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UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME

a glossary of
COMMON development terms

Version 2.1
Ha Noi, April 2003
FOREWORD

Development in Viet Nam has grown tremendously in recent years as all major
international bilateral and multilateral donors increased their activities. Donors, at times,
experienced a common frustrating issue– the lack of a common or shared vocabulary for
development terms. This difficulty arose in part because many of the concepts were new to
Vietnamese counterparts. Development terms are also subject to evolving meanings in light of
changing development practices throughout the world. In response to the need for common
terminiology and in the interest of promoting donor harmonization, concerned national staff of the
United Nations Development Programme in Viet Nam have compiled this Glossary of Common
Development Terms. This Glossary is designed to serve as a tool for staff of the United Nations
system, bilateral donors, Vietnamese counterparts, international consultants as well as other
development partners that will improve understanding and communication in this complicated arena
of development assistance.
This Glossary has over 1,500 English main entries and nearly 1,000 derivative or associated
words which can be classified into four broad groups: (i) concepts which are often used by
development partners (e.g. capacity building, institutional development, sustainable
development); (ii) concepts for which Vietnamese equivalents are not yet widely recognized (e.g.
downstream, upstream, governance, human development); (iii) concepts which have special
contexts (e.g. Capacity 21, Agenda 21, 20:20 Initiative) or common terms which have however
evolved in meaning over time (e.g. result, outcome, participation); and (iv) names of major
development agencies (e.g. ADB, SIDA, World Bank), and international conventions on current
development issues (e.g. Convention on the Rights of the Child, Convention on Biological
Diversity). The English entries not only have Vietnamese equivalents but, in many cases, are also
supported by definitions, explanations or examples in order to provide exact meanings and/or
clarify contextual meanings. The Glossary is therefore more than a simple list of English concepts
and their Vietnamese equivalents. It is in fact meant to serve as a modest repository of development
knowledge to be shared among users.
The first version of this Glossary was launched for internal use within UNDP in May 2001
and formally posted on the UNDP website in April 2002. This current version has been refined and
upgraded and contains new terms and an easier presentational format. However, given the
extremely rich and evolving nature of development knowledge, the Glossary is far from a
comprehensive or perfect publication, nor is it intended to be one. Instead, it should be seen as a
living reference material which requires regular updating if it is to continue to serve as a useful
working tool for Vietnamese and other development practitioners. Therefore, the inputs and
suggestions of all users are most welcome. Such contributions can be sent either to the United
Nations Development Programme, through registry@undp.org.vn, or directly to Mr. Phan Duc
Thang at ducthang@undp.org.vn.

Ha Noi, 16 April 2003

Jordan Ryan
Resident Representative
UNDP - Viet Nam
TECHNICAL NOTES

The entries in this glossary begin on Page 1 and continue in an alphabetical order
from A to W. The entries are printed in heavy bold letters. The left-hand words, for
example (Employment, Enrolment) are main entries and determine the alphabetical
order. Those following these words are derivative words which are derived from the main
entries and which denote associated concepts. A derivative entry may be followed by a
tilde ( ~ ) mark, for example (Full ~ : Cã viÖc lµm ®Çy ®ñ) or proceeded by the same mark,
for example (~ generation: T¹o viÖc lµm). In some cases, it may be placed between other
words, for example (Net ~ ratio: Tû lÖ ®i häc ®óng tuæi).

A main entry or a derivative entry can be a noun (n), a verb (v) or an adjective (adj).
It may have one or more than one Vietnamese equivalent term. It may be supported by a
definition, for example (i.e. prices that are set by the State) or an explanation, for example
(i.e. UNICEF’s response to adjustment programmes launched by IMF during the 1980’s...)
in order to give the exact meaning or context of the word. The entry may as well be
illustrated by an example in order to clarify the meaning or usage, for instance (e.g. ~ to
clean water: §−îc sö dông n−íc s¹ch). In some cases the example is accompanied by a
Vietnamese translation, while it is not in other cases. A Vietnamese equivalent term is
always written in italic while a definition, explanation and example is always written in
normal letters. In all cases, however, the tilde ( ~ ) mark used throughout the glossary
represents the main entry or the derivative entry and is intended to avoid a repetition of the
entry itself.
A
Absorb (v) HÊp thô, tiÕp nhËn (e.g. To ~ a large amount of foreign aid: TiÕp nhËn mét
khèi l−îng lín viÖn trî n−íc ngoµi).
Absorptive capacity (n) Kh¶ n¨ng tiÕp nhËn (e.g. The ~ of the Government has
improved recently).
Accede to (v) Tham gia, trë thµnh thµnh viªn (e.g. To ~ an international convention:
tham gia mét c«ng −íc quèc tÕ).
Accession (n) Sù tham gia, trë thµnh thµnh viªn (e.g. ~ to AFTA, WTO: Tham gia Tæ
chøc th−¬ng m¹i thÕ giíi, Khu vùc mËu dÞch tù do ASEAN).
Access (n) TiÕp cËn, ®−îc sö dông (e.g. ~ to advanced technology: §−îc tiÕp cËn víi
c«ng nghÖ tiªn tiÕn; ~ to clean water: §−îc sö dông n−íc s¹ch). Hence, Accessible (adj)
DÔ tiÕp cËn, cã thÓ tiÕp cËn (e.g. The rural village is accessible by car).
Account for (v) Gi¶i tr×nh, t×m kiÕm, h¹ch to¸n (e.g. To ~ the failure of the visit: Gi¶i
tr×nh vÒ thÊt b¹i cña chuyÕn viÕng th¨m; To ~ the Americans missing in action during the
war in Viet Nam: T×m kiÕm ng−êi Mü mÊt tÝch trong cuéc chiÕn tranh ViÖt Nam; To ~
something in the State budget: H¹ch to¸n .... vµo ng©n s¸ch Nhµ n−íc).
Accountability (n) Tr¸ch nhiÖm gi¶i tr×nh (i.e. the requirement that officials answer to
stakeholders on the disposal of their powers and duties, act on criticisms made of them,
and accept responsibility for failure, incompetence or deceit). A clear ~ mechanism:
Mét c¬ chÕ râ rµng vÒ tr¸ch nhiÖm gi¶i tr×nh. Mutual ~ : Tr¸ch nhiÖm gi¶i tr×nh víi
nhau (i.e. recipient governments and donors are accountable to each other respectively
for the proper use of aid and for the provision of effective aid); Public ~ : Tr¸ch nhiÖm
gi¶i tr×nh tr−íc cö tri hoÆc tr−íc d©n (i.e. a government agency is accountable to the
electorate or the wider public for the decisions taken).
Accountable (adj) ChÞu tr¸ch nhiÖm gi¶i tr×nh (e.g. The director is responsible for
managing the project and is ~ to the Government for the effective use of its financial
resources).
Action-oriented (adj) Mang tÝnh hµnh ®éng, kh¸c víi Theoretical (e.g. The workplan is
very much ~ : KÕ ho¹ch c«ng t¸c mang tÝnh hµnh ®éng râ rµng).
Ad hoc (adj) §Æc biÖt, t×nh thÕ (e.g. The UN ~ Committee on Disarmament: Uû ban ®Æc
biÖt cña Liªn hîp quèc vÒ gi¶i trõ qu©n bÞ; An ~ solution: Mét gi¶i ph¸p t×nh thÕ).
Addict (n) Ng−êi nghiÖn. Drug ~ : Ng−êi nghiÖn ma tuý; Hard-core ~ : Ng−êi nghiÖn
nÆng. Hence, Addiction (n) Sù nghiÖn ngËp (e.g. drug ~, alcohol ~ ).
Addictive (adj) G©y nghiÖn. ~ substances: C¸c chÊt g©y nghiÖn.
Address (v) Gi¶i quyÕt, ®Ò cËp tíi (e.g. Environmental issues should be addressed in
detail in the national development strategy: C¸c vÊn ®Ò vÒ m«i tr−êng cÇn ®−îc ®Ò cËp
chi tiÕt trong chiÕn l−îc ph¸t triÓn quèc gia).
Adjustment assistance (n) Trî gióp hay viÖn trî phôc vô ®iÒu chØnh (i.e. public financial
assistance provided to workers and industries hurt by imports of lower-priced foreign goods
in order to allow them to "adjust" to a new occupation).
Adjustment programme (n) Ch−¬ng tr×nh ®iÒu chØnh (i.e. a programme aimed at
restricting short-term demand and improving productive efficiency in the longer terms).

1
Adjustment with a human face §iÒu chØnh mang tÝnh nh©n v¨n (i.e. UNICEF’s
response to adjustment programmes launched by IMF during the 1980’s. UNICEF held
that such programmes were not only for economic growth but had to take into account
implications on people, in particular the most vulnerable groups). Xem thªm Structural
adjustment.
Administered prices (n) Gi¸ chØ ®¹o, gi¸ do Nhµ n−íc qu¶n lý (i.e. prices that are set by
the State).
Adult (n) Ng−êi lín. ~ illiteracy rate: Tû lÖ mï ch÷ ë ng−êi lín; ~ literacy rate: Tû lÖ
biÕt ch÷ ë ng−êi lín.
Advancement of women (n) Sù tiÕn bé cña phô n÷ (e.g. The National Committee for the
Advancement of Women: Uû ban quèc gia v× sù tiÕn bé cña phô n÷).
Advantage (n) Lîi thÕ, ®iÓm m¹nh; Absolute ~ : Lîi thÕ tuyÖt ®èi; Comparative ~ : Lîi
thÕ so s¸nh; Equal ~ : Lîi thÕ ngang b»ng.
Advantage position (n) VÞ thÕ thuËn lîi.
Advocate (v) Tuyªn truyÒn vËn ®éng (e.g. To ~ sustainable development concepts; (n)
Ng−êi ñng hé (e.g. UNDP is a strong ~ of sustainable development principles).
Advocacy (n) Sù tuyªn truyÒn vËn ®éng (e.g. ~ for sustainable development policies).
Afford (v) Cã thÓ chi tr¶, cã thÓ thanh to¸n (e.g. Social services must be set at
reasonable prices so that the poor can ~ ).
Affordability (n) Kh¶ n¨ng chi tr¶, kh¶ n¨ng thanh to¸n (e.g. the ~ of the poor for low-
cost housing).
Affordable (adj) Cã kh¶ n¨ng chi tr¶, cã kh¶ n¨ng thanh to¸n (e.g. Social services must
be set at ~ prices to the poor: Gi¸ c¸c dÞch vô x· héi ph¶i ë møc ng−êi nghÌo cã thÓ chÞu
®ùng ®−îc).
Agenda 21 (n) Ch−¬ng tr×nh nghÞ sù ThÕ kû 21 (i.e. an action plan for sustainable
development for the 21st century, adopted by the UN Conference on Environment and
Development in 1992 in Rio de Janeiro).
Aggregate (adj) TÝnh gép, tÝnh tæng sè. At the ~ level: ë møc tæng hîp; ~ demand:
Tæng cÇu; ~ expenditure: Tæng chi; ~ revenue: Tæng thu; ~ supply: Tæng cung.
Agricultural (n) Thuéc vÒ n«ng nghiÖp; ~ exports: N«ng s¶n xuÊt khÈu; ~ output: S¶n
l−îng n«ng nghiÖp; ~ productivity: N¨ng suÊt n«ng nghiÖp; ~ reform: C¶i c¸ch n«ng
nghiÖp; ~ sector: Ngµnh n«ng nghiÖp; ~ subsidies: Trî gi¸ n«ng nghiÖp.
Agricultural earnings (n) Thu nhËp tõ n«ng nghiÖp.
Agricultural extension (n) KhuyÕn n«ng. ~ services: DÞch vô khuyÕn n«ng; ~ worker:
Ng−êi lµm c«ng t¸c khuyÕn n«ng, c¸n bé khuyÕn n«ng.
Agricultural biodiversity (n) §a d¹ng sinh häc n«ng nghiÖp.
Agricultural pollution (n) ¤ nhiÔm n«ng nghiÖp.
Agriculture (n) N«ng nghiÖp. Integrated ~ : N«ng nghiÖp toµn diÖn; Organic ~ : N«ng
nghiÖp s¹ch, n«ng nghiÖp h÷u c¬. Traditional ~ : N«ng nghiÖp truyÒn thèng.
Agri-silviculture (n) Canh t¸c c©y gç xen c©y ng¾n ngµy (i.e. a form of agroforestry
consisting of tree and crop components). Hence, Agro-silvicultural system: HÖ thèng
canh t¸c n«ng l©m kÕt hîp.

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Agro (adj) Thuéc vÒ n«ng nghiÖp (®−îc dïng nh− mét tiÕp ®Çu ng÷). ~ -biodiversity:
§a d¹ng sinh häc n«ng nghiÖp; ~ - forestry: N«ng - l©m kÕt hîp; ~ - ecosystem: HÖ
sinh th¸i n«ng nghiÖp; ~ - industry: N«ng - c«ng kÕt hîp.
Aid (n) ViÖn trî. Aid and Assistance is used in this glossary to refer to financial flows
which qualify as Official Aid or Official Development Assistance (Xem thªm Official
aid and Official Development Assistance). Long-term ~ : ViÖn trî dµi h¹n (i.e. official
loans with an original or extended maturity of more than one year). Short-term ~ : ViÖn
trî ng¾n h¹n (i.e. official loans with a maturity of one year or less).
Aid coordination (n) §iÒu phèi viÖn trî (i.e. the process by which a recipient
government plans external aid in support of national goals, priorities and strategies).
Aid management (n) Qu¶n lý viÖn trî (i.e. the process by which a recipient government
integrates external aid and internal resources in the implementation of its development
programmes and activities).
Aid mobilization (n) VËn ®éng viÖn trî, huy ®éng viÖn trî.
AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome): Héi chøng suy gi¶m miÔn dÞch m¾c
ph¶i ë ng−êi. ~ prevention and control: Phßng chèng vµ kiÓm so¸t AIDS.
Air pollution (n) ¤ nhiÔm kh«ng khÝ. ~ index: ChØ sè « nhiÔm kh«ng khÝ; ~ control
legislation: LuËt ph¸p kiÓm so¸t « nhiÔm kh«ng khÝ; ~ control strategy: ChiÕn l−îc
kiÓm so¸t « nhiÔm kh«ng khÝ.
Alienated (n) BÞ xa l¸nh. Socially ~ : BÞ x· héi xa l¸nh.
Allocate (v) Ph©n bæ, ph©n phèi. Hence, Allocation (n) Sù ph©n bæ, ph©n phèi (e.g. The
effective ~ of public resources: Sù ph©n bæ cã hiÖu qu¶ nguån lùc c«ng céng).
Alternative (adj) Kh¸c, thay thÕ. ~ farming: Canh t¸c thay thÕ; ~ crop: C©y trång thay
thÕ; ~ energy: N¨ng l−îng thay thÕ; ~ solution: Gi¶i ph¸p thay thÕ; ~ technology:
C«ng nghÖ thay thÕ.
Amortization (n) Tr¶ dÇn, thanh to¸n dÇn (e.g. The ~ of a loan). ~ schedule: LÞch tr¶
(thanh to¸n) nî.
Anti-narcotic activities (n) C¸c ho¹t ®éng phßng chèng ma tuý.
Appraise (v) ThÈm ®Þnh. Hence, Appraisal (n) Sù thÈm ®Þnh (i.e. the process of
checking the quality of a programme or project design prior to approval). Hence Project
or programme appraisal: ThÈm ®Þnh dù ¸n hoÆc ch−¬ng tr×nh.
Approach (n) Ph−¬ng thøc, c¸ch tiÕp cËn. Economic ~ : C¸ch tiÕp cËn vÒ kinh tÕ;
Environmental ~ : C¸ch tiÕp cËn vÒ m«i tr−êng; Programme or Programmatic ~ :
C¸ch tiÕp cËn theo ch−¬ng tr×nh; Project ~ : C¸ch tiÕp cËn theo dù ¸n; Social ~: C¸ch
tiÕp cËn vÒ x· héi; Sectoral ~ : C¸ch tiÕp cËn theo ngµnh (Also Sector-wide approach).
Approve (v) Phª duyÖt. Hence, Approval (n) Sù phª duyÖt (i.e. the process of signing a
project or programme document where donor funds are committed). Hence, Project or
programme approval: Phª duyÖt dù ¸n hoÆc ch−¬ng tr×nh.
Aquaculture (n) Nu«i trång thñy s¶n. Marine ~ : Nu«i trång thuû s¶n biÓn; Upland ~ :
Nu«i trång thuû s¶n ë miÒn nói.
Area-wide environmental quality management: Qu¶n lý chÊt l−îng m«i tr−êng theo
vïng l·nh thæ (i.e. the process of analyzing the impact of industrial activity on
environmental systems in a given geographic area, assessing their assimilative capacity
to handle industrial pollutants and establising environmental action plans).

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Arrears (n) Nî qu¸ h¹n (i.e. overdue payments of debt).
Articulate (v) Tr×nh bµy râ rµng. Hence, Well-articulated (adj) §−îc tr×nh bµy râ rµng
(e.g. ~ ideas, views).
Articulation (n) Sù tr×nh bµy râ rµng (e.g. The ~ of national priorities).
ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA): Khu vùc mËu dÞch tù do ASEAN.
Asia – Pacific Economic Cooperation Forum (APEC): DiÔn ®µn Hîp t¸c Kinh tÕ
Ch©u ¸ - Th¸i B×nh D−¬ng. §−îc thµnh lËp n¨m 1989, APEC lµ diÔn ®µn quèc tÕ nh»m
khuyÕn khÝch hîp t¸c kinh tÕ vµ th−¬ng m¹i, còng nh− trao ®æi c¸c vÊn ®Ò vÒ ph¸t triÓn
vµ an ninh ë khu vùc Ch©u ¸ - Th¸i B×nh D−¬ng.
Asian Development Bank (ADB): Ng©n hµng Ph¸t triÓn ch©u ¸. §−îc thµnh lËp n¨m
1966, ADB lµ mét tæ chøc tµi trî ph¸t triÓn víi t«n chØ thóc ®Èy sù nghiÖp ph¸t triÓn kinh
tÕ vµ x· héi ë ch©u ¸ vµ Th¸i B×nh D−¬ng.
Assimilative capacity (n) Kh¶ n¨ng hÊp thô, kh¶ n¨ng ®ång hãa (i.e. the ability of a
water body to purify itself of pollutants).
Assistance (n) Sù trî gióp, viÖn trî. External ~ : Sù trî gióp, viÖn trî tõ bªn ngoµi.
Technical ~ : Trî gióp kü thuËt. Xem thªm Technical assistance vµ Technical
cooperation.
Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN): HiÖp héi c¸c n−íc §«ng Nam ¸.
§−îc thµnh lËp n¨m 1967, thµnh phÇn cña ASEAN hiÖn cã ®ñ 10 n−íc §«ng Nam ¸, víi
t«n chØ xóc tiÕn an ninh vµ gi¶i quyÕt tranh chÊp trong khu vùc, t¨ng c−êng bu«n b¸n,
ph¸t triÓn kinh tÕ, ®Çu t− gi÷a c¸c n−íc thµnh viªn.
Assumption (n) Gi¶ ®Þnh (i.e. a condition that is important to the success of a project
but which is beyond the control of the project and whose probability of being satisfied
cannot be assured).
Audit (n) KiÓm to¸n (i.e. an official examination of financial accounts to see if they are
in order. The scope of audits includes financial ~ kiÓm to¸n tµi chÝnh, compliance ~
kiÓm to¸n vÒ tu©n thñ quy chÕ and performance audit or value for money audit kiÓm
to¸n vÒ hiÖu qu¶). External ~ : KiÓm to¸n do ng−êi bªn ngoµi tiÕn hµnh (cßn gäi lµ
Independent ~ : KiÓm to¸n ®éc lËp); Internal audit: KiÓm to¸n néi bé.
Audit sampling (n) LÊy mÉu kiÓm to¸n, chän mÉu kiÓm to¸n.
Auditor (n) Nh©n viªn kiÓm to¸n. ~ General: Tæng kiÓm to¸n.
Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID): C¬ quan Ph¸t triÓn
Quèc tÕ èt-xtr©y-lia.
Awareness (n) NhËn thøc. Environmental ~ : NhËn thøc vÒ m«i tr−êng; Gender ~ :
NhËn thøc vÒ giíi; HIV/AIDS ~ : NhËn thøc vÒ HIV/AIDS; ~ raising: N©ng cao nhËn
thøc.

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B
Backstopping (n) Theo dâi vµ hç trî (i.e. activities to review, support and advise on the
smooth implementation of a project, e.g. Technical ~ by the Executing Agency: Theo dâi
vµ hç trî kü thuËt cña C¬ quan ®iÒu hµnh dù ¸n).
Backward-looking (adj) H−íng vÒ qu¸ khø, ®èi lËp víi Forward-looking (e.g. The
analysis should not be ~, but forward-looking).
Balance of payments (n) C¸n c©n thanh to¸n (i.e. a tabulation of the credit and debit
transactions of a country with other countries and international institutions).
Balance of payments support: Hç trî c¸n c©n thanh to¸n (e.g. a form of programme
aid that is provided by the IMF through the Central Bank to manage the problems of
balance of payments deficits, insufficient foreign reserves and debt unsustainability. It
usually carried conditionality in the form of a programme of policy reforms agreed by
the recipient government with the IMF and World Bank).
Balance of trade (n) C¸n c©n th−¬ng m¹i.
Bankable (adj) Cã thÓ ®−îc ng©n hµng tµi trî (e.g. A ~ project proposal).
Barrier (n) Hµng rµo. Non-tariff ~ s: Hµng rµo phi thuÕ quan; Tariff ~ s: Hµng rµo
thuÕ quan; Trade ~ s: Hµng rµo th−¬ng m¹i.
Baseline data (n) D÷ liÖu gèc, d÷ liÖu c¬ së (i.e. data that describe the situation to be
addressed by a project and that serve as a starting point for measuring changes in its
performance). ~ survey: §iÒu tra d÷ liÖu gèc, ®iÒu tra d÷ liÖu c¬ së.
Basic social services (BSS): C¸c dÞch vô x· héi c¬ b¶n (i.e. social services that were
defined by the World Summit on Social Development in Copenhaghen in 1995, to consist
of primary education, primary health care and nutrition, family planning services, clean
water and low-cost sanitation).
Behaviour (n) Hµnh vi, c¸ch hµnh xö; High-risk ~ : Hµnh vi cã nguy c¬ cao.
Behavioural (adj) Thuéc vÒ hµnh vi. ~ change: Thay ®æi hµnh vi.
Benchmark (n) Mèc chuÈn, ®iÓm chuÈn (i.e. an intermediate target to measure
progress in a given period using a certain indicator).
Beneficiary (n) Ng−êi thô h−ëng. Direct ~ : Ng−êi thô h−ëng trùc tiÕp; Indirect ~:
Ng−êi thô h−ëng gi¸n tiÕp; Ultimate ~ : Ng−êi thô h−ëng cuèi cïng.
Benefit (n) Lîi Ých, trî cÊp. Age ~s : Trî cÊp nh©n thä; Direct ~ s : Lîi Ých trùc tiÕp;
Medical ~s : Trî cÊp y tÕ; Fringe ~s : Phô cÊp ngoµi l−¬ng; Unemployment ~ s: Trî
cÊp thÊt nghiÖp.
Best practice (n) TËp qu¸n tèt nhÊt (e.g. Our plan of action has benefited from the ~ s of
other partners).
Better-off (adj ) Kh¸ gi¶ h¬n, giµu cã h¬n. ~ regions: Nh÷ng vïng kh¸ gi¶ h¬n;
~ people: Nh÷ng ng−êi kh¸ gi¶ h¬n.
Bid (n) §Êu thÇu, gãi thÇu. ~ evaluation, selection: §¸nh gi¸ thÇu, chän thÇu; ~ price:
Gi¸ bá thÇu; Invitation to ~ : Th− mêi thÇu. To bid for (v) Tham gia ®Êu thÇu.
Bidder (n) Ng−êi tham gia ®Êu thÇu (e.g. Lowest, highest ~ : Ng−êi bá thÇu thÊp nhÊt,
cao nhÊt; Successful ~ : Ng−êi th¾ng thÇu).

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Bidding (n) ViÖc ®Êu thÇu (also Tendering). Competitive ~ : §Êu thÇu c¹nh tranh;
International ~ : §Êu thÇu quèc tÕ; Limited ~ : §Êu thÇu h¹n chÕ; Local ~ : §Êu thÇu
trong n−íc; Open ~ : §Êu thÇu c«ng khai; ~ conditions: §iÒu kiÖn dù thÇu;
~ documents: Hå s¬ dù thÇu; ~ procedures, rules: Thñ tôc ®Êu thÇu, quy chÕ ®èi thÇu.
Bilateral (adj) Song ph−¬ng. ~ agreement: HiÖp ®Þnh song ph−¬ng; ~ donor: Nhµ tµi
trî song ph−¬ng.
Bilateral aid (n) ViÖn trî song ph−¬ng (i.e. official development assistance provided on a
country-to-country basis).
Bilateral trade agreement (n) HiÖp ®Þnh th−¬ng m¹i song ph−¬ng.
Bio (adj) Sù sèng, sinh häc (dïng nh− mét tiÕp ®Çu ng÷). Bio-chemistry: M«n ho¸ sinh;
Bio-gas: Sinh khÝ; Bio-energy: N¨ng l−îng sinh häc; Bio-engineering: Kü thuËt sinh
häc; Bio-fuel: Nhiªn liÖu sinh häc; Bio-ethics: §¹o ®øc trong c«ng nghÖ sinh häc; Bio-
mass: Sinh khèi; Bio-safety: An toµn trong c«ng nghÖ sinh häc.
Biodiversity (n) Sù ®a d¹ng sinh häc (gåm genetic diversity, species diversity vµ
ecosystem diversity). ~ conservation: B¶o tån sù ®a d¹ng sinh häc; ~ resources:
Nguån tµi nguyªn ®a d¹ng sinh häc. Convention on ~ Conservation: C«ng −íc vÒ b¶o
tån ®a d¹ng sinh häc, ký kÕt t¹i Héi nghÞ cña LHQ vÒ M«i tr−êng vµ Ph¸t triÓn n¨m
1992 t¹i Rio de Janeiro.
Biodiversity awareness strategy (n) ChiÕn l−îc n©ng cao nhËn thøc vÒ ®a d¹ng sinh
häc.
Biotechnology (n) C«ng nghÖ sinh häc.
Birth control (n) KiÓm so¸t sinh ®Î. ~ measures: C¸c biÖn ph¸p kiÓm so¸t sinh ®Î.
Birth rate (n) Tû suÊt sinh, tû lÖ sinh. Crude ~ : Tû suÊt sinh th«; Net ~ : Tû suÊt sinh
dßng.
Birth spacing (n) Kho¶ng c¸ch sinh (i.e. time gap between birth deliveries).
Blue sector (n) ................. (i.e. environmental issues that relate to water resources,
coastal zones and the sea).
Bottle-neck (n) Sù ¸ch t¾c, kh©u ¸ch t¾c (e.g. Bottle-necks in ODA implementation:
Nh÷ng ¸ch t¾c trong viÖc thùc hiÖn viÖn trî ph¸t triÓn chÝnh thøc).
Bottom-up (adj) Tõ d−íi lªn, tõ c¬ së lªn. ~ approach: Ph−¬ng ph¸p hay c¸ch tiÕp cËn
tõ c¬ së lªn (as opposed to Top-down approach).
Brain drain (n) (T×nh tr¹ng) ch¶y m¸u chÊt x¸m.
Brain gain (n) T¨ng c−êng chÊt x¸m, lµm giµu chÊt x¸m (e.g. The immigration of skilled
labour is a brain drain of one country but a brain gain for another country).
Brainstorming (n) Xíi vÊn ®Ò, khªu gîi ý t−ëng (i.e. a creative form of discussion with
the sole purpose of producing suggestions or ideas). ~ techniques: Kü thuËt xíi vÊn ®Ò,
kü thuËt khªu gîi ý t−ëng cña ng−êi tham gia.
Break-even point (n) §iÓm hoµ vèn.
Breakthrough (n) B−íc ®ét ph¸. Digital ~ : B−íc ®ét ph¸ vÒ c«ng nghÖ sè; Genetic ~ :
B−íc ®ét ph¸ vÒ c«ng nghÖ gien; Technological ~ : B−íc ®ét ph¸ vÒ c«ng nghÖ.
Breast-feed (v) Nu«i con b»ng s÷a mÑ. Hence, Breast-fed (adj) §−îc nu«i b»ng s÷a
mÑ; Breast-feeding (n) ViÖc nu«i con b»ng s÷a mÑ.

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Bretton Woods Agreement: HiÖp ®Þnh Bretton Woods. ~ lµ HiÖp ®Þnh tiÒn tÖ ®¹t ®−îc
t¹i mét héi nghÞ quèc tÕ tæ chøc n¨m 1944 t¹i Bretton Woods, Hoa Kú.
Bretton Woods Institutions: C¸c tæ chøc Bretton Woods, tøc lµ Quü tiÒn tÖ Quèc tÕ vµ
Nhãm Ng©n hµng ThÕ giíi, ®−îc thµnh lËp theo HiÖp ®Þnh BrettonWoods
Brief (v) Th«ng b¸o, tr−íc khi b¾t ®Çu mét ho¹t ®éng (e.g. The delegation was briefed
before it began its project visit). Hence, Briefing (n) Buæi th«ng b¸o.
Broad-based Cã c¬ së réng r·i, trªn diÖn réng. ~ support: Sù hç trî réng r·i;
~ growth: Sù t¨ng tr−ëng ®¹t ®−îc trªn diÖn réng.
Brown sector (n) ............... (i.e. environmental issues that relate to urban and industrial
pollution).
Budget (n) Ng©n s¸ch. ~ deficit: Th©m hôt ng©n s¸ch; ~ line: Dßng ng©n s¸ch;
~ revision: §iÒu chØnh ng©n s¸ch; ~ surplus: ThÆng d− ng©n s¸ch.
Budgetary (adj) Thuéc vÒ ng©n s¸ch. ~ control: KiÓm so¸t ng©n s¸ch; ~ process: Quy
tr×nh (x©y dùng vµ qu¶n lý) ng©n s¸ch; ~ support: Hç trî ng©n s¸ch.
Buffer zone (n) Vïng ®Öm, khu ®Öm (i.e. an area of land separating land uses which are
incompatible with each other and which should be of sufficient width to prevent any
conflict between them). ~ management: Qu¶n lý vïng ®Öm.
Build on or upon (v) Dùa trªn c¬ së, ph¸t huy (e.g. The project has built upon the
results of recent research initiatives: Dù ¸n ®−îc x©y dùng dùa trªn kÕt qu¶ cña c¸c c«ng
tr×nh nghiªn cøu gÇn ®©y).
Built-in stabilizer (n) C¬ chÕ t¹o æn ®Þnh néi t¹i.
Business (n) Kinh doanh. ~ activity: Ho¹t ®éng kinh doanh; ~ cycle: Chu kú kinh
doanh; ~ environment: M«i tr−êng kinh doanh; ~ ethics: §¹o ®øc kinh doanh;
~ model: M« h×nh kinh doanh; ~ strategy: ChiÕn l−îc kinh doanh.

7
C
Calorie (n) §¬n vÞ nhiÖt l−îng ca-lo. Daily ~ intake per capita: KhÈu phÇn ca-lo tiªu
thô hµng ngµy theo ®Çu ng−êi; Daily ~ supply per capita: KhÈu phÇn ca-lo cung cÊp
hµng ngµy theo ®Çu ng−êi.
Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA): C¬ quan Ph¸t triÓn Quèc tÕ
Ca-na-®a.
Capacity (n) N¨ng lùc (i.e. the skills, knowledge and resources needed to perform a
function). Individual ~ : N¨ng lùc c¸ nh©n; institutional ~ : N¨ng lùc thÓ chÕ.
Capacity 21 (n) N¨ng lùc thÕ kû 21 (i.e. a programme of technical assistance set up by
the United Nations Development Programme in June 1993 in order to assist developing
countries to realize the objectives of Agenda 21). Xem thªm Agenda 21.
Capacity assessment (n) §¸nh gi¸ n¨ng lùc.
Capacity building (n) X©y dùng n¨ng lùc. ~ differs from Capacity development in that
the latter builds on a pre-existing capacity basis. Hence, To build capacity (e.g. ~ of an
institution).
Capacity development (n) T¨ng c−êng n¨ng lùc (i.e. the process by which individuals,
institutions, communities develop their capacities to perform functions, solve problems
and set and reach objectives). Hence, To develop capacity (e.g. ~ of an organization).
Capital (n) Vèn, nguån vèn. Directly productive ~ : Nguån vèn trùc tiÕp tham gia s¶n
xuÊt (m¸y mãc, thiÕt bÞ, c«ng cô s¶n xuÊt); Financial ~ : Nguån vèn vÒ tµi chÝnh (®Ó ®Çu
t−); Human ~ : Nguån vèn vÒ con ng−êi; Infrastructural ~ : Nguån vèn vÒ kÕt cÊu h¹
tÇng; Institutional ~ : Nguån vèn vÒ thÓ chÕ (nÒn d©n chñ, quyÒn con ng−êi, hÖ thèng
ph¸p chÕ…); Natural ~ : Nguån vèn vÒ tù nhiªn; Social ~ : Nguån vèn x· héi (c¸c
chuÈn mùc, hÖ thèng, tæ chøc, truyÒn thèng, gi¸ trÞ…, trong ®ã cã nguån vèn vÒ thÓ chÕ);
A society’s total ~ : Tæng nguån vèn cña mét x· héi.
Capital assistance (n) ViÖn trî vÒ vèn.
Capital-intensive (adj) CÇn nhiÒu vèn (e.g. A ~ industry).
Capitalize on (v) Ph¸t huy, tËn dông, tranh thñ (e.g. To ~ emerging opportunities).
Carbon tax (n) ThuÕ c¸c-bon (i.e. a tax on the consumption of fossil carbon-containing
fuels in order to discourage consumption, reduce carbon dioxide emissions and provide
funds to promote other measures for reducing the greenhouse effect).
Carrying capacity (n) Søc t¶i, kh¶ n¨ng t¶i (i.e. the maximum number of organisms that
an ecosystem can support without damaging the ecosystem itself). ~ of a tourism site:
Søc t¶i cña mét ®iÓm du lÞch; The Earth’s ~ : Søc t¶i cña tr¸i ®Êt.
Case study (n) Nghiªn cøu tr−êng hîp ®iÓn h×nh (i.e. an example of a research problem,
usually described by a representative case, unit of population… , e.g. to conduct a ~ on a
subject matter: TiÕn hµnh nghiªn cøu tr−êng hîp ®iÓn h×nh vÒ mét ®Ò tµi nµo ®ã).
Catalyst (adj) Cã tÝnh chÊt xóc t¸c. ~ role: Vai trß xóc t¸c; ~ money: Nguån vèn mang
tÝnh xóc t¸c.
Causal relationship (n) Mèi quan hÖ nh©n qu¶.
Cause and effect relationship (n) Quan hÖ nh©n qu¶.
Central planning (n) KÕ ho¹ch ho¸ tËp trung.

