• • • • • • • • • • • Benchmarking Benefit/cost analysis Checklists Continuous process improvement Control charts Cost of non-conformance Cost of quality Design of experiments Flowcharting Histogram ISO 9000 • • • • • • • • • • • • Operational definitions Pareto diagrams Process adjustments Quality assurance Quality audits Quality control Quality management plan Quality policy Run chart Scatter diagram Statistical sampling Trend analysis

• The project manager takes care of the total quality management of the project. The quality expectation of the project originates from the requirements of the customers and stakeholders. The quality control of the project is integrated with the quality assurance program of the performing organization. The project manager ensures that this happens and must be on top of it. It is advisable to plan quality into a project, rather than inspect if quality is in the product. So, the first approach is to plan the quality of the product before it is produced. The project team must be responsible for the quality deliverable of the project. The project can be stopped based on the organization’s quality threshold. Quality is continues planning to ensure that the required quality is maintained. Quality assurance ensures that quality requirements are maintained on all parts of the project deliverables. Quality assurance ensures that quality planning? is implemented on the project.

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PROJECT QUALITY MANAGEMENT CHAPTER 9 Quality control does the following:
• • • • • Ensures that a selected area of the project meets the required quality requirements. Ensures that the results meet or satisfies relevant quality standards. Use root cause analysis to remove unwanted results. Completed through inspection Quality management ensures the project is completed properly based on the project requirements.

Quality management concepts that need to be remembered are
• • Total quality management (TQM) - the organization makes every effort for continuous improvement of project product, result, and business practices. Kaizen – this is used with the intent to make small changes to products and processes in order to improve consistency, reduce costs, and provide overall quality improvements. Cost of quality is the funds spent by the performing organization to satisfy the quality standards, which includes training, safety measures, and any other requirement to prevent non-conformance. Cost of non-conformance to quality is the funds or events that do not satisfy the quality requirements of the project. These can include loss of business, downtime, wasted materials, rework, and cost and schedule variances. Optimal quality is attained at a point when the cost of quality meets or exceeds the incremental cost to achieve quality. A fishbone diagram (also known as Ishikawa diagram) is a cause-and-effect diagram that shows the factors contributing to quality issues or problems. Flowcharts – help to show how system parts are integrated from start to finish. Pareto diagram is a histogram that is related to Pareto’s 80/20 rule. It generally means that 80 percent of the problems come from 20 percent of the issues. The diagram charts the problems, categories, and frequency. The project team should first solve the larger problems and then move on to smaller issues. Histogram - bar chart indicating frequency of variables within a project. Run chart - line graph indicates the results of inspection in the order in which each inspection happened. The idea is to demonstrate the results of a process over time and then use the necessary trend analysis to predict what to expect based on the trend. Control charts – maps out the results of inspections against a mean to check performance against expected results. In control chart the upper and lower control limits are usually set to ± 3 or 6 sigma. The plotting of the points that are beyond the control limit value is considered out of control. Out of control results require investigation to determine why the result happened.

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