
bit manipulation, 35 Case, 10
break line, 11 Colors
byte manipulation, 33 BASIC, 10
case, 10 Ladder, 65
colors, 10 Constant
comment, 12 BASIC, 10, 12
comparison, 15 in timer (BASIC), 102
constant, 12 in timer (Ladder), 101
dec, 32 type casting, 19
Dim, 14 Counters, 109
exponential, 29 Down, 116
for...next...step, 25 in BASIC, 114
for...nextcycle, 25 in Ladder, 112
functions, 31 in POU, 114
general, 10 Ring, 118
GetRtuDate, 43 Up, 115
GetRtuTime, 43 variables, 111
Goto, 47 Cycle
if...then...else…elseif, 16 sequence of tasks, 9
inc, 32 Cycle time, 11, 12, 61
indirect addressing, 46
keywords, 10, 48 I
label, 47
line feed, 10 Indirect Addressing, 46
logarithms, 29
ModBus address function, 47 K
modulo, 21
NOT, 24 Keywords, 10, 48
Odd, 40
OR, 23 L
Pack32, 38
PackBit, 36 Ladder, 59
Peek, 46 arithmetic (math.block), 79
Poke, 46 arithmetic functions, 76
POU, 49 assignement functions, 75
power, 30 assignments (math.block), 79
precautions, 12 bit manipulations (math.block), 80
putchrono, 40 Bitwise functions, 76
sampling tables, 41 boolean operations (math.block), 81
SetBit, 35 color of Tags, 65
shift, 34 comparison (math.block), 80
Split32, 38 comparison functions, 74

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 124


Ladder (next) Program, 50, 85
conversions (math.block), 82 Precautions, 12
create a rung, 66 Program 'main', 50, 85
drawing a line, 72
functions, 73 S
indirect addressing (math.block), 82
keys, 67 Sampling Tables
mathematical block, 78 BASIC functions, 41
miscellaneous (math.block), 83 Sequence of tasks, 9
modes, 61 Suffix, 11
POU, 84
Shift, 77 T
special functions, 74
step by step, 68 Tags
toolbar, 63 local, global, 11, 65
variables, 65 suffix, 11
Library Tasks sequence, 9
use in TWinSoft document, 122 Text Functions, 44
Library manager, 121 Timers, 97
export POU, 122 in BASIC, 102
import POU, 121 in Ladder, 100
in POU, 103
M Integral, 106
Monostable, 105
Mathematical functions, 28 On Delay, 108
ModBus address function, 47, 83 Single Shot, 104
ModBus addresses variables, 99
as argument of F or FB, 47, 83 Type Casting, 18, 42

P U
Peek, 46 Underscore
Poke, 46 break line (BASIC), 11
POU, 49, 84
Function, 52, 88 W
Function block, 55, 92
Function block debugging, 96 Watchdog, 11
'main', 50, 85

Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 125


Version: 2.05 BASIC & Ladder 126