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Centrally planned economy (n) Kinh tÕ kÕ ho¹ch ho¸ tËp trung.
Change (n) Sù thay ®æi, ®æi míi. ~ process: TiÕn tr×nh ®æi míi; ~ management: Qu¶n
lý tiÕn tr×nh ®æi míi (i.e. ways to implement and monitor change within an organization).
Change agent hay change catalyst: Nh©n tè kÝch thÝch ®æi míi (i.e. an individual who
attempts to influence decesion-making in a direction that is conducive to change).
Checklist (n) Danh môc (c¸c c©u hái, vÊn ®Ò) ®Ó ®èi chiÕu (e.g. The ~ for project
appraisal: Danh môc c¸c c©u hái ®Ó ®èi chiÕu khi thÈm ®Þnh dù ¸n; The ~ for briefing a
visiting mission: Danh môc c¸c vÊn ®Ò cÇn th«ng b¸o cho ®oµn kh¸ch ®Õn th¨m).
Child (n) TrÎ em. ~ abuse: L¹m dông trÎ em; ~ care: Ch¨m sãc trÎ em; ~ rearing:
Nu«i d−ìng trÎ em.
Child-bearing age (n) Tuæi sinh con, also Reproductive age. Women in ~ : Phô n÷
®ang ë ®é tuæi sinh con.
Child-blind (adj) Kh«ng quan t©m ®Õn trÎ em (e.g. A ~ social policy, project).
Child care (n) Ch¨m sãc trÎ em. ~ center: Trung t©m nu«i d¹y trÎ em.
Child labour (n) Lao ®éng ë trÎ em. Hence, Child labourers (n) TrÎ em ph¶i lao ®éng..
Child malnutrition (n) Suy dinh d−ìng ë trÎ em.
Child prostitution (n) M·i d©m ë trÎ em. Hence, Child prostitutes (n) TrÎ em hµnh
nghÒ m·i d©m.
Child welfare (n) Phóc lîi cho trÎ em (e.g. a ~ policy, programme).
Children in specially difficult circumstances: TrÎ em cã hoµn c¶nh ®Æc biÖt.
Civil servants (n) C«ng chøc.
Civil service (n) Ngµnh c«ng vô.
Civil society (n) X· héi d©n sù (i.e. the realm of individuals and groups - organized or
unorganized - who interact in the social, political and economic domains and who are
regulated by formal and informal rules and laws).
Civil society organizations (n) C¸c tæ chøc x· héi d©n sù.
Clean energy sources (n) C¸c nguån n¨ng l−îng s¹ch (i.e. natural gas, solar, wind,
sustainable biomass and mini-hydro power).
Clean production technology (n) C«ng nghÖ s¶n xuÊt s¹ch (i.e. use of environmentally
friendly processes in production activities). Hence, cleaner production technology:
C«ng nghÖ s¶n xuÊt s¹ch h¬n.
Client-oriented (adj) §Þnh h−íng phôc vô kh¸ch hµng (e.g. a ~ mentality: Th¸i ®é s½n
sµng phôc vô kh¸ch hµng).
Climate change (n) Sù biÕn ®æi khÝ hËu (e.g. Convention on ~ : C«ng −íc vÒ biÕn ®æi
khÝ hËu, ®−îc ký kÕt t¹i Héi nghÞ LHQ vÒ M«i tr−êng vµ Ph¸t triÓn n¨m 1992 t¹i Rio de
Janeiro). Global ~ : Sù biÕn ®æi khÝ hËu toµn cÇu.
Cloning (n) Nh©n dßng v« tÝnh, nh©n gien v« tÝnh.
Cluster evaluation (n) §¸nh gi¸ côm dù ¸n (cã liªn quan víi nhau vÒ néi dung).
Coastal mangrove forest (n) Rõng ngËp mÆn ven biÓn.
Coastal zone management (n) Qu¶n lý d¶i ven bê. Integrated ~ : Qu¶n lý tæng hîp d¶i
ven bê.
Coastal wetland (n) (Vïng) ®Êt ngËp mÆn ven biÓn.

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Co-financing (n) Cïng gãp vèn, lµ thuËt ng÷ dïng chung cho c¸c ph−¬ng thøc tµi trî
cost-sharing ®ång tµi trî, trust fund quü uû th¸c vµ parallel financing tµi trî song
song.
Commercial (adj) Thuéc vÒ th−¬ng m¹i. ~ interest rate: L·i suÊt th−¬ng m¹i;
~ lending: Cho vay theo ®iÒu kiÖn th−¬ng m¹i; ~ loan: Kho¶n vay th−¬ng m¹i.
Commercialize (v) Th−¬ng m¹i ho¸. Hence, Commercialization (n) Sù th−¬ng m¹i ho¸
(e.g. ~ of public services: Th−¬ng m¹i ho¸ c¸c dÞch vô c«ng céng).
Commit (v) Cam kÕt, quyÕt t©m (e.g. ~ oneself to doing something: Cam kÕt lµm mét
viÖc g× ®ã).
Commitment (n) Sù cam kÕt (i.e. arrangement for financial assistance or technical
cooperation incorporated into a signed agreement specifycing terms and conditions).
For example: ODA ~s to Viet Nam in 2001 reached US$ 1.6 billion: Cam kÕt ODA cho
ViÖt Nam trong n¨m 2001 lªn ®Õn 1,6 tû USD.
Commodity (n) Hµng hãa. ~ assistance: ViÖn trî b»ng hµng ho¸ (i.e. financial
assistance provided by a donor to a recipient country in the form of commodities or
goods). ~ loan: Kho¶n tiÒn vay b»ng hµng ho¸.
Common but differentiated responsibilities (n) Tr¸ch nhiÖm chung nh−ng cã ph©n biÖt
møc ®é (i.e. Principle No. 7 of the 1992 Rio Declaration which says “States shall
cooperate in a spirit of global partnership to conserve, protect and restore the health and
integrity of the Earth’s ecosystem. However, in view of the different contributions to
global environmental degradation, States shall have common but different
responsibilities”.
Communicable diseases (n) C¸c c¨n bÖnh l©y lan.
Community (n) Céng ®ång. ~ health care: Y tÕ céng ®ång;
Community development (n) Ph¸t triÓn céng ®ång (i.e. the organization of all aspects
of community living, in particular new settlement projects and the improvement of
existing facilities).
Community education (n) Gi¸o dôc ý thøc céng ®ång (i.e. an enabling process by
which children and adults acquire a sense of identification with their community).
Community forestry (n) L©m nghiÖp céng ®ång (i.e. a form of social forestry where
tree planting is undertaken by a community on common or communal lands).
Community participation (n) Sù tham gia cña céng ®ång (i.e. the participation of a
community in its own development).
Community participation role (n) Vai trß ho¹t ®éng céng ®ång (cña phô n÷ ). Xem
thªm Gender roles.
Community-based (adj) Dùa vµo céng ®ång, ë cÊp céng ®ång.
Community-based development approaches (n) C¸c ph−¬ng thøc ph¸t triÓn dùa vµo
céng ®ång
Community-based drug treatment (n) Cai nghiÖn t¹i (dùa vµo) céng ®ång.
Community-based forest management (n) Qu¶n lý rõng dùa vµo céng ®ång (i.e. a
strategy for achieving people-centered development where the focus of decision-making
with regard to the sustainable use of forest resources in the area lies with the
communities of that area).
Community-based organizations (n) C¸c tæ chøc céng ®ång.

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Comparative advantage: Lîi thÕ so s¸nh. Theory of ~ : ThuyÕt vÒ lîi thÕ so s¸nh (i.e.
the specialization in the production and export of those goods/services in which a country
can make or provide most profitably).
Compete (v) C¹nh tranh (e.g. to ~ with each other for the increasingly scarce
development resources).
Competing (adj) C¹nh tranh nhau, ganh ®ua nhau (e.g. ~ claims on the limited national
resources: Nh÷ng ®ßi hái tranh giµnh nguån lùc h¹n hÑp cña quèc gia).
Competition (n) Sù c¹nh tranh, ganh ®ua. Fair ~ : C¹nh tranh lµnh m¹nh; Healthy ~ :
C¹nh tranh lµnh m¹nh; Imperfect ~ : C¹nh tranh kh«ng hoµn h¶o; Perfect ~ : C¹nh
tranh hoµn h¶o; Unfair ~ : C¹nh tranh kh«ng lµnh m¹nh.
Competitive (adj) Cã kh¶ n¨ng c¹nh tranh, mang tÝnh c¹nh tranh. ~ bidding: §Êu
thÇu c¹nh tranh; ~ market: ThÞ tr−êng c¹nh tranh; ~ price: Gi¸ c¶ c¹nh tranh.
Competitiveness (n) Cã kh¶ n¨ng c¹nh tranh, søc c¹nh tranh (e.g. The ~ of the national
economy: Søc c¹nh tranh cña nÒn kinh tÕ quèc d©n).
Completion (n) Sù hoµn thµnh, kÕt thóc. Financial ~ : KÕt thóc vÒ tµi chÝnh (e.g. the
financial ~ of a project); Operational ~ : KÕt thóc vÒ ho¹t ®éng (cña mét dù ¸n).
Comprehensive (adj) Toµn diÖn. A ~ approach: C¸ch tiÕp cËn toµn diÖn.
Comprehensive Poverty Reduction and Growth Strategy or CPRGS: ChiÕn l−îc
toµn diÖn vÒ xo¸ nghÌo ®ãi vµ t¨ng tr−ëng (i.e. a strategic policy paper that was
requested by the World Bank and prepared by the Government of Viet Nam to replace
the previous Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper - or PRSP).
Comprehensive Development Strategy or CDF (n) ChiÕn l−îc ph¸t triÓn toµn diÖn
(i.e. a mechanism developed by the World Bank for coordinating WB assistance and
government spending in support of a comprehensive strategy covering all aspects of
development in a recipient country).
Concept (n) Kh¸i niÖm, ý t−ëng. A project ~: ý t−ëng dù ¸n (i.e. A paper that provides a
preliminary idea of the overall possibility and desirability of a project).
Concept paper (n) B¶n ph¸c th¶o (vÒ mét ý t−ëng hoÆc ®Ò tµi).
Conceptual (adj) Thuéc vÒ kh¸i niÖm. A ~ framework: Khung kh¸i qu¸t, ph−¬ng ph¸p
luËn.
Conceptual approach (n) Ph−¬ng ph¸p tiÕp cËn mang tÝnh kh¸i qu¸t.
Conceptualization (n) X©y dùng kh¸i niÖm, x©y dùng ý t−ëng. Project ~: X©y dùng ý
t−ëng dù ¸n. Hence, To conceptualize a project: X©y dùng ý t−ëng dù ¸n.
Concessionary (Also Concessional, Soft) (adj) Mang tÝnh −u ®·i. A ~ loan: Kho¶n vay
−u ®·i (i.e. credit extended in terms that are more favourable to the borrower than market
rates).
Concessionality level (n) Møc ®é −u ®·i (i.e. a measure of the “softness” of a credit
reflecting the benefit to the borrower compared to a loan at the market rate).
Condition (n) §iÒu kiÖn (e.g. a neccesary and sufficient ~ : §iÒu kiÖn cÇn vµ ®ñ).
Conditionality (n) Cã ®iÒu kiÖn, ®iÒu kiÖn rµng buéc (i.e. policy measure(s) that a
government agrees to implement as a requirement to receive aid).
Conflict (n) Xung ®ét, m©u thuÉn. ~ of interest: Xung ®ét lîi Ých.
Conflict resolution (n) Gi¶i quyÕt xung ®ét.

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Conflicting (adj) Xung ®ét víi nhau, m©u thuÉn víi nhau (e.g. ~ interests, ideas: Nh÷ng
lîi Ých, nh÷ng ý t−ëng tr¸i ng−îc nhau).
Consensus (n) Sù nhÊt trÝ, sù ®ång thuËn. On the consensus ~ : Theo nguyªn t¾c ®ång
thuËn. Political ~ : Sù ®ång thuËn vÒ chÝnh trÞ.
Consensus building (n) X©y dùng sù nhÊt trÝ, ®ång thuËn (e.g. A ~ activity, initiative:
Mét ho¹t ®éng, mét s¸ng kiÕn nh»m x©y dùng sù ®ång thuËn).
Conservation (n) B¶o tån; ~ area, site, zone: Khu b¶o tån; Cultural ~ : B¶o tån v¨n
ho¸; Heritage ~ : B¶o tån di s¶n.
Constituency (n) Nh÷ng ng−êi hËu thuÉn (i.e. a group of people with the same interests
that one can turn to for support); Cö tri (i.e. a body of voters in a district having its own
elected representative).
Constrain (v) H¹n chÕ, rµng buéc (e.g. The poor policy and legal environments have
constrained the sustainability of the technical approaches used). Hence, Constraint (n)
H¹n chÕ, khã kh¨n.
Consultancy (n) Ho¹t ®éng t− vÊn (e.g. a consultancy assignment: ChuyÕn c«ng t¸c t−
vÊn). Hence, Consultant: Chuyªn gia t− vÊn.
Consultative Group Meeting (n) Héi nghÞ Nhãm T− vÊn (i.e. a periodic meeting
between the Government of a developing country and its major aid partners for
dialoguing on national issuses/priorities and mobilizing additional external assistance.
This is an aid mobilization mechanism which is chaired by the World Bank).
Consulting (adj) Thuéc vÒ t− vÊn. ~ business: NghÒ t− vÊn; ~ firm: C«ng ty t− vÊn;
~ industry: Ngµnh (c«ng nghiÖp) t− vÊn.
Consumer (n) Ng−êi tiªu dïng. ~ demand: Nhu cÇu tiªu dïng; ~ price: Gi¸ tiªu dïng;
~ subsidy: Trî gi¸ tiªu dïng.
Consumer price index (n) ChØ sè gi¸ tiªu dïng.
Contaminate (v) Lµm nhiÔm bÈn. Hence, Contamination (n) Lµm nhiÔm bÈn.
Contaminated site (n) N¬i bÞ nhiÔm bÈn.
Contingency (n) T×nh huèng bÊt tr¾c. ~ fund: Quü dù phßng; ~ plan: KÕ ho¹ch dù
phßng.
Continuous programming (n) Ph−¬ng ph¸p x©y dùng dù ¸n mang tÝnh liªn tôc (i.e. a
concept that involves the programming by objectives through earmarking of limited
resources for selected development objectives of the country programme for which
projects have not yet been identified).
Contraceptive (n) Dông cô tr¸nh thai. ~ measures: C¸c biÖn ph¸p tr¸nh thai.
Contraceptive prevalence rate (n) Tû lÖ sö dông c¸c biÖn ph¸p tr¸nh thai (i.e. the
percentage of married women of childbearing age, 15-49 years old, who are using, or
whose husbands are using, any form of contraception).
Contract (n) B¶n hîp ®ång hoÆc (v) Lµm hîp ®ång (e.g. to ~ somebody to do something:
Hîp ®ång víi ng−êi nµo ®Ó lµm viÖc g×).
Contracting out (n) Kho¸n cho ng−êi ngoµi (i.e. an arrangement whereby a department
or agency enters into a commercial contract with an external supplier that provides
services). Hence, to contract out something: Kho¸n cho ng−êi ngoµi.
Contractual (adj) Thuéc vÒ hîp ®ång. ~ obligations: C¸c nghÜa vô theo hîp ®ång;
~ provisions: C¸c ®iÒu kho¶n hîp ®ång; ~ terms: C¸c ®iÒu kiÖn hîp ®ång.

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Contribution (n) Kho¶n ®ãng gãp. In cash ~ : §ãng gãp b»ng tiÒn mÆt; In kind ~ :
§ãng gãp b»ng hiÖn vËt (d−íi c¸c h×nh thøc nh− nh©n sù, v¨n phßng, vËt t− , thiÕt bÞ t¹i
chç, ®Êt ®ai, nhµ x−ëng, v.v...); Counterpart ~: §ãng gãp cña c¬ quan ®èi t¸c (b»ng
tiÒn mÆt hoÆc b»ng hiÖn vËt).
Control (n) Sù kiÓm so¸t, biÖn ph¸p kiÓm so¸t. Export ~ s : C¸c biÖn ph¸p kiÓm so¸t
xuÊt khÈu; Exchange rate ~ s : C¸c biÖn ph¸p kiÓm so¸t tû gi¸ hèi ®o¸i; Import ~ s :
C¸c biÖn ph¸p kiÓm so¸t nhËp khÈu; Price ~ s : C¸c biÖn ph¸p kiÓm so¸t gi¸ c¶.
Convention (n) C«ng −íc (e.g. ~ on the Rights of the Child: C«ng −íc vÒ QuyÒn TrÎ
em; ~ for the Pretection of Ozone Layer: C«ng −íc vÒ b¶o vÖ tÇng «-d«n; ~ for the
Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage: C«ng −íc vÒ b¶o vÖ di s¶n
v¨n ho¸ vµ thiªn nhiªn thÕ giíi; ~ on Biological Diversity: C«ng −íc vÒ b¶o vÖ sù ®a
d¹ng sinh häc; ~ on International Trade in Endangered Species: C«ng −íc vÒ th−¬ng
m¹i quèc tÕ ®èi víi c¸c loµi ®éng vËt cã nguy c¬ tiÖt chñng; ~ on the Law of the Sea:
C«ng −íc vÒ LuËt biÓn).
Coping strategy (n) ChiÕn l−îc, biÖn ph¸p kh¾c phôc khã kh¨n (i.e. plans, means and
actions used by the poor and/or the vulnerable to deal with difficult situations such as
unemployment, sickness, food shortage).
Core resources: Nguån vèn th−êng xuyªn (i.e. voluntary contributions by donor
governments to UN development Agencies, as opposed to Non-core resources).
Corporate (adj) Tæng qu¸t (e.g. A ~ plan: Mét kÕ ho¹ch tæng qu¸t); Thuéc vÒ c«ng ty
(e.g. A ~ law: LuËt c«ng ty).
Corrupt (adj) Tham nhòng (e.g. A ~ official: Mét quan chøc tham nhòng).
Corruption (n) Sù tham nhòng (i.e. defined broadly as the abuse of public office for
private gains). ~ - free (adj) Kh«ng cã tham nhòng (e.g. A ~ society: Mét x· héi kh«ng
cã tham nhòng).
Cost (n) Chi phÝ. Fixed ~ : Chi phÝ cè ®Þnh; Hidden ~ : ChÝ phÝ Èn; Visible ~ : Chi phÝ
hiÖn.
Cost-push inflation (n) L¹m ph¸t do søc ®Èy cña chi phÝ (i.e. inflation which is created
and sustained by increases in production costs, independently of the state of demand).
Cost recovery (n) LÊy thu bï chi, thu håi chi phÝ. On a ~ basis: Trªn c¬ së lÊy thu bï
chi.
Cost sharing (n) §ång tµi trî (i.e. financial contributions which are made by another
donor to a development project of UNDP and which are entrusted to UNDP to manage
in accordance with UNDP's own financial rules/regulations). Xem thªm Co-financing.
Cost-benefit analysis (n) Ph©n tÝch chi phÝ-lîi Ých (i.e a method to determine total
benefits and costs of a project through which to detect the alternation with the highest
benefit-cost ratio).
Cost-effective (adj) HiÖu qu¶ tÝnh theo chi phÝ, hiÖu qu¶ kinh tÕ.
Cost-effectiveness analysis (n) Ph©n tÝch chi phÝ – hiÖu qu¶ (i.e. an approach adopted
when the benefits from a project cannot be readily measured on monetary terms, yet it
has political or corporate benefits).
Counterpart (n) Bªn ®èi t¸c, bªn ®ång nhiÖm. ~ agency: C¬ quan ®èi t¸c; ~ capacity:
N¨ng lùc cña c¬ quan ®èi t¸c; The Vietnamese Foreign Minister and his US ~ : Ngo¹i
tr−ëng ViÖt Nam vµ ng−êi ®ång nhiÖm Hoa Kú.

13
Counterpart funding (n) Vèn ®èi øng (i.e. the contribution in local currency to project
costs by a country receiving development aid).
Counterpart personnel (n) Nh©n viªn ®èi t¸c (i.e. local staff of a country receiving aid
who have the same role as, and complement the work, of technical assistance experts).
Country programme (n) Ch−¬ng tr×nh quèc gia (e.g. UNDP’s ~ for Viet Nam for the
period 1992-1996).
Credit (n) TÝn dông. Micro ~ or small ~ : TÝn dông quy m« nhá; Rural ~ : TÝn dông
n«ng th«n; Informal ~ association: Héi ch¬i hôi.
Creditworthy (adj) Cã kh¶ n¨ng thanh to¸n nî (e.g. a ~ country, company). Hence,
Creditworthiness (n) Kh¶ n¨ng thanh to¸n nî.
Critical mass (n) Khèi l−îng cÇn thiÕt, ®Ó t¹o nªn t¸c ®éng mong muèn. (e.g. There
needs to be a ~ of assistance in order to make a meaningful impact on poverty reduction
efforts in the province).
Crop rotation (n) Lu©n canh (i.e. an agricultural method in which two or more crops are
rotated from year to year to reduce nutrient depletion of the soil and reliance on
pesticides)
Cropping (n) Trång trät, canh t¸c. ~ intensity: C−êng ®é canh t¸c; ~ pattern: C¬ cÊu
c©y trång; ~ season: Mïa vô trång trät; ~ sequence: Tr×nh tù gieo trång; ~ system: HÖ
thèng trång trät.
Cross check (n) KiÓm tra chÐo.
Cross-cutting (adj) Mang tÝnh ®a ngµnh, xuyªn suèt. ~ approach: Ph−¬ng ph¸p tiÕp cËn
mang tÝnh ®a ngµnh; ~ issue: Mét vÊn ®Ò xuyªn suèt.
Cross fertilization (n) Thô tinh chÐo, (nghÜa bãng) sù trao ®æi kinh nghiÖm.
Cross-sectoral (adj) Mang tÝnh ®a ngµnh. ~ approach: Ph−¬ng ph¸p tiÕp cËn mang
tÝnh ®a ngµnh.
Crowd out (v) LÊn ¸t, chÌn lÊn (e.g. Too much foreign expertise in a project can ~ local
initiative). Hence, Crowding out (n) Sù lÊn ¸t, sù chÌn lÊn.
Cultural (adj) Thuéc vÒ v¨n ho¸. ~ diversity: Sù ®a d¹ng vÒ v¨n ho¸; ~ environment:
M«i tr−êng v¨n ho¸; ~ exchange: Trao ®æi v¨n ho¸; ~ property: Tµi s¶n v¨n ho¸;
~ values: C¸c gi¸ trÞ v¨n ho¸.
Cultural heritage (n) Di s¶n v¨n ho¸.
Cultural identity (n) B¶n s¾c v¨n ho¸ (e.g. national ~ : B¶n s¾c v¨n ho¸ d©n téc)
Cultural integration (n) Héi nhËp vÒ v¨n ho¸.
Culture (n) V¨n ho¸. ~ in development: V¨n ho¸ trong (ho¹t ®éng) ph¸t triÓn;
Development ~: V¨n ho¸ ph¸t triÓn; Football ~ : V¨n ho¸ bãng ®¸; Office ~ : V¨n
ho¸ v¨n phßng; Traditional ~ : V¨n ho¸ truyÒn thèng.
Culture of Peace (n) NÒn V¨n ho¸ Hoµ b×nh (do UNESCO ph¸t ®éng trªn toµn thÕ giíi
n¨m 2000).
Cultural shock (n) Có sèc vÒ v¨n ho¸ (do tiÕp xóc víi mét nÒn v¨n minh rÊt kh¸c biÖt).
Cumulative (adj) TÝch luü. ~ impact, effect: T¸c ®éng, hiÖu qu¶ tÝch luü.
Cut across (v) Liªn quan ®Õn nhiÒu ngµnh, nhiÒu tæ chøc (e.g. Issues that ~ Government
agencies: Nh÷ng vÊn ®Ò liªn quan ®Õn nhiÒu c¬ quan ChÝnh phñ).

14
Cutting edge (n) Mòi nhän, t©n tiÕn nhÊt (e.g. A ~ technology: C«ng nghÖ mòi nhän; To
be on the ~ of the development business: §øng ë hµng ®Çu ho¹t ®éng ph¸t triÓn).

15
D
DAC List of Aid Recipients (n) Danh s¸ch c¸c n−íc nhËn viÖn trî cña Uû ban ViÖn trî
Ph¸t triÓn. Danh s¸ch nµy bao gåm PhÇn I (Part I) vµ PhÇn II (Part II). PhÇn I gåm c¸c
n−íc ®ang ph¸t triÓn cã møc GNP theo ®Çu ng−êi tõ 9,385 USD trë xuèng (gi¸ cè ®Þnh
n¨m 1995) vµ ®−îc nhËn ViÖn trî Ph¸t triÓn ChÝnh thøc. PhÇn II gåm c¸c n−íc ®ang
trong thêi kú chuyÓn ®æi ®−îc nhËn ViÖn trî ChÝnh thøc, ë Trung ¢u, §«ng ¢u, c¸c
N−íc Céng hoµ thuéc Liªn X« cò vµ mét sè n−íc hoÆc l·nh thæ cã tr×nh ®é ph¸t triÓn cao
h¬n. Xem thªm Development Assistance Committee.
Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA): C¬ quan Ph¸t triÓn Quèc tÕ
§an M¹ch.
Data (n) D÷ liÖu, sè liÖu. ~ analysis: Ph©n tÝch d÷ liÖu; ~ bank: Ng©n hµng d÷ liÖu;
~ collection: Thu thËp d÷ liÖu; ~ processing: Xö lý d÷ liÖu; ~ retrieval: Truy cËp d÷
liÖu; ~ storage: L−u tr÷ d÷ liÖu; ~ transmission: TruyÒn d÷ liÖu; ~ base: C¬ së d÷
liÖu.
Death rate (n) Tû lÖ tö vong. Crude ~ : Tû lÖ tö vong th«; Total ~ : Tæng tû lÖ tö vong.
Debrief (v) B¸o c¸o kÕt qu¶, khi kÕt thóc mét ho¹t ®éng (e.g. The delegation debriefed
the minister at the end of its visit). Hence, Debriefing (n) Buæi b¸o c¸o kÕt qu¶.
Debt (n) Nî. Bad ~ : Nî khª ®äng, nî khã ®ßi; Bilateral ~ : Nî song ph−¬ng;
Domestic ~ : Nî trong n−íc; Foreign ~: Nî n−íc ngoµi (also external ~ ); Multilateral
~ : Nî ®a ph−¬ng; Public ~ : Nî c«ng; Unsustainable ~ : Nî qu¸ søc chÞu ®ùng (i.e.
debt which exceeds 2 to 2.5 times a country's annual export earnings).
Debt cancellation (n) Xo¸ nî (also Debt forgiveness).
Debt crisis (n) Cuéc khñng ho¶ng nî (i.e. widespread inability in the 1980’s among
developing countries to service loans, resulting in strains in domestic development due to
rising oil prices, higher real interest rates, reduced lending and declining exports …).
Debt management (n) Qu¶n lý nî.
Debt refinancing (n) Tµi trî b»ng vay nî (i.e. a form of debt relief in which a new loan
is arranged to enable the debtor country to meet service payments on an earlier loan).
Debt relief (n) Gi¶m nî (i.e. a form of programme aid that is provided by the IMF to
write off part of the debt owned by a recipient government. Debt relief maybe in the
form of Debt cancellation, Debt refinancing, or Debt rescheduling).
Debt renegotiation (n) Th−¬ng l−îng l¹i vÒ viÖc tr¶ nî (i.e. negotiation in order to
change the terms of existing loans, usually by extending repayment nominal interest
rates).
Debt repayment (n) Tr¶ nî (Hence, To repay a debt).
Debt rescheduling (n) Ho·n tr¶ nî, ®¸o nî (Hence, To reschedule a debt).
Debt restructuring (n) C¬ cÊu l¹i nî (i.e. any action officially agreed between the
creditor and the debtor that alters the terms previously established for the repayment,
including forgiveness or rescheduling). Hence, To restructure a debt).
Debt service (n) Tæng nî ph¶i tr¶ (i.e. the sum of principal payments and interest
payments on total external debt). Hence, Debt servicing (n) ViÖc tr¶ nî, viÖc thanh to¸n
nî.

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Debt service obligations (n) NghÜa vô tr¶ nî.
Debt service ratio (n) Tû xuÊt nî ph¶i tr¶ (i.e. the ratio of debt service payments to
earnings from exports of goods).
Debt structure (n) C¬ cÊu nî.
Debt swap (n) Tr¸o nî.
Debtor (n) Con nî. A ~ country: N−íc vay nî.
Debt-for-nature swaps (n) ChuyÓn ho¸n nî phôc vô b¶o tån thiªn nhiªn (i.e. an
arrangement whereby a debt is resettled well below face value with the debtor country,
on the understanding that the funds received to settle the debt will be invested in the
country concerned on conservation projects).
Decentralization (n) Sù phi tËp trung ho¸, ph©n cÊp qu¶n lý (i.e. a general term that
refers to the restructuring of authority so that it is shared between governing institutions
at central, regional and local levels. Decentralization involved two key elements, namely
devolution ph©n quyÒn and delegation ñy quyÒn).
Decentralize (v) Phi tËp trung ho¸, ph©n cÊp qu¶n lý (e.g. To ~ the decision-making
process: Ph©n cÊp qu¸ tr×nh ra quyÕt ®Þnh).
Decentralized (adj) §−îc ph©n cÊp qu¶n lý. ~ decision-making: Ph©n cÊp ra quyÕt
®Þnh; ~ management: Ph©n cÊp qu¶n lý.
Deficit (n) Th©m hôt. Budget ~ : Th©m hôt ng©n s¸ch; Food ~ : ThiÕu l−¬ng thùc;
Trade ~ : Th©m hôt c¸n c©n th−¬ng m¹i.
Deficit financing (n) LÊy tµi chÝnh bï th©m hôt ng©n s¸ch, tµi trî th©m hôt ng©n s¸ch
(i.e. a situation where expenditure exceeds revenue such that a deficit is operated
deliberately in order to stiimulate economic activity and employment by injecting more
purchasing power into the economy).
Deflation (n) Gi¶m ph¸t. Hence, Deflator (n) ChØ sè gi¶m ph¸t.
Deforestration (n) T×nh tr¹ng tµn ph¸ rõng (i.e. Loss of forest cover from 40% of the
trees or more).
Delegate (v) Uû quyÒn, giao phã (e.g. To ~ the authority to someone: Uû quyÒn cho ai).
Hence, Delegation or ~ of authority (n) Sù uû quyÒn (i.e. the transfer of government
decision-making and administrative authority to semi-independent local units who may
still be legally accountable to the central government).
Demand (n) Yªu cÇu, l−îng cÇu (e.g. ~ for skilled labour has exceeded supply).
Aggregate ~ : Tæng cÇu; In ~ : §−îc nhiÒu ng−êi yªu cÇu, ®−îc −a chuéng (e.g. Top
quality secretaries are always in great ~). Excess ~ : D− cÇu.
Demand management (n) Qu¶n lý l−îng cÇu.
Demand pull inflation: L¹m ph¸t do cÇu v−ît cung.
Demand-driven (adj) Träng cÇu, do cÇu quyÕt ®Þnh (as opposed to Suppply-driven).
~ development aid: ViÖn trî ph¸t triÓn theo nhu cÇu (cña bªn tiÕp nhËn).
Demand-side economics: Kinh tÕ häc träng cÇu (as opposed to Supply-side
economics).
Demographic (adj) Thuéc vÒ d©n sè häc. ~ analysis: Ph©n tÝch d©n sè häc; ~ change:
Thay ®æi d©n sè häc; ~ indicators: C¸c chØ sè d©n sè häc; ~ momentum: §éng lùc d©n
sè häc; ~ transition: ChuyÓn tiÕp d©n sè häc. Hence, Demography (n) D©n sè häc.

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Demographic model (n) M« h×nh d©n sè häc (i.e. a model concerned with the structure,
growth and change of populations).
Demonstration (n) Tr×nh diÔn (e.g. ~ activities: Nh÷ng ho¹t ®éng mang tÝnh tr×nh diÔn;
A ~ project: Mét dù ¸n mang tÝnh tr×nh diÔn).
Department for International Development (DfID): C¬ quan Ph¸t triÓn Quèc tÕ Anh
quèc.
Dependency ratio (n) Tû lÖ phô thuéc (i.e. the ratio of the population defined as
dependent, aged under 15 and above 65, on the working age population, aged 15- 64).
Deplete (v) Lµm suy gi¶m, lµm c¹n kiÖt (e.g. To ~ natural resources: Lµm c¹n kiÖt c¸c
nguån tµi nguyªn; To ~ the ozone layer: Lµm suy gi¶m tÇng «-d«n). Montreal
Convention on Substances that ~ the Ozone Layer: C«ng −íc Montreal vÒ c¸c chÊt
lµm suy gi¶m tÇng «-d«n.
Depleting (adj) Lµm suy gi¶m, lµm c¹n kiÖt. Ozone ~ substances: C¸c chÊt lµm suy
gi¶m tÇng «-d«n.
Design (v) ThiÕt kÕ (e.g. To ~ a project: ThiÕt kÕ mét dù ¸n); (n) B¶n thiÕt kÕ (e.g. A
project ~ : ThiÕt kÕ cña mét dù ¸n).
Developing country (n) N−íc ®ang ph¸t triÓn (i.e. a low- or middle-income country in
which most people have a lower standard of living than do most people in a high-income
country).
Development (n) (Sù nghiÖp) ph¸t triÓn (i.e. the process of improving the quality of all
human lives which consists of three equally important aspects: raising people's living
standards in terms of their incomes and consumption levels; creating conditions conducive
to the growth of people's self-esteem through the establishment of social, political, and
economic systems/institutions; increasing people's freedom to make their choices in terms
of consumer goods and services). ~ agency: C¬ quan, tæ chøc ph¸t triÓn; ~ partner: §èi
t¸c ph¸t triÓn; ~ right: QuyÒn tham gia ph¸t triÓn; ~ target: ChØ tiªn ph¸t triÓn.
Development administration (n) Qu¶n trÞ ph¸t triÓn.
Development assistance (n) ViÖn trî ph¸t triÓn, trî gióp ph¸t triÓn.
Development Assistance Committee (DAC): Uû ban viÖn trî ph¸t triÓn, thuéc Tæ chøc
Hîp t¸c vµ Ph¸t triÓn Kinh tÕ (OECD). DAC lµ c¬ quan chñ yÕu qua ®ã OECD gi¶i quyÕt
c¸c vÊn ®Ò hîp t¸c víi c¸c n−íc ®ang ph¸t triÓn vµ lµ mét trong nh÷ng diÔn ®µn chÝnh cña
OECD ®Ó phèi hîp c¸c ho¹t ®éng hç trî sù nghiÖp ph¸t triÓn bÒn v÷ng.
Development cooperation (n) Hîp t¸c ph¸t triÓn (i.e. a term often used synonymously
with overseas development assistance to indicate the inter-dependent nature of the devel-
opment process and emphasize the cooperative effort of both poorer and richer countries).
Development economics (n) Kinh tÕ häc ph¸t triÓn.
Development objective (n) Môc tiªu ph¸t triÓn (i.e. a long-term objective of national
development or of a national programme).
Development planning (n) Quy ho¹ch ph¸t triÓn.
Development strategy (n) ChiÕn l−îc ph¸t triÓn.
Digital divide (n) Kho¶ng c¸ch c«ng nghÖ sè (i.e. the richest 20% of the world
population have access to 93.3% of the internet facilities and 74% of the telephone lines
while the poorest 20% have access to only respectively 0.2% and 1.5%).

