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June 21, 2009

Classification of Water Based on


Salinity

Desalination : Future Prospective and Challenges - Fresh Water ≤ 500 ppm


Presented by : A. H. Konsowa

Associate Professor of Chem. Eng.,


- Brackish Water 500 – 5000 ppm
ADST Board Member & Technical Manager of Deslurban Project

- Highly Brackish Water 5000 – 10000 ppm


Tel. :+2035925557
Fax. :+2035921853
Mob.:+20122162806
E-mail: konsowa2002@yahoo.com

Salinity of Diff. Seas and Oceans 3- Population Growth In Egypt 2000 – 2050

- Baltic Sea 7000 ppm pop.growth

- Black Sea 13000 ppm


120
Millions

- Adriatic Sea 25000 ppm 100

- Pacific Ocean 33600 ppm 80

- Indian Ocean 33800 ppm


60 pop.growth

- Mediterranean Sea 39400 ppm


- Arabian Gulf 43000 ppm 40

- Red Sea 44000 ppm 20

- B.W (N.C) ???? 0


2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 2045 2050

Water Deficit in Alexandria by 2037


5- Future needs of water in Egypt

Population
Water
per capita - Alexandria Population 2006 ---- 4,100,000
Year requirement
(million) (m3/year) - Scarcity limit water(m³/yr) ----- 4.1 Billion
(billion m3/year)
2006 75.14 75.14 876.3
2015 85.92 85.91 766.4 - Alexandria Population 2037 ---- 8,400,000
2025 99.71 99.71 660.4
2035 115.72 115.72 569.1 - Water Deficit 4.3 Billion m³/yr
2045 134.30 134.3 490.3
2050 144.68 144.68 455.2
June 21, 2009

The Deficit can be covered by:


1.Multi-
Multi-Stage Flash (MSF) Evaporator
1. Water Recycling and Reuse.
2.MED Process
2. Improving the efficiency of water use:
• Optimal use of fresh water in agriculture.
3.MED with Thermo Compressor (TVC)
• Optimal use of water in industry. 4.MED with Mech. Vap.Compr.
Vap.Compr. (MVC)
• Optimal use of domestic water. 5.Reverse Osmosis (developing rapidly)
6.Hybrid Systems (Future Application)
3. Expansion in desalination of ( BW-SW )

Membrane technology
Membrane technology

1.Reverse Osmosis
1.Reverse Osmosis 2.Electro-dialysis
2.Electro-dialysis
RO
RO ED-EDR
ED-EDR

Components of ED unit
June 21, 2009

ED/EDR Desalination Economics


Factors affect production cost:
• Running cost.
• Initial cost.
• Auxiliary equipment cost.
• Plant capacity.
• Technology used.
• Feed water property.
• Energy Consumption.
• Site preparing cost.

Percent Distribution of Desalination


The costs (in general) of desalination Plant Capacities By Process
technology for brackish water ($/m³):

ED
Technology Installments Energy Deprec Workers Maintena
of the iation nce VC
purchasing
nipping
MSF
RO 0.06-0.22 0.03- 0.06- 0.04-0.25 0.01-0.03
0.25 0.17 RO

ED 0.08-0.14 0.04- 0.06- 0.04-0.25 0.01-0.01


0.25 0.17

Others

Approx. cost range Desalination- N. Coast, Vision


● Brackish Water Desalination for Urban
$ / m3
and Arid Communities.
1940 – 1950 4–5 - Updated cost of BW-N.C desalination.
Early 60’s 1.5 – 2.5
Early 80’s 1 – 1.6 - Testing and Monitoring of the N.C Aquifer
Nineties 0.7 – 1.2 Water Quality and proposing suitable
desalination technology.
Now 0.43 – 1.0
2037(expected) 0.15 – 0.30 ● Desalinated Water for Agriculture Use.
June 21, 2009

Desalination Future prospective In Fact, How Old is Water


# Reducing energy costs by optimising power and water technology ?
generation. It will also rely on further improvements in the
unit size of RO and distillation processes.

# New solutions are required for solving decreasing product


cost. Hybrid system
# Seasonal surplus of unused power could be used by
electrically driven technologies such as RO and vapour
compression distillation in combination with aquifer storage
and recovery.

# Continuous research and development in the following 30


years to achieve the goal of low cost desalination to produce
water at less than $0.15 - 0.30/m3 and power at $0.02/kWh.