Here are some points Dr. faraj said in his class, I hope you will benefit from them.

Skeletal Muscle:

• The plasma membrane of skeletal muscle is called sarcolemma.

• The cytoplasm of skeletal muscle is called sarcoplasm. • In nervous system, we mean by nerve fiber axon.

⇒ But in the case of skeletal muscle we mean by muscle fiber muscle cell. But what are the characteristics of muscle cells? 1. Cylindrical 2. Shows cross striations under light microscope ( which means alternating between light and dark bands) 3. Multinucleated cells and these nuclei are found at the periphery of the cell (under the sarcolemma). 4. It is length 1-40 mm which is long 5. The diameter 10-100 um. • Muscle cell fiber → consists of huge number of myofibrils→ myofilaments (thin and thick filaments).

The fibers can be seen by light microscope but the the filaments can be only seen by electron microscope. As the fiber shows cross striations the myofilament also show cross sriations → which is a repeating pattern of light and dark patterns. Dark band (A- band) → anisotropic → thick filaments → mainly myosin. Light band (I- band) → isotropic → thin filaments → mainly actin but there are also troponin and tropmyosin. At the middle of the A- band there is a white area called the H-zone or h- band and in the center of it there is the M-line (which is a protein connecting the thick filaments).

At the middle of I band there a is a dark line called Z- line.

Sarcomere: is the structural and functional unit of
muscle tissue. So sarcomere is part of both myofibril and myofilament. ⇒ The sarcomere is formed of thin and tick filaments. So when these filaments are organized as a sarcomere, this means that they show cross striations and the filaments are organized in A and I band. ⇒ The sarcomere is between two Z-lines. And we have two halves of I – bands on both sides of the sarcomere. ⇒ So the I-band is belongs to 2 sarcomeres. • Whenever there is an overlap between thin and thick filaments there is a chance to interact → contraction. ⇒ So if we excessively stretch the sarcomere, we will not have overlap and the will be no contraction. • In a contraction the sarcomeres get shortened, the fibrils get shortened but the filaments do not shorten. • The cytoplasm of muscle fiber is full of muscle fibrils. • And these muscle fibrils are surrounded by a network called sarcoplasmic reticulum (Smooth endoplasmic reticulum) which is the site of storage and release of calcium. ⇒ Each reticulum ends by 2 bags (at each end) called terminal cisternae. ⇒ Each sarcomere is flanked by 4 terminal cisternae (2 pairs). ⇒ Each pair is found between the junction of A and I band. • T-tubules transfer action potential to inside → which releases the calcium from its storages places. At the t-tubule wall there is a receptor called DHP, and it is not away from the protein that closes the channels (calcium release channels).

The calcium channels are also called ryanodine calcium release channel. During relaxation there is active calcium pump to reuptake the calcium back to its storage areas. When there is an action potential → Electrical change → Conformational change in the DHP → The is will pull the foot process away from the calcium release channels → Release of calcium which will bind to its receptor on troponin C and this will cause sliding of the filaments which will cause contraction. • Muscle tone = partial contraction in the muscle. • We consider the diaphragm a skeletal muscle. Cardiac muscle: It has many characteristics: 1. Cardiac fiber means many cells joined by special junction (intercalated disc) which has gap junction. 2. Shows branching. 3. Has gap junctions = low electrical resistance areas. 4. There is functional syncitium but not anatomical syncitium. 5. It has atypical sarcomeres. 6. Cross striations are not as obvious as in skeletal muscle. 7. The T-tubules are found on the Z-band. 8. The sarcoplasmic reticulum is less developed. Specialized cardiac muscle fibers Purkinje fibers larger than cardiac muscle cells has more glycogen and less filaments to produce and conduct action potential

Smooth muscles: Have the following characteristics: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. No cross striation No sarcomere There is thin and thick filaments Cytoplasm pink No z-line No t-tubules Myosin filaments quite larger and longer than those present in skeletal and cardiac muscles 8. Contraction slow but sustained

GOOD LUCK for u all in the FINALS… Special Thanks for Wael Toukan & Hamzeh Jassar for their great efforts.

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