18
Devolution (v) Sù ph©n quyÒn (i.e. a concept which is commonly understood to be
genuine decentralization. Under devolution, local units of government have full authority
to take decisions over which central authorities exercise little or no direct control).
Digital revolution (n) C¸ch m¹ng c«ng nghÖ sè.
Diminishing returns to scale (n) Lîi tøc gi¶m dÇn theo quy m« (i.e. a generalization
that while an increase in some inputs relative to other fixed inputs may raise total output,
there will come a point when the extra output is likely to diminish). Law of ~ : Quy luËt
lîi tøc gi¶n dÇn.
Direct support (n) Hç trî trùc tiÕp. A ~ project: Dù ¸n hç trî trùc tiÕp (i.e. a project
that is designed to respond to a one-time need and to reach its beneficiaries directly by
preparing, for example, feasibility studies, development plans, technical designs...).
Disadvantaged (adj) BÞ thiÖt thßi. Economically ~ provinces: C¸c tØnh bÞ thiÖt thßi vÒ
kinh tÕ; ~ groups: C¸c nhãm d©n c− bÞ thiÖt thßi.
Disaster (n) Thiªn tai (th−êng hay ®i víi natural ~ s ). Environmental ~ : Tai biÕn m«i
tr−êng; Technological ~ : Tai ho¹ do c«ng nghÖ g©y ra; Man-made ~ : Tai ho¹ do con
ng−êi g©y ra; Water ~ : Thiªn tai do n−íc g©y ra, thuû tai.
Disaster forecasting (n) Dù b¸o thiªn tai.
Disaster management (n) Qu¶n lý thiªn tai.
Disaster mitigation (n) Gi¶m nhÑ (hËu qu¶) thiªn tai.
Disaster preparedness (n) Phßng chèng thiªn tai.
Disaster-prone (adj) Hay gÆp thiªn tai (e.g. Viet Nam is one of the most ~ countries in
the world).
Disaster relief (n) Cøu trî thiªn tai.
Disaster response (n) BiÖn ph¸p ®èi phã víi thiªn tai.
Disaster warning (n) C¶nh b¸o vÒ thiªn tai.
Disburse (v) Chi tiªu, gi¶i ng©n (e.g. Viet Nam disbursed over US$ 1.4 billion of ODA
in 2001).
Disbursement (n) Sè tiÒn ®−îc gi¶i ng©n, møc gi¶i ng©n, vèn thùc hiÖn (e.g. Viet Nam's
total ODA ~ during 2001 was over US$ 1.4 million).
Disease (n) BÖnh. Chronic ~s : BÖnh m·n tÝnh; Endemic ~ s: BÖnh dÞch; Guinea
worm ~ s: BÖnh giun Ghi-nª; Infectious ~s: BÖnh truyÒn nhiÔm; Mental ~s: BÖnh t©m
thÇn; Occupational ~s: BÖnh nghÒ nghiÖp; Respiratory ~s: BÖnh ®−êng h« hÊp;
Vector-borne ~ s: BÖnh truyÒn qua vËt chñ trung gian; Water-borne ~ s: BÖnh truyÒn
qua n−íc.
Displaced people (n) Ng−êi l¸nh n¹n; Internally ~ : Ng−êi l¸nh n¹n trong n−íc.
Dissolution (n) Gi¶i thÓ (e.g. The ~ of loss-making State-owned enterprises: Gi¶i thÓ c¸c
doanh nghiÖp Nhµ n−íc lµm ¨n thua lç).
Distribution (n) Sù ph©n phèi, sù ph©n bæ. ~ of profits: Ph©n phèi lîi nhuËn;
Geographical ~ of aid: Ph©n bæ viÖn trî theo vïng l·nh thæ; Geographical ~ of
poverty: T×nh tr¹ng nghÌo theo vïng l·nh thæ. Hence, Distribute (v) Ph©n phèi, ph©n

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Distribution of income (n) Ph©n phèi thu nhËp. Functional ~ : Ph©n phèi thu nhËp
theo chøc n¨ng (i.e. dividing income according to sources such as wages, profits, rent,
ect...); Size ~ : Ph©n phèi thu nhËp theo quy m« (i.e. showing how many persons or
families receive how much income).
Diversification (n) Sù ®a d¹ng ho¸. Crop ~ : §a d¹ng ho¸ c©y trång; Export ~: §a
d¹ng ho¸ xuÊt khÈu; Risk ~ : §a d¹ng ho¸ rñi ro.
Diversity (n) TÝnh ®a d¹ng (e.g. The ~ of ecosystems: TÝnh ®a d¹ng cña c¸c hÖ sinh
th¸i).
Diversity in unity (n) TÝnh ®a d¹ng trong thèng nhÊt (e.g. To maintain the ~ in unity of
the United Nations Organization).
Divest (v) Thanh lý. Thus, Divestiture (n) Sù thanh lý. (e.g. ~ of a loss making business:
Thanh lý doanh nghiÖp lµm ¨n thu lç).
Divide (n) §−êng ph©n c¸ch, kho¶ng c¸ch. North-South ~ : Kho¶ng c¸ch gi÷a c¸c n−íc
ph−¬ng B¾c (c¸c n−íc giµu) vµ ph−¬ng Nam (c¸c n−íc nghÌo); Urban - rural ~ :
Kho¶ng c¸ch gi÷a thµnh thÞ vµ n«ng th«n; Digital ~ : Kho¶ng c¸ch c«ng nghÖ sè.
Dividend (n) TiÒn l·i cæ phÇn, cæ tøc. To pay dividends: Tr¶ l·i cæ phÇn; (nghÜa bãng)
mang l¹i lîi Ých (e.g. The strong reform measure that the Government took has paid fast
dividends: BiÖn ph¸p c¶i c¸ch m¹nh mÏ ChÝnh phñ thùc hiÖn ®· mang l¹i lîi Ých nhanh
chãng).
Document (n) Tµi liÖu, (v) V¨n b¶n ho¸, ghi chÐp thµnh v¨n b¶n (e.g. Lessons from
poverty reduction projects must be well-documented and widely shared amongst target
groups).
Dollarization (n) (Sù, t×nh tr¹ng) ®« la ho¸ (i.e. the ~ of a national currency).
Donor (n) Nhµ tµi trî. ~ country: N−íc tµi trî; ~ organiztion: Tæ chøc tµi trî;
Bilateral ~: Nhµ tµi trî song ph−¬ng; Multilateral ~: Nhµ tµi trî ®a ph−¬ng;
~ community: Céng ®ång c¸c nhµ tµi trî.
Donor-driven or donor-led (adj) (BÞ, do) nhµ tµi trî chi phèi (e.g. A ~ aid coordination
event: Ho¹t ®éng ®iÒu phèi viÖn trî do c¸c nhµ tµi trî chi phèi).
Downstream (adj) ë cÊp vi m«, cuèi nguån, ®èi lËp víi Upstream (e.g. The
effectiveness of ~ assistance activities is heavily affected by the upstream economic
policy and institutional environments).
Drop-out (n) Bá häc. ~ rate: Tû lÖ bá häc (Xem thªm School drop-out). Hence, to
drop out of school (v) : Bá häc.
Drug (n) Ma tuý, chÊt g©y nghiÖn. ~ control and prevention: KiÓm so¸t vµ phßng
chèng ma tuý; ~ interdiction and seizure: Ng¨n chÆn bu«n lËu vµ b¾t gi÷ ma tuý.
Dry farming (n) Canh t¸c trªn ®Êt kh« h¹n.

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Drug abuse (n) L¹m dông ma tuý. Hence, Drug abuser (n) Ng−êi l¹m dông ma tuý.
Drug addiction (n) NghiÖn ma tuý. Hence, Drug addict (n) Ng−êi nghiÖn ma tuý.
Drug dealer (n) Ng−êi bu«n b¸n ma tuý.
Drug demand reduction (n) Gi¶m l−îng cÇu ma tuý.
Drug detoxification (n) Cai nghiÖn ma tuý. Community-based ~ : Cai nghiÖn t¹i céng
®ång; Family-based ~ : Cai nghiÖn t¹i nhµ; Obligatory ~ : Cai nghiÖn b¾t buéc;
Voluntary ~ : Cai nghiÖn tù nguyÖn.
Drug inhaling (n) HÝt, ngöi ma tuý. Hence, Drug inhaler (n) Ng−êi hÝt, ngöi ma tuý.
Drug relapse (n) T¸i nghiÖn. ~ rate: Tû lÖ t¸i nghiÖn.
Drug-related harms (n) T¸c h¹i do may tuý g©y ra.
Drug supply reduction (n) Gi¶m l−îng cung ma tuý.
Drug trafficking (n) VËn chuyÓn, bu«n lËu ma tuý. Hence, Drug trafficker (n) Ng−êi
vËn chuyÓn, bu«n lËu ma tuý.
Drug treatment (n) §iÒu trÞ. ~ and rehabilitation: §iÒu trÞ vµ phôc håi chøc n¨ng
ng−êi nghiÖn ma tuý.
Duration (n) Thêi gian diÔn ra (mét sù kiÖn, mét ho¹t ®éng). Project ~ : Thêi gian thùc
hiÖn dù ¸n.

21
E
Ear-mark (v) Ph©n bæ s¬ bé. Hence, Ear-marking (n) Sù ph©n bæ s¬ bé (e.g. the ~ of
available aid resources: Sù ph©n bæ s¬ bé c¸c nguån viÖn trî hiÖn cã).
Earth Summit (n) Héi nghÞ Th−îng ®Ønh vÒ Tr¸i ®Êt (i.e. the other name of the UN
Conference on Environment and Development held in 1992 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil).
Easy money (n) TiÒn dÔ vay.
Ecological (adj) Thuéc vÒ sinh th¸i. ~ balance: C©n b»ng sinh th¸i; ~ indicators: C¸c
chØ sè vÒ sinh th¸i.
Ecological agriculture (n) N«ng nghiÖp sinh th¸i.
Ecological capacity (n) Søc t¶i cña hÖ sinh th¸i (Xem thªm Carrying capacity).
Ecological diversity (n) Sù ®a d¹ng vÒ sinh th¸i.
Ecological niche (n) N¬i c− tró, æ sinh th¸i (i.e. a place in the system that provides all
the living needs of a species, that species being better adapted to occupy that niche than
any other species).
Ecological resilience (n) Søc bÒn cña hÖ sinh th¸i.
Ecologically sustainable (adj) BÒn v÷ng vÒ mÆt sinh th¸i.
Ecology (n) Sinh th¸i häc (i.e. scientific study of the interactions between organisms and
their environment). Human ~ : Sinh th¸i häc nh©n v¨n; Marine ~: Sinh th¸i biÓn.
Ecomuseum (n) B¶o tµng sinh th¸i. Ha Long Bay ~ feasibility study: Nghiªn cøu kh¶
thi vÒ b¶o tµng sinh th¸i VÞnh H¹ Long.
Economic (adj) Thuéc vÒ kinh tÕ. ~ aid: ViÖn trî kinh tÕ; ~ analysis: Ph©n tÝch kinh tÕ;
~ cost: Chi phÝ kinh tÕ; ~ disparity: Sù chªnh lÖch vÒ kinh tÕ; ~ forecasts: Dù b¸o kinh
tÕ; ~ incentive: BiÖn ph¸p khuyÕn khÝch vÒ kinh tÕ; ~ indicators: C¸c chØ sè kinh tÕ;
~ instruments: C¸c c«ng cô kinh tÕ; ~ resources: C¸c nguån lùc kinh tÕ; ~ systems:
C¸c hÖ thèng kinh tÕ.
Economic cooperation (n) Hîp t¸c kinh tÕ.
Economic development (n) Ph¸t triÓn kinh tÕ (i.e. economic growth plus structural and
institutional change which involves the progress towards goals and objectives).
Economic growth (n) T¨ng tr−ëng kinh tÕ (i.e. an increase in productive capacity of an
economy over time, giving rise to an increase in real National Income).
Economic integration (n) Héi nhËp kinh tÕ.
Economic interdependence (n) Sù tuú thuéc lÉn nhau vÒ kinh tÕ.
Economic liberalization (n) Tù do ho¸ kinh tÕ.
Economic performance (n) HiÖu qu¶ ho¹t ®éng kinh tÕ.
Economic planning (n) Quy ho¹ch kinh tÕ.
Economically active population (n) D©n sè ho¹t ®éng kinh tÕ (i.e. all men or women
who supply labour for the production of goods/services during a specified period of
time). ~ in working age: D©n sè ho¹t ®éng kinh tÕ trong ®é tuæi lao ®éng.
Economies of scale (n) HiÖu qu¶ kinh tÕ theo quy m«, tiÕt kiÖm nhê quy m« (i.e. the
gains by way of reduced average and marginal costs of production per unit of output
arising from increasing the scale of a plant, business or industry).

22
Economistic (adj) Mang tÝnh kinh tÕ thuÇn tuý (e.g. An ~ approach: C¸ch tiÕp cËn kinh
tÕ häc thuÇn tuý).
Economy (n) NÒn kinh tÕ. Barter ~ : NÒn kinh tÕ hµng ®æi hµng; Centrally planned ~ :
Kinh tÕ kÕ ho¹ch ho¸ tËp trung; Closed ~ : NÒn kinh tÕ ®ãng (also Inward-looking ~ );
Command ~ : NÒn kinh tÕ theo mÖnh lÖnh; Market ~ : NÒn kinh tÕ thÞ tr−êng; Mixed ~
: NÒn kinh tÕ hçn hîp (cã c¸c thµnh phÇn kinh tÕ t− nh©n vµ Nhµ n−íc); Open ~ : NÒn
kinh tÕ më (also Outward-looking ~).
Ecosystem (n) HÖ sinh th¸i (i.e. a self-sustaining and self-regulating community of
organisms interacting with each other and with the environment). Natural ~ : HÖ sinh
th¸i tù nhiªn; Representative ~ : HÖ sinh th¸i ®¹i diÖn ®Æc tr−ng; Supporting ~ : HÖ
sinh th¸i hç trî; Sensitive ~ : HÖ sinh th¸i nh¹y c¶m.
Ecosystem diversity (n) §a d¹ng hÖ sinh th¸i.
Ecosystem management (n) Qu¶n lý hÖ sinh th¸i.
Ecosystem rehabilitation (n) Kh«i phôc hÖ sinh th¸i.
Ecosystem restoration (n) Phôc håi hÖ sinh th¸i.
Ecotourism (n) Du lÞch sinh th¸i.
Education (n) Gi¸o dôc. Primary ~ : Gi¸o dôc tiÓu häc; Lower secondary ~ : Gi¸o
dôc trung häc c¬ së; Upper secondary ~ : Gi¸o dôc trung häc phæ th«ng; Higher ~ :
Gi¸o dôc cao häc.
Education for all (n) Gi¸o dôc cho tÊt c¶ mäi ng−êi. Plan of Action for ~ : KÕ ho¹ch
hµnh ®éng vÒ Gi¸o dôc cho tÊt c¶ mäi ng−êi, ®−îc th«ng qua t¹i Héi nghÞ ThÕ giíi vÒ
Gi¸o dôc cho TÊt c¶ mäi ng−êi tæ chøc t¹i Jomtien, Th¸i Lan, vµo n¨m 1990.
Educational attainment (n) Häc vÊn. Level of ~ : Tr×nh ®é häc vÊn.
Effective (adj) Cã hiÖu lùc, hiÖu qu¶ (e.g. An ~ public administration system).
Efficient (adj) Cã hiÖu suÊt, hiÖu qu¶ (e.g. An ~ management mechanism).
Electronic (adj) B»ng ph−¬ng tiÖn ®iÖn tö, th−êng ®−îc viÕt t¾t lµ “E-”, vÝ dô:
E-business: Kinh doanh ®iÖn tö; E-commerce: Th−¬ng m¹i ®iÖn tö; E-government:
ChÝnh phñ ®iÖn tö; E-learning: Häc tËp qua m¹ng ®iÖn tö; E-mail: Th− ®iÖn tö;
E-payment: Thanh to¸n (qua m¹ng) ®iÖn tö; E-training: §µo t¹o qua m¹ng ®iÖn tö.
Emergency relief (n) Cøu trî khÈn cÊp (e.g. To send ~ to flood victims).
Emperical (n) Thuéc vÒ thùc tÕ. ~ evidence: B»ng chøng thùc tÕ; ~ ground: C¨n cø,
c¬ së thùc tÕ.
Employment (n) ViÖc lµm. Casual ~ : ViÖc lµm t¹m thêi; Full ~: Cã viÖc lµm ®Çy ®ñ
(i.e. the state of an economy in which all persons seeking employment are able to obtain
paid positions); Seasonal ~ : ViÖc lµm thêi vô.
Employment generating (adj) T¹o ra viÖc lµm (e.g. ~ policy measures: Nh÷ng biÖn
ph¸p t¹o viÖc lµm).
Employment generation (n) T¹o viÖc lµm.
Employment security (n) æn ®Þnh vÒ viÖc lµm, ®¶m b¶o viÖc lµm.
Employment-intensive (adj) T¹o ra nhiÒu viÖc lµm (e.g. an ~ business, industry,
project).
Empower (v) N©ng cao vÞ thÕ, t¹o ®iÒu kiÖn tham gia (e.g. To ~ the poor: N©ng cao vÞ
thÕ cña ng−êi nghÌo, t¹o ®iÒu kiÖn ®Ó ng−êi nghÌo tham gia).

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Empowerment (n) N©ng cao vÞ thÕ, t¹o ®iÒu kiÖn thuËn lîi (i.e. the expansion of ability
and/or opportunity to someone which enables him/her to participate in or endorse
decision-making that affects his/her life).
Enabling environment (n) M«i tr−êng thuËn lîi (i.e. conditions surrounding an activity
or system that facilitate the fulfillment of the potential of that activity or system, such as
supportive laws and policies, e.g. An ~ for foreign direct investment).
Endangered species (n) C¸c loµi vËt cã nguy c¬ tiÖt chñng (i.e. Organisms that are at
risk of becoming extinct).
Endogenous (adj) Néi sinh.
End-user (n) Ng−êi sö dông cuèi cïng (e.g. The end-users of project results).
Energy-intensive (adj) Tiªu thô nhiÒu n¨ng l−îng (e.g. an ~ industry).
Engine of growth (n) §éng lùc t¨ng tr−ëng (e.g. The private sector is often seen as the ~
of a market economy).
Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility (ESAF): ThÓ thøc ®iÒu chØnh c¬ cÊu t¨ng
c−êng, do Quü TiÒn tÖ Quèc tÕ lËp ra nh»m gióp c¸c n−íc ®ang ph¸t triÓn thùc hiÖn c¸c
ch−¬ng tr×nh trung h¹n vÒ kinh tÕ vÜ m« vµ ®iÒu chØnh c¬ cÊu.
Enrolment (n) Sè ng−êi ®i häc, sè ng−êi nhËp häc (nÕu ®−îc b¸o c¸o vµo ®Çu n¨m häc).
Age-specific ~ ratio: Tû lÖ ®i häc ®Æc tr−ng theo løa tuæi; Gross ~ ratio: Tû lÖ ®i häc
chung (i.e. the number of students enrolled in a level of education, regardless of age, as a
percentage of the population of official school age for that level). Net ~ ratio: Tû lÖ ®i
häc ®óng tuæi (i.e. the number of children of official school age enrolled in school as a
percentage of the number of children of official school age in the population).
Entitlement (n) Tiªu chuÈn, chÕ ®é. Entitlement-based (adj) Theo tiªu chuÈn, chÕ ®é
(e.g. To replace a ~ system by a merit-based system: Thay thÕ hÖ thèng dùa vµo tiªu
chuÈn b»ng hÖ thèng dùa vµo kÕt qu¶ lµm viÖc).
Entrepreneur (n) Nhµ doanh nghiÖp, doanh nh©n. Entrepreneurial (adj) Cã ý thøc
doanh nghiÖp. Entrepreneurship (n) ý thøc doanh nghiÖp.
Environment (n) M«i tr−êng. Built ~ : M«i tr−êng do con ng−êi t¹o ra, m«i tr−êng
nh©n t¹o; Business ~ : M«i tr−êng kinh doanh; Cultural ~ : M«i tr−êng v¨n ho¸;
Human ~ : M«i tr−êng nh©n v¨n; Institutional ~ : M«i tr−êng thÓ chÕ; Investment ~ :
M«i tr−êng ®Çu t−; Natural ~ : M«i tr−êng tù nhiªn; Physical ~ : M«i tr−êng vËt chÊt;
Policy ~ : M«i tr−êng chÝnh s¸ch; Political ~ : M«i tr−êng chÝnh trÞ. Built and natural
~ of the Ha Long World Heritage Area: M«i tr−êng nh©n t¹o vµ m«i tr−êng tù nhiªn cña
Khu Di s¶n ThÕ giíi VÞnh H¹ Long.
Environmental (adj) Thuéc vÒ m«i tr−êng. ~ concerns, considerations: C¸c vÊn ®Ò
(cÇn quan t©m) vÒ m«i tr−êng; ~ forecasting: Dù b¸o vÒ m«i tr−êng; ~ impact: T¸c
®éng ®Õn m«i tr−êng; ~ indicators: C¸c chØ sè vÒ m«i tr−êng; ~ legislation: LuËt ph¸p
vÒ m«i tr−êng; ~ science: Khoa häc m«i tr−êng; ~ tax: ThuÕ m«i tr−êng.
Environmental accounting (n) KiÓm kª m«i tr−êng.
Environmental assessment (n) §¸nh gi¸ vÒ m«i tr−êng. Strategic ~ : §¸nh gi¸ m«i
tr−êng chiÕn l−îc (i.e. a systematic method for identifying, predicting and evaluating the
potential effects on the environment of a development policy, plan or programme).

24
Environmental audit (n) KiÓm to¸n m«i tr−êng.
Environmental awareness (n) NhËn thøc vÒ m«i tr−êng. ~ strategy: ChiÕn l−îc n©ng
cao nhËn thøc vÒ m«i tr−êng.
Environmental care system (n) HÖ thèng b¶o ®¶m m«i tr−êng (gåm c¸c biÖn ph¸p nh−
gi¸m s¸t, kiÓm to¸n, b¸o c¸o vµ kiÓm kª m«i tr−êng).
Environmental conservation (n) B¶o tån m«i tr−êng.
Environmental degradation (n) Suy tho¸i, xuèng cÊp vÒ m«i tr−êng.
Environmental economics (n) Kinh tÕ häc m«i tr−êng.
Environmental education (n) Gi¸o dôc vÒ m«i tr−êng.
Environmental evaluation (n) §¸nh gi¸ vÒ m«i tr−êng.
Environmental heritage (n) Di s¶n m«i tr−êng.
Environmental impact assessment (n) §¸nh gi¸ t¸c ®éng m«i tr−êng (i.e. a systematic
method for identifying, predicting and evaluating the potential effects on the
environment of a development project or activity).
Environmental impact statement (n) B¸o c¸o vÒ ®¸nh gi¸ t¸c ®éng m«i tr−êng.
Environmental management (n) Qu¶n lý m«i tr−êng.
Environmental monitoring (n) Quan tr¾c (hoÆc gi¸m s¸t) m«i tr−êng;
Environmental policy and planning (n) ChÝnh s¸ch vµ quy ho¹ch m«i tr−êng.
Environmental protection (n) B¶o vÖ m«i tr−êng.
Environmental quality: ChÊt l−îng m«i tr−êng. ~ standards: C¸c tiªu chuÈn chÊt
l−îng m«i tr−êng, bao gåm Ambient standards Tiªu chuÈn m«i tr−êng xung quanh vµ
Emission/discharge standards Tiªu chuÈn ph¸t th¶i).
Environmental regeneration (n) T¸i t¹o m«i tr−êng.
Environmental reporting (n) LËp b¸o c¸o vÒ m«i tr−êng.
Environmental sustainability (n) TÝnh bÒn v÷ng vÒ m«i tr−êng.
Environmentally sensitive (adj) Nh¹y c¶m vÒ m«i tr−êng (e.g. An ~ area: Khu vùc nh¹y
c¶m vÒ m«i tr−êng; An ~ export: MÆt hµng xuÊt khÈu nh¹y c¶m vÒ m«i tr−êng).
Environmentally-friendly (adj) Quan t©m b¶o vÖ m«i tr−êng, th©n thiÖn víi m«i tr−êng
(e.g. An ~ production technology, development project).
Equitable distribution (n) Ph©n phèi c«ng b»ng (e.g. An ~ of the benefits of economic
growth: Ph©n phèi c«ng b»ng nh÷ng lîi Ých cña t¨ng tr−ëng kinh tÕ).
Equitize (v) Cæ phÇn ho¸. Hence, Equitization (e.g. The ~ of loss-making State-owned
enterprises: Cæ phÇn ho¸ c¸c doanh nghiÖp Nhµ n−íc lµm ¨n thua lç).
Ergonomics (n) Nh©n tr¾c häc (i.e. the study of the relationship between people and the
equipment, machinery, tools and furnature they use at workplace, with the aim of
improving their work performance).
Ethics (n) §¹o ®øc. Professional ~ : §¹o ®øc nghÒ nghiÖp.
Evaluation (n) §¸nh gi¸ (i.e. a time-bound exercise that attempts to assess
systematically and objectively the relevance, performance and success of on-going or
completed projects, programmes). Project ~ : §¸nh gi¸ dù ¸n.
Evaluation by agent (n) §¸nh gi¸ theo ng−êi thùc hiÖn, gåm cã: External or
independent ~ : §¸nh gi¸ bªn ngoµi, ®¸nh gi¸ ®éc lËp vµ Internal ~ : §¸nh gi¸ néi bé.

25
Evaluation by scope (n) §¸nh gi¸ theo quy m«, gåm cã: Project ~ : §¸nh gi¸ dù ¸n,
Cluster ~ : §¸nh gi¸ côm dù ¸n, Programme ~ : §¸nh gi¸ ch−¬ng tr×nh, Sectoral ~ :
§¸nh gi¸ theo ngµnh, vµ Thematic ~ : §¸nh gi¸ theo chuyªn ®Ò.
Evaluation by timing (n) §¸nh gi¸ theo thêi ®iÓm, gåm cã: Mid-term ~ : §¸nh gi¸
gi÷a kú, Terminal ~ : §¸nh gi¸ kÕt thóc, vµ Ex-post ~ : §¸nh gi¸ sau khi kÕt thóc hay
Impact ~ : §¸nh gi¸ t¸c ®éng.
Excellence (n) Sù xuÊt s¾c. Center of ~ : Trung t©m tri thøc hay c«ng nghÖ tiªn tiÕn.
Exchange (n) Trao ®æi, hèi ®o¸i. Cultural ~ : Trao ®æi v¨n ho¸; ~ market: ThÞ tr−êng
ngo¹i hèi; ~ rate: Tû gi¸ hèi ®o¸i.
Exchange control regulations (n) Quy chÕ qu¶n lý ngo¹i hèi.
Exclusion (n) Sù lo¹i bá, ruång bá. Social ~ : (T×nh tr¹ng) bÞ x· héi ruång bá, bÞ g¹t ra
ngoµi lÒ x· héi (Also social marginalization).
Executing agency: C¬ quan ®iÒu hµnh, chñ ®Çu t− (cña mét dù ¸n hay ch−¬ng tr×nh) .
Executing arrangements: C¸ch tæ chøc ®iÒu hµnh (cña mét dù ¸n hay ch−¬ng tr×nh).
Execution (n) Sù ®iÒu hµnh (i.e. the management of a UNDP-funded project which
includes accountability for the effective use of UNDP resources). National execution:
Ph−¬ng thøc quèc gia ®iÒu hµnh dù ¸n.
Exit strategy (n) ChiÕn l−îc, kÕ ho¹ch rót lui (i.e. a plan for phasing out external
assistance).
Exogenous (adj) Ngo¹i sinh.
Expendable equipment (n) ThiÕt bÞ tiªu hao.
Expenditure (n) Chi tiªu. Public ~ : Chi tiªu c«ng céng; Public ~ management:
Qu¶n lý chi tiªu c«ng céng; Public ~ review: KiÓm ®iÓm chi tiªu c«ng céng.
Expert (n) Chuyªn gia (Hence, Expertise kiÕn thøc chuyªn s©u).
Export (n) XuÊt khÈu; ~ earnings: Thu nhËp tõ xuÊt khÈu; ~ promotion: Xóc tiÕn xuÊt
khÈu; ~ quota: H¹n ng¹ch xuÊt khÈu; ~ value: Kim ng¹ch xuÊt khÈu.
Export processing zone (n) Khu chÕ xuÊt.
Export-oriented (adj) Theo ®Þnh h−íng xuÊt khÈu (e.g. An ~ economy, industry).
Exposure (n) TiÕp xóc, tiÕp cËn víi (e.g. ~ to international experiences: TiÕp xóc, tiÕp
cËn víi kinh nghiÖm quèc tÕ).
Extended family (n) Gia ®×nh më réng, gia ®×nh nhiÒu thÕ hÖ.
Extension (n) KÐo dµi, gia h¹n. Contract ~ : Gian h¹n hîp ®ång, triÓn h¹n hîp ®ång;
Project ~ : Gia h¹n dù ¸n, kÐo dµi dù ¸n.
Extensive (adj) Réng vÒ diÖn tÝch, lín vÒ sè l−îng. ~ farming: Qu¶ng canh; ~ growth:
Sù t¨ng tr−ëng dùa vµo khai th¸c tµi nguyªn (i.e. economic growth based on extensive
exploitation of resources).
Externality (n) Ngo¹i øng, yÕu tè ngo¹i lai (i.e. a benefit or cost falling on a third party
who normally cannot pay or be compensated for it through the martket mechanism).
Extrabudgetary (adj) Ngoµi ng©n s¸ch. ~ expenditure: Kho¶n chi tiªu ngoµi ng©n
s¸ch; ~ income: Thu nhËp ngoµi ng©n s¸ch.

26
F
Face value (n) Gi¸ trÞ danh nghÜa (e.g. to take something for its ~ : ChÊp nhËn, nh×n
nhËn mét c¸i g× theo gi¸ trÞ danh nghÜa cña nã).
Facilitate (v) T¹o dÔ dµng, dÉn d¾t (e.g. to ~ a workshop, seminar, policy dialogue).
Facilitating (adj) T¹o dÔ dµng… (e.g. To play a ~ role in the training course: §ãng vai
trß lµ ng−êi dÉn d¾t trong kho¸ ®µo t¹o).
Facilitation (n) T¹o thuËn lîi (e.g. Business, investment ~ : T¹o ®iÒu kiÖn thuËn lîi cho
th−¬ng m¹i vµ ®Çu t−). Trade ~ : ThuËn lîi ho¸ th−¬ng m¹i.
Facilitator (n) Ng−êi dÉn d¾t, ng−êi ®ãng vai trß trung gian, ng−êi hç trî (e.g. The
consultant served as a ~ for the training workshop).
Factor (n) YÕu tè. ~ market : ThÞ tr−êng c¸c yÕu tè s¶n suÊt.
Factors of production (n) C¸c yÕu tè s¶n suÊt (i.e. land, labour, capital, natural
resources... that combine to produce goods and services).
Familiar with (adj) Quen biÕt, am hiÓu, thÊu hiÓu (e.g. To be ~ Vietnamese economic
and political conditions: Am hiÓu ®iÒu kiÖn kinh tÕ vµ chÝnh trÞ ë ViÖt Nam). Hence,
Familiarity with (n) Sù am hiÓu, sù thÊu hiÓu.
Family (n) Gia ®×nh. ~ environment: M«i tr−êng trong gia ®×nh; extended ~ : Gia ®×nh
më réng (gåm nhiÒu thÕ hÖ sèng chung); ~ farm: Trang tr¹i gia ®×nh; nuclear ~ : Gia
®×nh h¹t nh©n (gåm cha mÑ vµ c¸c con).
Family planning (n) KÕ ho¹ch ho¸ gia ®×nh. ~ services: DÞch vô kÕ ho¹ch ho¸ gia ®×nh.
Family-based (adj) Dùa theo hé, gia ®×nh (e.g. A ~ farming system: HÖ thèng canh t¸c
dùa vµo hé gia ®×nh).
Farm (n) N«ng tr¹i. On-farm (adj) Trªn ®ång ruéng, liªn quan ®Õn n«ng nghiÖp (e.g.
~ employment); Off-farm (adj) Phi n«ng nghiÖp (e.g. ~ income generating activities).
Farmer (n) Ng−êi n«ng d©n. ~ network analysis: Ph©n tÝch m¹ng l−íi n«ng d©n.
Farming (n) Canh t¸c. Dry ~ : (Ph−¬ng ph¸p) canh t¸c trªn ®Êt kh« h¹n; Extensive ~ :
Qu¶ng canh; Intensive ~ : Th©m canh; Mixed ~ : Xen canh; Organic ~ : Ph−¬ng ph¸p
canh t¸c s¹ch, canh t¸c h÷u c¬ (kh«ng sö dông ho¸ chÊt mµ chØ sö dông c¸c chÊt h÷u
c¬).
Farming systems (n) C¸c hÖ thèng canh t¸c. ~ research: Nghiªn cøu vÒ c¸c hÖ thèng
canh t¸c.
Farming techniques (n) Kü thuËt canh t¸c.
Feasibility study (n) Nghiªn cøu kh¶ thi (i.e. a way to determine whether a solution is
achievable, given the organization’s resources and constraints).
Feedback (n) ý kiÕn ph¶n håi, sù håi ©m (i.e. the use of information produced at one
stage in a series of operations as input at another stage). ~ mechanism: C¬ chÕ cung cÊp
th«ng tin ph¶n håi; A bottom-up ~ mechanism: C¬ chÕ cung cÊp th«ng tin ph¶n håi tõ
c¬ së.
Fellowship (n) §µo t¹o theo häc bæng. Hence, Fellowship holder: Ng−êi ®−îc cÊp häc
bæng; ~ training programme: Ch−¬ng tr×nh ®µo t¹o theo häc bæng.
Female head of household (n) Chñ hé lµ n÷.

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Female-headed household (n) Hé do phô n÷ lµm chñ hé (Xem thªm Woman).
Fertility (n) Kh¶ n¨ng sinh ®Î, møc sinh (e.g. drop, decline or fall in ~ : Gi¶m møc sinh).
Fertility rate (n) Tû suÊt sinh. Age-specific ~ : Tû suÊt sinh ®Æc tr−ng theo løa tuæi;
Crude ~ : Tû suÊt sinh th«; Fecundity ~ : Tû suÊt sinh tiÒm n¨ng; Marital ~ : Tû suÊt
sinh trong gi¸ thó; Natural ~ : Tû suÊt sinh tù nhiªn; Total ~ : Tæng tû suÊt sinh (i.e the
number of childdren that a woman would have, hypothetically, during her lifetime if
current age-specific fertility rates were to persist).
Field (n) Thùc ®Þa (e.g. A ~ level activity: Ho¹t ®éng ¬ cÊp thùc ®Þa; A ~ visit: ChuyÕn ®i
th¨m thùc ®Þa; A ~ worker: Ng−êi lµm viÖc trªn thùc ®Þa).
Field (v) TriÓn khai trªn thùc ®Þa (e.g. To ~ a consultant mission: §−a ®oµn chuyªn gia
t− vÊn ®Õn thùc ®Þa).
Financial assistance (n) ViÖn trî tµi chÝnh (i.e. all bilateral or multilateral financial
flows, excluding the cost of technical cooperation. It is sometimes called capital aid, and
includes both project and non-project aid).
Financial closure (n) Kho¸ sæ tµi chÝnh, kÕt thóc vÒ tµi chÝnh (e.g. The ~ of a project:
KÕt thóc dù ¸n vÒ tµi chÝnh, kho¸ sæ tµi chÝnh cña dù ¸n).
Financial management information system (n) HÖ thèng th«ng tin qu¶n lý tµi chÝnh.
Finnish Department of International Development Cooperation (FINNIDA): C¬
quan Hîp t¸c Ph¸t triÓn Quèc tÕ PhÇn Lan.
Fiscal (adj) Thuéc vÒ ng©n s¸ch, thuéc vÒ tµi kho¸. ~ balance: C©n ®èi ng©n s¸ch;
~ deficit: Th©m hôt ng©n s¸ch; ~ expenditure: Chi tiªu ng©n s¸ch; ~ policy: ChÝnh
s¸ch tµi kho¸; ~ revenue: Thu ng©n s¸ch; ~ year: N¨m tµi kho¸.
Flood (n) Lò lôt. Flash ~ : Lò quÐt; ~ peak: §Ønh lò; ~ trough: Ch©n lò.
Follow up on (v) TriÓn khai tiÕp theo (e.g. to ~ the implementation of the decisions
taken by the monthly Government Meeting).
Follow-up (n) TriÓn khai tiÕp theo (e.g. To plan ~ activities after the World Summit on
Social Development: Lªn kÕ ho¹ch ho¹t ®éng sau Héi nghÞ th−îng ®Ønh thÕ giíi vÒ ph¸t
triÓn x· héi).
Food (n) L−¬ng thùc, thùc phÈm.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO): Tæ chøc L−¬ng
thùc vµ N«ng nghiÖp LHQ, thµnh lËp n¨m 1945. T«n chØ cña FAO lµ n©ng cao møc dinh
d−ìng vµ møc sèng cña nh©n d©n thÕ giíi, c¶i tiÕn s¶n xuÊt vµ ph©n phèi n«ng phÈm vµ
l−¬ng thùc, vµ c¶i thiÖn ®iÒu kiÖn sèng cña c¸c nhãm d©n c− n«ng th«n.
Food deficiency (n) (T×nh tr¹ng) thiÕu l−¬ng thùc. Hence, Food deficient (adj): ThiÕu
l−¬ng thùc (e.g. Viet Nam used to be a ~ country).
Food for works (n) L−¬ng thùc phôc vô x©y dùng c«ng tr×nh (i.e. an aid modality used
by the World Food Programme to finance development projects by providing food to
people who take part in such projects).
Food insecurity (n) T×nh tr¹ng thiÕu an ninh l−¬ng thùc.
Food relief (n) Cøu trî l−¬ng thùc.
Food safety (n) An toµn thùc phÈm.
Food security (n) An ninh l−¬ng thùc (e.g. World Summit on ~ : Héi nghÞ th−îng ®Ønh
ThÕ giíi vÒ An ninh l−¬ng thùc)

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Foreign investment (n) §Çu t− cña n−íc ngoµi. Hence, Foreign investor: Nhµ ®Çu t−
n−íc ngoµi; Foreign direct investment: §Çu t− trùc tiÕp cña n−íc ngoµi (FDI).
Forest (n) Rõng. Closed ~ : Rõng dµy, rõng kÝn; Managed ~ : Rõng qu¶n lý; Multi-
layered ~ : Rõng nhiÒu tÇng; Natural ~ : Rõng tù nhiªn; Open ~ : Rõng th−a, rõng më;
Special use ~ : Rõng ®Æc dông.
Forest conservation (n) B¶o tån rõng.
Forest coverage (n) §é che phñ cña rõng.
Forest degradation (n) T×nh tr¹ng rõng xuèng cÊp.
Forest management (n) Qu¶n lý rõng.
Forest nursery (n) V−ên −¬m c©y trång rõng.
Forest resources (n) Tµi nguyªn rõng.
Forestry (n) L©m nghiÖp. Social ~ : L©m nghiÖp x· héi.
Forestry extension (n) KhuyÕn l©m. ~ extension worker: Ng−êi lµm c«ng t¸c khuyÕn
l©m.
Formulate (v) So¹n th¶o, x©y dùng (e.g. To ~ a policy, project). Hence, Formulator (n)
Ng−êi x©y dùng, ng−êi so¹n th¶o (e.g. the ~ of a project).
Formulation (n) (ViÖc) so¹n th¶o, x©y dùng (e.g. the ~ of a policy). Project ~ : X©y
dùng dù ¸n.
Forward-looking (adj) H−íng tíi t−¬ng lai, ®èi lËp víi Backward-looking (e.g. The
analysis should be ~ : ViÖc ph©n tÝch cÇn h−íng vÒ t−¬ng lai).
Free (adj) Tù do, kh«ng ph¶i tr¶ tiÒn. ~ exchange rate: Tû gi¸ hèi ®o¸i tù do; ~ goods,
services: Hµng ho¸, dÞch vô miÔn phÝ.
Free market (n) ThÞ tr−êng tù do. ~ market economy: NÒn kinh tÕ thÞ tr−êng tù do.
Free trade (n) Tù do th−¬ng m¹i. ~ trade area: Khu vùc th−¬ng m¹i tù do.
Free-standing (adj) §éc lËp (®Ó ph©n biÖt víi Investment-related). ~ technical
assistance: Trî gióp kü thuËt ®éc lËp (i.e. assistance that is provided for institutional
development, capacity building or, more broadly, for any purpose that is not directly
related to an investment project).
Friendly (adj) H÷u nghÞ, th©n thiÖn víi, quan t©m ®Õn, tiÖn lîi; Child-friendly: Hç trî
cho trÎ em; Environmentally-friendly: Th©n thiÖn víi m«i tr−êng; User-friendly: TiÖn
lîi cho ng−êi sö dông.
Full time (adj) Chuyªn tr¸ch (e.g. ~ job, post: C«ng viÖc, chøc danh chuyªn tr¸ch).
Functional literacy (n) BiÕt ch÷ hµnh dông.
Funding instruments (n) Ph−¬ng thøc cung cÊp tµi trî (i.e. modalities to provide aid
whereby each has different management structures, accounting arrangements and
conditions attached. These often refer to programme aid and project aid).
Fungibility (n) (e.g. the fact that donor funding provided to a project that the
Government would have undertaken anyway (even if donor funding were not available)
has the effect of freeing Government resources to be used for other purposes. Hence, the
total effect of donor support depends on how the Government uses these freed resources
and not on the specific project against which the ODA is formally earmarked).

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G
Gap (n) Kho¶ng c¸ch, sù chªnh lÖch (e.g growing ~ between the rich and the poor:
Kho¶ng c¸ch ngµy cµng t¨ng gi÷a ng−êi giµu vµ ng−êi nghÌo); sù thiÕu hôt (e.g. the
information, knowledge ~ : sù thiÕu hôt th«ng tin, tri thøc).
Gender (n) Giíi (i.e. a concept that is defined to refer to the interaction between and
socially constructed roles of men and women. Hence, ~ is different from Sex giíi tÝnh).
(Xem thªm Sex).
Gender analysis (n) Ph©n tÝch vÒ giíi (i.e. the process of analyzing information to
ensure that development resources and benefits are effectively and equitably targeted to
both women and men).
Gender and Development (GAD) Giíi vµ ph¸t triÓn (i.e. an approach developed in the
1980’s, with the objective of removing disparities in social, economic and political
equality between women and men as a pre-condition for achieving people-centered
development). Xem thªm Women in Development.
Gender awareness (n) NhËn thøc vÒ giíi (i.e. the awareness of the needs to create equal
opportunities for women and men in development activities).
Gender blind (adj) Mï vÒ giíi, kh«ng quan t©m ®Õn vÊn ®Ò giíi (e.g. A ~ policy,
project).
Gender-blindness (n) (Sù) mï vÒ giíi, kh«ng quan t©m ®Õn vÊn ®Ò giíi (i.e. the failure to
realize that development policies, plans, activities can have different effects on men and
women).
Gender disparity (n) BÊt b×nh ®¼ng vÒ giíi.
Gender equality (n) B×nh ®¼ng vÒ giíi (i.e. women and men have equal conditions for
realizing their full human potential as well as equal opportunities for participating in,
contributing to and benefiting from national, political, economic, social and cultural
development gains).
Gender equity (n) C«ng b»ng vÒ giíi.
Gender mainstreaming (n) Lång ghÐp vÊn ®Ò giíi (i.e. the systematic integration of
gender equality objectives into development policies, plans, activities... to ensure that
both women and men equally participate in and benefit from development).
Gender needs (n) Nhu cÇu vÒ giíi, gåm hai lo¹i: Practical gender needs vµ Strategic
gender needs.
Gender planning (n) LËp kÕ ho¹ch vÒ giíi (i.e. the process of planning development
policies, plans, activities that are gender sensitive and which take into account the impact
of differing gender roles and gender needs of women and men).
Gender relations (n) Quan hÖ vÒ giíi.
Gender roles (n) Vai trß vÒ giíi (i.e. learned behaviours in a given society or community
that condition which activities, tasks and responsibilities are perceived as male and
female. Hence, ~ are dynamic and changing over time). ~ bao gåm ba khÝa c¹nh lµ
reproductive role, productive role vµ community participation role.
Gender sensitive (adj) Nh¹y c¶m vÒ giíi (e.g. A ~ agricultural policy: Mét chÝnh s¸ch
n«ng nghiÖp nh¹y c¶m vÒ giíi).

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General budget support (n) Hç trî ng©n s¸ch (i.e. a form of programme aid that is
provided by the IMF and that is is similar to the balance of payments support, except for
the fact that its conditionality is focused on the use of donor funds within the recipient
government's budget rather than balance of payments issues).
Generate (v) T¹o ra, sinh ra (e.g. ~ employment, income: T¹o viÖc lµm, t¹o thu nhËp).
Generation (n) T¹o ra, sinh ra. Employment ~ : T¹o viÖc lµm; Income ~ : T¹o thu
nhËp.
Generic (ad) Thuéc vÒ di truyÒn, phæ biÕn cho c¶ loµi. ~ characteristics: C¸c tÝnh chÊt
phæ biÕn. Hence, Generically (adv) Mang tÝnh phæ biÕn.
Genetic (n) Thuéc vÒ nguån gien. ~ engineering: C«ng nghÖ gien; ~ resources: C¸c
nguån tµi nguyªn vÒ gien.
Genetic diversity (n) §a d¹ng di truyÒn, ®a d¹ng vÒ nguån gien.
Genetically modified (adj) §−îc biÕn ®æi gien (e.g. ~ crops: C¸c c©y trång biÕn ®æi
gien; ~ organisms: C¸c sinh vËt biÕn ®æi gien).
Geographic information system (GIS) HÖ thèng th«ng tin ®Þa lý (i.e. a computerized
system for entering, storing, handling, analysing and displaying data that can be drawn
from different sources, both statistical and mapped).
German Agency for Technical Cooperation (viÕt t¾t theo tiÕng §øc lµ GTZ): C¬ quan
Hîp t¸c Kü thuËt CHLB §øc.
Gini coefficient or Gini index (n) HÖ sè Gini (i.e. a measurement of the inequality in
income distribution, whereby 0 represents perfect equality and 1 represents perfect
inequality).
Global Environmental Facility (n) Quü m«i tr−êng toµn cÇu (i.e. a facility which was
initially set up by the World Bank in 1991 and later endorsed by UNDP and UNEP, to
provide additional grant and concessional funding for the achievement of agreed global
environmental benefits).
Global warming (n) HiÖn t−îng nãng lªn cña tr¸i ®Êt.
Globalization (n) Toµn cÇu ho¸ (i.e. the increasing integration of world production,
commerce, communications, finance, social life and other related aspects). ~ process:
Qu¸ tr×nh toµn cÇu ho¸. ~ of finance, trade, communications: Toµn cÇu ho¸ vÒ tµi
chÝnh, th−¬ng m¹i, th«ng tin.
Governance (n) §iÒu hµnh quèc gia, qu¶n lý quèc gia (i.e. the exercise of economic,
political and administrative authority to manage a country’s affairs at all levels). §«i khi
Governance ®−îc sö dông ®Ó thay thÕ cho Management khi cÇn nhÊn m¹nh tÝnh toµn
diÖn cña c«ng t¸c qu¶n lý (e.g. Economic ~ ; Environmental ~ ). Hence, Good
governance: §iÒu hµnh quèc gia tèt (i.e. the ideal situation where a country is well
governed in the widest possible public interest).
Government-led (adj) Do ChÝnh phñ chñ ®¹o, do ChÝnh phñ chñ tr× (e.g. ~ aid
coordination activities: C¸c ho¹t ®éng ®iÒu phèi viÖn trî do ChÝnh phñ chñ ®¹o).
Grace period (n) Giai ®o¹n ho·n tr¶ nî, ©n h¹n (i.e. the period at the beginning of the
term of a loan during which no amortization payments are required).
Grant (n) ViÖn trî kh«ng hoµn l¹i, also Grant aid, grant assistance (i.e. financial
assistance and the cost of technical cooperation, provided as a gift. Grants may be made
bilaterally or as contributions to international organizations with development assistance
programmes). On a ~ basis: Trªn c¬ së viÖn trî cho kh«ng.

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Grant element (n) YÕu tè kh«ng hoµn l¹i, thµnh tè hç trî (i.e. a measure of the extent to
which the terms of a loan are below the normal commercial rates at the time, with regard
to interest rate, maturity and grace period). Xem thªm Official development
assistance.
Grassroots (n) CÊp c¬ së (e.g. ~ organizations: C¸c tæ chøc ë cÊp c¬ së).
Grassroots democracy (n) D©n chñ c¬ së. ~ Decree: NghÞ ®Þnh (cña ChÝnh phñ) vÒ
thùc hiÖn quy chÕ d©n chñ c¬ së.
Green account (n) Tµi kho¶n xanh. Hence, ~ acounting (n) KÕ to¸n xanh.
Green revolution (n) Cuéc c¸ch m¹ng xanh (i.e. the promotion of high-yielding cereal
crops in the 60's and 70's).
Green sector (n) .................. (i.e. environmental issues that relate to forests and bio-
diversity).
Greenhouse effect (n) HiÖu øng nhµ kÝnh (i.e. the warming of the atmostphere due to the
absorption of certain gases called “greenhouse gases”).
Greenhouse gases (n) C¸c chÊt khÝ g©y hiÖu øng nhµ kÝnh (e.g. carbon dioxide,
methane, nitrous oxide, cholorofluorocarbons or CFCs).
Grey sector (n) .............. (i.e. environmental issues that relate to education, awareness
raising and capacity building for environmental management).
Gross domestic product (GDP) (n) Tæng s¶n phÈm quèc néi (i.e the total output of
goods and services for final use produced by an economy by both residents and non-
residents, regardless of the allocation to domestic and foreign claims).
Gross national product (GNP) (n) Tæng s¶n phÈm quèc d©n (GNP comprises GDP plus
net factor income from abroad which is the income residents receive from abroad for
factor services, less similar payments made to non-residents who contribute to the
domestic economy).
Growth (n) Sù t¨ng tr−ëng. Balanced ~ : T¨ng tr−ëng c©n ®èi; Broad-based ~ : T¨ng
tr−ëng trªn diÖn réng; Export-led ~ : T¨ng tr−ëng dùa vµo xuÊt khÈu; ~ pole: Cùc t¨ng
tr−ëng; ~ potential: TiÒm n¨ng t¨ng tr−ëng; ~ rate: Tû lÖ t¨ng tr−ëng.
Growth model (n) M« h×nh t¨ng tr−ëng. New ~ : M« h×nh míi vÒ t¨ng tr−ëng (i.e. a
model characterized by a set of new assumptions whereby economic growth depends
largely on technological innovation and the aaccumulation of human capitalas well
public goods and infrastructure); Old ~ : M« h×nh cæ ®iÓn vÒ t¨ng tr−ëng (i.e. a model
chatacterized by a set of traditional assumptions whereby economic growth depends
largely on constant refurns on production, capital, labour and technical progress).
Growth theory (n) Lý thuyÕt t¨ng tr−ëng. New ~ : Lý thuyÕt míi vÒ t¨ng tr−ëng (i.e. an
attempt to understand the role of knowledge and technology in driving productivity and
economic growth).
Growth with equity (n) T¨ng tr−ëng ®i ®«i víi b×nh ®¼ng.

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H
Habitat (n) N¬i sinh sèng, n¬i ë.
Habitat management area (n) Khu b¶o tån sinh c¶nh.
Handicapped (adj) BÞ tµn tËt (e.g. ~ children). The handicapped: Nh÷ng ng−êi bÞ tµn
tËt.
Harmonization (n) Lµm hµi hoµ, dung hoµ (e.g. The ~ of donor and government
procedures: Lµm hµi hoµ thñ tôc cña nhµ tµi trî vµ thñ tôc cña ChÝnh phñ).
Harmonize (v) Lµm hµi hoµ, dung hoµ (e.g. to ~ international and national regulations).
Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative (n) S¸ng kiÕn gi¶m nî cho c¸c
n−íc nghÌo (i.e. an initiative proposed by WB/IMF in 1996 and agreed by creditor
countries to help the most heavily indebted countries to obtain debt relief).
Heritage (n) Di s¶n (e.g. Ha Long Bay is recognized by UNESCO as a World Heritage).
cultural ~ : Di s¶n v¨n ho¸; environmental ~ : Di s¶n m«i tr−êng; intangible ~ : Di
s¶n phi vËt thÓ; natural ~ : Di s¶n tù nhiªn; tangible ~ : Di s¶n vËt thÓ; traditional ~ :
Di s¶n truyÒn thèng.
Heritage conservation (n) B¶o tån di s¶n.
Heritage criteria (n) C¸c tiªu chÝ chän di s¶n.
Heritage economics (n) Kinh tÕ häc di s¶n
Heritage interpretation (n) ThuyÕt minh di s¶n.
High income country (n) N−íc cã thu nhËp cao (i.e. a country with an annual per capita
income of more than US$ 9,385 in 1995).
High risk (n) Nguy c¬ cao. ~ behaviour (n) Hµnh vi cã nguy c¬ cao; ~ group (n)
Nhãm cã nguy c¬ cao.
High technology (n) C«ng nghÖ cao.
High yielding variety (n) Gièng t¨ng s¶n, gièng cã n¨ng suÊt cao.
HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus): Vi-rót g©y suy gi¶m miÔn dÞch ë ng−êi.
HIV/AIDS endemic: DÞch bÖnh HIV/AIDS; HIV-negative: HIV ©m tÝnh, chøng tá ch−a
nhiÔm HIV; HIV-positive: HIV d−¬ng tÝnh, chøng tá ®· nhiÔm HIV.
HIV testing (n) XÐt nghiÖm HIV. Anonymous ~ : XÐt nghiÖm HIV dÊu tªn;
Confidential ~ : XÐt nghiÖm HIV ®−îc gi÷ kÝn; Mandatory ~ : XÐt nghiÖm HIV b¾t buéc;
Rapid ~ : XÐt nghiÖm HIV nhanh; Voluntary ~ : XÐt nghiÖm HIV tù nguyÖn; ~ with
informed consent: XÐt nghiÖm HIV cã sù −ng thuËn sau khi ®· ®−îc th«ng tin ®Çy ®ñ.
Holistic (adj) Mang tÝnh tæng hîp. A ~ approach: Ph−¬ng ph¸p tiÕp cËn tæng hîp.
Home-based drug treatment (n) Cai nghiÖn t¹i nhµ.
Household (n) Hé. ~ head: Chñ hé; size: Sè nh©n khÈu trong hé, quy m« hé.
Household economy (n) Kinh tÕ hé gia ®×nh.
Household living standards survey (n) §iÒu tra møc sèng hé gia ®×nh.
Human capital (n) Nguån vèn con ng−êi (e.g. knowledge, skills, information).

33
Human development (n) Ph¸t triÓn con ng−êi (i.e. the process of enlarging people’s
choices; these choices can be infinite and change over time, but the three essential ones
are for people to lead a long/healthy life, to acquire knowledge/skills and to have access
to resources needed for a decent standard of living).
Human development index (n) ChØ sè ph¸t triÓn con ng−êi (i.e. an index introduced by
UNDP as an alternative to GDP to measure economic and social progress. HDI includes
life expectancy, adult literacy, years of schooling and GDP per capita measured at
Purchasing Power Parity).
Human Development Report: B¸o c¸o Ph¸t triÓn Con ng−êi (i.e. a report published
annually by UNDP since 1990, each often discussing a major global development theme,
e.g. economic growth and human development in 1996, poverty eradication in 1997,
consumption patterns in 1998, globalization in 1999, human rights in development in
2000, new technologies for human development in 2001).
Human poverty (n) T×nh tr¹ng nghÌo tæng hîp. Kh«ng chØ cã nghÜa lµ thu nhËp thÊp,
kh¸i niÖm Human poverty nhÊn m¹nh t×nh tr¹ng con ng−êi bÞ t−íc ®o¹t nh÷ng c¬ héi vµ
®iÒu kiÖn c¬ b¶n nhÊt cho sù ph¸t triÓn cña m×nh, nh− cuéc sèng khoÎ m¹nh vµ s¸ng t¹o,
tuæi thä vµ møc sèng hîp lý, quyÒn tù do vµ nh©n phÈm.
Human resources (n) Nguån nh©n lùc (i.e the population seen from the point of view of
the contribution they make to development).
Human resources development (n): Ph¸t triÓn nguån nh©n lùc (i.e. training and
education to create a workforce capable of meeting the needs of a nationa, a particular
sector or a given organization).
Human rights (n) C¸c quyÒn con ng−êi (i.e. the range of entitlements that are universal
in character and extend to all human beings. These are commonly seen as consisting of
(a) civil and political rights and (b) economic, social and cultural rights). Universal
Declaration of ~ : Tuyªn ng«n Nh©n quyÒn (i.e. a declaration on human rights that was
jointly issued in 1948 by members of the United Nations System).
Humanitarian aid (n) ViÖn trî nh©n ®¹o.
Hunger (n) §ãi. Chronic ~ : T×nh tr¹ng ®ãi kinh niªn; ~ eradication, elimination: Xo¸
®ãi.
Hunting reserve (n) Khu dù tr÷ s¨n b¾n.
Hyperinflation (n) Siªu l¹m ph¸t.

34
I
ICT (information and communications technology, i.e. the range of new digitally-
based technologies that capture, store, process, communicate and disply information,
such as internet, TV, radio, mobile phones, etc… ): C«ng nghÖ th«ng tin vµ truyÒn th«ng.
~ for development: C«ng nghÖ th«ng tin vµ truyÒn th«ng phôc vô ph¸t triÓn,
Identification (n) Sù x¸c ®Þnh, nhËn diÖn. Project ~ : X¸c ®Þnh hay nhËn diÖn dù ¸n.
Identify (v) X¸c ®Þnh, nhËn diÖn (e.g. To ~ problems, ideas for future projects: X¸c ®Þnh
vÊn ®Ò, ý t−ëng cho c¸c dù ¸n trong t−¬ng lai).
Immediate objective (n) Môc tiªu trùc tiÕp (i.e. the objective that should be reached
within the life of a project).
Immunization (n) Tiªm chñng. Expanded ~ programme: Ch−¬ng tr×nh tiªm chñng më
réng; Universial child ~ programme: Ch−¬ng tr×nh tiªm chñng phæ cËp cho trÎ em.
Immunization coverage (n) DiÖn tiªm chñng (i.e. the percentage of children under one
year old receiving antigens used in the Universal Child Immunization Programme).
Impact (n) T¸c ®éng (i.e. the result of a project in relation to the development objectives
or long-term goals originally set out for it). ~ analysis: Ph©n tÝch t¸c ®éng; ~
evaluation, assessment: §¸nh gi¸ t¸c ®éng.
Impact on (v) T¸c ®éng ®Õn (e.g. There are emerging problems which will ~ the well-
being of the poor at the local level).
Implementation (n) Thùc hiÖn. Project ~ : Thùc hiÖn dù ¸n.
Implementation rate (also Delivery rate): Tû lÖ vèn thùc hiÖn (i.e. expenditure in a
given year expressed as a percentage of the maximum level of the approved budget to be
reached for that year).
Implementing agency (n) C¬ quan thùc hiÖn dù ¸n, chñ dù ¸n.
Implementing arrangements (n) C¸ch tæ chøc thùc hiÖn dù ¸n.
Import (n) NhËp khÈu. ~ quota: H¹n ng¹ch nhËp khÈu; ~ value: Kim ng¹ch nhËp khÈu.
Import substitution policy (n) ChÝnh s¸ch thay thÕ nhËp khÈu.
Incentive (adj) BiÖn ph¸p khuyÕn thÝch, vËt khuyÕn khÝch. Direct ~ : BiÖn ph¸p khuyÕn
khÝch trùc tiÕp; Economic ~ : BiÖn ph¸p khuyÕn khÝch kinh tÕ; Indirect: BiÖn ph¸p
khuyÕn khÝch gi¸n tiÕp.
Incentive payments system (n) HÖ thèng thanh to¸n khuyÕn khÝch.
Inception report (n) B¸o c¸o ban ®Çu (e.g. a project ~ : B¸o c¸o ban ®Çu cña dù ¸n).
Income (n) Thu nhËp. Assessable ~ : Thu nhËp chÞu thuÕ (Also Taxable ~ );
Corporate ~ : Thu nhËp c«ng ty; Disposable ~ : Thu nhËp kh¶ dông (sau khi ®¸nh
thuÕ); Earned ~ : Thu nhËp tõ lao ®éng; Personal ~ : Thu nhËp c¸ nh©n; Unearned ~ :
Thu nhËp kh«ng ph¶i tõ lao ®éng (vÝ dô tõ xæ sè, kiÒu hèi).
Income distribution (n) Ph©n phèi thu nhËp.
Income generation (n) T¹o thu nhËp.
Income tax (n) ThuÕ thu nhËp.
Incorporate (v) Lång ghÐp, s¸t nhËp (e.g. To ~ gender issues into the policy making
process: Lång ghÐp c¸c vÊn ®Ò giíi vµo qu¸ tr×nh ho¹ch ®Þnh chÝnh s¸ch).

35
Incorporation (n) Sù lång ghÐp (e.g. ~ of environmental considerations into the
investment planning process: Lång ghÐp c¸c vÊn ®Ò m«i tr−êng vµo qu¸ tr×nh lËp kÕ
ho¹ch ®Çu t−).
Increasing rate of returns to scale (n) Tû lÖ sinh lîi gia t¨ng theo quy m«.
Incremental cost (n) Chi phÝ gia t¨ng.
Incur (v) Thùc hiÖn (viÖc chi tiªu). (e.g. To ~ an expenditure: Thùc hiÖn mét kho¶n chi).
Indebted (adj) M¾c nî (e.g. A heavily ~ country: N−íc bÞ m¾c nî nhiÒu).
Indebtedness (n) T×nh tr¹ng m¾c nî.
Indicative (adj) Mang tÝnh ®Þnh h−íng, mang tÝnh h−íng dÉn. ~ budget allocation: Dù
kiÕn ph©n bæ ng©n s¸ch; ~ planning (n) LËp kÕ ho¹ch ®Þnh h−íng.
Indicator (n) Tiªu chÝ (i.e. a signal that helps to measure change in terms of quantity,
quality and timeliness). Qualitative ~ : Tiªu chÝ ®Þnh tÝnh; Quantitative ~ : Tiªu chÝ
®Þnh l−îng; Quantifiable ~ : Tiªu chÝ cã thÓ l−îng ho¸ ®−îc; Measurable ~ : Tiªu chÝ
cã thÓ ®o l−îng ®−îc.
Indigenous (adj) B¶n xø, b¶n ®Þa. ~ experiences, initiatives: Kinh nghiÖm, s¸ng kiÕn
b¶n ®Þa; ~ people: Ng−êi d©n b¶n ®Þa.
Indigeneous knowledge: KiÕn thøc b¶n ®Þa, kiÕn thøc ®Þa ph−¬ng (i.e. knowledge that
develops in a particular area and accumulates over time through being handed down
from generation to generation)
Individual (adj) Thuéc vÒ c¸ nh©n. ~ capacity: N¨ng lùc c¸ nh©n (kh¸c víi
institutional capacity); ~ level: CÊp ®é c¸ nh©n (kh¸c víi institutional level).
Industrial (adj) Thuéc vÒ c«ng nghiÖp.
Industrial crops (n) C©y c«ng nghiÖp.
Industrial development (n) Ph¸t triÓn c«ng nghiÖp.
Industrial economics (n) Kinh tÕ häc c«ng nghiÖp.
Industrial extension (n) KhuyÕn c«ng.
Industrial integration (n) Héi nhËp c«ng nghiÖp.
Industrial investment (n) §Çu t− c«ng nghiÖp.
Industrial management (n) Qu¶n lý c«ng nghiÖp.
Industrial park (n) Khu c«ng nghiÖp.
Industrial policy and planning (n) ChÝnh s¸ch vµ quy ho¹ch c«ng nghiÖp.
Industrial pollutants and wastes (n) ChÊt g©y « nhiÔm vµ chÊt th¶i c«ng nghiÖp.
Industrial pollution (n) ¤ nhiÔm c«ng nghiÖp.
Industrial property rights (n) QuyÒn së h÷u tµi s¶n c«ng nghiÖp.
Industrialization (n) C«ng nghiÖp ho¸. Export-led ~ : C«ng nghiÖp ho¸ theo h−íng
xuÊt khÈu; Import-substituting ~ : C«ng nghiÖp ho¸ ®Ó thay thÕ nhËp khÈu; ~ and
modernization strategy: ChiÕn l−îc c«ng nghiÖp ho¸ vµ hiÖn ®¹i ho¸.
Inequality (n) T×nh tr¹ng, sù bÊt b×nh ®¼ng.
Inertia (n) Sù tr× trÖ, søc × (e.g. The initial ~ in the disbursement of ODA resources: T×nh
tr¹ng tr× trÖ ban ®Çu trong viÖc gi¶i ng©n nguån vèn ODA).
Infant industry (n) (Ngµnh) c«ng nghiÖp non trÎ.

36
Infant mortality rate (n) Tû suÊt, tû lÖ tö vong ë trÎ s¬ sinh (i.e. the probability of dying
between birth and exactly one year of age times 1,000).
Infants with low birth-weight (n) TrÎ s¬ sinh thiÕu c©n. Xem thªm Underweight.
Inflation (n) L¹m ph¸t (i.e. a persisten rise in the general level of prices or alternatively
a persistent fall in the purchasing power of money). Demand pull ~ : L¹m ph¸t do cÇu
v−ît cung; Galloping ~ : L¹m ph¸t phi m·. ~ Hyper - ~ : Siªu l¹m ph¸t. ~ rate: Tû lÖ
l¹m ph¸t.
Inflationary (adj) Thuéc vÒ l¹m ph¸t. ~ Process: Qu¸ tr×nh l¹m ph¸t; ~ pressures:
Søc Ðp l¹m ph¸t; ~ spiral : Vßng xo¸y l¹m ph¸t (i.e. an inflationary situation which
encourages employees to demand higher wages which in turn increases cost of
production and hence prices increase even further).
Informal sector (n) Khu vùc kinh tÕ kh«ng chÝnh quy (i.e. business outside the organized
sector of a country's economy).
Informant (n) Ng−êi cung cÊp th«ng tin (i.e. an individual who is respondent in an
interview).
Information (n) Th«ng tin. ~ analysis: Ph©n tÝch th«ng tin; ~ dissemination: Phæ biÕn
th«ng tin; ~ exchange: Trao ®æi th«ng tin; ~ management: Qu¶n lý th«ng tin;
~ policy: ~ ChÝnh s¸ch th«ng thin; processing: Xö lý th«ng tin; ~ requirements: Nhu
cÇu th«ng tinh; ~ retrieval: Truy cËp th«ng tin; ~ sharing: Chia sÎ th«ng tin; ~
storage: L−u tr÷ th«ng tin; ~ superhighway: Xa lé th«ng tin; ~ systems: C¸c hÖ thèng
th«ng tin; ~ technology: C«ng nghÖ th«ng tin.
Informed (adj) Cã ®ñ th«ng tin (e.g. To take ~ policy decisions: §−a ra nh÷ng quyÕt
s¸ch trªn c¬ së th«ng tin ®Çy ®ñ).
Injecting drug user (n) Ng−êi tiªm chÝch ma tuý.
Input - output budgeting (n) Ph−¬ng ph¸p lËp ng©n s¸ch theo ®Çu vµo vµ ®Çu ra
(i.e. a budgeting method that organizes outputs and inputs so that outputs can be planned
and monitored according to their respective costs).
Input (n) §Çu vµo (i.e. personnel, goods and services that are used to carry out a
project).
Institution (n) §Þnh chÕ, thÓ chÕ. Market ~ s : C¸c ®Þnh chÕ thÞ tr−êng (nh− thÞ tr−êng
vèn, chøng kho¸n, tû gi¸ hèi ®o¸i...); State ~ s : C¸c thÓ chÕ Nhµ n−íc.
Institution building (n) X©y dùng thÓ chÕ. An ~ project: Dù ¸n x©y dùng thÓ chÕ (i.e. a
project designed to create or upgrade the capacity of an institution to produce certain
desired services or products on a sustained basis).
Institutional (adj) Thuéc vÒ thÓ chÕ. ~ framework: Khu«n khæ thÓ chÕ; ~ level: CÊp ®é
thÓ chÕ (kh¸c víi individual ~ ); ~ capacity: N¨ng lùc thÓ chÕ (kh¸c víi individual ~ ).
Institutional analysis (n) Ph©n tÝch thÓ chÕ (i.e. an analysis of the relationships between
the different institutions and actors of an organization).
Institutional memory (n) TrÝ nhí cña tæ chøc, bé nhí cña tæ chøc.
Institutionalization (n) Sù thÓ chÕ ho¸ (e.g. The ~ of recommendations into concrete
policies: ViÖc thÓ chÕ ho¸ c¸c khuyÕn nghÞ thµnh chÝnh s¸ch cô thÓ).
Institutionalize (v) ThÓ chÕ ho¸ (e.g. To ~ resolutions of the National Assembly into
concrete policies: ThÓ chÕ ho¸ c¸c nghÞ quyÕt cña Quèc héi thµnh chÝnh s¸ch cô thÓ).

37
Intangible (adj) V« h×nh, phi vËt thÓ (e.g. ~ asset, value: Tµi s¶n, gÝa trÞ v« h×nh hoÆc
phi vËt thÓ); ~ cultural heritage: Di s¶n v¨n ho¸ phi vËt thÓ.
Integrate (v) Lång ghÐp, g¾n kÕt, héi nhËp (e.g. To ~ environmental considerations into
the investment planning process: Lång ghÐp, g¾n kÕt c¸c vÊn ®Ò m«i tr−êng vµo qu¸ tr×nh
lËp kÕ ho¹ch ®Çu t−; To ~ economically with the region: Héi nhËp kinh tÕ víi khu vùc).
Integrated (adj) Mang tÝnh tæng hîp, lång ghÐp. ~ approach: Ph−¬ng ph¸p tiÕp cËn
tæng hîp, lång ghÐp; ~ rural development: Ph¸t triÓn n«ng th«n tæng hîp.
Integrated pest management (n) Qu¶n lý s©u bÖnh tæng hîp (i.e. a mixed strategy of
selective use of agro-chemicals, biological methods, genetic assistance and appropriate
management practices).
Integrated pollution control (n) KiÓm so¸t « nhiÔm tæng hîp.
Integration (n) Sù lång ghÐp, g¾n kÕt, héi nhËp (e.g. ~ with the world market: Héi nhËp
víi thÞ tr−êng thÕ giíi; ~ of environmental considerations into policy-making process
G¾n kÕt c¸c vÊn ®Ò m«i tr−êng vµo qu¸ tr×nh x©y dùng chÝnh s¸ch); International and
regional ~ : Héi nhËp quèc tÕ vµ khu vùc.
Integration roadmap (n) Lé tr×nh héi nhËp.
Intensive (adj) Chuyªn s©u, cã c−êng ®é lín. ~ farming: Th©m canh. Capital ~ : CÇn
nhiÒu vèn; Labour ~ : CÇn nhiÒu lao ®éng.
Interact (v) Cã quan hÖ t−¬ng hç, t¸c ®éng lÉn nhau. Hence, Interactive (adj) Mang
tÝnh chÊt t−¬ng hç (e.g. an ~ relationship: Mèi quan hÖ t−¬ng hç, mèi quan hÖ qua l¹i).
Interaction (n) Quan hÖ t−¬ng hç (e.g. the ~ between international consultants and
national project personnel).
Inter-cropping (n) Xen canh (e.g. ~ practices of farmers).
Interest (n) Lîi Ých. ~ group: Nhãm lîi Ých; Vested ~ : Lîi Ých thiÕt th©n.
Inter-generational equity (n) Principle of ~ : Nguyªn t¾c c«ng b»ng gi÷a c¸c thÕ hÖ
(i.e. a sustainable development principle that requires that the needs of the present are
met without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs).
Intern (n) Thùc tËp sinh, ng−êi häc viÖc. Hence, Internship (n) Thùc tËp, häc viÖc.
Internal (adj) Bªn trong, trong n−íc, néi t¹i. ~ cost: Chi phÝ néi t¹i; ~ labour market:
ThÞ tr−êng lao ®éng trong n−íc; ~ savings (also, domestic savings): Nguån tÝch luü
trong n−íc; ~ resources: Nguån lùc trong n−íc, néi lùc.
Internalization (n) Néi ho¸, lång ghÐp vµo quy tr×nh néi bé, tÝnh gép vµo c¬ chÕ gi¸;
~ of environmental costs: TÝnh gép chi phÝ m«i tr−êng (i.e. environmental costs of an
activity shall be borne by the initiator through pollution control measures); ~ of
participatory methods: Lång ghÐp c¸c ph−¬ng ph¸p tiÕp cËn cã sù tham gia cña ng−êi
d©n (vµo quy tr×nh lµm viÖc cña mét c¬ quan hoÆc tæ chøc).
Internalize (n) Néi ®Þa ho¸, tÝnh gép vµo c¬ chÕ gi¸, lång ghÐp vµo quy tr×nh néi bé (e.g.
The work process must be internalized: Quy tr×nh lµm viÖc ph¶i trë thµnh quy chÕ néi
bé).
International bidding (n) §Êu thÇu quèc tÕ. ~ open bidding (n) §Êu thÇu quèc tÕ më
(i.e. the most competitive but administratively demanding procedure whereby a tender
notice is advertised internationally and any supplier in any country is eligible to submit a
tender); ~ restricted bidding (n) §Êu thÇu quèc tÕ h¹n chÕ (i.e. procurement procedure
whereby a number of national and foreign suppliers are invited to submit a tender on the
basis of a previously established shortlist).

38
International financing institutions (n) C¸c tæ chøc tµi chÝnh quèc tÕ (i.e. Asian
Development Bank, World Bank, International Monetary Fund and other banking
institutions).
International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD): Quü Quèc tÕ vÒ Ph¸t triÓn
N«ng nghiÖp. §−îc thµnh lËp n¨m 1974 nh− lµ mét phÇn cña hÖ thèng Liªn hîp quèc,
t«n chØ cña IFAD lµ hç trî viÖc t¨ng c−êng s¶n xuÊt l−¬ng thùc vµ thùc phÈm, c¶i thiÖn
an ninh l−¬ng thùc, t¹o viÖc lµm n«ng nghiÖp vµ gi¶m t×nh tr¹ng suy dinh d−ìng ë c¸c
n−íc nghÌo.
International Labour Organization (ILO): Tæ chøc Lao ®éng Quèc tÕ, ®−îc thµnh lËp
n¨m 1919 víi t− c¸ch lµ tæ chøc liªn chÝnh phñ vµ ®−îc Liªn hîp quèc c«ng nhËn n¨m
1946 lµ c¬ quan chuyªn m«n cña LHQ. ILO xóc tiÕn viÖc c¶i thiÖn c¸c ®iÒu kiÖn lµm
viÖc vµ nghÒ nghiÖp, ®Ò xuÊt c¸c chuÈn t¾c vµ h−íng dÉn trªn c¸c lÜnh vùc nµy.
Internet (n) M¹ng vi tÝnh toµn cÇu (i.e. network of computers that facilitates electronic
communication across the globe).
Internet access service (n) DÞch vô truy cËp internet.
Internet application service (n) DÞch vô øng dông internet.
Internet content provider (n) Ng−êi cung cÊp dÞch vô th«ng tin internet.
Internet exchange provider (n) Ng−êi cung cÊp dÞch vô kÕt nèi internet.
Internet exchange service (n) DÞch vô kÕt nèi internet.
Internet service provider (n) Ng−êi cung cÊp dÞch vô internet.
Interntional Monetary Fund (IMF): Quü TiÒn tÖ Quèc tÕ, ®−îc thµnh lËp n¨m 1945
theo HiÖp ®Þnh Bretton Woods. T«n chØ cña IMF lµ khuyÕn khÝch hîp t¸c tiÒn tÖ vµ ph¸t
triÓn th−¬ng m¹i quèc tÕ, hç trî sù æn ®Þnh vÒ tû gi¸ hèi ®o¸i vµ viÖc thiÕt lËp c¸c hÖ
thèng thanh to¸n ®a ph−¬ng, vµ gióp c¸c n−íc gi¶i quyÕt c¸c vÊn ®Ò vÒ mÊt c©n ®èi trong
c¸n c©n thanh to¸n.
Intra-generational equity (n) Principle of ~ : Nguyªn t¾c c«ng b»ng trong cïng thÕ hÖ
(i.e. a sustainable development principle that requires that people within the present
generation have the right to benefit from the exploitation of resources and that they have
an equal right to a clean and healthy environment).
Intravenous drug user (n) Ng−êi tiªm chÝch ma tuý (also injecting drug user).
Investment (n) §Çu t−. Public ~ : §Çu t− c«ng céng; Foreign direct ~ : §Çu t− trùc
tiÕp n−íc ngoµi.
Investment planning (n) LËp kÕ ho¹ch ®Çu t−.
Investment programme (n) Ch−¬ng tr×nh ®Çu t−.
Investment-related (adj) Hç trî ®Çu t− (e.g. An ~ project: Dù ¸n hç trî ®Çu t−);
~ technical assistance: Trî gióp kü thuËt hç trî ®Çu t− (i.e. technical assistance that is
provided within the framework of an investment project).
Invisible hand (n) Bµn tay v« h×nh (i.e. a term used by Adam Smith to mean that the
influence of market forces through which self-interest often, but not always, benefits the
community as a whole).
Inward-looking (adj) H−íng néi, ®èi lËp víi Outward-looking (e.g. Viet Nam’s
economic policies before the mid-80’s were mostly ~ ; The ~ nature of import-
substituting industrialization: B¶n chÊt h−íng néi cña c«ng nghiÖp ho¸ thay thÕ nhËp
khÈu.

39
Iodine (n) ChÊt i-èt. Iodine deficiency: ThiÕu chÊt i-èt (Hence, Iodine-deficient).
Iodization of salt: Lµm muèi i-èt. Hence, Iodized salt: Muèi i-èt.

40
J
Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA): C¬ quan Hîp t¸c Quèc tÕ NhËt
B¶n.
Job (n) C«ng viÖc.
Job counseling (n) H−íng nghiÖp.
Job creation (n) T¹o viÖc lµm.
Job description (n) B¶n m« t¶ c«ng viÖc, chøc n¨ng vµ nhiÖm vô (i.e. a recognized list of
functions and tasks included in a particular job).
Job generation (n) T¹o viÖc lµm (also Job creation).
Job requirements (n) Yªu cÇu ®èi víi mét c«ng viÖc.
Job satisfaction (n) Sù hµi lßng ®èi víi mét c«ng viÖc.
Job seeker (n) Ng−êi t×m viÖc lµm.
Jobless (adj) Kh«ng cã viÖc lµm, kh«ng t¹o ra viÖc lµm; ~ growth: Sù t¨ng tr−ëng kh«ng
t¹o ra viÖc lµm (i.e. increases in production and productivity without an increase in
employment); ~ people: Nh÷ng ng−êi kh«ng cã viÖc lµm, thÊt nghiÖp; The jobless (n)
Ng−êi thÊt nghiÖp.
Justification (n) LuËn chøng, biÖn minh (e.g. the ~ for an investment project: LuËn
chøng cho dù ¸n ®Çu t−).
Justify (v) BiÖn minh, lý gi¶i (e.g. To ~ one's failure: BiÖn minh cho thÊt b¹i cña m×nh).
Juvenile delinquency (n) T×nh tr¹ng ph¹m téi trong thanh thiÕu niªn.
Juvenile delinquents (n) Nh÷ng thanh thiÕu niªn ph¹m téi.

41
K
Key (n) Ch×a kho¸, then chèt (e.g. Neutrality and impartiality are ~ factors that ensure a
strong position for UNDP in Viet Nam).
Key informant (n) Ng−êi cung cÊp th«ng tin chñ yÕu. ~ interviews: Pháng vÊn nh÷ng
ng−êi cung cÊp th«ng tin chñ yÕu.
Know-how (n) BÝ quyÕt. Technical ~ s: BÝ quyÕt kü thuËt.
Knowledge (n) Tri thøc, kiÕn thøc (i.e. information that is put in a particular context to
produce an actionable understanding). Codified ~ : Tri thøc ®−îc ®iÓm chÕ ho¸;
Explicit ~ : Tri thøc hiÖn (i.e. knowledge that can be written down or codified, shared
with others and put into a database); Tacit ~ : Tri thøc ngÇm (i.e. knowledge that cannot
be articulated in codified forms, such as know-how, rules of thumb, experience, insights
and intuition); Codification of ~ : §iÓn chÕ ho¸ tri thøc; Market for ~ : ThÞ tr−êng tri
thøc; Transferability of ~ : Kh¶ n¨ng chuyÓn giao cña tri thøc.
Knowledge accumulation (n) TÝch luü, n©ng cao, trau dåi kiÕn thøc (also Knowledge
building).
Knowledge bank (n) Ng©n hµng tri thøc.
Knowledge economy (n) Kinh tÕ tri thøc (i.e. an economy which is directly based on the
production, distribution and use of knowledge and information).
Knowledge for development (n) Tri thøc phôc vô ph¸t triÓn.
Knowledge gap (n) Kho¶ng c¸ch tri thøc (i.e. unequal distribution of knowledge across
and within groups of population or countries). To narrow, bridge, reduce the ~ : Thu hÑp
kho¶ng c¸ch tri thøc.
Knowledge hoarding (n) §Çu c¬ tri thøc. ~ mentality: T©m lý ®Çu c¬ tri thøc;
~ propensity: Xu h−íng ®Çu c¬ tri thøc.
Knowledge industry (n) C«ng nghiÖp tri thøc (i.e. the portion of the labour force
engaged in occupations essentially concerned with producing and handling information
rather than goods).
Knowledge intensive (adj) Cã nhiÒu tri thøc, cã hµm l−îng tri thøc cao (e.g. an ~
product, service: Mét s¶n phÈm, dÞch vô cã nhiÒu tri thøc).
Knowledge management (n) Qu¶n lý tri thøc (i.e. the broad process of locating,
creating, organizing, transferring and using the information and expertise within an
organization).
Knowledge network (n) M¹ng l−íi tri thøc.
Knowledge sharing (n) Chia xÎ tri thøc.
Knowledge transfer (n) ChuyÓn giao tri thøc (i.e. disseminating knowledge and providing
inputs to problem solving).
Knowledge worker (n) Ng−êi lao ®éng tri thøc.
Knowledgeable (adj) Am hiÓu, hiÓu biÕt nhiÒu (e.g. To be ~ about globalization issues).
Knowledge-based (adj) Dùa vµo tri thøc. ~ development: Ph¸t triÓn dùa vµo tri thøc;
organization: Mét tæ chøc dùa vµo tri thøc, hoÆc cã tri thøc v÷ng vµng.
Knowledge-based economy (n) NÒn kinh tÕ dùa vµo tri thøc (xem Knowledge
economy).

42
Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA): C¬ quan Hîp t¸c Quèc tÕ Hµn
Quèc.

43
L
Labour (n) Lao ®éng. Labour Code: Bé luËt Lao ®éng. Labourer (n) Ng−êi lao ®éng.
Labour administration (n) Qu¶n lý lao ®éng.
Labour contract (n) Hîp ®ång lao ®éng.
Labour costs per unit of output (n) Chi phÝ lao ®éng trªn ®¬n vÞ s¶n l−îng.
Labour court (n) Toµ ¸n lao ®éng.
Labour demand (n) L−îng cÇu lao ®éng.
Labour dispute (n) Tranh chÊp lao ®éng.
Labour economics (n) Kinh tÕ häc lao ®éng.
Labour exchange (n) Trao ®æi lao ®éng.
Labour force (n) Lùc l−îng lao ®éng.
Labour legislation (n) LuËt ph¸p vÒ lao ®éng.
Labour market (n) ThÞ tr−êng lao ®éng.
Labour mobility (n) TÝnh c¬ ®éng cña lao ®éng (i.e. the ease of movement of labour
between areas and occupations).
Labour redundancy (n) D− thõa lao ®éng.
Labour relations (n) Quan hÖ lao ®éng.
Labour shortage (n) ThiÕu lao ®éng.
Labour supply (n) L−îng cung lao ®éng.
Labour-intensive (adj) Sö dông nhiÒu lao ®éng (e.g. a ~ industry).
Labour-saving (adj) TiÕt kiÖm lao ®éng (e.g. a ~ technical process).
Land (n) §Êt ®ai. ~ Law: LuËt ®Êt ®ai.
Land degradation (n) T×nh tr¹ng ®Êt xuèng cÊp.
Land ownership (n) QuyÒn së h÷u ®Êt ®ai (also ~ titlement).
Land pollution (n) ¤ nhiÔm ®Êt.
Land reform (n) C¶i c¸ch ruéng ®Êt.
Land tenure (n) H¹n ®iÒn, thêi gian sö dông ®Êt.
Land use planning (n) Quy ho¹ch sö dông ®Êt.
Landless (adj) Kh«ng cã ®Êt ®ai (e.g. ~ people: Nh÷ng ng−êi kh«ng cã ruéng ®Êt);
The landless: Nh÷ng ng−êi kh«ng cã ruéng ®Êt.
Landlocked countries (n) C¸c n−íc kh«ng cã bê biÓn (i.e. countries like Afghanistan,
Laos, Mongolia).
Landscape (n) C¶nh quan. ~ analysis: Ph©n tÝch c¶nh quan; ~ conservation: B¶o tån
c¶nh quan.
Landscape ecology (n) Sinh th¸i c¶nh quan (i.e. a sub-discipline of ecology focusing on
spacial relationships and the interactions between patterns and processes).
Law (n) LuËt ph¸p, bé luËt. ~ on the State Budget: LuËt ng©n s¸ch Nhµ n−íc.
Law enactment (n) Ban hµnh luËt ph¸p.

44
Law enforcement (n) Thi hµnh luËt ph¸p.
Law implementation (n) Thùc hiÖn luËt ph¸p.
Law making (n) Lµm luËt, x©y dùng luËt (e.g. the ~ process in Viet Nam).
Law of the Sea (n) LuËt biÓn (i.e. a convention which was adopted by the United
Nations in 1982, aimed at establishing a new legal regime for the oceans and their vast
resources).
Laws of supply and demand: Quy luËt cung - cÇu (i.e. the basic laws in respect of the
marketing of goods and services in a market economy).
Lay-off (n) Sù gi·n thî, nghØ viÖc t¹m thêi. ~ pay: L−¬ng nghØ viÖc.
Lead (n) Chñ ®¹o, ®Çu tµu. ~ donor: Nhµ tµi trî chÝnh; ~ role: Vai trß chñ ®¹o, vai trß
®Çu tµu.
Lead time (n) Thêi gian cÇn thiÕt ®Ó hoµn thµnh mét c«ng viÖc (e.g. A long ~ will be
required to prepare properly for this important event).
Learning (n) Häc hái. Interactive ~ : Häc hái t−¬ng t¸c, häc hái hai chiÒu; On-line ~ :
Häc hái trùc tuyÕn, häc hái qua m¹ng; Organizational ~ : Häc hái cña tæ chøc;
Organized ~ : Häc hái cã tæ chøc.
Learning by doing (n) Võa häc võa lµm (e.g. A ~ approach, principle: Ph−¬ng ph¸p,
nguyªn t¾c võa häc võa lµm).
Learning organization (n) Tæ chøc cã häc hái (i.e. an organization that relies strongly
on the creation, acquisition, transfer and use of knowledge to improve its performance).
Least Developed Countries (n) C¸c n−íc kÐm ph¸t triÓn nhÊt (i.e. the 45 poor and
vulnerable countries that were defined by the United Nations with an annual per capita
income of less than US$ 765 in 1995) .
Legal (adj) Thuéc vÒ ph¸p lý, thuéc vÒ luËt ph¸p. ~ corridor: Hµnh lang ph¸p lý;
~ framework: Khu«n khæ ph¸p lý; ~ environment: M«i tr−êng ph¸p lý; ~ reform: C¶i
c¸ch luËt ph¸p.
Legally-binding (adj) Rµng buéc vÒ mÆt ph¸p lý (e.g. ~ international agreements,
commitments).
Lending (n) Cho vay. ~ organization: Tæ chøc cho vay; ~ programme: Ch−¬ng tr×nh
cho vay; ~ rate: L·i suÊt cho vay.
Lessons learned (n) Bµi häc (e.g. To draw, distill ~ from a successful development
project: §óc rót bµi häc kinh nghiÖm tõ mét dù ¸n ph¸t triÓn thµnh c«ng).
Level playing field (n) S©n ch¬i b×nh ®¼ng (e.g. A ~ for the private sector: S©n ch¬i b×nh
®¼ng cho khu vùc kinh tÕ t− nh©n, i.e for the private sector to compete in an equal footing
with State-owned enterprises).
Leverage (v) KÝch thÝch, thu hót (e.g. the effective use of ODA to ~ additional financing
for development, such as foreign investment, domestic resources and trade).
Liberalize (n) Tù do ho¸. Hence, Liberalization (n) Sù tù do ho¸ (e.g. Price, trade ~ :
Tù do ho¸ gi¸ c¶, th−¬ng m¹i).
Life (n) Cuéc sèng, tuæi thä, thêi h¹n (e.g The ~ of a loan: Thêi h¹n cña kho¶n nî; the
~ of a project: Thêi h¹n thùc hiÖn dù ¸n).
Life expectancy (n) Tuæi thä (mong ®îi). ~ at birth: Tuæi thä trung b×nh (i.e. the
number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the
time of birth were to stay the same throughout the child’s life).

45
Life skills education (n) Gi¸o dôc vÒ nh÷ng kü n¨ng sèng, gi¸o dôc vÒ nh÷ng ®iÒu cÇn
biÕt trong cuéc sèng.
Line agency (n) C¬ quan chñ qu¶n, c¬ quan cÊp trªn trùc tiÕp.
Line Ministry (n) Bé chñ qu¶n.
Linkage (n) Mèi liªn kÕt (e.g. The ~ between donor-funded projects and national
programmes: Mèi liªn kÕt gi÷a c¸c dù ¸n do n−íc ngoµi tµi trî vµ c¸c ch−¬ng tr×nh quèc
gia). Backward ~ : Mèi liªn kÕt ng−îc; Horizontal ~ : Mèi liªn kÕt ngang; Foreward ~
: Mèi liªn kÕt xu«i; Vertical ~ : Mèi liªn kÕt däc.
Literacy (n) BiÕt ch÷. ~ rate (n) Tû lÖ ng−êi biÕt ch÷. ~ among adults: Tû lÖ biÕt ch÷ ë
ng−êi lín (i.e the percentage of people aged 15 and above who can read and write).
Livelihoods (n) C¸ch kiÕm sèng, kÕ sinh nhai. Sustainable ~ : Ph−¬ng thøc kiÕm sèng
bÒn v÷ng.
Living costs (n) Chi phÝ sinh ho¹t.
Loan (n) Kho¶n cho vay, kho¶n vay. Concessional or soft ~ : Kho¶n cho vay −u ®·i.
Local costs (n) Chi phÝ t¹i chç (i.e. those costs of a development project which are made
up of locally procured goods and services).
Local area network (n) M¹ng vi tÝnh côc bé (i.e. a computer network located on users’
premises within a limited geographical area, also called LAN).
Logical framework or logframe: Khung l«gÝc (i.e. a method that allows for a logical
linkage between the various elements in a project design and enables a successful
implementation of the expected results of the project).
Logframe analysis (n) Ph©n tÝch khung l«gÝc.
Low income country (n) N−íc cã møc thu nhËp thÊp (i.e. a country with an annual per
capita income of less than US$ 765 in 1995).
Lump-sum (n) Trän gãi. ~ contract: Hîp ®ång kho¸n gän; ~ payment: Tr¶ trän gãi;
~ price: Gi¸ trän gãi.

46
M
Macro environment (n) M«i tr−êng vÜ m« (i.e. a combination of key factors such as
policy, legislation, function and tasks, information and knowledge, and infrastructure).
Macroeconomic (adj) Thuéc kinh tÕ vÜ m« (e.g. ~ instruments, management, reform,
stability: C¸c c«ng cô, qu¶n lý, c¶i c¸ch, sù æn ®Þnh kinh tÕ vÜ m«).
Macroeconomics (n) Kinh tÕ häc vÜ m« (i.e. that part of economics which is concerned
with the study of relationships between broad economic aggregates - national income,
savings, investment, employment, trade, money supply, foreign exchange, etc...).
Mainstream (v) Lång ghÐp (e.g. To ~ gender into the policy making process: Lång ghÐp
vÊn ®Ò giíi vµo qu¸ tr×nh ho¹ch ®Þnh chÝnh s¸ch).
Mainstreaming (n) Sù lång ghÐp (e.g. the ~ of gender issues into personnel policies:
Lång ghÐp vÊn ®Ò giíi vµo chÝnh s¸ch nh©n sù).
Male head of household (n) Chñ hé lµ nam.
Male to female transmission of HIV (n) Sù lan truyÒn HIV tõ nam giíi sang n÷ giíi.
Male-headed household (n) Hé do nam giíi lµm chñ hé.
Malnourished (adj) BÞ suy dinh d−ìng. ~ children: TrÎ em suy dinh d−ìng.
Malnutrition (n) Sù suy dinh d−ìng (e.g. ~ among children under five years of age).
Manageable (adj) Cã thÓ qu¶n lý ®−îc, cã thÓ kiÓm so¸t ®−îc (e.g. External debt must
be kept at a ~ level: Ph¶i gi÷ nî n−íc ngoµi ë møc cã thÓ kiÓm so¸t ®−îc).
Managed resource area (n) Khu b¶o tån tµi nguyªn ®−îc qu¶n lý.
Management (n) Qu¶n lý. ~ skills:. Kü n¨ng qu¶n lý; ~ science: Khoa häc qu¶n lý;
~ style: Phong c¸ch qu¶n lý; ~ training: §µo t¹o vÒ c«ng t¸c qu¶n lý.
Management arrangements (n) C¸ch tæ chøc qu¶n lý (®èi víi mét dù ¸n).
Management by objectives (n) Qu¶n lý theo môc tiªu.
Management consultant (n) Chuyªn gia t− vÊn qu¶n lý.
Management information system (n) HÖ thèng th«ng tin qu¶n lý (i.e. a system in
which defined data are collected, processed and communicated to assist those
responsible for the use of resources).
Man-made capital (n) Nguån vèn do con ng−êi t¹o ta (e.g. machines, buildings,
infrastructure).
Marginalization (n) G¹t ra ngoµi lÒ (e.g. The growing ~ of the less developed countries
in the world economy: T×nh tr¹ng c¸c n−íc kÐm ph¸t triÓn ngµy cµng bÞ g¹t ra ngoµi lÒ
nÒn kinh tÕ thÕ giíi). Social ~ : T×nh tr¹ng bÞ g¹t ra ngoµi lÒ x· héi.
Marginalize (v) G¹t ra ngoµi lÒ. Hence, Marginalized (adj) BÞ g¹t ra ngoµi lÒ, ph¶i
chÞu thiÖt thßi (e.g. ~ economically, socially and culturally); ~ groups: Nh÷ng nhãm
d©n c− ph¶i chÞu thiÖt thßi, bÞ g¹t ra ngoµi lÒ (cña qu¸ tr×nh ph¸t triÓn).
Market (n) ThÞ tr−êng. Free ~ : ThÞ tr−êng tù do; Organized ~ : ThÞ tr−êng cã tæ chøc.
Market demand (n) L−îng cÇu cña thÞ tr−êng.
Market economy (n) Kinh tÕ thÞ tr−êng.
Market equilibrium (n) C©n b»ng thÞ tr−êng.
Market failure (n) ThÊt b¹i cña thÞ tr−êng.

47
Market forces (n) C¸c t¸c nh©n thÞ tr−êng.
Market instruments (n) C¸c c«ng cô thÞ tr−êng.
Market orientation (n) §Þnh h−íng thÞ tr−êng.
Market prices (n) Gi¸ thÞ tr−êng.
Market share (n) ThÞ phÇn.
Market supply (n) L−îng cung cña thÞ tr−êng.
Marketing (n) TiÕp thÞ. ~ plan: KÕ ho¹ch tiÕp thÞ; ~ strategy: ChiÕn l−îc tiÕp thÞ.
Market-oriented (adj) Theo ®Þnh h−íng thÞ tr−êng. ~ economy: NÒn kinh tÕ theo ®Þnh
h−íng thÞ tr−êng.
Master plan (n) Quy ho¹ch tæng thÓ (e.g. A ~ for the Mekong Delta: Quy ho¹ch tæng thÓ
§ång b»ng s«ng Cöu Long. A tourism ~ : Quy ho¹ch tæng thÓ ngµnh du lÞch).
Maternal mortality rate (n) Tû lÖ tö vong ë c¸c bµ mÑ (i.e. the annual number of deaths
of women from pregnancy-related causes per 100,000 live births).
Maturity period (n) Thêi h¹n ph¶i tr¶ nî (i.e. the time from the date on which a loan
agreement comes into force until the date on which the loan is due for complete
repayment).
Measurable (adj) Cã thÓ ®o ®−îc. ~ impact: T¸c ®éng cã thÓ ®o l−êng ®−îc;
~ indicator: Tiªu chÝ cã thÓ ®o l−êng ®−îc.
Medium-term expenditure framework (n) Khu«n khæ chi tiªu trung h¹n (i.e. a 3 to 5
year plan to provide a framework for fiscal policy and to facilitate strategic sector
planning and programming).
Mekong River Commission (n) Uû héi quèc tÕ vÒ s«ng Mª-c«ng (i.e. a commission
which was set up by the 1995 Agreement on Cooperation for the Sustainable
Development of the Mekong River Basin between Cambodia, Laos, Thailand and Viet
Nam).
Merging (n) S¸t nhËp (e.g. The ~ of small businesses into a large company).
Merit-based (adj) Dùa vµo kÕt qu¶, as opposed to Entitlement-based (e.g. Future
resource allocation should be ~ , not entitlement-based: ViÖc ph©n bæ nguån lùc trong
t−¬ng lai nªn dùa vµo kÕt qu¶ c«ng viÖc, kh«ng nªn dùa vµo tiªu chuÈn, chÕ ®é).
Micro-credit (n) TÝn dông quy m« nhá (also Micro-finance).
Microeconomic (adj) Thuéc vÒ kinh tÕ vi m« (e.g. ~ management, reform, instruments:
Qu¶n lý, c¶i c¸ch, c¸c c«ng cô kinh tÕ vi m«).
Microeconomics (n) Kinh tÕ häc vi m« (i.e. that part of economics which is concerned
with the study of individual decision-making units, firms, individuals).
Micro-nutrient (n) ChÊt dinh d−ìng vi l−îng; ~ deficiency (n) and ~ deficient (adj)
ThiÕu chÊt dinh d−ìng vi l−îng.
Middle income country (n) N−íc cã møc thu nhËp trung b×nh (i.e. a country with an
annual per capita income of between US$ 766 and US$ 9,385 in 1995). Lower ~ : N−íc
cã møc thu nhËp trung b×nh thÊp, tõ 766 ®Õn 3.035 USD n¨m 1995; Upper ~ : N−íc cã
møc thu nhËp trung b×nh cao, tõ 3.036 ®Õn 9.385 USD n¨m 1995.
Mid-term (adj) Gi÷a kú. ~ evaluation: §¸nh gi¸ gi÷a kú; ~ review: KiÓm ®iÓm gi÷a
kú.

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Migration(n) Sù di c−. Forced ~: Di c− c−ìng bøc; Internal ~: Di c− néi ®Þa;
Organized ~ : Di c− cã tæ chøc; Rural - urban ~ : Di c− tõ n«ng th«n ra thµnh thÞ;
Seasonal ~ : Di c− theo mïa vô; Spontaneous, unorganized ~ : Di c− tù do.
Millennium Declaration (n) Tuyªn bè Thiªn niªn kû, do Héi nghÞ th−îng ®Ønh Thiªn
niªn kû th«ng qua, trong ®ã cã C¸c môc tiªu ph¸t triÓn Thiªn niªn kû.
Millennium Development Goals (n) C¸c môc tiªu ph¸t triÓn Thiªn niªn kû (e.g. halve
the number of people who suffer from absolute poverty between 1990 & 2015; halve the
number of people who suffer from hunger between 1990 & 2015; ensure universal
primary education by 2015; reduce by 2/3 the under-five mortality rate between 1990&
2015; reduce by 3/4 the maternal mortality ratio between 1990 & 2015 etc…).
Millennium Summit (n) Héi nghÞ th−îng ®Ønh Thiªn niªn kû, do Liªn hîp quèc triÖu tËp
th¸ng 9/2000 víi sù tham gia cña Nguyªn thñ quèc gia vµ ng−êi ®øng ®Çu chÝnh phñ cña
180 n−íc trªn thÕ giíi. Héi nghÞ ®· th«ng qua Tuyªn bè Thiªn niªn kû.
Mission (n) T«n chØ, sø mÖnh, ph¸i ®oµn. A ~ statement: B¶n tuyªn bè vÒ t«n chØ, môc
®Ých; A consultant ~ : §oµn chuyªn gia t− vÊn; A peace ~ : Sø m¹ng hoµ b×nh.
Mixed credit (n) TÝn dông hç hîp. (Also Mixed financing).
Mobile labour force (n) Lùc l−îng lao ®éng thuyªn chuyÓn linh ho¹t
Mobilization (n) VËn ®éng, huy ®éng. Social ~ : VËn ®éng x· héi; Resource ~ : Huy
®éng nguån lùc; Input ~ : Huy ®éng ®Çu vµo (cho dù ¸n).
Mobilization of domestic or internal resources (n) Huy ®éng nguån lùc trong n−íc,
huy ®éng néi lùc
Modality (n) Ph−¬ng thøc (e.g. Aid modalities: C¸c ph−¬ng thøc viÖn trî; Project
execution modalities: C¸c ph−¬ng thøc ®iÒu hµnh dù ¸n).
Money (n) TiÒn. Bad ~ : §ång tiÒn xÊu; Easy ~ : §ång tiÒn dÔ vay: Good ~ : §ång tiÒn
tèt (Bad money drives out good money: §ång tiÒn xÊu ®uæi ®ång tiÒn tèt); High-
powered ~ : §ång tiÒn m¹nh; Idle, inactive ~ : §ång tiÒn nhµn rçi; ~ supply: L−îng
cung tiÒn mÆt; Demand for ~ : L−îng cÇu tiÒn mÆt.
Monitoring (n) Theo dâi (i.e. a continuing function aimed primarily at providing early
indications of progress or lack thereof in the achievement of project objectives). Project
~ : Theo dâi dù ¸n, bao gåm c¸c kh©u nh− field visit, periodical reporting, periodical
review vµ terminal reporting.
Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (n) NghÞ ®Þnh th−
Montreal vÒ c¸c chÊt ph¸ huû tÇng «-d«n (i.e. an international agreement that was
reached in 1998 by over 30 countries and that is aimed at protecting the ozone layer by
controlling the emission of chlorofluoro carbons (CFCs) and halons).
Moonlighting (n) Lµm thªm viÖc ngoµi giê (th−êng lµ vµo buæi tèi).
Mortality (n) Tö vong. Child ~ : Tö vong ë trÎ em; Infant ~ : Tö vong ë trÎ s¬ sinh;
Under-five ~ : Tö vong ë trÎ em d−íi 5 tuæi; Maternal ~ : Tö vong ë bµ mÑ.
Mortality rate (n) Tû suÊt tö vong.
Most-favoured (adj) §−îc −u tiªn nhiÒu nhÊt. ~ nation: Tèi huÖ quèc; ~ nation
clause: §iÒu kho¶n tèi huÖ quèc.
Mother (n) Ng−êi mÑ. Expecting ~ : Ng−êi mÑ ®ang mang thai; Nursing ~ : Ng−êi mÑ
®ang nu«i con.
Motherhood (n) Lµm mÑ. Safe ~ : Sinh ®Î an toµn.

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Mother-to-child transmission of HIV (n) Sù lan truyÒn HIV tõ mÑ sang con.
Multi-cultural (adj) §a v¨n ho¸, nhiÒu mµu s¾c v¨n ho¸. ~ organization: Tæ chøc ®a
v¨n ho¸; ~ society: X· héi ®a v¨n ho¸.
Multi-dimensional (adj) (Cã) nhiÒu khÝa c¹nh, nhiÒu mÆt (also multi-faceted). A ~
problem: Mét vÊn ®Ò cã nhiÒu khÝa c¹nh.
Multi-disciplinary (adj) Liªn quan ®Õn nhiÒu lÜnh vùc (e.g. A ~ approach: C¸ch tiÕp cËn
®a ngµnh; Interventions of an ~ nature: C¸c biÖn ph¸p can thiÖp liªn quan tíi nhiÒu lÜnh
vùc).
Multi-lateral (adj) §a ph−¬ng (kh¸c víi Bilateral). ~ donor: Nhµ tµi trî ®a ph−¬ng;
~ forum: DiÔn ®µn ®a ph−¬ng.
Multilateral agency or organization (n) Tæ chøc ®a ph−¬ng (i.e. an international
organization to which individual countries contribute funds for subsequent disbursement
by the organization itself).
Multilateral aid (n) ViÖn trî ®a ph−¬ng (i.e. financial aid and technical cooperation
provided by a multilateral organization to a developing country).
Multi-lateral trade agreement (n) HiÖp ®Þnh th−¬ng m¹i ®a ph−¬ng.
Multiplier (n) Sè nh©n; (adj) Cã tÝnh lan to¶. ~ effect: T¸c dông lan to¶.
Multi-purpose (adj) Phôc vô nhiÒu môc tiªu, ®a môc tiªu (e.g A ~ data survey: Cuéc
®iÒu tra ®a môc tiªu).

50
N
Narcotics (n) Ma tuý, thuèc g©y mª. Hence, Anti-narcotic activities: C¸c ho¹t ®éng
phßng chèng ma tuý.
National execution (n) Ph−¬ng thøc quèc gia ®iÒu hµnh dù ¸n (i.e. the management of a
project in an aid recipient country carried out by a national entity of that country).
National income (n) Thu nhËp quèc d©n (i.e. a measure of the money value of the total
flow of goods and services produced in an economy over a specified period).
Nationally recruited (adj) §−îc tuyÓn trong n−íc (e.g. ~ consultants: Chuyªn gia t−
vÊn ®−îc tuyÓn dông trong n−íc).
Natural capital (n) Nguån vèn tù nhiªn (e.g. resources, minerals, energy, ozone layer).
Natural monument (n) Kú quan thiªn nhiªn.
Natural park (n) V−ên quèc gia.
Nature reserve (n) Khu dù tr÷ tù nhiªn.
Needs assessment (n) §¸nh gi¸ nhu cÇu (e.g. To undertake a training ~ : TiÕn hµnh ®¸nh
gi¸ nhu cÇu ®µo t¹o).
Network (v) Liªn kÕt, thiÕt lËp m¹ng l−íi (e.g. To ~ with other training institutions in the
region). Knowledge ~ : M¹ng l−íi tri thøc hoÆc kiÕn thøc. Hence, Networking (n) (Sù)
liªn kÕt, thiÕt lËp m¹ng l−íi.
Networked (adj) §−îc kÕt nèi thµnh m¹ng l−íi. ~ economy: NÒn kinh tÕ kÕt m¹ng;
~ society: X· héi kÕt m¹ng.
Network age (n) Kû nguyªn kÕt nèi m¹ng.
Newly industrialized country (n) N−íc c«ng nghiÖp míi (i.e. a country that has been
industrialized only recently, e.g. South Korea, Singapore, Taiwan...).
Niche (n) VÞ thÕ thÝch hîp nhÊt (e.g. UNDP must identify a ~ for itself in the
development business). N¬i sinh sèng lý t−ëng (i.e. place in an ecosystem which a
species is specially adapted to fit).
Non-communicable diseases (n) C¸c c¨n bÖnh kh«ng l©y lan.
Non-core resources: C¸c nguån vèn kh«ng th−êng xuyªn, kh¸c víi Core resources.
Non-expendable equipment (n) ThiÕt bÞ l©u bÒn, thiÕt bÞ kh«ng tiªu hao.
Non-governmental organization (n) Tæ chøc phi chÝnh phñ, th−êng viÕt t¾t lµ NGO (i.e.
a private organization of a charitable, educational or research nature which is concerned
with problems of developing countries and the spread of knwoledge about them).
Non-performing (adj) Kh«ng sinh lêi, kh«ng cã hiÖu qu¶ (e.g. a ~ loan: Mét kho¶n vèn
vay kh«ng cã hiÖu qu¶).
Non-project aid (n) ViÖn trî phi dù ¸n (i.e. financial assistance other than project aid
and includes budgetary assistance, debt relief, assistance for pensions and compensation,
programme aid and maintenance aid).
Non-refundable (adj) Kh«ng hoµn tr¶. ~ aid: ViÖn trî kh«ng hoµn l¹i.
Non-regulatory(adj) Kh«ng mang tÝnh ph¸p quy, kh¸c víi Regulatory. ~ approaches,
instruments: C¸c ph−¬ng ph¸p tiÕp cËn, c¸c c«ng cô kh«ng mang tÝnh ph¸p quy.

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Non-renewable (adj) Kh«ng thÓ t¸i sinh (kh¸c víi Renewable). ~ energies: C¸c nguån
n¨ng l−îng kh«ng t¸i sinh, nh− kho¸ng s¶n, dÇu löa, khÝ ®èt, than ®¸.
Non-tariff barrier (n) Hµng rµo phi thuÕ quan.
Normative (adj) Mang tÝnh quy ph¹m (e.g. ~ legal documents: C¸c v¨n b¶n ph¸p lý
mang tÝnh quy ph¹m, c¸c v¨n b¶n quy ph¹m ph¸p luËt).
Norwegian Agency for International Development (NORAD): C¬ quan Ph¸t triÓn
Quèc tÕ Na Uy.
Not in anybody's backyard: Kh«ng ®−îc ®Ó trong v−ên nhµ ai (i.e. the idea that
hazardous activities and substances should not be located in anybody's backyard).
Not in my backyard: Kh«ng ®−îc ®Ó trong v−ên nhµ t«i (i.e. the idea that hazardous
activities and substances should not be located in my backyard).
Nuclear family (n) Gia ®×nh h¹t nh©n, tøc gia ®×nh gåm bè mÑ vµ con c¸i.
Nutrition (n) Dinh d−ìng (e.g. A ~ education programme for rural population: Ch−¬ng
tr×nh gi¸o dôc dinh d−ìng cho d©n c− n«ng th«n).

52
O
Occupational (adj) Thuéc vÒ nghÒ nghiÖp.
Occupational health (n) Søc khoÎ nghÒ nghiÖp.
Occupational multiplicity (n) Lµm nhiÒu viÖc, ®a d¹ng ngµnh nghÒ;
Occupational safety (n) An toµn nghÒ nghiÖp.
Off-farm (adj) Phi n«ng nghiÖp. ~ employment: ViÖc lµm phi n«ng nghiÖp.
Official aid (n) ViÖn trî chÝnh thøc (i.e. financial flows which meet the conditions of
eligibility for inclusion in ODA, other than the fact that the recipients are on Part II of
the DAC List of Aid Recipients).
Official development assistance (ODA): ViÖn trî ph¸t triÓn chÝnh thøc (i.e. a grant and
a soft loan to countries in Part I of the DAC List of Aid Recipients which is provided to
the official sector, which is intended for development purposes and which has a grant
element of at least 25% of the value of the loan itself).
Oil pollution (n) ¤ nhiÔm dÇu.
On-farm (adj) Trªn ®ång ruéng, thuéc nghÒ n«ng. ~ employment: ViÖc lµm n«ng
nghiÖp. ~ training workshop: Líp tËp huÊn ®Çu bê.
On-lend (v) Cho vay l¹i; Hence, On-lending (n) Sù cho vay l¹i (e.g. ~ terms and
conditions: C¸c ®iÒu kiÖn cho vay l¹i).
On-line (adj or adv) §−îc ®−a lªn m¹ng internet (e.g. The report has been posted ~ ).
~ learning: Häc qua m¹ng internet, häc trùc tuyÕn; ~ service: DÞch vô cung cÊp qua
m¹ng internet, dÞch vô trùc tuyÕn.
On-line service provider (n) Ng−êi cung cÊp dÞch vô øng dông internet.
Opportunity cost (n) Chi phÝ c¬ héi (i.e. a measure of value of the opportunity foregone
when a resource is used for one thing rather than for another).
Oral rehydration therapy (n) Ph−¬ng ph¸p chèng mÊt n−íc c¬ thÓ qua ®−êng miÖng.
Organic farming (n) (Ph−¬ng ph¸p) canh t¸c s¹ch, canh t¸c h÷u c¬ (i.e. an agricultural
system that avoids the use of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, growth regulators, livestock
feed additives and relies as practicable on organic substitutes).
Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD): Tæ chøc Hîp t¸c
vµ Ph¸t triÓn Kinh tÕ. TiÒn th©n cña OECD lµ Tæ chøc Hîp t¸c Kinh tÕ Ch©u ¢u, ®−îc
thµnh lËp ®Ó qu¶n lý viÖn trî cña Hoa Kú vµ Ca-na-®a cho viÖc t¸i thiÕt Ch©u ¢u sau
ChiÕn tranh ThÕ giíi II theo KÕ ho¹ch Marshall. Ra ®êi n¨m 1961, OECD lµ diÔn ®µn
chÝnh s¸ch cña c¸c n−íc c«ng nghiÖp ph−¬ng T©y. OECD hiÖn cã 30 n−íc thµnh viªn.
Outcome (n) KÕt qu¶ l©u dµi (i.e. the results of a project relative to its immediate
objectives that are generated by the project outputs).
Output (n) KÕt qu¶ trùc tiÕp, ®Çu ra (i.e. the tangible products or services, of a project
that are necessary to achieve its objectives; e.g. A development project should be
designed to produce tangible outputs).
Output budgeting (n) (Ph−¬ng ph¸p) lËp ng©n s¸ch theo ®Çu ra (i.e. the process of
linking budgetary appropriations to specific outputs).

53
Outreach (n) Ph¹m vi ho¹t ®éng, ¶nh h−ëng (e.g. An ~ strategy: ChiÕn l−îc më réng
tÇm ho¹t ®éng; to improve ~ to non-member countries: Më réng ¶nh h−ëng ®Õn c¸c
n−íc kh«ng ph¶i lµ thµnh viªn).
Outward-looking (adj) H−íng ngo¹i, kh¸c víi Inward-looking (e.g. Viet Nam’s
economic policies have become much more ~ since the late 80’s).
Overhead costs (n) Chi phÝ qu¶n lý chung.
Ownership (n) (ý thøc) chñ ®éng, lµm chñ. National ~ : ý thøc lµm chñ, ý thøc chñ
®éng cña quèc gia.
Ozone depleting substances (n) C¸c chÊt lµm suy gi¶m tÇng «-d«n (e.g. To phase out ~:
Gi¶m dÇn viÖc sö dông c¸c chÊt lµm suy gi¶m tÇng «-d«n).
Ozone layer (n) TÇng «-d«n.

54
P
Parallel financing (n) Tµi trî song song (i.e. financial contributions that are made by
donors to a joint development project and that are managed by respective donors in
accordance with their own financial rules/regulations). Xem thªm Co-financing.
Paris Club (n) C©u l¹c bé Pa-ri (i.e. ad hoc meetings, usually in Paris, of creditor
governments since 1956 to coordinate the re-negotiation of debts and guarantees among
sovereign countries).
Partially untied aid (n) ViÖn trî cã mét phÇn ®iÒu kiÖn (i.e. official aid for which the
associated goods and services must be procured in the donor country or among a
restricted group of other countries, which however must include substantially all
developing countries).
Participation (n) Sù tham gia (cña ng−êi d©n hoÆc c¸c ®èi t−îng thô h−ëng vµo c¸c ho¹t
®éng ph¸t triÓn).
Participatory (adj) Cã sù tham gia cña ng−êi d©n, hoÆc cña c¸c ®èi t−îng thô h−ëng,
cïng tham gia. A ~ approach: Ph−¬ng ph¸p tiÕp cËn cã sù tham gia cña ng−êi d©n,
ph−¬ng ph¸p cïng tham gia.
Participatory crop improvement (n) C¶i thiÖn c©y trång cã sù tham gia cña ng−êi d©n.
Participatory planning (n) C«ng t¸c lËp kÕ ho¹ch víi sù tham gia cña ng−êi d©n.
Participatory poverty assessment (n) §¸nh gi¸ nghÌo ®ãi cã sù tham gia cña ng−êi
d©n.
Participatory poverty ranking (n) XÕp lo¹i ng−êi nghÌo cã sù tham gia cña ng−êi d©n.
Participatory project evaluation (n) §¸nh gi¸ dù ¸n víi sù tham gia cña c¸c ®èi t−îng
thô h−ëng.
Participatory research (n) Nghiªn cøu cã sù tham gia cña ng−êi d©n.
Participatory rural appraisal (PRA): Ph−¬ng ph¸p ®¸nh gi¸ n«ng th«n cã sù tham gia
cña c¸c ®èi t−îng thô h−ëng (i.e. a method for interacting with, learning from and
analyzing rural communities and population, through which to directly exchange ideas
with beneficiaries and encourage their wide participation).
Partner (n) §èi t¸c. Development ~ : §èi t¸c ph¸t triÓn; dialogue ~ : Bªn ®èi tho¹i.
Partnership (n) Quan hÖ ®èi t¸c (e.g. A close ~ between the Government and the NGO
community); ~ groups: C¸c nhãm ®èi t¸c.
Part-time (adj) Kiªm nhiÖm (e.g. a ~ job, post: Mét c«ng viÖc, chøc danh kiªm nhiÖm).
Pattern (n) H×nh th¸i, tËp qu¸n. ~ of consumption: TËp qu¸n tiªu dïng; ~ of
development: H×nh th¸i ph¸t triÓn; ~ of growth: H×nh th¸i t¨ng tr−ëng.
Pay back (v) Thanh to¸n, hoµn tr¶. Pay-back period: Thêi kú hoµn vèn.
Peace-keeping (n) G×n gi÷ hoµ b×nh (e.g. ~ operations of the United Nations: C¸c ho¹t
®éng g×n gi÷ hoµ b×nh cña Liªn hîp quèc).
Peer (n) Ng−êi ®ång ®¼ng, ng−êi ®ång c¶nh.
Peer education (n) Gi¸o dôc ®ång ®¼ng, tøc lµ ph−¬ng ph¸p gi¸o dôc sö dông ng−êi cã
cïng c¶nh ngé ®Ó chia sÎ kinh nghiÖm sèng, kiÕn thøc, kü n¨ng nh»m t¹o sù ®ång c¶m,
gióp cho viÖc thay ®æi th¸i ®é vµ hµnh vi ®−îc dÔ dµng h¬n.

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People living together with HIV (n) Nh÷ng ng−êi chung sèng víi HIV (i.e. a new term
which is increasingly used to replace "HIV affected people", in order to reduce
discrimination and encourage patients to live positively).
People-centered (n) LÊy con ng−êi lµm trung t©m. ~ development: (Sù nghiÖp) ph¸t
triÓn lÊy con ng−êi lµm trung t©m.
Per capita (adj) TÝnh theo ®Çu ng−êi. ~ GNP: Tæng thu nhËp quèc d©n theo ®Çu ng−êi;
~ income: Thu nhËp theo ®Çu ng−êi.
Perform (v) Ho¹t ®éng (e.g. To ~ well: Ho¹t ®éng tèt, ho¹t ®éng cã hiÖu qu¶).
Performance (n) HiÖu n¨ng, hiÖu qu¶ ho¹t ®éng. Environmental, economic, financial
~ : HiÖu qu¶ ho¹t ®éng vÒ m«i tr−êng, kinh tÕ, tµi chÝnh.
Performance evaluation (n) §¸nh gi¸ hiÖu qu¶ ho¹t ®éng.
Performance indicators (n) C¸c tiªu chÝ ®¸nh gi¸ hiÖu qu¶ ho¹t ®éng.
Performing (adj) Ho¹t ®éng cã hiÖu qu¶, sinh lêi (e.g. a ~ loan: Mét kho¶n vay cã hiÖu
qu¶).
Phase out (v) Gi¶m dÇn (e.g. To ~ the use of ozone depleting substances: Gi¶m dÇn viÖc
sö dông c¸c chÊt lµm suy gi¶m tÇng «-d«n; To ~ foreign exchange controls, import
quotas, non-tariff barriers: Gi¶m dÇn c¸c biÖn ph¸p kiÓm so¸t ngo¹i hèi, h¹n ng¹ch xuÊt
khÈu, hµng rµo phi thuÕ quan).
Phasing out (n) Sù gi¶m dÇn (e.g. the ~ of foreign exchange controls, export quotas,
non-tariff barriers).
Pick winners (v) Chän ng−êi th¾ng cuéc (ý nãi kh«ng cho phÐp tù do c¹nh tranh).
Pilot (n) Thö nghiÖm, thÝ ®iÓm. ~ activities: Nh÷ng ho¹t ®éng thö nghiÖm; A ~ project:
Dù ¸n thÝ ®iÓm; A ~ production facility: Ph−¬ng tiÖn s¶n xuÊt thö.
Pilot (v) Thö nghiÖm, thÝ ®iÓm (e.g. To ~ a new initiative: Thö nghiÖm mét s¸ng kiÕn
míi).
Pilot project (n) Dù ¸n thÝ ®iÓm (i.e. a project of which the primary function is to
determine the viability under experimental conditions, of a process, technology or
approach in order to make recommendations for its application on a large scale and in
actual conditions).
Pipeline Danh môc c¸c dù ¸n ®ang ®Ò nghÞ xin tµi trî, hoÆc ®ang trong giai ®o¹n chuÈn
bÞ (i.e. the backlog of proposed projects for which assistance is requested). A ~ project:
Dù ¸n trong giai ®o¹n chuÈn bÞ.
Planned economy (n) Kinh tÕ kÕ ho¹ch ho¸ (i.e. an economy in which the Government
takes central responsibility for economic decision-making, including developing plans
for economic growth).
Pledge (n) Sù høa hÑn viÖn trî (i.e. the amount of ODA intended to be made by a donor
to a recipient country as announced by its official representative or by way of any official
document. Hence, ODA moves from pledges through commitments to disbursements).
Xin xem thªm Commitment and Disbursement.
Policy (n) ChÝnh s¸ch. ~ dialogue: §èi tho¹i chÝnh s¸ch; Policy-driven (also policy-
based): Phôc vô chÝnh s¸ch (e.g. ~ research: Nghiªn cøu phôc vô chÝnh s¸ch).
Policy Framework Paper (n) Tµi liÖu khu«n khæ chÝnh s¸ch (i.e. a policy document
which was introduced by the IMF and which outlined IMF's approach to economic
policy in borrowing countries, including conditions attached to loans).

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Policy-making (n) X©y dùng chÝnh s¸ch. A decentralized ~ process: Quy tr×nh x©y
dùng chÝnh s¸ch ®−îc ph©n cÊp.
Policy maker (n) Ng−êi lµm chÝnh s¸ch.
Pollute (v) G©y « nhiÔm. Hence, Pollutant: ChÊt g©y « nhiÔm; Polluter: Ng−êi g©y «
nhiÔm, ®¬n vÞ g©y « nhiÔm.
Polluter pays principle (n) Nguyªn t¾c ng−êi g©y « nhiÔm ph¶i tr¶ tiÒn (i.e. a
sustainable development principle which suggests that the polluter should bear the costs
of preventing and controlling pollution).
Polluting (adj) G©y « nhiÔm (e.g. A ~ industry: Mét ngµnh c«ng nghiÖp g©y « nhiÔm).
Pollution (n) Sù « nhiÔm. Air ~: ¤ nhiÔm kh«ng khÝ; Coastal ~ : ¤ nhiÔm ven biÓn;
~ fee: PhÝ ®èi víi ng−êi g©y « nhiÔm; Industrial ~ : ¤ nhiÔm c«ng nghiÖp; Marine ~ : ¤
nhiÔm biÓn; Urban ~ : ¤ nhiÔm ®« thÞ; Water ~ : ¤ nhiÔm nguån n−íc.
Pollution abatement (n) Gi¶m thiÓu, lµm gi¶m bít « nhiÔm. ~ costs: Chi phÝ gi¶m thiÓu
« nhiÔm; ~ technology: C«ng nghÖ gi¶m thiÓu « nhiÔm.
Pollution control strategy (n) ChiÕn l−îc ng¨n ngõa « nhiÔm.
Pollution prevention (n) Phßng ngõa « nhiÔm.
Pollution-intensive adj) G©y nhiÒu « nhiÔm (e.g. a ~ industry, investment project).
Poor (adj) NghÌo, nghÌo ®ãi. The poor (n) Ng−êi nghÌo (e.g. Bank for the Poor: Ng©n
hµng Ng−êi nghÌo).
Population (n) D©n sè.; Pressures of ~ : Søc Ðp d©n sè.
Population census (n) §iÒu tra d©n sè.
Population density (n) MËt ®é d©n sè.
Population distribution (n) Ph©n bè d©n sè.
Population dynamics (n) §éng th¸i d©n sè.
Population forecast (n) Dù b¸o d©n sè.
Population growth (n) T¨ng d©n sè.
Population planning (n) LËp kÕ ho¹ch vÒ d©n sè.
Portfolio (n) Danh môc c¸c dù ¸n, do mét ng−êi hoÆc tæ chøc qu¶n lý (e.g. The World
Bank’s ~ in Viet Nam).
Portfolio investment (n) §Çu t− gi¸n tiÕp (b»ng cæ phÇn, cæ phiÕu).
Position (n) VÞ trÝ, lËp tr−êng. Position oneself (v) Chän vÞ trÝ (e.g. UNDP should ~
itself in such a way to assist the Government most effectively; UNDP is well-positioned
to support the Government most effectively).
Poverty (n) T×nh tr¹ng nghÌo, nghÌo ®ãi (i.e. a broadly defined term to mean
unacceptable low living standards). To rise above ~ : Tho¸t khái c¶nh nghÌo ®ãi; to fall
back into ~ : BÞ ®Èy trë l¹i c¶nh nghÌo ®ãi; t¸i nghÌo). Absolute ~ : NghÌo theo nghÜa
tuyÖt ®èi; Extreme or hard core ~ : T×nh tr¹ng nghÌo cïng cùc; Relative ~ : T×nh tr¹ng
nghÌo t−¬ng ®èi.
Poverty alleviation (n) Gi¶m nghÌo (e.g. A ~ strategy: ChiÕn l−îc gi¶m nghÌo).
Poverty elimination, poverty eradication (n) Xo¸ ®ãi, gi¶m nghÌo.

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Poverty gap (n) Kho¶ng c¸ch nghÌo (i.e. measurement of the depth of poverty compared
to the poverty line). ~ index: ChØ sè ®o kho¶ng c¸ch nghÌo (i.e. an index which shows,
in general terms, how far the life of a poor group is below the poverty line).
Poverty incidence or Poverty rate (n) Tû lÖ nghÌo ®ãi (i.e. the proportion of the
population living below the poverty line); Overall (general, total) poverty rate: Tû lÖ
nghÌo tæng thÓ, tû lÖ nghÌo chung.
Poverty line (n) ChuÈn nghÌo (i.e. a condition of life so charactirized by malnutrition,
illiteracy and disease as to be beneath the reasonable definition of human decency. e.g.
Different ~ s will produce different estimates of how many people are “poor"; To rise
above the ~ : Tho¸t khái ng−ìng nghÌo). National ~ : ChuÈn nghÌo quèc gia;
Internationally comparable ~ : ChuÈn nghÌo quèc tÕ; Expenditure-based ~ : ChuÈn
nghÌo vÒ chi tiªu; Income-based ~ : ChuÈn nghÌo vÒ thu nhËp; Food-based ~ : ChuÈn
nghÌo vÒ l−¬ng thùc, thùc phÈm; Official ~ : ChuÈn nghÌo chÝnh thøc. Under or below
the ~ : D−íi møc nghÌo (e.g. 50% of the population are living ~ ).
Poverty map (n) B¶n ®å vÒ t×nh h×nh nghÌo ®ãi. Hence, Poverty mapping (n) VÏ b¶n
®å vÒ t×nh h×nh nghÌo ®ãi.
Poverty ranking (n) XÕp lo¹i ng−êi nghÌo (e.g. Proper ~ is a basis to develop sound
poverty alleviation strategies).
Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility- PRGF (n) ThÓ thøc hç trî xo¸ ®ãi, gi¶m
nghÌo vµ t¨ng tr−ëng (i.e. IMF's loan facility which replaces the ESAF and which applies
to 80 low-income member countries with a per capity GDP at US$ 885 or below in
1999).
Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper - PRSP (n) V¨n b¶n chiÕn l−îc xo¸ ®ãi, gi¶m
nghÌo (i.e. a policy document introduced in 1999 by IMF to replace the Policy
Framework Paper as a condition for debt relief for heavily indebted poor countries. It
describes a country's macroeconomic, structural and social policies and programmes to
promote growth and reduce poverty).
Poverty Reduction Support Credit - PRSC (n) TÝn dông hç trî xo¸ ®ãi, gi¶m nghÌo
(i.e. soft credit which is provided by WB to poor countries eligible for IDA funding to
support the implementation of the PRSP).
Poverty-stricken (adj) Trong t×nh tr¹ng nghÌo ®ãi (e.g. ~ regions of the country: C¸c
vïng nghÌo ®ãi cña ®Êt n−íc).
Practice (n) TËp qu¸n Best ~ : TËp qu¸n tèt, kinh nghiÖm tèt (i.e. processes and
techniquest that have produced outstanding results in a situation and that could be
adatpted to another situation).
Practical gender needs (n) Nhu cÇu thùc tiÔn vÒ giíi (i.e. needs which women identify
in their accepted roles in society; these are practical in nature and often concern
inadequacies in living conditions).
Practitioner (n) Ng−êi thùc hµnh. Development ~ : Ng−êi thùc hµnh ph¸t triÓn.
Precautionary principle (n) Nguyªn t¾c c¶nh b¸o tr−íc (i.e. a sustainable development
principle which holds that where there are threats of serious or irreversible damage, lack
of scientific certainty shall not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective
measures to prevent environmental degradation).
Precursor (n) TiÒn chÊt.

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Preferential (adj) ¦u ®·i (e.g. ~ trade arrangements: C¸c tho¶ thuËn th−¬ng m¹i −u
®·i).
Primary health care (n) Ch¨m sãc søc khoÎ ban ®Çu.
Principles for sustainable development law: C¸c nguyªn t¾c ph¸t triÓn bÒn v÷ng (i.e.
Public trust doctrine, conservation of biodiversity, precautionary principle; inter-
generational equity, internalization of environmental costs, intra-generational equity,
subsidiarity principle, polluter pays principle and user pays principle).
Primary products (n) S¶n phÈm th«.
Prior obligation (n) §iÒu kiÖn tiªn quyÕt (i.e. an obligation that must be fulfilled before
a project is formally signed).
Prioritization (n) (Sù) s¾p xÕp −u tiªn (e.g. The ~ socio-economic development projects
in the coming years).
Prioritize (v) S¾p xÕp −u tiªn (e.g To ~ work tasks in the next year: S¾p xÕp thø tù −u
tiªn c«ng viÖc trong n¨m tíi).
Priority (n) ¦u tiªn (e.g. Poverty reduction is a high ~ in the national socio-economic
development plan: Xo¸ ®ãi, gi¶m nghÌo la −u tiªn cao trong kÕ ho¹ch ph¸t triÓn kinh tÕ -
x· héi cña quèc gia).
Privatize (v) T− nh©n ho¸. Hence, Privatization (n) Sù t− nh©n ho¸ (e.g. ~ of loss-
making public businesses: T− nh©n ho¸ c¸c doanh nghiÖp c«ng lµm ¨n thua lç).
Proactive (adj) Chñ ®éng. A ~ response: Ph¶n øng chñ ®éng, kh¸c víi a reactive
response).
Problem-solving technique (n) Kü thuËt gi¶i quyÕt vÊn ®Ò.
Process (n) Qu¸ tr×nh, quy tr×nh.
Process consultancy (n) T− vÊn vÒ quy tr×nh (i.e. a distinctive form of management
consultation in which the consultant helps the client initiate and sustain a process of
change and continuous learning for systematic improvement).
Process-oriented (adj) §Þnh h−íng theo quy tr×nh, kh¸c víi Result-oriented (adj) §Þnh
h−íng theo kÕt qu¶.
Procure (v) Mua s¾m (e.g. To ~ equipment for a project: Mua s¾m thiÕt bÞ cho dù ¸n).
Procurement (n) ViÖc mua s¾m. ~ procedures, rules: Thñ tôc mua s¾m, quy chÕ mua
s¾n; International ~: Mua s¾m quèc tÕ; Local ~ : Mua s¾m trong n−íc.
Product (n) S¶n phÈm. Cultural ~ s: S¶n phÈm v¨n ho¸; Tourist ~ s: S¶n phÈm du
lÞch.
Production costs (n) Chi phÝ s¶n xuÊt.
Productive employment (n) Lao ®éng cã n¨ng suÊt.
Productive role (n) Vai trß trong s¶n xuÊt (cña phô n÷). Xem thªm Gender roles.
Programme (n) Ch−¬ng tr×nh (i.e. a time-bound intervention which cuts across sectors,
themes, or geographic areas, uses a multi-disciplinary approach, involves several
institutions, and may be supported by different funding sources).
Programme aid (n) ViÖn trî theo ch−¬ng tr×nh (i.e. financial assistance given to help
fund government budget, often consisting of balance of payment support, general
budget support, sector budget support and/or debt relief).

59
Programme or programmatic approach (n) Ph−¬ng ph¸p tiÕp cËn theo ch−¬ng tr×nh
(i.e. a process which allows Governments to articulate national priorities and realize
sustainable development objectives through a coherent and participatory national
programme framework).
Programme budgeting (n) (Ph−¬ng ph¸p) lËp ng©n s¸ch theo ch−¬ng tr×nh (i.e.
budgeting organized around broad programmes and linked to outcomes as performance
indicators).
Programming (n) X©y dùng ch−¬ng tr×nh, dù ¸n (i.e. the process of screening,
evaluating, prioritizing and ranking projects/programmes, given the scarce investment
resources).
Project (n) Dù ¸n (i.e. a time-bound intervention that consists of a set of planned, inter-
related activities which are aimed at achieving defined objectives). ~ document: V¨n
kiÖn dù ¸n; ~ idea: ý t−ëng dù ¸n; ~ outline: §Ò c−¬ng dù ¸n.
Project aid (n) ViÖn trî qua dù ¸n (i.e. assistance in the form of grants or loans that is
channelled through specific projects to finance new, or the expansion of existing,
technical, production and infrastructure facilities, or to improve human and institutional
capacities).
Project appraisal (n) ThÈm ®Þnh dù ¸n (i.e. the project which provides a basis for
decisions whether á not a project can be approved, based on certain criteria such as its
relevance, feasibility, cost-effectiveness, design, etc…).
Project cycle (n) Chu kú dù ¸n (i.e. the various stages through which a project moves.
The project cycle is defined differently by different organizations but normally consists
of four main stages: identification; preparation (including formulation, appraisal and
approval); implementation and evaluation; and completion).
Project design (n) ThiÕt kÕ dù ¸n (i.e. a process of project planning and analysis that
begins with problem identification/analysis and leads to a clear explanation of the cause
and effect relationships among the various project elements such as activities, inputs,
outputs, objectives).
Project document (n) V¨n kiÖn dù ¸n (i.e. a formal control document for a project
agreed to by and between the recipient government, funding agency and selected
executing agency).
Project revision (n) §iÒu chØnh dù ¸n (i.e. the introduction of changes in an approved
and fully signed project document or parts thereof).
Promote (v) Xóc tiÕn (e.g. to ~ business, investment and trade).
Promotion (n) Sù xóc tiÕn (e.g. business, investment and trade ~ ).
Property right (n) QuyÒn së h÷u. Industrial ~ : QuyÒn së h÷u c«ng nghiÖp;
Intellectual ~ : QuyÒn së h÷u trÝ tuÖ.
Pro-poor (adj) Hç trî ng−êi nghÌo. ~ economic growth: T¨ng tr−ëng kinh tÕ v× ng−êi
nghÌo; ~ policies: C¸c chÝnh s¸ch hç trî ng−êi nghÌo.
Protected area (n) Khu vùc b¶o tån (i.e. an area of land and/or sea especially dedicated
to the conservation of biological diversity, natural and cultural resources). Terrestrial,
coastal, marine ~ : Khu vùc b¶o tån trªn ®Êt liÒn, ven biÓn, trªn biÓn; ~ management
(n) Qu¶n lý c¸c khu vùc b¶o tån.

60
Protected areas (n) C¸c khu b¶o tån. ~ ®−îc ph©n thµnh nhiÒu lo¹i nh−: habitat
management area, hunting reserve, managed resource area, natural monument,
natural park, nature reserve hay strict nature reserve, species management area, vµ
wilderness area
Protection (n) Sù b¶o vÖ, sù b¶o hé. Social ~ : B¶o trî x· héi; Trade ~ : B¶o hé mËu
dÞch.
Protective (adj) B¶o hé. ~ measures, devices: C¸c biÖn ph¸p b¶o hé.
Proxy (n) Thay thÕ. ~ indicators: C¸c chØ sè thay thÕ; ~ variables: C¸c biÕn sè uû
nhiÖm (i.e. a variable used in regression analysis to replace or "stand in for" another
more theoretically satisfactory variable which is either not measurable or fo which data
is not available).
Psychotropic substance (n) ChÊt h−íng thÇn.
Public (adj) Thuéc vÒ c«ng chóng, c«ng céng. ~ sector: Khu vùc c«ng céng; ~ services:
DÞch vô c«ng céng.
Public administration (n) Hµnh chÝnh c«ng. ~ reform: C¶i c¸ch hµnh chÝnh c«ng.
Public debt (n) Nî c«ng.
Public expenditure (n) Chi tiªu c«ng céng.
Public expenditure management (n) Qu¶n lý chi tiªu c«ng céng (i.e. the process of
planning, spending and accounting for public expenditure); Principles of ~ : C¸c
nguyªn t¾c qu¶n lý chi tiªu c«ng céng (i.e. these principles are fiscal discipline,
allocation of spending, efficiency of spending, integrating aid into the State budget,
public accountability, public expenditure planning and financial management).
Public expenditure review (n) KiÓm ®iÓm chi tiªu c«ng céng.
Public finance (n) Tµi chÝnh c«ng.
Public goods (n) Hµng ho¸ c«ng céng (i.e. goods that cannot be withheld from people
even if they do not pay for them). International ~ : Hµng ho¸ c«ng céng quèc tÕ.
Public investment (n) §Çu t− c«ng céng. ~ programme: Ch−¬ng tr×nh ®Çu t− c«ng
céng.
Public relations (n) Quan hÖ c«ng céng, quan hÖ ®èi ngo¹i (cña mét c¬ quan víi c¸c ®èi
t¸c).
Public sector (n) Khu vùc kinh tÕ c«ng céng (i.e. the portion of the economy whose
(economic and non-economic activities are under the control and direction of the State).
Public trust doctrine (n) Nguyªn t¾c x©y dùng lßng tin cña c«ng chóng (i.e. a
sustainable development principle which places a duty on the State to hold environmental
resources in trust for the benefit of the public).
Purchasing power parity (n) Søc mua t−¬ng ®−¬ng (i.e. a method of measuring the
relative purchasing power of different countries' currencies over the same types of goods
and services).

61
Q
Qualified (adj) Cã ®ñ tiªu chuÈn, ®ñ tr×nh ®é, ®ñ n¨ng lùc. ~ candidates: C¸c øng viªn
cã ®ñ tiªu chuÈn; ~ approval: Sù ®ång ý dÌ dÆt (cã ®iÒu kiÖn).
Qualify (v) Cã ®ñ tr×nh ®é, ®ñ tiªu chuÈn (e.g. Our team has qualified for the next round
of competition); Ph¸t biÓu thªm, ®Ó lµm râ hoÆc ®Ó giíi h¹n ph¹m vi mét ý kiÕn tr−íc ®ã
(e.g. I feel I must ~ my earlier remarks in case they are misinterpreted).
Qualitative (adj) §Þnh tÝnh, thuéc vÒ chÊt l−îng. ~ analysis: Ph©n tÝch ®Þnh tÝnh;
~ improvement: C¶i thiÖn vÒ chÊt.
Quality (n) ChÊt l−îng. ~ control: KiÓm tra chÊt l−îng; ~ management: Qu¶n lý chÊt
l−îng; ~ standards: Tiªu chuÈn chÊt l−îng.
Quality of growth (n) ChÊt l−îng t¨ng tr−ëng.
Quality of life (n) ChÊt l−îng cuéc sèng (i.e. a concept embracing an miscellany of
desirable things, not always recognized in the market place, such as housing, working
conditions, health and educational services, environmental conditions, community
relationships, justice, freedom, safety, law, order...).
Quantifiable (adj) Cã thÓ l−îng ho¸ ®−îc (e.g. ~ results, benefits).
Quantify (v) L−îng ho¸ (e.g. To ~ the benefits of a social development project).
Quantitative (adj) §Þnh l−îng, thuéc vÒ l−îng. ~ analysis: Ph©n tÝch ®Þnh l−îng;
~ improvement: C¶i thiÖn vÒ l−îng; ~ restrictions: H¹n chÕ vÒ sè l−îng.
Questionnaire (n) PhiÕu c©u hái, b¶ng c©u hái. Survey ~ : PhiÕu c©u hái ®iÒu tra.
Quick disbursing (adj) Gi¶i ng©n nhanh. ~ loans: C¸c kho¶n cho vay gi¶i ng©n nhanh.
Quintile (n) Nhãm ®iÒu tra (e.g. Expenditure ~ : Nhãm ®iÒu tra theo chi tiªu;
Income ~ : Nhãm ®iÒu tra theo thu nhËp).
Quota (n) H¹n ng¹ch. ~ system: HÖ thèng cÊp h¹n ng¹ch; Export ~ : H¹n ng¹ch xuÊt
khÈu; Import ~ : H¹n ng¹ch nhËp khÈu.
Quotation (n) B¶n b¸o gi¸ (e.g The ~ for a piece of equipment: B¶n b¸o gi¸ cho mét
môc thiÕt bÞ).
Quote (v) B¸o gi¸ (e.g. To ~ US$ 1500 for the computer: B¸o gi¸ 1.500 USD cho chiÕc
m¸y vi tÝnh).

62
R
Raise (v) N©ng cao, lµm t¨ng thªm. To ~ awareness of something: N©ng cao nhËn thøc
vÒ … (e.g. ~ of gender, environmental issues, HIV/AIDS: N©ng cao nhËn thøc vÒ giíi,
m«i tr−êng, HIV/AIDS).
Rapid rural appraisal (n) (Ph−¬ng ph¸p) ®¸nh gi¸ nhanh n«ng th«n (i.e. a method with
which a multi-disciplinary team of researchers use social science tools for a quick
collection of primary data and transform such data into secondary data for assessment
and analysis).
Rating system (n) HÖ thèng cho ®iÓm (i.e. an instrument for forming and validating a
judgement on the relevance, performance and success of a project through the use of a
scale with numeric, alphabetic and/or descriptive codes).
Reactive (adj) Thô ®éng (e.g. A ~ response: Ph¶n øng thô ®éng), kh¸c víi Proactive.
Real GDP per capita (n) Tæng thu nhËp quèc néi thùc tÝnh theo ®Çu ng−êi.
Recipient (n) Ng−êi tiÕp nhËn (viÖn trî). ~ country: N−íc nhËn viÖn trî; ~ agency: C¬
quan nhËn viÖn trî.
Recommend (v) §−a ra khuyÕn nghÞ (e.g. The consultant team ~ that the current land
tenure be extended in order to further promote agricultural production).
Recommendation (n) KhuyÕn nghÞ (e.g. The consultant has offered a series of ~ s in
order to improve financial performance and accountability of State-owned enterprises).
Reconcile (v) Dung hoµ (e.g. To ~ different procedures of the Government and donors);
C©n ®èi (e.g. To ~ the final budget accounts of the project).
Reconciliation (n) Sù dung hoµ, sù c©n ®èi (e.g. the ~ of different points of view, year-
end financial accounts).
Recycle (v) T¸i t¹o, t¸i sinh. Hence, Recycled (adj) §−îc t¸i t¹o (e.g. ~ materials: VËt
liÖu t¸i t¹o).
Recycling (n) Sù t¸i t¹o, tËn dông (e.g. the ~ of waste materials: T¸i t¹o c¸c chÊt th¶i).
Red tape (n) TÖ quan liªu.
Reduction (n) Gi¶m, c¾t gi¶m. ~ of drug-related harms: Gi¶m t¸c h¹i do ma tuý g©y
ra; ~ of poverty: Gi¶m nghÌo.
Redundancy (n) Lao ®éng d«i d−. ~ Support Fund: Quü hç trî lao ®éng d«i d−.
Reforestation (n) Trång rõng.
Refugees (n) Ng−êi tÞ n¹n (i.e. people who have fled their countries because of well-
founded fear of persecution for reasons of their race, religion, nationality, political
opinion or membership in a social group, and who cannot or do not want to return).
Regulatory (adj) Cã tÝnh ph¸p quy, kh¸c víi Non-regulatory. A ~ approach: Ph−¬ng
ph¸p tiÕp cËn mang tÝnh ph¸p quy.
Regulatory framework (n) Khu«n khæ ph¸p quy.
Regulatory instruments (n) C¸c c«ng cô mang tÝnh ph¸p quy (e.g. ~ approaches,
instruments for environmental management).
Reintegration (n) Sù t¸i hoµ nhËp (e.g. The ~ of Vietnamese returnees from Hong
Kong: Sù t¸i hoµ nhËn cña nh÷ng ng−êi tÞ n¹n ViÖt Nam tõ Hång C«ng trë vÒ).

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Relevance (n) Sù thÝch hîp (i.e. the degree to which the objectives of a project remain
valid within the immediate context and external environment of that project).
Relevant (adj) ThÝch hîp (e.g. ~ to local conditions: ThÝch hîp víi ®iÒu kiÖn ®Þa
ph−¬ng).
Relocation (n) ChuyÓn vïng, chuyÓn ®Þa ®iÓm. ~ of an industry: ChuyÓn vïng c«ng
nghiÖp (i.e. the practice of transferring the production of certain goods and services to
countries with lower labour costs).
Relocation allowances (n) Trî cÊp chuyÓn vïng c«ng t¸c.
Remunerate (v) Tr¶ c«ng, tr¶ thï lao (e.g. To ~ him for his lecturing during the training
workshop).
Remuneration (n) Sù tr¶ c«ng, tr¶ thï lao. ~ rate: Møc thï lao.
Renewable (adj) Cã kh¶ n¨ng t¸i sinh, kh¸c víi Non-renewable. ~ energies: C¸c nguån
n¨ng l−îng t¸i sinh, nh− n¨ng l−îng mÆt trêi, n¨ng l−îng giã, thuû lîi nhá.
Rent seeking (n) Lîi dông ®Æc quyÒn, ®Æc lîi.
Repatriation (n) Håi h−¬ng (e.g. The ~ of Vietnamese “boat-people”: Håi h−¬ng
“thuyÒn nh©n” ng−êi ViÖt Nam).
Repay (v) Hoµn tr¶, tr¶ nî (e.g. to ~ the loan within ten years).
Repayment (n) Sù hoµn tr¶, tr¶ nî. ~ conditions: Nh÷ng ®iÒu kiÖn tr¶ nî.
Replacement level fertility (n) Møc sinh thay thÕ (i.e. fertility level at which couples
have the number of children required to replace themselves, that is two children).
Replicate (v) Nh©n réng (e.g. To ~ the successful lessons learned from recent projects).
Replication (n) Sù nh©n réng. Replicability (n) Kh¶ n¨ng nh©n réng.
Report (n) B¸o c¸o. Annual progress ~ : B¸o c¸o tiÕn ®é hµng n¨m; Periodical
progress ~ : B¸o c¸o tiÕn ®é ®Þnh kú; Quarterly progress ~ : B¸o c¸o tiÕn ®é hµng
quý; Terminal ~ : B¸o c¸o kÕt thóc.
Reproductive health (n) Søc khoÎ sinh s¶n.
Reproductive role (n) Vai trß sinh s¶n cña phô n÷. Xem thªm Gender roles.
Research and development (R & D): Nghiªn cøu vµ triÓn khai. R & D institutes: C¸c
viÖn nghiªn cøu vµ triÓn khai.
Resource (n) Nguån lùc. Domestic ~: Nguån lùc trong n−íc, néi lùc; External ~:
Nguån lùc tõ bªn ngoµi; Financial ~ : Nguån lùc tµi chÝnh; Human ~ : Nguån nh©n lùc;
Natural ~ s : Tµi nguyªn thiªn nhiªn .
Resource allocation (n) Ph©n bæ nguån lùc.
Resource mobilization (n) Huy ®éng nguån lùc. ~ strategy: ChiÕn l−îc huy ®éng nguån
lùc.
Resource-intensive (adj) CÇn nhiÒu tµi nguyªn (e.g. a ~ industry).
Restructure (v) S¾p xÕp l¹i c¬ cÊu, chuyÓn dÞch c¬ cÊu (e.g. To ~ the national
economy).
Restructuring (n) Sù chuyÓn dÞch c¬ cÊu, s¾p xÕp l¹i c¬ cÊu (e.g. The ~ of the national
economy).
Result (n) KÕt qu¶ (i.e. is a broad term used to refer to the effects of a project. The terms
outputs, outcomes and impact describe more precisely the different types of results at
various levels of aggregation).

64
Result-based management (n) Ph−¬ng ph¸p qu¶n lý g¾n víi kÕt qu¶ (i.e. a management
method which is aimed at improving performance and achieving results).
Result-oriented (adj) §Þnh h−íng theo kÕt qu¶ (e.g. Our action plan must be ~ ).
Retraining (n) §µo t¹o l¹i (i.e. training designed to equip workers displaced by
technological change or retrenchments with new skills for which there is a demand in the
labour market).
Retrenchment (n) Lao ®éng d− thõa, d− d«i lao ®éng (e.g. retrenchements due to the
divestiture of loss-making State-owned enterprises).
Return (n) Lîi nhuËn. A high rate of ~ : Tû suÊt sinh lêi cao; Internal ~ : Tû suÊt lîi
tøc néi hoµn.
Return on equity (n) Tû suÊt sinh lêi trªn vèn cæ phÇn.
Return on invested capital (n) Tû suÊt sinh lêi trªn vèn ®Çu t−.
Return on sales (n) Tû suÊt sinh lêi trªn doanh thu.
Review (n) KiÓm ®iÓm. Annual ~ : KiÓm ®iÓm hµng n¨m; Periodical ~ : KiÓm ®iÓm ®Þnh
kú; Quarterly ~ : KiÓm ®iÓm hµng quý; Terminal ~ : KiÓm ®iÓm kÕt thóc.
Revise (v) §iÒu chØnh, söa ®æi (e.g. to ~ a policy, a workplan, a project document).
Revision (n) Sù ®iÒu chØnh, söa ®æi. Budget ~ : §iÒu chØnh ng©n s¸ch; Project ~ : Söa
®æi dù ¸n.
Revolving (adj) Quay vßng. ~ credit: TÝn dông quay vßng; ~ fund: Quü quay vßng.
Right (n) QuyÒn. ~s of the child: QuyÒn cña trÎ em; Development ~s : QuyÒn tham gia
ph¸t triÓn; Human ~ : QuyÒn con ng−êi.
Rights-based (adj) Dùa vµo c¸c quyÒn con ng−êi. A ~ approach to development:
Ph−¬ng ph¸p tiÕp cËn ph¸t triÓn dùa vµo c¸c quyÒn con ng−êi.
Risk (n) Rñi ro. ~ averse (adj): Sî rñi ro; ~ tolerant (adj): Gi¸m chÞu rñi ro;
Actuarial ~ : Rñi ro ®−îc b¶o hiÓm.
Risk analysis, assessment and management: Ph©n tÝch, ®¸nh gi¸ vµ qu¶n lý rñi ro.
Risk minimization and diversification: Gi¶m thiÓu vµ ph©n t¸n rñi ro.
Risk of acquiring or contracting HIV (n) Nguy c¬ bÞ nhiÔm HIV.
Road map (n) Lé tr×nh (e.g. a ~ for Viet Nam's full economic integration with ASEAN).
Rolling principle (n) Nguyªn t¾c cuèn chiÕu.
Round Table Meeting Héi nghÞ bµn trßn (i.e. a periodic meeting, chaired by UNDP,
between the Government of a developing country and its major aid partners for
dialoguing on national issuses and priorities and mobilizing additional external
assistance.).
Rule of law ChÕ ®é ph¸p trÞ (i.e. equal protection - of human, property and other
economic rights - and punishment under the law).
Rules of origin (n) Quy chÕ n−íc xuÊt xø (i.e. restrictions on a country from which
publicly procured goods and services may originate, applying in particular to "tied aid").
Rule-based (adj) Dùa vµo quy chÕ (e.g. an open, non-discriminatory and ~ trading
system: HÖ thèng th−¬ng m¹i më, kh«ng ph©n biÖt ®èi xö vµ dùa vµo quy chÕ).
Rural - urban disparity (n) Møc chªnh lÖch gi÷a n«ng th«n vµ thµnh thÞ.
Rural credit (n) TÝn dông n«ng th«n.

65
Rural development (n) Ph¸t triÓn n«ng th«n.
Rural economy (n) Kinh tÕ n«ng th«n.
Rural employment (n) ViÖc lµm ë n«ng th«n.
Rural industry (n) C«ng nghiÖp n«ng th«n.
Rural infrastructure (n) KÕt cÊu h¹ tÇng n«ng th«n, h¹ tÇng c¬ së n«ng th«n.
Rural planning (n) Quy ho¹ch n«ng th«n.
Rural water and sanitation (n) N−íc s¹ch vµ vÖ sinh ë n«ng th«n.

66
S
Safety net (n) M¹ng l−íi an toµn (i.e. a social security system that provides basic
services and needs to poor and vulnerable groups who are unable to provide these for
themselves).
Sample (n) MÉu. A random ~ : MÉu ngÉu nhiªn; A ~ representative ~ : MÉu ®¹i diÖn
Sampling (n) Chän mÉu (®iÒu tra). ~ procedures: Quy tr×nh chän mÉu ®iÒu tra;
~ techniques (n) Kü thuËt chän mÉu ®iÒu tra.
Sanitation (n) VÖ sinh m«i tr−êng (e.g. urban ~ : VÖ sinh m«i tr−êng ®« thÞ).
School (n) Tr−êng häc. ~ age: Tuæi ®i häc; ~ discipline: Kû luËt häc ®−êng;
~ environment: M«i tr−êng häc ®−êng.
School drop-out rate (n) Tû lÖ bá häc.
School enrolment rate (n) Tû lÖ ®i häc, tû lÖ nhËp häc (nÕu tÝnh vµo ®Çu n¨m häc).
Sector budget support (n) Hç trî ng©n s¸ch ngµnh (i.e. a form of programme aid that is
provided by the IMF to finance an expenditure programme in a particular sector).
Sector review (n) Nghiªn cøu tæng quan ngµnh (e.g. To conduct a ~ for agriculture and
rural development: TiÕn hµnh nghiªn cøu tæng quan vÒ n«ng nghiÖp vµ ph¸t triÓn n«ng
th«n).
Sectoral (adj) Theo ngµnh. ~ approach: Ph−¬ng ph¸p tiÕp cËn theo ngµnh;
~ development: Ph¸t triÓn ngµnh; ~ planning: Quy ho¹ch ngµnh.
Sector-wide approach (SWAP) (n) C¸ch tiÕp cËn theo ngµnh (i.e. a mechanism by
which a government and its donor(s) can support the development of a sector in an
integrated manner through a single sector policy and expenditure programme under
government leadership).
Seed money (n) Nguån vèn lµm h¹t gièng (i.e. an amount of capital which is used to
create good conditions for attracting further investment). Also Catalyst money.
Self-employed (adj) Tù t¹o viÖc lµm. Hence, Self-employment: ViÖc lµm tù t¹o.
Self-help (n) Tù lùc tù c−êng (i.e. activities carried out by the community on its own
initiative and for its own benefit).
Sensitize (v) VËn ®éng, cho lµm quen víi. Hence, Sensitization (n) Sù vËn ®éng (e.g. a ~
mission: Mét ph¸i ®oµn ®i vËn ®éng).
Sequence (v) X¾p xÕp tr×nh tù (e.g. to ~ economic reform measures: X¾p xÕp tr×nh tù
c¸c biÖn ph¸p c¶i c¸ch kinh tÕ).
Sequencing (n) Sù x¾p xÕp tr×nh tù (e.g. the ~ of public administration and economic
reform measures).
Service (n) DÞch vô, sù phôc vô. Public ~ s: C¸c dÞch vô c«ng céng; Social ~ s: C¸c
dÞch vô x· héi.
Service-minded (adj) Cã ý thøc phôc vô, cã tinh thÇn phôc vô (e.g. a ~ person).
Service-oriented (adj) §Þnh h−íng dÞch vô (e.g. a ~ organization).
Sewage (n) N−íc th¶i . domestic ~ : N−íc th¶i sinh ho¹t; Industrial ~ : N−íc th¶i
c«ng nghiÖp.
Sewage disposal and treatment (n) Thu gom vµ xö lý n−íc th¶i.

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Sex (n) Giíi tÝnh (Differing from Gender, Sex is defined to refer to biological
differences between men and women). Safe ~ : T×nh dôc an toµn; Unprotected ~ : T×nh
dôc kh«ng an toµn.
Sex roles (n) C¸c vai trß giíi tÝnh, kh¸c víi c¸c vai trß vÒ giíi (xem thªm Gender
roles). Vai trß giíi tÝnh ®Ò cËp ®Õn kh¶ n¨ng cña nam giíi trong quan hÖ sinh s¶n víi phô
n÷ vµ kh¶ n¨ng cña phô n÷ trong viÖc sinh con vµ nu«i con.
Sex-disaggregated data (n) Sè liÖu ph©n theo giíi tÝnh.
Sexual (adj) Thuéc vÒ giíi tÝnh, t×nh dôc. ~ abuse: L¹m dông t×nh dôc; ~ harassment:
QuÊy rèi t×nh dôc; ~ behaviour: Hµnh vi t×nh dôc. ~ health: Søc khoÎ t×nh dôc.
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs): C¸c c¨n bÖnh truyÒn theo ®−êng t×nh dôc;
Asymptomatic and symptomatic ~ : C¸c bÖnh STD cã triÖu chøng vµ kh«ng cã triÖu
chøng; STD output: Sù bïng ph¸t cña c¸c bÖnh STD.
Shared (adj) Cïng chia sÎ. ~ goal: Môc ®Ých chung; ~ natural and water resources:
Nguån tµi nguyªn thiªn nhiªn vµ nguån n−íc chung (i.e. resources that are shared by two
or more countries); ~ values: C¸c gi¸ trÞ chung; ~ vision: TÇm nh×n chung.
Sharing (n) Sù chia sÎ. ~ of experience: Chia sÎ kinh nghiÖm; ~ of information: Chia
sÎ th«ng tin; ~ of knowledge: Chia sÎ tri thøc.
Shifting cultivation or farming (n) Du canh (i.e. a farming system in which land is
periodically cleared, farmed and then returned to fallow).
Shooting star (n) Ng«i sao ®ang lªn, c¸ nh©n hoÆc hé ®ang trë nªn giµu cã h¬n (i.e. an
individual or hourshold which has become better off or richer).
Shortlist (v) S¬ tuyÓn (e.g. Ten of the thirty candidates were shortlisted for the final
interview). Hence, Shortlisting (n) Sù s¬ tuyÓn (e.g. The ~ of the long list of candidates).
Silviculture (n) L©m sinh (i.e. a branch of forestry that is concerned with the methods of
raising and growing trees).
Simplification (n) Sù ®¬n gi¶n hãa (e.g. the ~ of administrative, trade procedures).
Simplify (v) §¬n gi¶n ho¸. (e.g. To ~ customs, foreign direct investment procedures).
Size (n) Cì, quy m« (e.g. the family ~ : Sè ng−êi b×nh qu©n trong gia ®×nh; the ~ of an
assistance programme: Quy m« ch−¬ng tr×nh viÖn trî). “One size fits all”: Mét cì võa
cho mäi ng−êi (e.g. There isn't a ~ solution for all developing countries: Kh«ng cã mét
gi¶i ph¸p chung cho tÊt c¶ c¸c n−íc ®ang ph¸t triÓn).
Sinking stone (n) T¶ng ®¸ ®ang ch×m xuèng, c¸ nh©n hoÆc hé ®ang trë nªn nghÌo ®ãi
h¬n (i.e. an individual or household which has become worse off or poorer).
Slash-and-burn farming (n) §èt rõng lµm rÉy.
Smuggling (n) Bu«n lËu. Cross-border ~ : Bu«n lËu qua biªn giíi.
Social (adj) Thuéc vÒ x· héi.
Social alienation (n) (T×nh tr¹ng) bÞ x· héi xa l¸nh.
Social behaviour (n) Hµnh vi x· héi.
Social change (n) Thay ®æi vÒ x· héi.
Social cohesion (n) Sù g¾n kÕt x· héi.
Social costs (n) Chi phÝ x· héi, ¶nh h−ëng tiªu cùc vÒ x· héi (e.g. ~ of reform, structural
adjustment, globalization: Nh÷ng chi phÝ, ¶nh h−ëng tiªu cùc vÒ x· héi cña c¶i c¸ch,
®iÒu chØnh c¬ cÊu, toµn cÇu ho¸).

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Social cost-benefit analysis (n) Ph©n tÝch chi phÝ - lîi Ých x· héi (i.e. a technique which
attempts to set out and evaluate the social costs and social benefits of investment
projects).
Social development (n) Ph¸t triÓn x· héi.
Social environment (n)) M«i tr−êng x· héi.
Social equity (n) C«ng b»ng x· héi.
Social exclusion (n) T×nh tr¹ng bÞ g¹t ra lÒ x· hé.
Social fabric (n) Mèi liªn kÕt x· héi.
Social forestry (n) L©m nghiÖp x· héi (i.e. the practice of using trees and/or tree
planting specifically to pursue social objectives, usually betterment of the poor through
delivery of the benefits to the local people).
Social indicators (n) C¸c chØ sè x· héi.
Social integration (n) Hoµ nhËp vÒ x· héi.
Social mobilization (n) VËn ®éng x· héi.
Social norms (n) C¸c chuÈn mùc x· héi.
Social opportunity cost (n) ChÝ phÝ c¬ héi (vÒ mÆt) x· héi (i.e. the losses and gains in
economic welfare which are incurred by society as a whole if a particular project is
undertaken).
Social protection (n) B¶o trî x· héi.
Social relief fund (n) Quü cøu trî x· héi.
Social safety net (n) M¹ng l−íi an sinh x· héi.
Social security (n) B¶o hiÓm x· héi. ~ systems: C¸c hÖ thèng b¶o hiÓm x· héi.
Social survey (n) §iÒu tra x· héi häc.
Social value (n) Gi¸ trÞ x· héi.
Social welfare programme (n) Ch−¬ng tr×nh phóc lîi x· héi.
Socialization (n) X· héi ho¸ (In the Vietnamese context, socialization means the
sharing of social costs in undertaking development activities between the State, Non-
State sectors and population, e.g. the ~ of cultural and sport activities).
Soft loan (n) Kho¶n vèn vay −u ®·i, xem thªm Concessionary.
Solid waste (n) ChÊt th¶i r¾n. ~ management: Qu¶n lý chÊt th¶i r¾n.
Son preference (n) (T©m lý) thÝch con trai, chuéng con trai.
Species diversity (n) §a d¹ng loµi.
Species management area (n) Khu b¶o tån c¸c loµi ®éng vËt.
Stakeholder (n) §èi t−îng, ng−êi hoÆc bªn cã liªn quan (i.e. people, groups, entities
that have a role and interest in a project, activity). Hence, ~ group: Nhãm ®èi t−îng.
Stakeholder analysis (n) Ph©n tÝch c¸c nhãm ®èi t−îng.
Stakeholder participation (n) Sù tham gia cña c¸c nhãm ®èi t−îng. ~ framework:
Khu«n khæ hay c¬ chÕ cho phÐp c¸c nhãm ®èi t−îng cïng tham gia.
Stand-alone (adj) §éc lËp, ®¬n lÎ (e.g. A ~ project: Dù ¸n ®¬n lÎ; A ~ computer: M¸y vi
tÝnh ®éc lËp, tøc kh«ng nèi m¹ng).

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State of the art (n) T©n tiÕn nhÊt, míi nhÊt. A ~ technology: C«ng nghÖ t©n tiÕn nhÊt.
State of the Environment Report (n) B¸o c¸o vÒ hiÖn tr¹ng m«i tr−êng.
State ruled by law (n) Nhµ n−íc ph¸p quyÒn.
State-owned enterprise (n) Doanh nghiÖp Nhµ n−íc, viÕt t¾t lµ SOE. ~ reform: C¶i
c¸ch doanh nghiÖp Nhµ n−íc; ~ restructuring: X¾p xÕp l¹i doanh nghiÖp Nhµ n−íc.
Stock of total capital (n) Tæng nguån vèn. ~ has three types of assets, namely man-
made capital, human capital and natural capital.
Strategic (adj) Mang tÝnh chiÕn l−îc; ~ evaluation: Cuéc ®¸nh gi¸ mang tÝnh chiÕn
l−îc; ~ framework: Khu«n khæ chiÕn l−îc.
Strategic gender needs (n) Nhu cÇu chiÕn l−îc vÒ giíi (i.e. needs which women identify
because of their subordinate position in society; these are strategic in nature and may
include legal rights, division of labour, equal wages, domestic violence...).
Strategic planning (n) LËp quy ho¹ch chiÕn l−îc (i.e. the process of examining an
organization's current situation, setting goals and developing the "means" to achieve
those goals as well as measuring the results).
Streamline (v) Tinh gi¶n (e.g. To ~ public administration: Tinh gi¶n nÒn hµnh chÝnh
c«ng). Hence, Streamlining (n) Sù tinh gi¶n (e.g. The ~ of public administration).
Street children (n) TrÎ em lang thang c¬ nhì, trÎ em ®−êng phè.
Strict nature reserve (n) Khu b¶o tån thiªn nhiªn nghiªm ngÆt.
Structural (adj) Thuéc vÒ c¬ cÊu.
Structural adjustment (n) §iÒu chØnh c¬ cÊu (i.e. Government action which is directed
towards altering the structure of the economy). ~ credit: TÝn dông ®iÒu chØnh c¬ cÊu;
~ programme: Ch−¬ng tr×nh ®iÒu chØnh c¬ cÊu.
Structural Adjustment Facility (SAF): ThÓ thøc hç trî ®iÒu chØnh c¬ cÊu, do IMF lËp
ra n¨m 1986 ®Ó hç trî c¸n c©n thanh to¸n cña c¸c n−íc ®ang ph¸t triÓn cã thu nhËp thÊp.
Structural change (n) Thay ®æi c¬ cÊu.
Structural shifting (n) ChuyÓn dÞch c¬ cÊu.
Structural unemployment (n) ThÊt nghiÖp c¬ cÊu.
Study tour (n) ChuyÕn ®i kh¶o s¸t (e.g. an overseas ~ : ChuyÕn ®i kh¶o s¸t n−íc ngoµi).
Stunted (adj) BÞ cßi (e.g. A ~ child: §øa trÎ bÞ cßi).
Stunting (n) T×nh tr¹ng cßi ë trÎ em (i.e. height for age falls below international
standard norms, usually indicating nutritional deficiencies in an earlier period of a
child’s growth).
Sub-contract (n) Hîp ®ång phô (e.g. To ~ something to somebody: Ký hîp ®ång phô
víi mét ng−êi nµo ®ã ®Ó lµm mét viÖc g×).
Subsistence (n) Sù tån t¹i (i.e. that which is directly needed for consumption or to exist).
~ economy: NÒn kinh tÕ tù tóc tù cÊp; ~ farming: ChÕ ®é canh t¸c tù tóc tù cÊp. Xem
thªm Farming.
Substance (n) Néi dung, chÊt.
Substantive (adj) Thuéc néi dung, vÒ chÊt (e.g. a ~ role, input: Vai trß, ®ãng gãp vÒ néi
dung; a ~ change: Sù thay ®æi vÒ chÊt).
Success indicator (n) Tiªu chÝ ®¸nh gi¸ thµnh c«ng.

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Success story (n) Bµi häc thµnh c«ng (e.g. The UNDP/UNCDF-funded project on
“promoting small rural infrastructure development in Quang Nam province” was a ~ ).
Supply (n) Cung, l−îng cung (e.g. The ~ of skilled labour is below demand: L−îng cung
lao ®éng lµnh nghÒ kh«ng ®¸p øng ®ñ nhu cÇu); Aggregate ~ : Tæng cung; Excess ~ :
D− cung.
Supply management (n) Qu¶n lý l−îng cung.
Supply pull inflation(n) L¹m ph¸t do cung v−ît qu¸ cÇu.
Supply- side economics (n) Kinh tÕ häc träng cung, kh¸c víi Demand-side economics.
Supply-demand relationship (n) Quan hÖ cung – cÇu.
Supply-driven: Träng cung, do cung chi phèi (e.g. ~ development aid: ViÖn trî ph¸t
triÓn do bªn cung chi phèi).
Surplus (n) ThÆng d−, d− thõa. Budget ~ : ThÆng d− ng©n s¸ch; Labour ~ : Lao ®éng
d− thõa; Trade ~: ThÆng d− th−¬ng m¹i.
Survey (n) §iÒu tra. Social ~ : §iÒu tra x· héi häc.
Sustainability (n) TÝnh bÒn v÷ng (e.g. The ~ of economic growth: TÝnh bÒn v÷ng cña
t¨ng tr−ëng kinh tÕ). Strategies for ~ : C¸c chiÕn l−îc ph¸t triÓn bÒn v÷ng (i.e. the
general term to describe various environment-related plans, such as conservation
strategy, environmental action plan, environmental management plan, sustainable
development strategy).
Sustainable (adj) Mang tÝnh bÒn v÷ng. ~ farming and livelihoods: ph−¬ng ph¸p canh
t¸c vµ kiÕm sèng bÒn v÷ng; ~ use: Sö dông bÒn v÷ng; ~ yield: N¨ng suÊt bÒn v÷ng;
Environmentally, economically and financially ~ : BÒn v÷ng vÒ m«i tr−êng, kinh tÕ vµ
tµi chÝnh.
Sustainable agriculture (n) N«ng nghiÖp bÒn v÷ng (i.e. agricultural practices that
ensure long-term productivity with few harmful effects).
Sustainable development (n) Ph¸t triÓn bÒn v÷ng (i.e. development that meets the
needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to
meet their own needs). Commission on ~ : Héi ®ång vÒ Ph¸t triÓn BÒn v÷ng, ®−îc thµnh
lËp t¹i Héi nghÞ cña LHQ vÒ M«i tr−êng vµ Ph¸t triÓn n¨m 1992 t¹i Rio de Janeiro.
Sustainable human development (n) Ph¸t triÓn con ng−êi bÒn v÷ng (i.e. an integrated,
multi-disciplinary approach to development, which places people at the center of the
development process and advocates the protection of life opportunities for present and
future generations while respecting the natural systems upon which all life depends).
Sustainable industry (n) C«ng nghiÖp bÒn v÷ng (i.e. industrial development that
encourages a competitive economy, creates productive employment and protects the
environment).
Sustainable tourism (n) Du lÞch bÒn v÷ng (i.e. tourism that is developed in such a way
that it remains viable over a long period and does not degrade its surrounding
environment to a degree that it prohibits the successful development of other activities)
Swap (n) Ho¸n ®æi. ~ arrangements: C¸c tho¶ thuËn ho¸n ®æi, tr¸o nî.
Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA): C¬ quan Hîp t¸c
Ph¸t triÓn Quèc tÕ Thuþ §iÓn.
Swidden farming (n) Du canh. Xem thªm Shifting farming.

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Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC): C¬ quan Hîp t¸c vµ Ph¸t
triÓn Thuþ SÜ.
Synergy (n) T¸c ®éng tæng hîp, søc m¹nh tæng hîp (i.e. the interaction of two or more
efforts in order to ensure greater overall effect).
System (n) HÖ thèng. Systems analysis: Ph©n tÝch hÖ thèng; Systems design: ThiÕt kÕ
hÖ thèng (i.e. development of an integrated method for conducting a required article or
performing a desired operation).
Systematic (adj) Mang tÝnh hÖ thèng (e.g. A ~ approach: Mét c¸ch tiÕp cËn mang tÝnh hÖ
thèng).

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T
Take-off (n) Sù cÊt c¸nh. Economic ~ : Sù cÊt c¸nh vÒ kinh tÕ, khëi s¾c vÒ kinh tÕ.
Tangible (n) H÷u h×nh, vËt thÓ; cô thÓ. ~ asset, heritage, value: Tµi s¶n, di s¶n, gi¸ trÞ
h÷u h×nh hoÆc vËt thÓ; ~ result: KÕt qu¶ cô thÓ.
Target (n) ChØ tiªu, môc tiªu. ~ lµ ®iÒu dù kiÕn ®¹t ®−îc sau khi dù ¸n kÕt thóc. To
target (v) X¸c ®Þnh ®èi t−îng, ®Þnh h−íng (e.g. To ~ the poor: X¸c ®Þnh ®èi t−îng ng−êi
nghÌo, ®Þnh h−íng phôc vô ng−êi nghÌo).
Target beneficiary (n) §èi t−îng thô h−ëng, ng−êi thô h−ëng.
Target group (n) Nhãm ®èi t−îng (i.e. a group of people that a programme or project
intends to benefit).
Targeting (n) Sù x¸c ®Þnh ®èi t−îng, ®Þnh h−íng (e.g. good ~ : X¸c ®Þnh ®óng ®èi
t−îng, ®Þnh h−íng ®óng; geographic and ethnic ~ of poverty alleviation programmes:
H−íng môc tiªu c¸c ch−¬ng tr×nh xo¸ ®ãi gi¶m nghÌo vµo vïng l·nh thæ vµ d©n téc thiÓu
sè).
Tariff (n) ThuÕ quan. ~ barrrier: Hµng rµo thuÕ quan; ~ cuts: C¾t gi¶m thuÕ quan;
~ schedule: BiÓu thuÕ quan.
Tax (n) ThuÕ. Hence, To tax (v) §¸nh thuÕ and Taxation (n) ViÖc ®¸nh thuÕ.
Tax base (n) DiÖn thuÕ.
Tax bracket (n) Khung thuÕ suÊt.
Tax evasion (n) Trèn thuÕ.
Tax exemption (n) MiÔn thuÕ.
Tax holiday (n) Thêi gian miÔn hoÆc gi¶m thuÕ.
Tax incentive (n) KhuyÕn khÝch qua thuÕ.
Tax rate (n) ThuÕ suÊt.
Tax refund (n) Kho¶n thuÕ ®−îc hoµn l¹i.
Tax relief (n) Gi¶m thuÕ.
Tax revenue (n) Nguån thu tõ thuÕ.
Tax write-off (n) Xo¸ thuÕ.
Team building (n) X©y dùng tinh thÇn ®ång ®éi, tinh thÇn tËp thÓ (e.g. A ~ activity,
effort, workshop).
Technical assistance (n) Trî gióp kü thuËt. Free-standing ~ : Trî gióp kü thuËt ®éc lËp;
Investment-related ~ : Trî gióp kü thuËt hç trî ®Çu t−.
Technical cooperation (n) Hîp t¸c kü thuËt.
Technical cooperation among developing countries (TCDC): Hîp t¸c kü thuËt gi÷a
c¸c n−íc ®ang ph¸t triÓn, lµ ph−¬ng thøc hîp t¸c ®−îc UNDP chñ tr−¬ng vµ khuyÕn
khÝch.
Technological change (n) Thay ®æi c«ng nghÖ.

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Technology (n) C«ng nghÖ. Appropriate ~ : C«ng nghÖ thÝch hîp; Choice of ~ : Sù
lùa chän c«ng nghÖ; Process ~ : C«ng nghÖ quy tr×nh s¶n xuÊt; Product ~ : C«ng nghÖ
lµm s¶n phÈm; State-of-the art ~ : C«ng nghÖ t©n tiÕn nhÊt.

Technology Achievement Index (n) ChØ sè vÒ thµnh tùu c«ng nghÖ (i.e. a composite
index to measure how well a country is creating and diffusing technology as well as
building human skills).
Technology transfer (n) ChuyÓn giao c«ng nghÖ.
Tele-medicine (n) Ch÷a bÖnh tõ xa.
Terms of reference (n) §iÒu kho¶n tham chiÕu, ®iÒu kho¶n giao viÖc, ®Ò c−¬ng c«ng t¸c
(e.g. The ~ for a consultant: §iÒu kho¶n giao viÖc cho chuyªn gia t− vÊn).
Terms of trade (n) GÝa kÐo c¸nh, ®iÒu kiÖn th−¬ng m¹i. Domestic ~ : Gi¸ kÐo c¸nh
trong n−íc.
Test out (v) Thö nghiÖm (e.g. To ~ a new development model: Thö nghiÖm mét m« h×nh
ph¸t triÓn míi).
Thematic (adj) Theo chuyªn ®Ò (e.g. ~ working groups: C¸c nhãm c«ng t¸c chuyªn ®Ò).
Hence, Theme (n) Chuyªn ®Ò.
Think - tank (n) C¬ quan tham m−u, tæ chøc t− vÊn (e.g. The Central Institute of
Economic Management is an important ~ of the Party and Government in Viet Nam).
Tied aid: ViÖn trî cã ®iÒu kiÖn (i.e. official aid for which the procurement of associated
goods or services is limited to the donor country or to a group of countries which does
not include substantially all developing countries).
Time-bound (adj) Cã thêi h¹n (e.g. All development projects are ~ ).
Time-frame (n) Khung thêi gian (Also Time scale).
Top-down (adj) Tõ trªn xuèng, kh¸c víi Bottom-up (e.g. A ~ approach: C¸ch tiÕp cËn
¸p ®Æt tõ trªn xuèng).
Tourism (n) Du lÞch. Cultural ~ : Du lÞch v¨n ho¸; Eco-tourism: Du lÞch sinh th¸i, cßn
gäi lµ Green tourism Du lÞch xanh; Heritage-based ~ : Du lÞch di s¶n; Nature-based ~
: Du lÞch thiªn nhiªn; Sustainable ~ : Du lÞch bÒn v÷ng.
Trade (n) Th−¬ng m¹i. ~ agreement: HiÖp ®Þnh th−¬ng m¹i; ~ barriers: Hµng rµo
th−¬ng m¹i; ~ in goods and services: Bu«n b¸n hµng ho¸ vµ dÞch vô.
Trade expansion (n) Më réng th−¬ng m¹i.
Trade facilitation (n) ThuËn lîi ho¸ th−¬ng m¹i.
Trade liberalization (n) Tù do ho¸ th−¬ng m¹i (i.e. reduction and/or removal of taxes,
tariffs or other barriers on a country's exports and imports).
Trade promotion (n) Xóc tiÕn th−¬ng m¹i.
Trade related (adj) Liªn quan ®Õn th−¬ng m¹i. ~ agreement: HiÖp ®Þnh liªn quan ®Õn
th−¬ng m¹i; ~ intellectual property rights (TRIPS): QuyÒn së h÷u trÝ tuÖ liªn quan
®Õn th−¬ng m¹i.
Trade-off (n) Sù ®¸nh ®æi, sù c©n ®èi, sù tho¶ hiÖp (i.e. opportunity cost of selecting one
alternative rather than another; e.g. the ~ between economic growth and economic
equity: Sù ®¸nh ®æi gi÷a t¨ng tr−ëng kinh tÕ vµ b×nh ®¼ng kinh tÕ).

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Trading system (n) HÖ thèng th−¬ng m¹i. Global ~ : HÖ thèng th−¬ng m¹i toµn cÇu;
Multilateral ~ : HÖ thèng th−¬ng m¹i ®a ph−¬ng; Rule-based ~ : HÖ thèng th−¬ng m¹i
dùa vµo luËt lÖ.
Traditional (adj) Thuéc vÒ truyÒn thèng. ~ intensive agriculture: N«ng nghiÖp th©m
canh truyÒn thèng; ~ medicine: Y häc truyÒn thèng, y häc cæ truyÒn; ~ subsistence
agriculture: N«ng nghiÖp tù tóc tù cÊp truyÒn thèng; ~ values: C¸c gi¸ trÞ truyÒn
thèng.
Trafficking (b) Bu«n lËu. Drug ~ : Bu«n b¸n ma tuý; Wildlife ~ : Bu«n b¸n ®éng vËt
hoang d·; Human ~ : Bu«n b¸n ng−êi; ~ in women and children: Bu«n b¸n phô n÷ vµ
trÎ em.
Trained workers (n) Lao ®éng ®· qua ®µo t¹o tay nghÒ.
Transaction costs (n) Chi phÝ giao dÞch (i.e. the full costs of making an exchange; e.g.
The ~ in aid delivery in Viet Nam: Chi phÝ giao dÞch trong viÖc thùc hiÖn viÖn trî t¹i ViÖt
Nam).
Transfer of Knowledge through Expatriate Nationals (TOKTEN): ChuyÓn giao tri
thøc th«ng qua kiÒu d©n, lµ ph−¬ng thøc chuyÓn giao tri thøc ®−îc UNDP chñ tr−¬ng vµ
khuyÕn khÝch.
Transfer of kowledge (n) ChuyÓn giao tri thøc.
Transition (n) Sù chuyÓn ®æi (e.g. The ~ from a centrally planned economy to a market-
based economy). In transition: Trong giai ®o¹n chuyÓn ®æi (e.g. an economy ~ : NÒn
kinh tÕ trong giai ®o¹n chuyÓn ®æi).
Transitional (adj) Thuéc vÒ giai ®o¹n chuyÓn ®æi, qu¸ ®é. During the ~ period: Trong
giai ®o¹n chuyÓn ®æi, trong giai ®o¹n qu¸ ®é.
Translate (v) ChuyÓn ho¸ (e.g. To ~ a political commitment into real action: BiÕn cam
kÕt chÝnh trÞ thµnh hµnh ®éng thùc tÕ).
Transparency (n) Sù râ rµng, minh b¹ch (i.e. sharing information and acting in an open
manner; e.g. ~ in procurement, recruitment practices). Hence, transparent (adj) Râ
rµng, minh b¹ch.
Triangulation (n) Ph−¬ng ph¸p kiÓm tra chÐo (i.e. a technique of verifying information
by obtaining data from one source and cross-checking it with another or by oneself).
Trickle down (v) Ch¶y nhá giät. Trickle-down effect (n) HiÖu øng nhá giät.
Tripartism (n) Mèi quan hÖ ba bªn (e.g. The ~ between the employer, employee and the
State: Mèi quan hÖ ba bªn gi÷a ng−êi sö dông lao ®éng, ng−êi lao ®éng vµ Nhµ n−íc).
Tripartite (adj) Ba bªn (e.g. A ~ review meeting: Cuéc häp kiÓm ®iÓm ba bªn, tøc lµ
gi÷a C¬ quan ®iÒu hµnh dù ¸n, ChÝnh phñ tiÕp nhËn dù ¸n vµ C¬ quan tµi trî dù ¸n). The
~ nature in labour relations: B¶n chÊt ba bªn trong quan hÖ lao ®éng.
Trust fund (n) Quü ñy th¸c (financial contributions which are made by a donor to a UN
Agency to support development activities identified by the donor itself in line with the
policies and objectives of the UN Agency and which are often channeled through a
specific project). Xem thªm Co-financing.
Twenty/twenty Initiative (n) S¸ng kiÕn 20/20 (i.e. an initiative adopted by the 1995
Social Development Summit, whereby governments of donor countries and recipient
countries agreed to devote at least 20% of their ODA resources and government budgets
respectively to basic social services).

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Two-envelope system (n) ChÕ ®é nép thÇu hai phong b× (i.e. the tendering system
whereby a bidder submits its technical proposal and financial proposal in two separate
sealed envelopes).
Two-tier (adj) Hai cÊp. ~ banking system: HÖ thèng ng©n hµng hai cÊp; ~ market:
ThÞ tr−êng hai cÊp; ~ pricing policy: ChÝnh s¸ch gi¸ hai cÊp.
Typhoon-prone (adj) Hay bÞ b·o (e.g. Viet Nam is a highly ~ country).

76
U
Umbrella agreement (n) Tho¶ thuËn khung, hiÖp ®Þnh khung (i.e. a general agreement
between a donor and a recipient government, covering broad conditions relating to the
provision of ODA, including the administration and responsibilities of both parties).
Umbrella project (n) Dù ¸n dï, dù ¸n khung (i.e. a project that encompasses activities
of limited scope and duration that cannot be incorporated into existing projects and for
which the formulation of a stand-alone project is unwarranted).
Unaffordability (n) Kh«ng cã kh¶ n¨ng chi tr¶, kh«ng cã kh¶ n¨ng thanh to¸n.
Unaffordable (adj) Kh«ng thÓ chi tr¶, kh«ng thÓ thanh to¸n (e.g. The high costs of
basic social services are ~ to the poor).
Underdeveloped (adj) ChËm ph¸t triÓn, kÐm ph¸t triÓn (e.g. An ~ country).
Underdevelopment (n) (Sù) t×nh tr¹ng chËm ph¸t triÓn, kÐm ph¸t triÓn (e.g. The ~ of
most African countries).
Underemployment (n) (T×nh tr¹ng) thiÕu viÖc lµm.
Undernourished (adj) ThiÕu dinh d−ìng (e.g. ~ children of the rural poor).
Undernourishment (n) (Sù) t×nh tr¹ng thiÕu dinh d−ìng.
Undernutrition (n) (T×nh tr¹ng) thiÕu dinh d−ìng.
Underweight (n or adj) ThiÕu c©n. ~ children: TrÎ em thiÕu c©n.
Unemployed (adj) ThÊt nghiÖp (e.g. ~ people). The unemployed: Nh÷ng ng−êi thÊt
nghiÖp, cßn ®−îc gäi lµ The jobless.
Unemployment (n) T×nh tr¹ng thÊt nghiÖp. Disguised ~ : T×nh tr¹ng thÊt nghiÖp ®−îc
che ®Ëy; Frictional ~ : T×nh tr¹ng thÊt nghiÖp dai d¼ng; Hidden ~ : ThÊt nghiÖp Èn;
Seasonal ~ : ThÊt nghiÖp theo mïa vô; Structural ~ : ThÊt nghiÖp c¬ cÊu; ~ benefits:
Trî cÊp thÊt nghiÖp.
United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF): Quü Nhi ®ång Liªn hîp quèc, ®−îc thµnh
lËp n¨m 1946. UNICEF ho¹t ®éng ë c¸c n−íc ®ang ph¸t triÓn ®Ó hç trî cho trÎ em gÆp
ph¶i t×nh tr¹ng nghÌo ®ãi, bÖnh tËt, thiÕu dinh d−ìng vµ thiÕu häc hµnh.
United Nations development agencies: C¸c c¬ quan ph¸t triÓn cña Liªn hîp quèc, bao
gåm bèn tæ chøc lµ Ch−¬ng tr×nh ph¸t triÓn LHQ, Quü nhi ®ång LHQ, Quü d©n sè LHQ
vµ Ch−¬ng tr×nh l−¬ng thùc thÕ giíi.
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP): Ch−¬ng tr×nh Ph¸t triÓn Liªn hîp
quèc. UNDP ®−îc thµnh lËp n¨m 1966, do s¸t nhËp Ch−¬ng tr×nh më réng vÒ viÖn trî kü
thuËt (1949) vµ Quü ®Æc biÖt cña LHQ (1958). Lµ c¬ quan tµi trî hîp t¸c kü thuËt lín
nhÊt trong HÖ thèng LHQ, t«n chØ cña UNDP lµ hç trî c¸c n−íc ®ang ph¸t triÓn trong
viÖc t¨ng c−êng n¨ng lùc vµ ph¸t triÓn thÓ chÕ, nh»m ph¸t triÓn con ng−êi bÒn v÷ng vµ
xo¸ ®ãi nghÌo.
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO): Tæ
chøc V¨n ho¸, Khoa häc vµ Gi¸o dôc Liªn hîp quèc. §−îc thµnh lËp n¨m 1946, t«n chØ
cña UNESCO lµ xóc tiÕn hîp t¸c quèc tÕ vÒ gi¸o dôc, khoa häc vµ v¨n ho¸.

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United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA): Quü (Ho¹t ®éng) D©n sè
Liªn hîp quèc. §−îc thµnh lËp n¨m 1969, UNFPA gióp c¸c n−íc ®ang ph¸t triÓn t¨ng
c−êng n¨ng lùc nh»m ®¸p øng c¸c nhu cÇu vÒ d©n sè vµ ph¸t triÓn, n©ng cao nhËn thøc vÒ
c¸c vÊn ®Ò d©n sè vµ ph¸t triÓn, vµ khuyÕn khÝch c¸c ch−¬ng tr×nh vÒ d©n sè.
United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR): Cao uû Liªn hîp quèc vÒ
Ng−êi tÞ n¹n. §−îc thµnh lËp n¨m 1950, tæn chØ cña UNHCR lµ xóc tiÕn vµ b¶o vÖ c¸c
quyÒn cña ng−êi tÞ n¹n.
United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO): Tæ chøc Ph¸t triÓn
C«ng nghiÖp Liªn hîp quèc. §−îc thµnh lËp n¨m 1967, UNIDO lµ c¬ quan ®iÒu phèi c¸c
ho¹t ®éng ph¸t triÓn c«ng nghiÖp cña Liªn hîp quèc vµ khuyÕn khÝch sù nghiÖp ph¸t
triÓn vµ hîp t¸c c«ng nghiÖp trªn thÕ giíi.
United Nations International Drug Control Programme (UNDCP): Ch−¬ng tr×nh
KiÓm so¸t Ma tuý Quèc tÕ cña Liªn hîp quèc. §−îc thµnh lËp n¨m 1991, t«n chØ cña
UNDCP lµ ®iÒu phèi vµ h−íng dÉn tÊt c¶ c¸c ho¹t ®éng quèc tÕ vÒ phßng chèng vµ kiÓm
so¸t ma tuý.
United Nations specialized agencies: C¸c c¬ quan chuyªn m«n cña Liªn hîp quèc, bao
gåm Tæ chøc N«ng nghiÖp vµ L−¬ng thùc LHQ, Tæ chøc Ph¸t triÓn C«ng nghiÖp LHQ,
Tæ chøc V¨n ho¸, Khoa häc vµ Gi¸o dôc LHQ, Tæ chøc Y tÕ ThÕ giíi, C¬ quan N¨ng
l−îng H¹t nh©n Quèc tÕ vµ mét sè tæ chøc kh¸c.
United Nations Volunteers (UNV) Ng−êi t×nh nguyÖn Liªn hîp quèc. UNV
Programme: Ch−¬ng tr×nh Ng−êi t×nh nguyÖn LHQ.
United States Agency for International Development (USAID): C¬ quan Ph¸t triÓn
Quèc tÕ Hoa Kú.
Unity (n) TÝnh thèng nhÊt. Unity in diversity: Thèng nhÊt trong ®a d¹ng (e.g. To
maintain the ~ of ASEAN countries: Duy tr× sù thèng nhÊt trong ®a d¹ng cña c¸c n−íc
ASEAN).
Universal access (n) Kh¶ n¨ng tiÕp cËn cho mäi ng−êi (E.g. ~ to basic social services:
Mäi ng−êi ®−îc sö dông c¸c dÞch vô x· héi c¬ b¶n; ~ to clean water: Mäi ng−êi ®−îc sö
dông n−íc s¹ch).
Universal Child Immunization Programme (n) Ch−¬ng tr×nh tiªm chñng phæ cËp cho
trÎ em.
Universal primary education (n) Phæ cËp gi¸o dôc cÊp mét hoÆc tiÓu häc.
Universalization (n) (Sù) phæ cËp ho¸ (e.g. ~ of primary education: Phæ cËp gi¸o dôc
cÊp mét hoÆc tiÓu häc).
Universalize (n) Phæ cËp ho¸ (e.g. To ~ primary education, child immunization).
Unpaid labour (n) Lao ®éng kh«ng ®−îc tr¶ c«ng (i.e. work that produces goods or
services but is unremunerated, including domestic labour, subsistence production and the
unpaid production of items for markets. This should however not be confused with the
“unpaid family labour").
Unskilled labour (n) Lao ®éng kh«ng lµnh nghÒ, lao ®éng ch−a qua ®µo t¹o.
Unsustainability (n) Kh«ng cã tÝnh bÒn v÷ng (e.g. the ~ of slash-and-burn farming
practices).
Unsustainable (adj) Kh«ng mang tÝnh bÒn v÷ng (e.g. ~ coal mining practices).
Untapped resources (n) C¸c nguån lùc ch−a ®−îc khai th¸c.

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Untie (v) Xãa bá ®iÒu kiÖn (i.e. To ~ aid Xo¸ bá ®iÒu kiÖn viÖn trî).
Untied aid (n) ViÖn trî v« ®iÒu kiÖn (i.e. official aid for which the associated goods and
services may be fully and freely procured in substantially all countries).
Untying (n) Sù xo¸ bá ®iÒu kiÖn (e.g. the ~ of aid to least developed countries).
Update (v) CËp nhËt (e.g. To ~ a workplan: CËp nhËt kÕ ho¹ch c«ng t¸c).
Upstream (adj) ë cÊp vÜ m«, ®Çu nguån, kh¸c víi Downstream (e.g. ~ aid activities:
C¸c ho¹t ®éng viÖn trî ë cÊp vÜ m«; ~ interventions: Nh÷ng biÖn ph¸p can thiÖp ®Çu
nguån).
Urban (adj) Thuéc vÒ ®« thÞ. ~ ecosystem: HÖ sinh th¸i ®« thÞ; ~ environment: M«i
tr−êng ®« thÞ; ~ pollution: ¤ nhiÔm ®« thÞ; ~ - rural migration: Di d©n tõ thµnh thÞ vÒ
n«ng th«n.
Urban management (n) Qu¶n lý ®« thÞ.
Urban planning (n) Quy ho¹ch ®« thÞ.
Urbanization (n) §« thÞ ho¸. Pressures of ~ : Søc Ðp cña qu¸ tr×nh ®« thÞ ho¸.
User charge, fee (n) PhÝ sö dông (i.e. direct payment by the consumer of goods and
services provided by the public sector to the private sector).
User pays principle (n) Nguyªn t¾c ng−êi sö dông ph¶i tr¶ phÝ. This principle applies
the Polluter Pays Principle more broadly so that the cost of a resource to a user includes
all the environmental costs associated with its extraction, transformation and use,
including the costs of alternative or future uses foregone.
User-friendly (adj) TiÖn lîi cho ng−êi sö dông (e.g. A ~ piece of equipment: Mét thiÕt
bÞ tiÖn lîi cho ng−êi sö dông. Hence, user-friendliness.

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V
Vaccination (n) Tiªm phßng (e.g. ~ against diphtheria, tetanus, measles, poliomyelitis
and tuberculosis: Tiªm phßng c¸c bÖnh b¹ch hÇu, uèn v¸n, sëi, b¹i liÖt vµ ho lao).
Valuation (n) §Þnh gi¸. Asset ~ : §Þnh gi¸ tµi s¶n.
Value (n) Gi¸ trÞ. Cultural ~ s: C¸c gi¸ trÞ v¨n ho¸; Traditional ~ s: C¸c gi¸ trÞ truyÒn
thèng; ~ for money: TiÒn nµo, cña nÊy.
Value added (n) Gi¸ trÞ gia t¨ng (i.e. the difference between the total revenue and the
cost of bought-in raw materials, services and components; it measures the value that a
firm has "added" to these items in the process of production). Value Added Tax: ThuÕ
gi¸ trÞ gia t¨ng;
Verifiable (adj) Cã thÓ kiÓm chøng (e.g. A ~ impact: T¸c ®éng cã thÓ kiÓm chøng ®−îc).
Verifier (or means of verification) (n) C«ng cô, c¸ch thøc ®Ó kiÓm chøng (i.e. data or
information to verify progress using certain indicators in logical framework analysis).
Viable (adj) Cã thÓ ®øng v÷ng, cã hiÖu qu¶ (e.g. The project will be financially ~ ).
Hence, Viability (n) Kh¶ n¨ng ®øng v÷ng ®−îc, kh¶ n¨ng cã hiÖu qu¶.
Violence (n) B¹o lùc. ~ against women: Sö dông b¹o lùc ®èi víi phô n÷; Domestic ~
against women: Sö dông b¹o lùc ®èi víi phô n÷ trong gia ®×nh.
Virtual (adj) ¶o, ¶o ¶nh. A global ~ team: Nhãm lµm viÖc ¶o toµn cÇu (i.e. a
temporary, culturally diverse, geographically dispersed and electronically group which
works together and interacts with each other through the internet)
Vision (n) TÇm nh×n, i.e. the desirable future of an organization. (e.g. The 2020 Vision of
ASEAN: TÇm nh×n n¨m 2020 cña ASEAN). A long-term ~ : TÇm nh×n dµi h¹n; A short-
term ~ : TÇm nh×n ng¾n h¹n.
Voluntary (adj) Tù nguyÖn. ~ compliance: Tu©n thñ tù nguyÖn (e.g. ~ with
environmental protection standards). ~ repatriation: Håi h−¬ng tù nguyÖn (e.g. the ~ of
Vietnamese “boat people” from Hong Kong).
Voluntary contributions (n) §ãng gãp tù nguyÖn; ~ lµ ®ãng gãp cña c¸c n−íc tµi trî
vµo nguån ng©n s¸ch th−êng xuyªn cña c¸c tæ chøc thuéc LHQ. Xem thªm Core
resources.
Vulnerable (adj) DÔ bÞ x©m h¹i, dÔ bÞ tæn th−¬ng, dÔ bÞ t¸c ®éng bëi ngo¹i c¶nh. ~
groups: C¸c nhãm d©n c− dÔ bÞ x©m h¹i, vÝ dô trÎ em, phô n÷, ng−êi giµ, ng−êi tµn tËt.
Hence, Vulnerability (n) T×nh tr¹ng dÔ bÞ x©m h¹i, dÔ bÞ tæn th−¬ng, dÔ bÞ t¸c ®éng bëi
ngo¹i c¶nh (i.e. the condition of being exposed to great risks, economically, physically
or socially. In poverty context, ~ is not only being exposed to high risksbut also implies
not having sufficient means to cope with such risks).

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W
Waive (v) Linh ®éng, bá qua, miÔn ®Êu thÇu (e.g. To ~ a procurement contract: MiÔn
®Êu thÇu ®èi víi mét hîp ®ång mua s¾m).
Waiver (n) Sù linh ®éng, sù bá qua, sù miÔn ®Êu thÇu (e.g. A ~ has been recommended
for the contract).
Warming (n) Lµm nãng lªn. Global ~ : HiÖn t−îng nãng lªn cña tr¸i ®Êt.
Warning (n) C¶nh b¸o, c¶nh c¸o. Early ~ system: HÖ thèng c¶nh b¸o sím (phôc vô
phßng chèng thiªn tai, qu¶n lý m«i tr−êng); ~ signal: TÝn hiÖu c¶nh b¸o, tÝn hiÖu c¶nh
c¸o.
Waste (n) R¸c th¶i; l·ng phÝ. Hazardous ~ : ChÊt th¶i ®éc h¹i; Radioactive ~ : ChÊt
th¶i phãng x¹; Solid ~ : ChÊt th¶i r¾n;
Waste disposal and treatment (n) Thu gom vµ xö lý r¸c th¶i.
Waste management and minimization (n) Qu¶n lý vµ gi¶m thiÓu r¸c th¶i.
Waste of public resources (n) L·ng phÝ cña c«ng.
Waste recycling (n) T¸i sinh chÊt th¶i.
Waste water (n) N−íc th¶i.
Water pollution (n) ¤ nhiÔm n−íc.
Water resources (n) Nguån n−íc, nguån tµi nguyªn n−íc.
Water-borne diseases (n) C¸c bÖnh truyÒn theo n−íc.
Watershed (n) Rõng ®Çu nguån (i.e. a topographically delineated area that is drained by
a stream system).
Watershed management (n) Qu¶n lý rõng ®Çu nguån.
Wealth ranking (n) Ph©n lo¹i møc giµu cã, ph©n lo¹i ng−êi giµu.
Weigh (v) C©n nh¾c (e.g. To ~ the overall costs and benefits of a project: C©n nh¾c toµn
bé chi phÝ vµ lîi Ých cña dù ¸n).
Weight (n) Träng l−îng, träng sè.
Weightless economy (n) NÒn kinh tÕ kh«ng träng l−îng (i.e. an economy that focuses on
the use of knowledge).
Welfare (n) Phóc lîi. Social ~ : Phóc lîi x· héi.
Welfare economy (n) NÒn kinh tÕ phóc lîi.
Welfare economics (n) Kinh tÕ häc phóc lîi (i.e. that branch of economics which is
concerned with normative issues such as economic efficiency, resource allocation and
social welfare).
Welfare payments (n) C¸c kho¶n tiÒn tr¶ phóc lîi.
Welfare State (n) Nhµ n−íc phóc lîi.
Well-being (n) An sinh (e.g. The ~ of the working people).
Well-defined (adj) X¸c ®Þnh râ rµng, ®Þnh nghÜa râ rµng (e.g. The objectives of the
project are ~ ).
Well-off (adj) Kh¸ gi¶ (e.g. ~ people, regions of the country: Nh÷ng ng−êi, nh÷ng vïng
kh¸ gi¶ trong n−íc).

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Wetland (n) Vïng ®Êt ngËp n−íc. Coastal ~ : Vïng ®Êt ngËp mÆn ven biÓn;
~ management: Qu¶n lý c¸c vïng ®Êt ngËp n−íc.
Why in my backyard: T¹i sao l¹i qu¼ng vµo v−ên nhµ t«i (i.e. the question of why
hazardous activities and substances are placed in a particular location).
Wilderness area (n) Khu b¶o tån tÝnh hoang d·.
Wildlife (n) §êi sèng hoang d·, ®éng vËt hoang d·. ~ management: Qu¶n lý ®éng vËt
hoang d·.
Winning strategy (n) ChiÕn l−îc dÉn ®Õn thµnh c«ng, chiÕn l−îc b¶o ®¶m thµnh c«ng.
Win-win (adj) Cã lîi cho tÊt c¶ c¸c bªn. A ~ solution: Gi¶i ph¸p cã lîi cho tÊt c¶ c¸c
bªn.
Woman (n) Ng−êi phô n÷. Convention on the Elimination of All forms of
Discrimination against Women: C«ng −íc vÒ xo¸ bá mäi h×nh thøc ph©n biÖt ®èi xö
víi phô n÷.
Women in child-bearing age (n) Phô n÷ trong tuæi sinh ®Î.
Women in development (WID): Phô n÷ trong ph¸t triÓn (i.e. an approach developed in
the 1970’s, aimed at designing policies and actions to integrate women fully into
development activities). Xem thªm Gender and Development.
Women-headed household (n) Hé do phô n÷ lµm chñ hé. Xem thªm Household.
Work (n) Lao ®éng; ~ environment: M«i tr−êng lµm viÖc; ~ place: N¬i lµm viÖc.
Working age (n) Tuæi lao ®éng (i.e. 15 - 60 tuæi ®èi víi nam giíi; 15 - 55 tuæi ®èi víi
phô n÷). Population in ~ : D©n c− trong ®é tuæi lao ®éng.
Workload (n) Khèi l−îng c«ng viÖc (e.g. He has a heavy ~ ).
Workshop (n) Líp tËp huÊn, héi th¶o.
World Bank (WB): Ng©n hµng ThÕ giíi. WB lµ mét nhãm gåm 5 tæ chøc tµi chÝnh quèc
tÕ lµ: International Bank for Reconstruction and Development Ng©n hµng Quèc tÕ vÒ
T¸i thiÕt vµ Ph¸t triÓn; International Development Association HiÖp héi Ph¸t triÓn
Quèc tÕ; International Finance Corporation C«ng ty Tµi chÝnh Quèc tÕ; Multilateral
Investment Guarantee Agency C¬ quan B¶o hiÓm §Çu t− §a ph−¬ng; vµ
International Center for the Settlement of Investment Disputes Trung t©m Quèc tÕ
vÒ Gi¶i quyÕt Tranh chÊp §Çu t−. §−îc thµnh lËp n¨m 1945, t«n chØ chung cña Nhãm
Ng©n hµng ThÕ giíi lµ gãp phÇn n©ng cao møc sèng cña c¸c n−íc ®ang ph¸t triÓn, b»ng
c¸ch chuyÓn mét phÇn nguån lùc tõ c¸c n−íc giµu sang c¸c n−íc nghÌo.
World Environment Day (n) Ngµy m«i tr−êng thÕ giíi (i.e. 5 June each year, the day
adopted by the UN Conference on Human Environment in 1972, as an annual means of
focusing attention on national and world environmental problems).
World Food Programme (WFP): Ch−¬ng tr×nh L−¬ng thùc ThÕ giíi. §−îc thµnh lËp
n¨m 1961 nh− lµ dù ¸n chung cña §¹i héi ®ång LHQ vµ FAO, t«n chØ cña WFP lµ
khuyÕn khÝch ph¸t triÓn kinh tÕ th«ng qua viÖn trî l−¬ng thùc vµ cøu trî khÈn cÊp. WFP
ho¹t ®éng nh»m kh¾c phôc c¸c t×nh huèng khÈn cÊp do thiÕu l−¬ng thùc, ®ång thêi hç trî
cho c¸c dù ¸n khai hoang vµ thñy lîi.

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World Health Organization (WHO): Tæ chøc Y tÕ ThÕ giíi, ®−îc thµnh lËp n¨m 1948.
T«n chØ cña WHO lµ hîp t¸c víi c¸c n−íc nh»m t¨ng c−êng c¸c dÞch vô y tÕ; hç trî viÖc
kiÓm so¸t bÖnh dÞch vµ bÖnh l©y lan; hç trî viÖc c¶i thiÖn dinh d−ìng, vÖ sinh vµ søc
khoÎ m«i tr−êng; hç trî nghiªn cøu øng dông, x©y dùng c¸c tiªu chuÈn vµ n©ng cao nhËn
thøc vÒ søc khoÎ vµ y tÕ
World Heritage List (n) Danh môc C¸c di s¶n ThÕ giíi (i.e. a list created by the
Convention for the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage and
administered by UNESCO).
World Poverty Day (n) Ngµy thÕ giíi xo¸ ®ãi, gi¶m nghÌo (i.e. 17 October each year).
World Trade Organization (WTO): Tæ chøc Th−¬ng m¹i ThÕ giíi. §−îc thµnh lËp
n¨m 1995, WTO kÕ thõa HiÖp ®Þnh chung vÒ ThuÕ quan vµ MËu dÞch (GATT) vµ lµ tæ
chøc quèc tÕ duy nhÊt xö lý c¸c quy chÕ toµn cÇu vÒ th−¬ng m¹i gi÷a c¸c n−íc.
Worse off (adj) Trë nªn nghÌo ®ãi h¬n (e.g. ~ regions, groups in the country).
Wrap-up meeting (n) Cuéc häp tæng kÕt.

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SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

BOOKS, REPORTS AND MANUALS

A Study on Aid to the Environment Sector in Viet Nam, MPI & UNDP, Ha Noi, Nov.
1999.
Aid Transaction Costs in Viet Nam, A. Fozzard, A. Brown & F. Naschold, Dec. 2000.
Assessing Aid – What Works, What Doesn’t And Why, World Bank, Washington, 1998.
Catching up, United Nations, Ha Noi, October 1996.
Completion of Viet Nam’s Legal Framework for Economic Development, UNDP, Ha
Noi, March 1999.
East Asia : From Miracle to Crisis, UNDP, Ha Noi, June 1998.
Expanding Choices for the Rural Poor, UNDP, Ha Noi, December 1998.
Gender Briefing Kits, UNDP, Hanoi, December 2000.
Governance for Sustainable Human Development, UNDP, New York, January 1997.
Human Development Reports, UNDP, New York, 1999, 2000 and 2001
Kinh tÕ tri thøc - Nh÷ng kh¸i niÖm & vÊn ®Ò c¬ b¶n, §Æng Méng L©n, NXB Thanh Niªn,
Hµ Néi, 2002.
Living Standards During an Economic Boom - The Case of Viet Nam (bilingual), UNDP
& GSO, Statistical Publishing House, Ha Noi, December 2001.
Looking Ahead – A Common Country Assessment, United Nations, Ha Noi, Dec. 1999.
Overview of ODA in Viet Nam, UNDP, Ha Noi, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000 & 2001.
Partnership – A Review of 20 Years of Cooperation, United Nations, Ha Noi, Sept. 1997.
Proceedings of the First Training Workshop on EIA (bilingual), National Center for
Natural Science and Technology, Tien Bo Printing House, Ha Noi, December 1997.
Programming Manual, UNDP, New York, October 1999.
Programme and Projects Manual, UNDP, New York, Feburary 1991.
Results of Population Projections in Viet Nam 1999-2004, GSO, VIE/97/914, Ha Noi,
2000.
Results-Oriented Monitoring and Evaluation, UNDP, New York, 1997.
Review of Technical Cooperation in Viet Nam, Van Arkadie, Vu Tat Boi & Tran Dung
Tien, Hanoi, May 2000.
Social Services in Viet Nam, MOLISA & UNDP, Ha Noi, November 1999.
Some Lessons Learned in Supporting the Transition from Poverty to Prosperity, UNDP,
Ha Noi, September 1997.
Viet Nam - Technical Assistance in Transition, UNDP, Ha Noi, October 1996.
United Nations Development Assistance Framework, United Nations, Ha Noi, 1998 &
2000.
Viet Nam’s Development Partners, MPI & UNDP, Ha Noi, 1997, 1999 & 2001.
Viet Nam Living Standard Survey 1997-1998 (Bilingual), GSO, VIE/95/043, Ha Noi,
2000.
Viet Nam Through the Lens of Gender, UNDP, Ha Noi, August 1995.
World Development Report – Knowledge for Development, Workd Bank, 1998-1999

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GLOSSARIES AND DICTIONARIES
Administration Dictionary, Doan Trong Truyen & Colleagues, VIE/92/002, Hanoi, 1997.
Dictionary of Environment and Sustainable Development, Alan Gilpen, John Wiley &
Sons, New York, 1996.
Dictionary of Modern Economics, Ed. D. W. Pearce, MacMillan Press Ltd., London,
1992.
English - Vietnamese Economic - Financial Glossary, Bui The Giang, Dang The Truyen
& Colleagues, World Publishing House, Ha Noi, October 1997.
Glossary of Agriculture, Environment and Sustainable Development, Bulletin 661,
Kansas State University.
Glossary of Key Development Terms and Concepts, DAC/OECD,
http://www.oecd.org.dac/
Glossary Related to Public Expenditure Management by Mr Emmanuel Cuvillier, Chief
Technical Advisor of UNDP-funded project VIE/96/028.
English – Vietnamese Glossary on Natural Resources Management for Uplands,
Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Ha noi, 2001.
HIV/AIDS Lexicon, National AIDS Committee & UNDP, World Publishing House, Ha
Noi, 1998.
Macrothesaurus for Information Processing in the Field of Economic and Social
Development, 5th edition, United Nations & OECD, Paris, 1998.
Terminology, Bulletin No. 348 on Women’s Issues, United Nations, New York, 1995.
Tõ ®iÓn Anh - ViÖt, ViÖn Ng«n ng÷ häc, NXB Thµnh phè Hå ChÝ Minh, 1993.
Tõ ®iÓn ®a d¹ng sinh häc vµ Ph¸t triÓn bÒn v÷ng (Anh - ViÖt), Bé Khoa häc, C«ng nghÖ
& M«i tr−êng, NXB Khoa häc & Kü thuËt, Hµ Néi, 2001.
Tõ ®iÓn Kinh tÕ häc HiÖn ®¹i, §H Kinh tÕ Quèc d©n, NXB ChÝnh trÞ Quèc gia, Hµ Néi,
1999.

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